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Baloch people

Index Baloch people

The Baloch or Baluch (Balochi) are a people who live mainly in the Balochistan region of the southeastern-most edge of the Iranian plateau in Pakistan, Iran, and Afghanistan, as well as in the Arabian Peninsula. [1]

103 relations: 'Adud al-Dawla, Abdul Malik Baloch, Afghanistan, Ahmad I of Kalat, Ahmadzai (Ghilji clan), Ahmadzai (Wazir clan), Akbar Bugti, Al Balushi, Aleppo, Arabian Peninsula, Arabic, Arabs, Ataullah Mengal, Baloch Council of North America, Baloch nationalism, Baloch people, Baloch people in the United Arab Emirates, Baloch Students Organization, Balochi cuisine, Balochi language, Balochistan, Balochistan Liberation Army, Balochistan National Party, Balochistan, Pakistan, Belus (Babylonian), Brahui language, Brahui people, British Raj, Bugti, Buyid dynasty, Caspian Sea, Columbia University, Comb (anatomy), D. R. Bhandarkar, Dera Bugti District, Encyclopædia Iranica, Farud, Ghaznavids, Ghilji, Greater Khorasan, Gurjara-Pratihara, Hamza ibn Abdul-Muttalib, Hyrbyair Marri, Indo-Iranians, Insurgency in Balochistan, Iran, Iranian peoples, Iranian Plateau, Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu, Jalal Khan, ..., Jamhoori Wattan Party, Jatoi (tribe), Jhalawan, Joshua Project, Kay Khosrow, Kerman, Kerman Province, Khanate of Kalat, Khwarazmian dynasty, Kohlu, Lake Van, Lingua franca, List of Baloch tribes, Little Ice Age, Makran, Marri (tribe), Median language, Mehrdad Izady, Mengal, Mihira Bhoja, Mughal emperors, Nagabhata I, Pakistan, Pakistanis, Pashtun tribes, Pashtuns, People, Persian dance, Persian language, Persian people, Professor, Punjab, Pakistan, Rind (Baloch tribe), Safavid dynasty, Sanaullah Khan Zehri, Sanskrit, Sasanian Empire, Sasoli, Seljuq dynasty, Sindh, Sindhis, Sistan, Sistan and Baluchestan Province, Sulaimankhel, Sunni Islam, Syria, Talal Akbar Bugti, Tumandar, Umayyad Caliphate, University of Karachi, Urdu, Wazir (Pashtun tribe), Western Iranian languages. Expand index (53 more) »

'Adud al-Dawla

Fannā (Panāh) Khusraw (فنا خسرو), better known by his laqab of ʿAḍud al-Dawla (عضد الدولة, "Pillar of the Dynasty") (September 24, 936 – March 26, 983) was an emir of the Buyid dynasty, ruling from 949 to 983, and at his height of power ruling an empire stretching from Makran as far to Yemen and the shores of the Mediterranean Sea.

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Abdul Malik Baloch

Abdul Malik Baloch (عبدالمالک بلوچ—) was the 21st Chief Minister of Balochistan, Pakistan from 7 June 2013 to 23 December 2015.

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Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.

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Ahmad I of Kalat

Mir Ahmad I was the first Khan of the princely state of Kalat in what is now the Balochistan province of Pakistan.

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Ahmadzai (Ghilji clan)

The Ahmadzai (احمدزی) is a Pashtun subtribe of the Ghilji confederacy.

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Ahmadzai (Wazir clan)

Aḥmadzai (احمدزی, "descendants of Aḥmad"; also spelled Ahmedzai) is a Sunni Muslim Pashtun tribe found in South Waziristan and FR Bannu in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan.

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Akbar Bugti


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Al Balushi

Al Balushi (البلوشي; alternatively Al Baloushi, Al Balooshi, Al Bloushi or Al Blooshi) is a tribal surname common in Arab states of the Persian Gulf, particularly Oman, the United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Qatar and Bahrain.

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Aleppo (ﺣﻠﺐ / ALA-LC) is a city in Syria, serving as the capital of the Aleppo Governorate, the most-populous Syrian governorate.

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Arabian Peninsula

The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia (شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, ‘Arabian island’ or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, ‘Island of the Arabs’), is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate.

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Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.

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Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.

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Ataullah Mengal

Sardar Ataullah Khan Mengal (سردار عطااللہ خان مینگل), popularly known as Sardar Ataullah Mengal, is a well-known political and feudal figure of Pakistan hailing from Balochistan.

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Baloch Council of North America

Baloch Council of North America (BCNA) is a non-partisan, non-profit advocacy organization in the United States that seeks to "unite all Baloch people and secure Baloch rights, including the right of self-determination, within the Pakistani Federation." BCNA is one of several politically active organizations with roots in the Baloch diaspora, working alongside the Baloch Human Rights Council in Canada, Baloch Unity in Russia, and the Baloch Voice Foundation in France.

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Baloch nationalism

Baloch nationalism is a movement that claims the Baloch people, an ethno-linguistic group mainly found in Pakistan, Iran and Afghanistan are a distinct nation.

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Baloch people

The Baloch or Baluch (Balochi) are a people who live mainly in the Balochistan region of the southeastern-most edge of the Iranian plateau in Pakistan, Iran, and Afghanistan, as well as in the Arabian Peninsula.

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Baloch people in the United Arab Emirates

Baloch people in the United Arab Emirates comprise residents of the United Arab Emirates whose ancestral roots lie in Balochistan.

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Baloch Students Organization

The Baloch Students Organization (BSO; بلوچ اسٹوڈنٹس آرگنائزیشن) is a student organisation that campaigns for the students of Pakistan's Balochistan Province.

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Balochi cuisine

Balochi cuisine refers to the food and cuisine of the Baloch people from the Balochistan region, comprising the Pakistani Balochistan province, the Sistan and Baluchestan Province in Iran and Balochistan, Afghanistan.

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Balochi language

Balochi (بلؤچی, transliteration: balòči) is the principal language of the Baloch people spoken primarily in Iran, Pakistan and Afghanistan.

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Balōchistān (بلوچستان; also Balūchistān or Balūchestān, often interpreted as the Land of the Baloch) is an arid desert and mountainous region in south-western Asia.

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Balochistan Liberation Army

The Balochistan Liberation Army (بلوچستان لبریشن آرمی; abbreviated BLA), also known as the Baloch Liberation Army is a Baloch militant organization based in Pakistan and Afghanistan.

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Balochistan National Party

The Balochistan National Party or Balochistan National Party (Mengal) (Urdu: بلوچستان نيشنل پارٹی) is a political party in Balochistan, Pakistan.

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Balochistan, Pakistan

Balochistan (bəloːt͡ʃɪs't̪ɑːn) (بلوچِستان), is one of the five provinces of Pakistan.

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Belus (Babylonian)

Belus or Belos (Ancient Greek: Βῆλος, Bēlos) in classical Greek or classical Latin texts (and later material based on them) in a Babylonian context refers to the Babylonian god Bel Marduk.

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Brahui language

Brahui (براهوئی) is a Dravidian language spoken primarily by the Brahui people in the central part of Baluchistan province in Pakistan, and in scattered parts of Afghanistan, Iran, and Turkmenistan, and by expatriate Brahui communities in Qatar, United Arab Emirates, and Iraq.

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Brahui people

The Brahui (Brahui: براہوئی) or Brahvi people are an ethnic group of about 2.2 million people with the vast majority found in Baluchistan, Pakistan.

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British Raj

The British Raj (from rāj, literally, "rule" in Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.

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Bugti (Balochi: بُگٹی) is a Baloch tribe.

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Buyid dynasty

The Buyid dynasty or the Buyids (آل بویه Āl-e Buye), also known as Buwaihids, Bowayhids, Buyahids, or Buyyids, was an Iranian Shia dynasty of Daylamite origin.

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Caspian Sea

The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.

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Columbia University

Columbia University (Columbia; officially Columbia University in the City of New York), established in 1754, is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City.

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Comb (anatomy)

A comb is a fleshy growth or crest on the top of the head of gallinaceous birds, such as turkeys, pheasants, and domestic chickens.

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D. R. Bhandarkar

Devadatta Ramakrishna Bhandarkar (1875–1950) (देवदत्त रामकृष्ण भांडारकर) was an Indian archaeologist and epigraphist who worked with the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI).

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Dera Bugti District

Dera Bugti is a district within the Balochistan province of Pakistan.

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Encyclopædia Iranica

Encyclopædia Iranica is a project whose goal is to create a comprehensive and authoritative English language encyclopedia about the history, culture, and civilization of Iranian peoples from prehistory to modern times.

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Farud or Forud was an ancient king of Kelat in his early youth and makes up a chapter in the Shahnameh "The Book of Kings" (940-1020) by Ferdowsi where he is mentioned as the brother of Kai Khosrow.

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The Ghaznavid dynasty (غزنویان ġaznaviyān) was a Persianate Muslim dynasty of Turkic mamluk origin, at their greatest extent ruling large parts of Iran, Afghanistan, much of Transoxiana and the northwest Indian subcontinent from 977 to 1186.

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The Ghilji (غلجي Ghəljī), غل‌زایی), also called Khaljī (خلجي), Khiljī, Ghilzai, or Gharzai (غرزی; ghar means "mountain" and zai "born of"), are the largest Pashtun tribal confederacy. The Ghilji at various times became rulers of present Afghanistan region and were the most dominant Pashtun confederacy from c. 1000 A.D. until 1747 A.D., when power shifted to the Durranis. The Ghilji tribes are today scattered all over Afghanistan and some parts of Pakistan, but most are concentrated in the region from Zabul to Kabul province, with Ghazni and Paktika provinces in the center of their region. The Ghilji tribes are also settled in Balochistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in Pakistan. Many of the migrating Kochi people of Afghanistan belong to the Ghilji confederacy. Ashraf Ghani Ahmadzai, the current President of Afghanistan, also belongs to the Ghilji tribe. From 1709 to 1738, the Ghilji ruled the Hotak Empire based first in Kandahar, Afghanistan and later, from 1722–1728, in Isfahan, Persia. The founder of the Hotak Empire was Mirwais Hotak. Another famous Ghilji from the 18th century was Azad Khan Afghan, who rose to power from 1752 to 1757 in western Iran.

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Greater Khorasan

Khorasan (Middle Persian: Xwarāsān; خراسان Xorāsān), sometimes called Greater Khorasan, is a historical region lying in northeast of Greater Persia, including part of Central Asia and Afghanistan.

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The Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty, also known as the Pratihara Empire, was an imperial power during the Late Classical period on the Indian subcontinent, that ruled much of Northern India from the mid-7th to the 11th century.

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Hamza ibn Abdul-Muttalib

Ḥamzah ibn ‘Abdul-Muṭṭalib (حمزة ابن عبد المطّلب) (c.570–625)Muhammad ibn Saad.

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Hyrbyair Marri

Hyrbyair Marri (حیربیار مری.) (born 1968) is a Baloch nationalist activist from the Pakistani provice of Balochistan.

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Indo-Iranian peoples, also known as Indo-Iranic peoples by scholars, and sometimes as Arya or Aryans from their self-designation, were an ethno-linguistic group who brought the Indo-Iranian languages, a major branch of the Indo-European language family, to major parts of Eurasia.

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Insurgency in Balochistan

The insurgency in Balochistan is a guerrilla war waged by Baloch nationalists against the governments of Pakistan and Iran in the Balochistan region, which covers Balochistan Province in southwestern Pakistan, Sistan and Baluchestan Province in southeastern Iran, and the Balochistan region of southern Afghanistan.

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Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).

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Iranian peoples

The Iranian peoples, or Iranic peoples, are a diverse Indo-European ethno-linguistic group that comprise the speakers of the Iranian languages.

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Iranian Plateau

The Iranian Plateau or the Persian Plateau is a geological formation in Western Asia and Central Asia.

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Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu

Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu (Persian: جلال ‌الدین خوارزمشاه; Turkmen: Jelaleddin Meňburun or Jelaleddin Horezmşa; full name: Jalal ad-Dunya wa ad-Din Abul-Muzaffar Manguberdi ibn Muhammad) or Manguberdi (Turkic for "Godgiven"), also known as Jalâl ad-Dîn Khwârazmshâh, was the last ruler of the Khwarezmian Empire.

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Jalal Khan

Jalal Khan (جلال خان) is a legendary figure in the history of the Baloch people who led the Baloch from Persia to Makran.

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Jamhoori Wattan Party

The Jamhoori Wattan Party (جمہوری وطن پارٹی) (Republican National Party) is a political party in Balochistan, Pakistan.

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Jatoi (tribe)

Jatoi (جتوئی) is a Baloch tribe settled in Balochistan, Punjab and Sindh provinces of Pakistan.

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Jhalawan (Brahui: جھالاوان) was an administrative division of the Khanate of Kalat, a princely state of Brahui that acceded to Pakistan in 1947.

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Joshua Project

The Joshua Project (formerly part of AD2000) is an organization seeking to highlight the ethnic groups of the world with the least followers of evangelical Christianity.

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Kay Khosrow

Kay Khosrow (کیخسرو) is a legendary king of Iran of Kayanian dynasty and a character in the Persian epic book, Shahnameh.

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Kerman (كرمان, also Romanized as Kermān, Kermun, and Kirman; also known as Carmania) is the capital city of Kerman Province, Iran.

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Kerman Province

Kerman Province (استان کرمان, Ostān-e Kermān) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.

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Khanate of Kalat

The Khanate of Kalat (خانات ءِ قلات) was a princely state that existed from 1666 to 1955 in the centre of the modern-day province of Balochistan, Pakistan.

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Khwarazmian dynasty

The Khwarazmian dynasty (also known as the Khwarezmid dynasty, the Anushtegin dynasty, the dynasty of Khwarazm Shahs, and other spelling variants; from ("Kings of Khwarezmia") was a PersianateC. E. Bosworth:. In Encyclopaedia Iranica, online ed., 2009: "Little specific is known about the internal functioning of the Khwarazmian state, but its bureaucracy, directed as it was by Persian officials, must have followed the Saljuq model. This is the impression gained from the various Khwarazmian chancery and financial documents preserved in the collections of enšāʾdocuments and epistles from this period. The authors of at least three of these collections—Rašid-al-Din Vaṭvāṭ (d. 1182-83 or 1187-88), with his two collections of rasāʾel, and Bahāʾ-al-Din Baḡdādi, compiler of the important Ketāb al-tawaṣṣol elā al-tarassol—were heads of the Khwarazmian chancery. The Khwarazmshahs had viziers as their chief executives, on the traditional pattern, and only as the dynasty approached its end did ʿAlāʾ-al-Din Moḥammad in ca. 615/1218 divide up the office amongst six commissioners (wakildārs; see Kafesoğlu, pp. 5-8, 17; Horst, pp. 10-12, 25, and passim). Nor is much specifically known of court life in Gorgānj under the Khwarazmshahs, but they had, like other rulers of their age, their court eulogists, and as well as being a noted stylist, Rašid-al-Din Vaṭvāṭ also had a considerable reputation as a poet in Persian." Sunni Muslim dynasty of Turkic mamluk origin. The dynasty ruled large parts of Central Asia and Iran during the High Middle Ages, in the approximate period of 1077 to 1231, first as vassals of the Seljuqs and Qara-Khitan, and later as independent rulers, up until the Mongol invasion of Khwarezmia in the 13th century. The dynasty was founded by commander Anush Tigin Gharchai, a former Turkish slave of the Seljuq sultans, who was appointed as governor of Khwarezm. His son, Qutb ad-Din Muhammad I, became the first hereditary Shah of Khwarezm.Encyclopædia Britannica, "Khwarezm-Shah-Dynasty",.

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Kohlu (Urdu and کوہلو) is the capital of Kohlu District in Balochistan, Pakistan.

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Lake Van

Lake Van (Van Gölü, Վանա լիճ, Vana lič̣, Gola Wanê), the largest lake in Turkey, lies in the far east of that country in the provinces of Van and Bitlis.

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Lingua franca

A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.

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List of Baloch tribes

This is a list of Baloch tribes and clans.

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Little Ice Age

The Little Ice Age (LIA) was a period of cooling that occurred after the Medieval Warm Period.

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Makran (مکران), (pronounced) is a semi-desert coastal strip in Balochistan, in Pakistan and Iran, along the coast of the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman.

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Marri (tribe)

Marri is one of the strongest baloch tribes in Balochistan, Pakistan.

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Median language

The Median language (also Medean or Medic) was the language of the Medes.

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Mehrdad Izady

Michael Mehrdad R.S.C. Izady or Michael Izady (born 1963), is a contemporary writer on ethnic and cultural topics, particularly the Greater Middle East, and Kurds.

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Mengal (Balochi: مینگل) is a Brahui tribe.

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Mihira Bhoja

Mihira Bhoja (836–885 CE) or Bhoja I was a ruler of the Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty of India.

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Mughal emperors

The Mughal emperors, from the early 16th century to the early 18th century, built and ruled the Mughal Empire on the Indian subcontinent, mainly corresponding to the modern countries of India, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Bangladesh.

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Nagabhata I

Nagabhata I (r. c. 730-760 CE) was an Indian king who founded the imperial Gurjara Pratihara dynasty.

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Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.

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No description.

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Pashtun tribes

The Pashtun tribes, or Afghan tribes (پښتانه ټبرونه يا پښتانه قبايل), are the tribes of the Pashtun people, a large Eastern Iranian ethnic group who use the Pashto language and follow Pashtunwali code of conduct.

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The Pashtuns (or; پښتانه Pax̌tānə; singular masculine: پښتون Pax̌tūn, feminine: پښتنه Pax̌tana; also Pukhtuns), historically known as ethnic Afghans (افغان, Afğān) and Pathans (Hindustani: پٹھان, पठान, Paṭhān), are an Iranic ethnic group who mainly live in Pakistan and Afghanistan.

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A people is a plurality of persons considered as a whole, as is the case with an ethnic group or nation.

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Persian dance

Persian dance or Iranian dance (Persian:رقص ایرانی) refers to the dance styles indigenous to Iran.

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Persian language

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.

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Persian people

The Persians--> are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran.

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Professor (commonly abbreviated as Prof.) is an academic rank at universities and other post-secondary education and research institutions in most countries.

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Punjab, Pakistan

Punjab (Urdu, Punjabi:, panj-āb, "five waters") is Pakistan's second largest province by area, after Balochistan, and its most populous province, with an estimated population of 110,012,442 as of 2017.

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Rind (Baloch tribe)

Rind are a Baloch tribe settled in the Balochistan province of Iran, and the Balochistan, Sindh and Punjab provinces of Pakistan.

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Safavid dynasty

The Safavid dynasty (دودمان صفوی Dudmān e Safavi) was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran, often considered the beginning of modern Iranian history.

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Sanaullah Khan Zehri

Nawab Sanaullah Khan Zehri (نواب ثناء اللہ خان زہری) was the Chief Minister of Balochistan from 24 December 2015 to 9 December 2017.

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Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.

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Sasanian Empire

The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.

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Sasoli (بلوچ is a Baloch tribe in Balochistan. It is considered to be either a subdivision of the Zehri tribe and also a part of Burfat or Bulmat Baloch Tribe. Sasoli is a very famous tribe of Baloch nation. The great forefather of Sasoli are Sardar Mir Siraj uddin Sasoli, Sardar nasrrullah khan chief of sasoli, Sardar allah gull khan sasoli and Mir Meerka Khan Sasoli. The present chief of sasoli is sardar nasrullah khan Sasoli and other sardar muhammad gul khan sasoli sarlat. The Sasoli tribe native are present in large number in Baluchistan. The native of Sasoli tribe speaks the both languages brohi and balochi. The natives of Sasoli are also present in other provinces of Pakistan Sind,Panjab, and Kpk. The Sasoli tribe Migrated from Aleppo along with other Baloch Tribes the native are also present in Iran,Afghanistan and Russia.

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Seljuq dynasty

The Seljuq dynasty, or Seljuqs (آل سلجوق Al-e Saljuq), was an Oghuz Turk Sunni Muslim dynasty that gradually became a Persianate society and contributed to the Turco-Persian tradition in the medieval West and Central Asia.

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Sindh (سنڌ; سِندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan, in the southeast of the country.

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Sindhis (سنڌي (Perso-Arabic), सिन्धी (Devanagari), (Khudabadi)) are an Indo-Aryan ethno-linguistic group who speak the Sindhi language and are native to the Sindh province of Pakistan, which was previously a part of pre-partition British India.

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Sīstān (Persian/Baloch/Pashto: سیستان), known in ancient times as Sakastan (Persian/Baloch/Pashto: ساكاستان; "the land of the Saka"), is a historical and geographical region in present-day eastern Iran (Sistan and Baluchestan Province), southern Afghanistan (Nimruz, Kandahar) and the Nok Kundi region of Balochistan (western Pakistan).

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Sistan and Baluchestan Province

Sistan and Baluchestan Province (Sistàn o Balòčestàn)(استان سيستان و بلوچستان, Ostān-e Sīstān-o Balūchestān) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.

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The Sulaimankhel (سليمان خېل), or Suleiman Khel, are a Pashtun sub-tribe of the Ghilji tribe of Bettani confederation of Pashtuns.

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Sunni Islam

Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.

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Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.

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Talal Akbar Bugti

Talal Akbar Bugti (Urdu: طلال اکبر بگٹی; March 17, 1952 – April 26, 2015) was a Pakistani Baloch tribal leader of the Bugti tribe of Balochistan and President of the Jamhoori Watan Party from 2006 until his death in 2015.

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Tumandar (تُمن دار) is a title given to the leader of a Baloch or Pashtoon tribe in Pakistan.

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Umayyad Caliphate

The Umayyad Caliphate (ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.

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University of Karachi

The University of Karachi (جامعۂ كراچى; ڪراچي يونيورسٽي; or KU) is a public university university located in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.

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Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language.

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Wazir (Pashtun tribe)

The Wazirs or Waziris (وزير) are a Karlani Pashtun tribe found mainly in the Pakistan-Afghanistan border region of North and South Waziristan.

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Western Iranian languages

The Western Iranian languages are a branch of the Iranian languages, attested from the time of Old Persian (6th century BC) and Median.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baloch_people

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