475 relations: Abiskojokk, Abruka, Academic Press, Adam of Bremen, Aegna, Afrikaans, Aftonbladet, Ahlbeck (Usedom), Albanian language, Algal bloom, All Saints' Flood (1304), Amber, Ancylus Lake, Archipelago Sea, Arctic, Arctic Ocean, ASCOBANS, Atlantic herring, Atlantic Ocean, Atlantic white-sided dolphin, Autonomous administrative division, Åland Islands, Ærø, Öland, Øresund, Øresund Bridge, Świnoujście, Baldr, Baltia, Baltic, Baltic Ice Lake, Baltic languages, Baltic Proper, Baltic region, Baltic Sea Action Group, Baltic states, Baltiysk, Basking shark, Battle of Bornhöved (1227), Bay of Kiel, Bay of Lübeck, Bay of Mecklenburg, Bay of Pomerania, Beaked whale, Before Present, Belarus, Belarusian language, Beluga whale, Benthos, Black Sea, ..., Blekinge archipelago, Bornholm, Bothnian Bay, Bothnian Sea, Bottlenose dolphin, Brackish water, Brändöskär, Bulgarian language, Calque, Cape Arkona, Cartography, Cetacea, Chemical warfare, Christianity, Christianization of Lithuania, Cod, Common roach, Communism, Copenhagen, Council of the Baltic Sea States, Crimean War, Curonian Lagoon, Czech language, Czech Republic, Danish language, Danish straits, Darß, Darłowo, Daugava, Dänholm, Dead zone (ecology), Dehydration, Denmark, Discharge (hydrology), Dominium maris baltici, Dragør, Drainage basin, Drift ice, Drogden, Dutch language, Dutch Republic, Eckernförde, Eemian, Eemian Sea, Enclave and exclave, Endemism, England, English language, Eridanos (geology), Ertholmene, Espoo, Estonia, Estonian language, Estuary, Europe, European Union, Eutrophication, Falster, Falsterbo, Famine of 1866–68, Faroese language, Fast ice, Fårö, Federal government of the United States, Fehmarn, Fin whale, Finland, Finnic languages, Finnish language, Flax, Flight and expulsion of Germans (1944–50), Flounder, Former eastern territories of Germany, Fourhorn sculpin, France, Fredericia, Free City of Danzig, French language, Fresh water, Freshwater whitefish, Fucus radicans, Functional extinction, Gandvik, Gävle, Göta älv, Gdańsk, Gdańsk Bay, Gdynia, Geological formation, Geology, German Bight, German language, Germania (book), Germanic languages, Germanic peoples, Germany, Gesta Danorum, Getica, Glacial lake, Glacial period, Global Biodiversity Information Facility, Gotland, Gotland Basin, Gray whale, Gräsö, Great Belt, Great Belt Fixed Link, Great Northern War, Greek language, Greifswald, Grey seal, Guldborgsund, Gulf of Bothnia, Gulf of Finland, Gulf of Riga, Hailuoto, Hake, Hanko, Hanseatic League, Harbour porpoise, Hartmann Schedel, Heiligendamm, Heimskringla, Hel Peninsula, HELCOM, Helsingør, Helsingin Sanomat, Helsinki, Helsinki Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area, Hemp, Herring, Hiddensee, High-pressure area, Hiiumaa, Holmöarna, Houtskär, Humpback whale, Hungarian language, Ice age, Icebreaker, Icelandic language, International Hydrographic Organization, Iron, Isostasy, Italian language, Jūrmala, Jordanes, Jutland, Kaliningrad, Kaliningrad Oblast, Kamień Pomorski, Karlshamn, Karlskrona, Kashubian language, Kassari, Kattegat, Kõinastu, Køge Bugt, Kemijoki, Kesselaid, Kiel, Kiel Canal, Kihnu, Killer whale, Kimito, Kimitoön (island), Kitinen, Klaipėda, Kołobrzeg, Kokkola, Korpo, Kotka, Kotlin Island, Kronborg, Kronstadt, Kustavi, Kvarken, Laajasalo, Lake Ladoga, Lake Onega, Lake Peipus, Langeland, Latin, Latitude, Latvia, Latvian language, Lauttasaari, Lübeck, Leatherback sea turtle, Lidingö, Liepāja, List of cities and towns around the Baltic Sea, List of rivers of the Baltic Sea, Lithuania, Lithuanian language, Little Belt, Littorina, Littorina Sea, Livonian Brothers of the Sword, Ljusterö, Lolland, Longitude, Lule River, Luleå, Maardu, Macedonian language, Malmö, Manilaid, Mariehamn, Marine isotope stage, Mastogloia Sea, Møn, Medieval Latin, Mediterranean sea (oceanography), Megafauna, Międzyzdroje, Middelfart, Middle Ages, Minke whale, Mohni, Mollusca, Monoporeia, MS Estonia, Muhu, MV Wilhelm Gustloff, Myoxocephalus scorpius, Nagu, Narva River, NATO, Natural History (Pliny), Neman, Netherlands, Neustadt in Holstein, Neva River, Nida, Lithuania, Nieby, Nord Stream, Nordisk familjebok, Norrköping, North Atlantic right whale, North European Plain, North Sea, Northern Crusades, Northern Europe, Northern pike, Norway, Norwegian language, Nyborg, Oder, Oder–Neisse line, Oil spill, Old English, Old Norse, Operation Hannibal, Osmussaar, Ostsiedlung, Oulu, Ounasjoki, Oxelösund, Oxford University Press, Oxygen, Pakri Islands, Palanga, Pancake ice, Pargas, Pärnu, Perch, Peter the Great, Pine tar, Plaice, Pleistocene, Pliny the Elder, PLOS One, Poel, Polabian Slavs, Poland, Polferries, Police, Poland, Polish Corridor, Polish language, Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Pomerania, Pori, Port of Naantali, Ports of the Baltic Sea, Portuguese language, Post-glacial rebound, Prangli, Precipitation, Proto-Indo-European language, Prussia, Ptolemy, Pytheas, Rauma, Finland, Rügen, Relict (biology), Replot, Riga, Ringed seal, River, Roman Empire, Romance languages, Romanian language, Rostock, Ruhnu, Russia, Russian Empire, Russian language, Saaremaa, Saduria entomon, Saint Petersburg, Salinity, Salt, Sambia Peninsula, Sarmatians, Sassnitz, Saxo Grammaticus, Sörla þáttr, Scandinavia, Scandlines, Scotland, Sea, Sea of Åland, Serbo-Croatian, Significant wave height, Silja Line, Sill (geology), Sillamäe, Silver, Skagerrak, Slavic languages, Slovakia, Slovene language, Sonar, Sopot, Sound Dues, Soviet Union, Spanish language, SS Cap Arcona, State of the Teutonic Order, Stevns Klint, Stevns Peninsula, Stickleback, Stockholm, Stockholm archipelago, Stora Karlsö, Storm surge, Stralsund, Suebi, Sulfur mustard, Suna River, Sund, Åland, Suomenlinna, Superfast Ferries, Svetlogorsk, Russia, Svir River, Swabia, Sweden, Swedish Empire, Swedish language, Szczecin, Taarbæk, Tabloid journalism, Tacitus, Tallink, Tallinn, Teredo navalis, Teutonic Order, Tide, Torne (river), Torneträsk, Travemünde, Trelleborg, Tricity, Poland, Turbot, Turku, Ueckermünde, Ukraine, Ukrainian language, Ummanz, Unidentified flying object, United Kingdom, University of Gothenburg, University of Helsinki, Usedom, Ustka, Valsörarna, Vasa (ship), Väddö, Värmdö (island), Velikaya River, Ventspils, Victual Brothers, Viking Age, Viking Line, Vilsandi, Vistula, Vormsi, Vuoksi River, Vyborg, Warsaw Pact, Water, Władysławowo, Welsh language, Wends, West Estonian archipelago, White Sea, White Sea–Baltic Canal, William Derham, Wismar, Wolgast, Wolin, World War I, World War II, Xenophon, Yoldia Sea, Ystad, Zealand, Zungenbecken, 10th meridian east, 1872 Baltic Sea flood, 30th meridian east, 53rd parallel north, 60th parallel north, 66th parallel north. 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Abiskojokk or Abiskojåkka (Northern Sami: Ábeskoeatnu) is a river in the Abisko National Park in northern Sweden.
Abruka is an 8.78 km² Estonian island in the Gulf of Riga, 4 km south of the island of Saaremaa.
Academic Press is an academic book publisher.
Adam of Bremen (Adamus Bremensis; Adam von Bremen) was a German medieval chronicler.
Aegna is an Estonian island in the Bay of Tallinn in the Baltic Sea.
Afrikaans is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa, Namibia and, to a lesser extent, Botswana and Zimbabwe.
Aftonbladet is a Swedish evening newspaper published in Stockholm, Sweden.
Ahlbeck is a district of the Heringsdorf municipality on the island of Usedom on the Baltic coast.
Albanian (shqip, or gjuha shqipe) is a language of the Indo-European family, in which it occupies an independent branch.
An algal bloom is a rapid increase or accumulation in the population of algae in freshwater or marine water systems, and is recognized by the discoloration in the water from their pigments.
The All Saints Day flood (Allerheiligenflut) of 1304 was a storm surge that hit the southwestern Baltic Sea coast on 1 November (All Saints' Day) that year.
Amber is fossilized tree resin, which has been appreciated for its color and natural beauty since Neolithic times.
Ancylus Lake is a name given by geologists to a large freshwater lake the existed in northern Europe approximately from 9500 to 8000 years Before Present (B.P.) being in effect one of various predecessors to the modern Baltic Sea.
The Archipelago Sea (Finnish: Saaristomeri, Swedish: Skärgårdshavet) is a part of the Baltic Sea between the Gulf of Bothnia, the Gulf of Finland and the Sea of Åland, within Finnish territorial waters.
The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.
The Arctic Ocean is the smallest and shallowest of the world's five major oceans.
ASCOBANS is a regional agreement on the protection of small cetaceans that was concluded as the “Agreement on the Conservation of Small Cetaceans of the Baltic and North Seas” under the auspices of the UNEP Convention on Migratory Species, or Bonn Convention, in September 1991 and came into force in March 1994.
Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) is a herring in the family Clupeidae.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
The Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus) is a distinctively coloured dolphin found in the cool to temperate waters of the North Atlantic Ocean.
An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subdivision or dependent territory of a country that has a degree of self-governance, or autonomy, from an external authority.
The Åland Islands or Åland (Åland,; Ahvenanmaa) is an archipelago province at the entrance to the Gulf of Bothnia in the Baltic Sea belonging to Finland.
Ærø is one of the Danish Baltic Sea islands, and part of the Southern Denmark Region.
Öland (known in Latin as Oelandia, and sometimes written Øland in other Scandinavian languages, and Oland internationally) is the second largest Swedish island and the smallest of the traditional provinces of Sweden.
Øresund or Öresund (Øresund,; Öresund), commonly known in English as the Sound, is a strait which forms the Danish–Swedish border, separating Zealand (Denmark) from Scania (Sweden).
The Øresund or Öresund Bridge (Øresundsbroen,; Öresundsbron,; hybrid name: Øresundsbron) is a combined railway and motorway bridge across the Øresund strait between Sweden and Denmark.
Świnoujście (Swinemünde, both names meaning Świna mouth) is a city and seaport on the Baltic Sea and Szczecin Lagoon, located in the extreme north-west of Poland.
Baldr (also Balder, Baldur) is a god in Norse mythology, and a son of the god Odin and the goddess Frigg.
Baltia, Basilia or Abalus is an island in northern Europe mentioned in Greco-Roman geography in the connection of amber.
Baltic may refer to.
The Baltic Ice Lake is a name given by geologists to a freshwater lake that gradually formed in the Baltic Sea basin as glaciation retreated from that region at the end of the Pleistocene.
The Baltic languages belong to the Balto-Slavic branch of the Indo-European language family.
Baltic Proper covers the part of the Baltic Sea, from Åland Sea to the Danish sounds.
The terms Baltic region, Baltic Rim countries (or simply Baltic Rim), and the Baltic Sea countries refer to slightly different combinations of countries in the general area surrounding the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe.
The Baltic Sea Action Group (BSAG) is an independent foundation that does concrete work on behalf of the Baltic Sea, one of the most polluted seas in the world.
The Baltic states, also known as the Baltic countries, Baltic republics, Baltic nations or simply the Baltics (Balti riigid, Baltimaad, Baltijas valstis, Baltijos valstybės), is a geopolitical term used for grouping the three sovereign countries in Northern Europe on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.
Baltiysk (Балти́йск), before 1946 known by its German name Pillau (Piława; Piliava; Yiddish: פּילאַווע, Pilave), is a seaport town and the administrative center of Baltiysky District in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia, located on the northern part of the Vistula Spit, on the shore of the Strait of Baltiysk separating the Vistula Lagoon from the Gdańsk Bay.
The basking shark (Cetorhinus maximus) is the second-largest living shark, after the whale shark, and one of three plankton-eating shark species, along with the whale shark and megamouth shark.
The (second) Battle of Bornhöved took place on 22 July 1227 near Bornhöved in Holstein.
The Bay of Kiel or Kiel Bay is a bay in the southwestern Baltic Sea, off the shores of Schleswig-Holstein in Germany and the islands of Denmark.
The Bay of Lübeck is a basin in the southwestern Baltic Sea, off the shores of German states of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern and Schleswig-Holstein.
The Bay of Mecklenburg (or Mecklenburgische Bucht), also known as the Mecklenburg Bay or Mecklenburg Bight, is a long narrow basin making up the southwestern finger-like arm of the Baltic Sea, between the shores of Germany to the south and the Danish islands of Lolland, Falster, and Møn to the north, the shores of Jutland to the west, and joining the largest part of the Baltic to the east.
The Bay of Pomerania or Pomeranian Bay (Polish: Zatoka Pomorska; German: Pommersche Bucht; Kashubian: Pòmòrskô Hôwinga) is a basin in the southwestern Baltic Sea, off the shores of Poland and Germany.
Beaked whales are the members of the family Ziphiidae, which consists of 23 species.
Before Present (BP) years is a time scale used mainly in geology and other scientific disciplines to specify when events occurred in the past.
Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.
Belarusian (беларуская мова) is an official language of Belarus, along with Russian, and is spoken abroad, mainly in Ukraine and Russia.
The beluga whale or white whale (Delphinapterus leucas) is an Arctic and sub-Arctic cetacean.
Benthos is the community of organisms that live on, in, or near the seabed, also known as the benthic zone.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
Blekinge archipelago is an archipelago in the Baltic Sea, located in Blekinge in the south of Sweden.
Bornholm (Burgundaholmr) is a Danish island in the Baltic Sea, to the east of the rest of Denmark, south of Sweden, northeast of Germany and north of the westernmost part of Poland.
The Bothnian Bay or Bay of Bothnia is the northernmost part of the Gulf of Bothnia, which is in turn the northern part of the Baltic Sea.
The Bothnian Sea (Bottenhavet, Selkämeri) links the Bothnian Bay (also called the Bay of Bothnia) with the Baltic proper.
Bottlenose dolphins, the genus Tursiops, are the most common members of the family Delphinidae, the family of oceanic dolphin.
Brackish water is water that has more salinity than fresh water, but not as much as seawater.
Brändöskär and Uddskär are two islands in the northwest of the Swedish sector of the Bay of Bothnia, in the Luleå archipelago, joined by an isthmus.
In linguistics, a calque or loan translation is a word or phrase borrowed from another language by literal, word-for-word or root-for-root translation.
Cape Arkona is a 45-metre-high cape on the island of Rügen in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.
Cartography (from Greek χάρτης chartēs, "papyrus, sheet of paper, map"; and γράφειν graphein, "write") is the study and practice of making maps.
Cetacea are a widely distributed and diverse clade of aquatic mammals that today consists of the whales, dolphins, and porpoises.
Chemical warfare (CW) involves using the toxic properties of chemical substances as weapons.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
The Christianization of Lithuania (Lietuvos krikštas) occurred in 1387, initiated by King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania Władysław II Jagiełło and his cousin Vytautas the Great.
Cod is the common name for the demersal fish genus Gadus, belonging to the family Gadidae.
The roach (Rutilus rutilus), also known as the common roach, is a fresh and brackish water fish of the Cyprinidae family, native to most of Europe and western Asia.
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.
Copenhagen (København; Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark.
The Council of the Baltic Sea States (CBSS) is a regional intergovernmental organisation working on three priority areas: Regional Identity, Safe & Secure Region and Sustainable & Prosperous Region.
The Crimean War (or translation) was a military conflict fought from October 1853 to February 1856 in which the Russian Empire lost to an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, France, Britain and Sardinia.
The Curonian Lagoon (or Bay, Gulf; Куршский залив, Kuršių marios, Zalew Kuroński, Kurisches Haff, Kuršu joma) is separated from the Baltic Sea by the Curonian Spit.
Czech (čeština), historically also Bohemian (lingua Bohemica in Latin), is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group.
The Czech Republic (Česká republika), also known by its short-form name Czechia (Česko), is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.
Danish (dansk, dansk sprog) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status.
The Danish straits are the straits connecting the Baltic Sea to the North Sea through the Kattegat and Skagerrak.
The Darß or Darss is the middle part of the peninsula of Fischland-Darß-Zingst on the southern shore of the Baltic Sea in the German state of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania.
Darłowo (in full The Royal City of Darłowo; Królewskie Miasto Darłowo, Rügenwalde), is a seaside town in the West Pomeranian Region, at the south coast of the Baltic Sea, north-western Poland, with 14,931 inhabitants.
The Daugava (Daugova) or Western Dvina is a river rising in the Valdai Hills, Russia, flowing through Russia, Belarus, and Latvia and into the Gulf of Riga.
Dänholm (literally Danes' Isle) is a small island on the German coast of the Baltic Sea.
Dead zones are hypoxic (low-oxygen) areas in the world's oceans and large lakes, caused by "excessive nutrient pollution from human activities coupled with other factors that deplete the oxygen required to support most marine life in bottom and near-bottom water.
In physiology, dehydration is a deficit of total body water, with an accompanying disruption of metabolic processes.
Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.
In hydrology, discharge is the volumetric flow rate of water that is transported through a given cross-sectional area.
The establishment of a dominium maris baltici ("Baltic Sea dominion") was one of the primary political aims of the Danish and Swedish kingdoms in the late medieval and early modern eras.
Dragør is the main town and the seat of the municipal council of Dragør Municipality, (Denmark), which includes the village of Store Magleby.
A drainage basin is any area of land where precipitation collects and drains off into a common outlet, such as into a river, bay, or other body of water.
Drift ice is any sea ice other than fast ice, the latter being attached ("fastened") to the shoreline or other fixed objects (shoals, grounded icebergs, etc.).Leppäranta, M. 2011.
Drogden is a channel through Øresund.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
The Dutch Republic was a republic that existed from the formal creation of a confederacy in 1581 by several Dutch provinces (which earlier seceded from the Spanish rule) until the Batavian Revolution in 1795.
Eckernförde (Egernførde, sometimes also Egernfjord, Low German: Eckernför, sometimes also Eckernföör) is a German town in Schleswig-Holstein, Kreis Rendsburg-Eckernförde, on the coast of the Baltic Sea approximately 30 km northwest of Kiel.
The Eemian (also called the last interglacial, Sangamonian, Ipswichian, Mikulin, Kaydaky, Valdivia or Riss-Würm) was the interglacial period which began about 130,000 years ago and ended about 115,000 years ago.
The Eemian Sea was a body of water located approximately where the Baltic Sea is now during the last interglacial, or Eemian Stage, Marine isotopic stage (MIS) 5e, roughly 130,000 to 115,000 years BP.
An enclave is a territory, or a part of a territory, that is entirely surrounded by the territory of one other state.
Endemism is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
The name Eridanos, derived from the ancient Greek Eridanos, was given by geologists to a river that flowed where the Baltic Sea is now.
Ertholmene, old spelling Ærtholme(ne), so named because its islands are very small (ært is Danish for pea), generally called Christiansø, also by Statistics Denmark and the Church of Denmark, is a small archipelago situated approximately 19 km (12 mi) northeast of Gudhjem, Bornholm or 27 km (16-17 mi) east of Sandvig in the Baltic Sea.
Espoo (Esbo) is the second largest city and municipality in Finland.
Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.
Estonian (eesti keel) is the official language of Estonia, spoken natively by about 1.1 million people: 922,000 people in Estonia and 160,000 outside Estonia.
An estuary is a partially enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Eutrophication (from Greek eutrophos, "well-nourished"), or hypertrophication, is when a body of water becomes overly enriched with minerals and nutrients that induce excessive growth of plants and algae.
Falster is an island in south-eastern Denmark with an area of and 43,398 inhabitants as of 1 January 2010.
Falsterbo is a town located at the south-western tip of Sweden in Vellinge Municipality in Skåne.
The Famine of 1866–1868 was the last famine in Finland and Sweden, and the last major naturally caused famine in Europe.
Faroese (føroyskt mál,; færøsk) is a North Germanic language spoken as a first language by about 66,000 people, 45,000 of whom reside on the Faroe Islands and 21,000 in other areas, mainly Denmark.
Fast ice (also called land-fast ice, landfast ice, and shore-fast ice) is sea ice that is "fastened" to the coastline, to the sea floor along shoals or to grounded icebergs.
Fårö is a Baltic Sea island just off north of the island of Gotland, itself off mainland Sweden's southeastern coast.
The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government) is the national government of the United States, a constitutional republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D.C. (the nation's capital), and several territories.
Fehmarn (Femern) is an island on, since 2003, a town on the island in the Baltic Sea, off the eastern coast of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, and c. 18 kilometers south of the Danish island of Lolland.
The fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus), also known as finback whale or common rorqual and formerly known as herring whale or razorback whale, is a marine mammal belonging to the parvorder of baleen whales.
Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.
The Finnic languages (Fennic), or Baltic Finnic languages (Balto-Finnic, Balto-Fennic), are a branch of the Uralic language family spoken around the Baltic Sea by Finnic peoples, mainly in Finland and Estonia, by about 7 million people.
Finnish (or suomen kieli) is a Finnic language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland.
Flax (Linum usitatissimum), also known as common flax or linseed, is a member of the genus Linum in the family Linaceae.
During the later stages of World War II and the post-war period, German citizens and people of German ancestry fled or were expelled from various Eastern and Central European countries and sent to the remaining territory of Germany and Austria.
Flounders are a group of flatfish species.
The former eastern territories of Germany (Ehemalige deutsche Ostgebiete) are those provinces or regions east of the current eastern border of Germany (the Oder–Neisse line) which were lost by Germany after World War I and then World War II.
The fourhorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus quadricornis) is a species of fish in the Cottidae family.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Fredericia is a town located in Fredericia municipality in the southeastern part of the Jutland peninsula in Denmark, in a sub-region also known as Trekantsområdet (the Triangle Area).
The Free City of Danzig (Freie Stadt Danzig; Wolne Miasto Gdańsk) was a semi-autonomous city-state that existed between 1920 and 1939, consisting of the Baltic Sea port of Danzig (now Gdańsk, Poland) and nearly 200 towns and villages in the surrounding areas.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
Fresh water (or freshwater) is any naturally occurring water except seawater and brackish water.
The freshwater whitefish are fishes of the subfamily Coregoninae, which contains whitefishes (both freshwater and anadromous) and ciscoes, and is one of three subfamilies in the salmon family Salmonidae.
Fucus radicans is a species of brown algae in the family Fucaceae, endemic to and recently evolved within the Baltic Sea.
Functional extinction is the extinction of a species or other taxon such that.
In Norse mythology, Gandvik is a dangerous sea, known as "Bay of Serpents" because of its tortuous shape.
Gävle is a city in Sweden, the seat of Gävle Municipality and the capital of Gävleborg County.
The Göta älv (River of the Geats) is a river that drains lake Vänern into the Kattegat, at the city of Gothenburg, on the western coast of Sweden.
Gdańsk (Danzig) is a Polish city on the Baltic coast.
Gdansk Bay or the Bay of Gdansk Zatoka Gdańska; Gduńskô Hôwinga; Гданьская бухта, Gdan'skaja bukhta, and Danziger Bucht) is a southeastern bay of the Baltic Sea. It is named after the adjacent port city of Gdańsk in Poland and is sometimes referred to as the Gulf of Gdańsk.
Gdynia (Gdingen, Gdiniô) is a city in the Pomeranian Voivodeship of Poland and a seaport of Gdańsk Bay on the south coast of the Baltic Sea.
A formation or geological formation is the fundamental unit of lithostratigraphy.
Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, gē, i.e. "earth" and -λoγία, -logia, i.e. "study of, discourse") is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time.
The German Bight (Deutsche Bucht; tyske bugt; Duitse bocht; Dútske bocht; sometimes also the German Bay) is the southeastern bight of the North Sea bounded by the Netherlands and Germany to the south, and Denmark and Germany to the east (the Jutland peninsula).
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
The Germania, written by the Roman historian Publius Cornelius Tacitus around 98 and originally entitled On the Origin and Situation of the Germans (De Origine et situ Germanorum), was a historical and ethnographic work on the Germanic tribes outside the Roman Empire.
The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.
The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Gesta Danorum ("Deeds of the Danes") is a patriotic work of Danish history, by the 13th century author Saxo Grammaticus ("Saxo the Literate", literally "the Grammarian").
De origine actibusque Getarum ("The Origin and Deeds of the Getae/Goths"), or the Getica,Jordanes, The Origin and Deeds of the Goths, translated by C. Mierow written in Late Latin by Jordanes (or Iordanes/Jornandes) in or shortly after 551 AD, claims to be a summary of a voluminous account by Cassiodorus of the origin and history of the Gothic people, which is now lost.
A glacial lake is a lake with origins in a melted glacier.
A glacial period (alternatively glacial or glaciation) is an interval of time (thousands of years) within an ice age that is marked by colder temperatures and glacier advances.
The Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) is an international organisation that focuses on making scientific data on biodiversity available via the Internet using web services.
Gotland (older spellings include Gottland or Gothland), Gutland in the local dialect, is a province, county, municipality, and diocese of Sweden.
The Gotland Basin is the large central basin in the Baltic Sea between Sweden and the Baltic countries.
The gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus), also known as the grey whale,Britannica Micro.: v. IV, p. 693.
Gräsö is an island in Östhammar Municipality, off the coast of Uppland province on the eastern coast of Sweden.
The Great Belt (Storebælt) is a strait between the major islands of Zealand (Sjælland) and Funen (Fyn) in Denmark.
The Great Belt Fixed link (Storebæltsforbindelsen) is a multi-element fixed link crossing the Great Belt strait between the Danish islands of Zealand and Funen.
The Great Northern War (1700–1721) was a conflict in which a coalition led by the Tsardom of Russia successfully contested the supremacy of the Swedish Empire in Northern, Central and Eastern Europe.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Greifswald, officially the University and Hanseatic City of Greifswald (German: Universitäts- und Hansestadt Greifswald), is a city in northeastern Germany.
The grey seal (Halichoerus grypus, meaning "hooked-nosed sea pig") is found on both shores of the North Atlantic Ocean.
Guldborgsund is the strait between the Danish islands of Lolland and Falster.
The Gulf of Bothnia (Pohjanlahti; Bottenhavet) is the northernmost arm of the Baltic Sea.
The Gulf of Finland (Suomenlahti; Soome laht; p; Finska viken) is the easternmost arm of the Baltic Sea.
The Gulf of Riga, Bay of Riga, or Gulf of Livonia (Rīgas jūras līcis, Liivi laht, Рижский залив) is a bay of the Baltic Sea between Latvia and Estonia.
Hailuoto (Karlö) is an island and a municipality in Northern Ostrobothnia region, Finland.
The term hake refers to fish in either of.
Hanko (Hangö) is a bilingual port town and municipality on the south coast of Finland, west of Helsinki.
The Hanseatic League (Middle Low German: Hanse, Düdesche Hanse, Hansa; Standard German: Deutsche Hanse; Latin: Hansa Teutonica) was a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and market towns in Northwestern and Central Europe.
The harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) is one of six species of porpoise.
Hartmann Schedel (13 February 1440 – 28 November 1514) was a German physician, humanist, historian, and one of the first cartographers to use the printing press.
Heiligendamm is a German seaside resort, founded in 1793.
Heimskringla is the best known of the Old Norse kings' sagas.
Hel Peninsula (Mierzeja Helska, Półwysep Helski; Hélskô Sztremlëzna; Halbinsel Hela or Putziger Nehrung) is a 35-km-long sand bar peninsula in northern Poland separating the Bay of Puck from the open Baltic Sea.
The Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission (HELCOM), also known as Helsinki Commission), is an intergovernmental organization governing the Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area (Helsinki Convention). HELCOM works on protection of the marine environment of the Baltic Sea. Contracting parties of HELCOM are.
Helsingør, classically known in English as Elsinore, is a city in eastern Denmark.
Helsingin Sanomat, abbreviated HS and colloquially known as Hesari, is the largest subscription newspaper in Finland and the Nordic countries, owned by Sanoma.
Helsinki (or;; Helsingfors) is the capital city and most populous municipality of Finland.
Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area, 1992 (Helsinki Convention) is an international convention encompassing various measures for the prevention and elimination of pollution of the Baltic Sea.
Hemp, or industrial hemp (from Old English hænep), typically found in the northern hemisphere, is a variety of the Cannabis sativa plant species that is grown specifically for the industrial uses of its derived products.
Herring are forage fish, mostly belonging to the family Clupeidae.
Hiddensee is a car-free island in the Baltic Sea, located west of Germany's largest island, Rügen, on the German coast.
A high-pressure area, high or anticyclone is a region where the atmospheric pressure at the surface of the planet is greater than its surrounding environment.
Hiiumaa (German & Dagö; Dagø; Hiidenmaa) is the second largest island (989 km²) in Estonia.
Holmöarna (Swedish, literally the islet islands) is an island group in the Kvarken narrows of the Gulf of Bothnia between Sweden and Finland.
Houtskär (Houtskari) is an island group and former municipality of Finland.
The humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) is a species of baleen whale.
Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine, central and western Romania (Transylvania and Partium), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia due to the effects of the Treaty of Trianon, which resulted in many ethnic Hungarians being displaced from their homes and communities in the former territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America (particularly the United States). Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family branch, its closest relatives being Mansi and Khanty.
An ice age is a period of long-term reduction in the temperature of Earth's surface and atmosphere, resulting in the presence or expansion of continental and polar ice sheets and alpine glaciers.
An icebreaker is a special-purpose ship or boat designed to move and navigate through ice-covered waters, and provide safe waterways for other boats and ships.
Icelandic (íslenska) is a North Germanic language, and the language of Iceland.
The International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) is the inter-governmental organisation representing hydrography.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Isostasy (Greek ''ísos'' "equal", ''stásis'' "standstill") is the state of gravitational equilibrium between Earth's crust and mantle such that the crust "floats" at an elevation that depends on its thickness and density.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
Jūrmala ("seaside") is a city in Latvia, about west of Riga.
Jordanes, also written Jordanis or, uncommonly, Jornandes, was a 6th-century Eastern Roman bureaucrat of Gothic extraction who turned his hand to history later in life.
Jutland (Jylland; Jütland), also known as the Cimbric or Cimbrian Peninsula (Cimbricus Chersonesus; Den Kimbriske Halvø; Kimbrische Halbinsel), is a peninsula of Northern Europe that forms the continental portion of Denmark and part of northern Germany.
Kaliningrad (p; former German name: Königsberg; Yiddish: קעניגסבערג, Kenigsberg; r; Old Prussian: Twangste, Kunnegsgarbs, Knigsberg; Polish: Królewiec) is a city in the administrative centre of Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave between Poland and Lithuania on the Baltic Sea.
Kaliningrad Oblast (Калинингра́дская о́бласть, Kaliningradskaya oblast), often referred to as the Kaliningrad Region in English, or simply Kaliningrad, is a federal subject of the Russian Federation that is located on the coast of the Baltic Sea.
Kamień Pomorski (Cammin or Kammin; Kamién) is a town in the West Pomeranian Voivodeship of north-western Poland, on the Baltic coast.
Karlshamn is a locality and the seat of Karlshamn Municipality in Blekinge County, Sweden.
Karlskrona is a locality and the seat of Karlskrona Municipality, Blekinge County, Sweden with 35,212 inhabitants in 2010.
Kashubian or Cassubian (Kashubian: kaszëbsczi jãzëk, pòmòrsczi jãzëk, kaszëbskò-słowińskô mòwa; język kaszubski, język pomorski, język kaszubsko-słowiński) is a West Slavic language belonging to the Lechitic subgroup along with Polish and Silesian.
Kassari is an Estonian island.
The Kattegat (Kattegatt) is a sea area bounded by the Jutlandic peninsula in the west, the Danish straits islands of Denmark to the south and the provinces of Västergötland, Scania, Halland and Bohuslän in Sweden in the east.
Kõinastu is a 2.62 km² islet in the southern part of the Väinameri Sea, Estonia.
Køge Bugt or Køge Bay is an approximately 500 km2-shallow Danish bay in the southern part of Øresund, between Greater Copenhagen area in the North (or more precisely the southernmost peak of Amager) and Stevns Klint in the South, and as a part of Zealand.
Kemijoki (Kemi älv, Giemajohka), with its length, is the longest river in Finland.
Kesselaid (also Kessulaid, or diminutively Kessu. Schildau; Sköld, Skölldo) is a Estonian islet located between the mainland and the island of Muhu in the Suur väin (Big Strait) which connects the Väinameri strait and the Gulf of Riga.
Kiel is the capital and most populous city in the northern German state of Schleswig-Holstein, with a population of 249,023 (2016).
The Kiel Canal (Nord-Ostsee-Kanal, literally "North--Baltic Sea canal", formerly known as the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Kanal) is a long freshwater canal in the German state of Schleswig-Holstein.
Kihnu (Kynö) is an island in the Baltic Sea.
Kimito (Kemiö) is a former municipality of Finland.
Kimitoön (Kemiönsaari) is the largest coastal island of Finland with the area of.
Kitinen is a river of Finland.
Klaipėda (Samogitian name: Klaipieda, Polish name: Kłajpeda, German name: Memel), is a city in Lithuania on the Baltic Sea coast.
Kołobrzeg (Kolberg) is a city in the West Pomeranian Voivodeship in north-western Poland with about 47,000 inhabitants.
Kokkola (Karleby) is a town and municipality of Finland.
Korpo (Korppoo) is an island located in the Turku archipelago.
Kotka is a city and municipality of Finland.
Kotlin (or Kettle, Retusaari, Reitskär) is a Russian island, located near the head of the Gulf of Finland, west of Saint Petersburg in the Baltic Sea.
Kronborg is a castle and stronghold in the town of Helsingør, Denmark.
Kronstadt (Кроншта́дт), also spelled Kronshtadt, Cronstadt or Kronštádt (Krone for "crown" and Stadt for "city"; Kroonlinn), is a municipal town in Kronshtadtsky District of the federal city of Saint Petersburg, Russia, located on Kotlin Island, west of Saint Petersburg proper near the head of the Gulf of Finland.
Kustavi (Gustavs) is a municipality of Finland.
Kvarken (Swedish Kvarken or Norra Kvarken (as opposed to South Kvarken), Finnish Merenkurkku lit. "throat of the sea") is the narrow region in the Gulf of Bothnia separating the Bothnian Bay (the inner part of the gulf) from the Bothnian Sea.
Laajasalo (Degerö) is a group of islands that forms a neighbourhood in southern Helsinki, the capital of Finland.
Lake Ladoga (p or p; Laatokka;; Ladog, Ladoganjärv) is a freshwater lake located in the Republic of Karelia and Leningrad Oblast in northwestern Russia, in the vicinity of Saint Petersburg.
Lake Onega (also known as Onego, p; Ääninen or Äänisjärvi; Oniegu or Oniegu-järve; Änine or Änižjärv) is a lake in the north-west European part of Russia, located on the territory of Republic of Karelia, Leningrad Oblast and Vologda Oblast.
Lake Peipus (Peipsi-Pihkva järv; Псковско-Чудское озеро (Pskovsko-Chudskoe ozero), Peipussee), the largest transboundary lake in Europe, lies on the border between Estonia and Russia.
Langeland is a Danish island located between the Great Belt and Bay of Kiel.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
In geography, latitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north–south position of a point on the Earth's surface.
Latvia (or; Latvija), officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika), is a sovereign state in the Baltic region of Northern Europe.
Latvian (latviešu valoda) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.
Lauttasaari (Drumsö in Swedish) is an island in Helsinki, about 5 km west of the city centre.
Lübeck is a city in Schleswig-Holstein, northern Germany, and one of the major ports of Germany.
The leatherback sea turtle (Dermochelys coriacea), sometimes called the lute turtle or leathery turtle or simply the luth, is the largest of all living turtles and is the fourth-heaviest modern reptile behind three crocodilians.
Lidingö is an island in the inner Stockholm archipelago, northeast of Stockholm, Sweden.
Liepāja (pronounced) (Libau; see other names) is a city in western Latvia, located on the Baltic Sea.
This is a list of major cities and towns around the Baltic Sea.
This is a list of rivers that drain into the Baltic Sea (clockwise from Öresund).
Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.
Lithuanian (lietuvių kalba) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.
The Little Belt is a strait between the island of Funen and the Jutland Peninsula in Denmark.
Littorina is a genus of small sea snails, marine gastropod molluscs in the family Littorinidae, the winkles or periwinkles.
Littorina Sea (also Litorina Sea) is a geological brackish water stage of the Baltic Sea, which existed around 7500–4000 BP and followed the Mastogloia Sea, transitional stage of the Ancylus Lake.
The Livonian Brothers of the Sword (Fratres militiæ Christi Livoniae, Schwertbrüderorden, Ordre des Chevaliers Porte-Glaive) was a Catholic military order established by Albert, the third bishop of Riga (or possibly by Theoderich von Treyden), in 1202.
Ljusterö is an island in Sweden.
Lolland (formerly spelled Laaland, literally "low land") is the fourth largest island of Denmark, with an area of.
Longitude, is a geographic coordinate that specifies the east-west position of a point on the Earth's surface.
Lule River (Lule älv, Luleälven) is a major river in Sweden, rising in northern Sweden and flowing southeast for before reaching the Gulf of Bothnia at Luleå.
Luleå (Westrobothnian: Lul, Leul, or Leol; Luleju) is a city on the coast of northern Sweden, and the capital of Norrbotten County, the northernmost county in Sweden.
Maardu is a town and a municipality in Harju County, Estonia.
Macedonian (македонски, tr. makedonski) is a South Slavic language spoken as a first language by around two million people, principally in the Republic of Macedonia and the Macedonian diaspora, with a smaller number of speakers throughout the transnational region of Macedonia.
Malmö (Malmø) is the capital and largest city of the Swedish county of Scania.
Manilaid is a Estonian islet in the Gulf of Riga, located between the island of Kihnu and the mainland's Tõstamaa peninsula.
Mariehamn (Maarianhamina) is the capital of Åland, an autonomous territory under Finnish sovereignty.
Marine isotope stages (MIS), marine oxygen-isotope stages, or oxygen isotope stages (OIS), are alternating warm and cool periods in the Earth's paleoclimate, deduced from oxygen isotope data reflecting changes in temperature derived from data from deep sea core samples.
The Mastogloia Sea is one of the prehistoric stages of the Baltic Sea in its development after the last ice age.
Møn is an island in south-eastern Denmark.
Medieval Latin was the form of Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange, as the liturgical language of Chalcedonian Christianity and the Roman Catholic Church, and as a language of science, literature, law, and administration.
A mediterranean sea is, in oceanography, a mostly enclosed sea that has limited exchange of water with outer oceans and with water circulation dominated by salinity and temperature differences rather than winds.
In terrestrial zoology, megafauna (from Greek μέγας megas "large" and New Latin fauna "animal life") are large or giant animals.
Międzyzdroje, (Misdroy), is a town and a seaside resort in northwestern Poland on the island of Wolin on the Baltic coast.
Middelfart is a town in central Denmark, with a population of 14,815 (1 January 2014).
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The minke whale, or lesser rorqual, is a type of baleen whale.
Mohni is an island of Estonia.
Mollusca is a large phylum of invertebrate animals whose members are known as molluscs or mollusksThe formerly dominant spelling mollusk is still used in the U.S. — see the reasons given in Gary Rosenberg's.
Monoporeia affinis, formerly referred to as Pontoporeia affinis (Πόντος, póntos.
MS Estonia, previously Viking Sally (1980–1990), Silja Star (1990–1991), and Wasa King (1991–1993), was a cruise ferry built in 1979/80 at the German shipyard Meyer Werft in Papenburg.
Muhu (Mohn/Moon; in Estonian also called Muhumaa), is an island in the Baltic Sea.
MV Wilhelm Gustloff was a German military transport ship which was sunk on 30 January 1945 by in the Baltic Sea while evacuating German civilians, German officials and military personnel from Gotenhafen (now Gdynia) as the Red Army advanced.
Myoxocephalus scorpius, known variously as the shorthorn sculpin, short-spined sea scorpion, bull-head, bull-rout and the father-lasher, is a demersal fish of the Northern Atlantic and adjacent subarctic coasts, and of the Arctic including the coasts of Alaska and Siberia.
Nagu (Nauvo) is a former municipality of Finland.
The Narva (Narva jõgi, Нарва) (or Narova) is a river flowing into the Baltic Sea, the largest river in Estonia by discharge.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
The Natural History (Naturalis Historia) is a book about the whole of the natural world in Latin by Pliny the Elder, a Roman author and naval commander who died in 79 AD.
The Neman, Nemunas, Nyoman, Niemen or Memel, a major Eastern European river.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
Neustadt in Holstein is a town in the district of Ostholstein, in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany.
The Neva (Нева́) is a river in northwestern Russia flowing from Lake Ladoga through the western part of Leningrad Oblast (historical region of Ingria) to the Neva Bay of the Gulf of Finland.
Nida (Nidden) is a resort town in Lithuania, the administrative centre of Neringa municipality.
Nieby (Nyby) is a municipality in the district of Schleswig-Flensburg, in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany.
Nord Stream (former names: North Transgas and North European Gas Pipeline; Северный поток, Severny potok) is an offshore natural gas pipeline from Vyborg in the Russian Federation to Greifswald in Germany that is owned and operated by Nord Stream AG.
Nordisk familjebok (Nordic Family Book) is a Swedish encyclopedia that was published in print form between 1876 and 1957, and that is now fully available in digital form via Project Runeberg at Linköping University.
Norrköping is a city in the province of Östergötland in eastern Sweden and the seat of Norrköping Municipality, Östergötland County, about 160 km southwest of the national capital Stockholm.
The North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis, which means "good, or true, whale of the ice") is a baleen whale, one of three right whale species belonging to the genus Eubalaena, all of which were formerly classified as a single species.
The North European Plain (Norddeutsches Tiefland or Norddeutsche Tiefebene, North German Plain; Nizina Środkowoeuropejska, Middle European Plain) is a geomorphological region in Europe, mostly in Poland, Denmark, Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands (Low Countries), and a small part of northern France and Czech republic.
The North Sea (Mare Germanicum) is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Great Britain, Scandinavia, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France.
The Northern Crusades or Baltic Crusades were religious wars undertaken by Catholic Christian military orders and kingdoms, primarily against the pagan Baltic, Finnic and West Slavic peoples around the southern and eastern shores of the Baltic Sea, and to a lesser extent also against Orthodox Christian Slavs (East Slavs).
Northern Europe is the general term for the geographical region in Europe that is approximately north of the southern coast of the Baltic Sea.
The northern pike (Esox lucius), known simply as a pike in Britain, Ireland, most of Canada, and most parts of the United States (once called luce when fully grown; also called jackfish or simply "northern" in the U.S. Upper Midwest and in Manitoba), is a species of carnivorous fish of the genus Esox (the pikes).
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
Norwegian (norsk) is a North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it is the official language.
Nyborg is a city in central Denmark, located in Nyborg Municipality on the island of Funen and with a population of 16,528 (as of 1 January 2014).
The Oder (Czech, Lower Sorbian and Odra, Oder, Upper Sorbian: Wódra) is a river in Central Europe.
The Oder–Neisse line (granica na Odrze i Nysie Łużyckiej, Oder-Neiße-Grenze) is the international border between Germany and Poland.
An oil spill is the release of a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment, especially the marine ecosystem, due to human activity, and is a form of pollution.
Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
Old Norse was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements from about the 9th to the 13th century.
Operation Hannibal was a German naval operation involving the evacuation by sea of German troops and civilians from Courland, East Prussia, and the Polish Corridor from mid-January to May 1945 as the Red Army advanced during the East Prussian and East Pomeranian Offensives and subsidiary operations.
Osmussaar (Odensholm) is an Estonian island situated in the mouth of the Gulf of Finland in the Baltic Sea, 7.5 km off the Estonian mainland.
Ostsiedlung (literally east settling), in English called the German eastward expansion, was the medieval eastward migration and settlement of Germanic-speaking peoples from the Holy Roman Empire, especially its southern and western portions, into less-populated regions of Central Europe, parts of west Eastern Europe, and the Baltics.
Oulu (Uleåborg) is a city and municipality of inhabitants in the region of Northern Ostrobothnia, Finland.
The Ounasjoki River (Ovnnesjohka) is the Kemijoki River's largest tributary and is Finland's longest single river tributary.
Oxelösund is a locality and the seat of Oxelösund Municipality in Södermanland County, Sweden with 10,870 inhabitants in 2010.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Pakri Islands (Pakri saared, Rågöarna) are two Estonian islands in the Finnish Gulf: Suur-Pakri and Väike-Pakri (Stora Rågö and Lilla Rågö).
Palanga (Palanga (also till 1934)) is a seaside resort town in western Lithuania, on the shore of the Baltic Sea.
Pancake ice is a form of ice that consists of round pieces of ice with diameters ranging from to, depending on the local conditions that affect ice formation.
Pargas (Parainen) (Länsi-Turunmaa and Swedish: Väståboland in 2009–2011) is a municipality of Finland, in the Archipelago Sea.
Pärnu (Pernau) is the fourth-largest city in Estonia.
Perch is a common name for fish of the genus Perca, freshwater gamefish belonging to the family Percidae.
Peter the Great (ˈpʲɵtr vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj), Peter I (ˈpʲɵtr ˈpʲɛrvɨj) or Peter Alexeyevich (p; –)Dates indicated by the letters "O.S." are in the Julian calendar with the start of year adjusted to 1 January.
Pine tar is a sticky material produced by the high temperature carbonization of pine wood in anoxic conditions (dry distillation or destructive distillation).
Plaice is a common name for a group of flatfish that comprises four species: the European, American, Alaskan and scale-eye plaice.
The Pleistocene (often colloquially referred to as the Ice Age) is the geological epoch which lasted from about 2,588,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the world's most recent period of repeated glaciations.
Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.
PLOS One (stylized PLOS ONE, and formerly PLoS ONE) is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal published by the Public Library of Science (PLOS) since 2006.
Poel or Poel Island (Insel Poel), is an island in the Baltic Sea.
Polabian Slavs (Połobske Słowjany, Słowianie połabscy, Polabští Slované) is a collective term applied to a number of Lechitic (West Slavic) tribes who lived along the Elbe river in what is today Eastern Germany.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
Polferries is the largest Polish ferry operator.
Police (Pölitz; Kashubian/Pomeranian: Pòlice) is a town in the West Pomeranian Voivodeship, northwestern Poland.
The Polish Corridor (Polnischer Korridor; Pomorze, Korytarz polski), also known as Danzig Corridor, Corridor to the Sea or Gdańsk Corridor, was a territory located in the region of Pomerelia (Pomeranian Voivodeship, eastern Pomerania, formerly part of West Prussia), which provided the Second Republic of Poland (1920–1939) with access to the Baltic Sea, thus dividing the bulk of Germany from the province of East Prussia.
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, after 1791 the Commonwealth of Poland, was a dualistic state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithuania.
Pomerania (Pomorze; German, Low German and North Germanic languages: Pommern; Kashubian: Pòmòrskô) is a historical region on the southern shore of the Baltic Sea in Central Europe, split between Germany and Poland.
Pori (Björneborg; Arctopolis) is a city and municipality on the west coast of Finland.
Port of Naantali (Naantalin satama) is a port located in the south-west of Finland, city of Naantali, where the mainland meets the beginning of the Turku archipelago.
There are over 200 ports in the Baltic Sea.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
Post-glacial rebound (also called isostatic rebound or crustal rebound) is the rise of land masses after the lifting of the huge weight of ice sheets during the last glacial period, which had caused isostatic depression.
Prangli (Vrangö) is an Estonian island in the Gulf of Finland.
In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity.
Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, the most widely spoken language family in the world.
Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.
Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.
Pytheas of Massalia (Ancient Greek: Πυθέας ὁ Μασσαλιώτης Pythéas ho Massaliōtēs; Latin: Pytheas Massiliensis; fl. 4th century BC), was a Greek geographer and explorer from the Greek colony of Massalia (modern-day Marseille).
Rauma (Raumo) is a town and municipality of ca.
Rügen (also lat. Rugia; Ruegen) is Germany's largest island by area.
In biogeography and paleontology a relict is a population or taxon of organisms that was more widespread or more diverse in the past.
Replot (Raippaluoto) is an island in the Kvarken ("The Throat"), the narrowest part of the Gulf of Bothnia in the northern part of the Baltic sea.
Riga (Rīga) is the capital and largest city of Latvia.
The ringed seal (Pusa hispida or Phoca hispida), also known as the jar seal and as netsik or nattiq by the Inuit, is an earless seal (family: Phocidae) inhabiting the Arctic and sub-Arctic regions.
A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.
Romanian (obsolete spellings Rumanian, Roumanian; autonym: limba română, "the Romanian language", or românește, lit. "in Romanian") is an East Romance language spoken by approximately 24–26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language.
Rostock is a city in the north German state Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.
Ruhnu (Runö; Roņu sala) is an Estonian island in the Gulf of Riga in the Baltic Sea.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
Saaremaa (Danish: Øsel; English (esp. traditionally): Osel; Finnish: Saarenmaa; Swedish & German: Ösel) is the largest island in Estonia, measuring.
Saduria entomon is a benthic isopod crustacean of the family Chaetiliidae.
Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).
Salinity is the saltiness or amount of salt dissolved in a body of water (see also soil salinity).
Salt, table salt or common salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of salts; salt in its natural form as a crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite.
Sambia (Самбийский полуостров, Sambiysky poluostrov, literally the Sambiysky Peninsula;Sembos pusiasalis) or Samland (Земландский полуостров, Zemlandsky poluostrov, literally the Zemlandsky Peninsula) or Kaliningrad Peninsula (official name, Калининградский полуостров, Kaliningradsky poluostrov) is a peninsula in the Kaliningrad Oblast of Russia, on the southeastern shore of the Baltic Sea.
The Sarmatians (Sarmatae, Sauromatae; Greek: Σαρμάται, Σαυρομάται) were a large Iranian confederation that existed in classical antiquity, flourishing from about the 5th century BC to the 4th century AD.
Sassnitz (before 1993 in Saßnitz) is a town on the Jasmund peninsula, Rügen Island, in the Federal State of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.
Saxo Grammaticus (1160 – 1220), also known as Saxo cognomine Longus, was a Danish historian, theologian and author.
Sörla þáttr eða Heðins saga ok Högna is a short narrative from the extended version Óláfs saga Tryggvasonar en mesta found in the Flateyjarbók manuscript,Lindow (2002:280-281).
Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.
Scandlines is a ferry operator owned by the private equity investor 3i Group.
Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
A sea is a large body of salt water that is surrounded in whole or in part by land.
The Sea of Åland (Ahvenanmeri; Ålands hav) is a waterway in the southern Gulf of Bothnia, between the Åland islands and Sweden.
Serbo-Croatian, also called Serbo-Croat, Serbo-Croat-Bosnian (SCB), Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian (BCS), or Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian (BCMS), is a South Slavic language and the primary language of Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Montenegro.
In physical oceanography, the significant wave height (SWH or Hs) is defined traditionally as the mean wave height (trough to crest) of the highest third of the waves (H1/3).
Silja Line is a Finnish cruiseferry brand operated by the Estonian ferry company AS Tallink Grupp, for car, cargo and passenger traffic between Finland and Sweden.
In geology, a sill is a tabular sheet intrusion that has intruded between older layers of sedimentary rock, beds of volcanic lava or tuff, or along the direction of foliation in metamorphic rock.
Sillamäe (Силламяэ), known also in Germanized version as Sillamäggi or Sillamägi (Estonian for "Bridge Hill"), is a town in Ida-Viru County in the northern part of Estonia, on the southern coast of the Gulf of Finland.
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.
The Skagerrak is a strait running between the southeast coast of Norway, the southwest coast of Sweden, and the Jutland peninsula of Denmark, connecting the North Sea and the Kattegat sea area, which leads to the Baltic Sea.
The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) are the Indo-European languages spoken by the Slavic peoples.
Slovakia (Slovensko), officially the Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika), is a landlocked country in Central Europe.
Slovene or Slovenian (slovenski jezik or slovenščina) belongs to the group of South Slavic languages.
Sonar (originally an acronym for SOund Navigation And Ranging) is a technique that uses sound propagation (usually underwater, as in submarine navigation) to navigate, communicate with or detect objects on or under the surface of the water, such as other vessels.
Sopot (Kashubian: Sopòt; German: Zoppot) is a seaside resort city in Eastern Pomerania on the southern coast of the Baltic Sea in northern Poland, with a population of approximately 40,000.
The Sound Dues (or Sound Toll; Øresundstolden) were a toll on the use of the Øresund which constituted up to two thirds of Denmark's state income in the 16th and 17th centuries.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
Cap Arcona, named after Cape Arkona on the island of Rügen, was a large German ocean liner and the flagship of the Hamburg Südamerikanische Dampfschifffahrts-Gesellschaft ("Hamburg-South America Line").
The State of the Teutonic Order (Staat des Deutschen Ordens; Civitas Ordinis Theutonici), also called Deutschordensstaat or Ordensstaat in German, was a crusader state formed by the Teutonic Knights or Teutonic Order during the 13th century Northern Crusades along the Baltic Sea.
Stevns Klint is a white chalk cliff located some southeast of Store Heddinge on the Danish island of Zealand.
Stevns Peninsula is a peninsula on Sjælland in Denmark.
The Gasterosteidae are a family of fish including the sticklebacks.
Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous city in the Nordic countries; 952,058 people live in the municipality, approximately 1.5 million in the urban area, and 2.3 million in the metropolitan area.
The Stockholm archipelago (Stockholms skärgård) is the largest archipelago in Sweden, and the second-largest archipelago in the Baltic Sea (the largest being across the Baltic in Finland).
Stora Karlsö is an island off the west coast of Gotland, Sweden; part of Eksta socken.
A storm surge, storm flood or storm tide is a coastal flood or tsunami-like phenomenon of rising water commonly associated with low pressure weather systems (such as tropical cyclones and strong extratropical cyclones), the severity of which is affected by the shallowness and orientation of the water body relative to storm path, as well as the timing of tides.
Stralsund, (Swedish: Strålsund) is a Hanseatic town in the Pomeranian part of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.
The Suebi (or Suevi, Suavi, or Suevians) were a large group of Germanic tribes, which included the Marcomanni, Quadi, Hermunduri, Semnones, Lombards and others, sometimes including sub-groups simply referred to as Suebi.
Sulfur mustard, commonly known as mustard gas, is the prototypical substance of the sulfur-based family of cytotoxic and vesicant chemical warfare agents known as the sulfur mustards which have the ability to form large blisters on exposed skin and in the lungs.
Suna is a river in Republic of Karelia, Russia.
Sund is a municipality of Åland.
Suomenlinna (Finnish), or Sveaborg (Swedish), literal translation Finland Castle, until 1918 Viapori (Finnish), is an inhabited sea fortress built on six islands (Kustaanmiekka (sv:Vargskär / Gustavssvärd), Susisaari (sv:Vargö), Iso-Mustasaari (sv:Stora Östersvartö), Pikku-Mustasaari (sv:Lilla Östersvartö), Länsi-Mustasaari (sv:Västersvartö), and Långören) and which now forms part of the city of Helsinki, the capital of Finland.
Superfast Ferries is a Greece-based ferry company founded in 1993 by Pericles Panagopulos and Alexander Panagopulos.
Svetlogorsk (Светлогорск) is the name of several inhabited localities in Russia.
The Svir (Veps:, Karelian/Finnish: Syväri) is a river in Podporozhsky, Lodeynopolsky, and Volkhovsky districts in the north-east of Leningrad Oblast, Russia.
Swabia (Schwaben, colloquially Schwabenland or Ländle; in English also archaic Suabia or Svebia) is a cultural, historic and linguistic region in southwestern Germany.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
The Swedish Empire (Stormaktstiden, "Great Power Era") was a European great power that exercised territorial control over much of the Baltic region during the 17th and early 18th centuries.
Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden (as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.
Szczecin (German and Swedish Stettin), known also by other alternative names) is the capital and largest city of the West Pomeranian Voivodeship in Poland. Located near the Baltic Sea and the German border, it is a major seaport and Poland's seventh-largest city. As of June 2011, the population was 407,811. Szczecin is located on the Oder, south of the Szczecin Lagoon and the Bay of Pomerania. The city is situated along the southwestern shore of Dąbie Lake, on both sides of the Oder and on several large islands between the western and eastern branches of the river. Szczecin is adjacent to the town of Police and is the urban centre of the Szczecin agglomeration, an extended metropolitan area that includes communities in the German states of Brandenburg and Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. The city's recorded history began in the 8th century as a Slavic Pomeranian stronghold, built at the site of the Ducal castle. In the 12th century, when Szczecin had become one of Pomerania's main urban centres, it lost its independence to Piast Poland, the Duchy of Saxony, the Holy Roman Empire and Denmark. At the same time, the House of Griffins established themselves as local rulers and the population was Christianized. After the Treaty of Stettin in 1630, the town came under the control of the Swedish Empire and became in 1648 the Capital of Swedish Pomerania until 1720, when it was acquired by the Kingdom of Prussia and then the German Empire. Following World War II Stettin became part of Poland, resulting in expulsion of the German population. Szczecin is the administrative and industrial centre of West Pomeranian Voivodeship and is the site of the University of Szczecin, Pomeranian Medical University, Maritime University, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin Art Academy, and the see of the Szczecin-Kamień Catholic Archdiocese. From 1999 onwards, Szczecin has served as the site of the headquarters of NATO's Multinational Corps Northeast. Szczecin was a candidate for the European Capital of Culture in 2016.
Taarbæk is a Copenhagen suburb.
Tabloid journalism is a style of journalism that emphasizes sensational crime stories, gossip columns about celebrities and sports stars, extreme political views from one perspective, junk food news, and astrology.
Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (–) was a senator and a historian of the Roman Empire.
Tallink is an Estonian shipping company operating Baltic Sea cruise ferries and ropax ships from Estonia to Finland, Estonia to Sweden, Latvia to Sweden and Finland to Sweden.
Tallinn (or,; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Estonia.
Teredo navalis, the naval shipworm, is a species of saltwater clam, a marine bivalve mollusc in the family Teredinidae, the shipworms.
The Order of Brothers of the German House of Saint Mary in Jerusalem (official names: Ordo domus Sanctæ Mariæ Theutonicorum Hierosolymitanorum, Orden der Brüder vom Deutschen Haus der Heiligen Maria in Jerusalem), commonly the Teutonic Order (Deutscher Orden, Deutschherrenorden or Deutschritterorden), is a Catholic religious order founded as a military order c. 1190 in Acre, Kingdom of Jerusalem.
Tides are the rise and fall of sea levels caused by the combined effects of the gravitational forces exerted by the Moon and the Sun and the rotation of Earth.
The Torne, also known as the Tornio (Tornionjoki, Torne älv, Torneälven, Duortneseatnu, Tornionväylä), is a river in northern Sweden and Finland.
Torneträsk or Torne träsk (Saami: Duortnosjávri, Finnish/Meänkieli: Tornio or Torniojärvi) is a lake in Kiruna Municipality, Lapland, Norrbotten County in Sweden, in the Scandinavian mountain range.
Travemünde is a borough of Lübeck, Germany, located at the mouth of the river Trave in Lübeck Bay.
Trelleborg is a town in Scania, Sweden, with 28,290 inhabitants in 2010.
Tricity, or Tri-City (Trójmiasto, Trzëgard) is a metropolitan area in Poland consisting of three cities in Pomerania: Gdańsk, Gdynia and Sopot, as well as minor towns in their vicinity.
The turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) is a species of flatfish in the family Scophthalmidae.
Turku (Åbo) is a city on the southwest coast of Finland at the mouth of the Aura River, in the region of Southwest Finland.
Ueckermünde is a seaport town in northeast Germany, located in the district of Vorpommern-Greifswald, Western Pomerania, near Germany's border with Poland's Police County.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
The island of Ummanz lies in the Baltic Sea, off the west coast of the island of Rügen, and belongs, like the latter, to the county of Vorpommern-Rügen in the German state of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania.
An unidentified flying object or "UFO" is an object observed in the sky that is not readily identified.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The University of Gothenburg (Göteborgs universitet) is a university in Sweden's second largest city, Gothenburg.
The University of Helsinki (Helsingin yliopisto, Helsingfors universitet, Universitas Helsingiensis, abbreviated UH) is a university located in Helsinki, Finland since 1829, but was founded in the city of Turku (in Swedish Åbo) in 1640 as the Royal Academy of Åbo, at that time part of the Swedish Empire.
Usedom (Usedom, Uznam) is a Baltic Sea island in Pomerania, divided since 1945 between Germany and Poland.
Ustka (Stolpmünde; Kashubian Ùskô) is a town in the Middle Pomerania region of northwestern Poland with 17,100 inhabitants (2001).
Valsöarna (in Swedish) or Valassaaret (in Finnish) is a small archipelago located in the Kvarken region of the Gulf of Bothnia.
Vasa (or Wasa) is a retired Swedish warship built between 1626 and 1628.
Väddö is an island in the Baltic Sea in Roslagen district, Sweden.
Värmdö is an island in the innermost region of the Stockholm archipelago and covers an area of 180 km², making it the largest island in the archipelago.
The Velikaya is a river in Novosokolnichesky, Pustoshkinsky, Sebezhsky, Opochetsky, Pushkinogorsky, Ostrovsky, Palkinsky, and Pskovsky Districts of Pskov Oblast, as well as in the city of Pskov in Russia.
Ventspils (see other names) is a town in northwestern Latvia in the historical Courland region of Latvia, and is the sixth largest city in the country.
The Victual Brothers (Vitalienbrüder) were a loosely organized guild of privateers who later turned to piracy.
The Viking Age (793–1066 AD) is a period in European history, especially Northern European and Scandinavian history, following the Germanic Iron Age.
Viking Line is a Finnish shipping company that operates a fleet of ferries and cruiseferries between Finland, the Åland Islands, Sweden and Estonia.
The island of Vilsandi, Saaremaa Parish, Saare County, Estonia is located in the Baltic Sea.
The Vistula (Wisła, Weichsel,, ווייסל), Висла) is the longest and largest river in Poland, at in length. The drainage basin area of the Vistula is, of which lies within Poland (54% of its land area). The remainder is in Belarus, Ukraine and Slovakia. The Vistula rises at Barania Góra in the south of Poland, above sea level in the Silesian Beskids (western part of Carpathian Mountains), where it begins with the White Little Vistula (Biała Wisełka) and the Black Little Vistula (Czarna Wisełka). It then continues to flow over the vast Polish plains, passing several large Polish cities along its way, including Kraków, Sandomierz, Warsaw, Płock, Włocławek, Toruń, Bydgoszcz, Świecie, Grudziądz, Tczew and Gdańsk. It empties into the Vistula Lagoon (Zalew Wiślany) or directly into the Gdańsk Bay of the Baltic Sea with a delta and several branches (Leniwka, Przekop, Śmiała Wisła, Martwa Wisła, Nogat and Szkarpawa).
Vormsi, also Ormsö (Ormsö, Worms) is the fourth-largest island of Estonia, located between Hiiumaa and the mainland with a total area of.
The Vuoksi (Вуокса; Vuoksi; Vuoksen) is a river running through the northernmost part of the Karelian Isthmus from Lake Saimaa in southeastern Finland to Lake Ladoga in northwestern Russia.
Vyborg (p; Viipuri,; Viborg; Wiborg; Viiburi) is a town in, and the administrative center of, Vyborgsky District in Leningrad Oblast, Russia.
The Warsaw Pact, formally known as the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance, was a collective defence treaty signed in Warsaw, Poland among the Soviet Union and seven Soviet satellite states of Central and Eastern Europe during the Cold War.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
Władysławowo (Kashubian/Pomeranian: Wiôlgô Wies, Großendorf) is a town on the south coast of the Baltic Sea in Kashubia in the Pomerelia region, northern Poland, with 15,015 (2009) inhabitants.
Welsh (Cymraeg or y Gymraeg) is a member of the Brittonic branch of the Celtic languages.
Wends (Winedas, Old Norse: Vindr, Wenden, Winden, vendere, vender, Wendowie) is a historical name for Slavs living near Germanic settlement areas.
West Estonian archipelago (Lääne-Eesti saarestik, also Moonsund archipelago) is a group of Estonian islands, around Väinameri, located in the Baltic Sea.
The White Sea (Белое море, Béloye móre; Karelian and Vienanmeri, lit. Dvina Sea; Сэрако ямʼ, Serako yam) is a southern inlet of the Barents Sea located on the northwest coast of Russia.
The White Sea–Baltic Canal (Беломо́рско–Балти́йский кана́л, Byelomorsko–Baltiyskiy kanal, BBK), often abbreviated to White Sea Canal (Belomorkanal) is a ship canal in Russia opened on 2 August 1933.
William Derham FRS (26 November 1657 – 5 April 1735)Smolenaars, Marja.
Wismar is a port and Hanseatic city in Northern Germany on the Baltic Sea, in the state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.
Wolgast is a town in the district of Vorpommern-Greifswald, in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.
Wolin (Wollin,, Pomeranian Wòlin) is the name both of a Polish island in the Baltic Sea, just off the Polish coast, and a town on that island.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Xenophon of Athens (Ξενοφῶν,, Xenophōn; – 354 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher, historian, soldier, mercenary, and student of Socrates.
Yoldia Sea is a name given by geologists to a variable brackish-water stage in the Baltic Sea basin that prevailed after the Baltic ice lake was drained to sea level during the Weichsel glaciation.
Ystad is a town, and the seat of Ystad Municipality, Skåne County, Sweden, with 18,350 inhabitants in 2010.
Zealand (Sjælland), at 7,031 km2, is the largest and most populous island in Denmark proper (thus excluding Greenland and Disko Island, which are larger).
A Zungenbecken, also called a tongue basin or tongue-basin, is part of a succession of ice age geological landforms, known as a glacial series.
The meridian 10° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Africa, the Atlantic Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The 1872 Baltic Sea flood (Ostseesturmhochwasser 1872), often referred to as a storm flood, ravaged the Baltic Sea coast from Denmark to Pomerania, also affecting Sweden, during the night between 12–13 November 1872 and was, until then, the worst storm surge in the Baltic.
The meridian 30° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Turkey, Africa, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The 53rd parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 53 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The 60th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 60 degrees north of Earth's equator.
The 66th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 66 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane, about 61 km south of the Arctic Circle.
Baltic (name), Baltic coast, Baltic sea, BalticSea, Central Baltic Sea, Itämeri, Laanemeri, Läänemeri, Mare Suebicum, Mare Suevicum, Ostsee, Pollution in the Baltic Sea, Pollution of the Baltic Sea, Post-littorina Sea, Suebian Sea, Suevian Sea, The Baltic, The Baltic Sea, Östersjön.