99 relations: Albanian language, Ancient history, Attested language, Australia, Balkans, Baltic Sea, Baltic states, Balto-Slavic languages, Balts, Belarus, Canada, Catechism, Celtic languages, Comparative linguistics, Conservative (language), Curonian language, Dacian language, Dacians, Danube, Defense Language Institute, Dnieper, East Slavs, Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture, Ernst Fraenkel (linguist), Estonia, Estonian language, Eurasian Steppe, Extinct language, False friend, Galindian language, Genetic relationship (linguistics), Germanic languages, Historical linguistics, History of Germany, Hydronym, Hymnal, Illyrian languages, Indo-European languages, Jonas Basanavičius, Kaliningrad, Königsberg, Kiev, Language family, Latgalian language, Latin, Latvia, Latvian language, List of reconstructed Dacian words, Lithuania, Lithuanian language, ..., Lithuanian press ban, Lituanus, Martynas Mažvydas, Modern language, Mordvinic languages, Moscow, Mutual intelligibility, New Curonian, Northern Crusades, Northern Europe, Oka River, Old Prussian language, Onomastics, Paraphyly, Partitions of Poland, Pelasgians, Phrygian language, Poland, Polish language, Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Princeton University Press, Proto-Balto-Slavic language, Proto-Indo-European language, Proto-Slavic, Russian Empire, Russification, Ruthenian language, Samogitian dialect, Selonian language, Semigallian language, Skalvians, Slavic languages, Soviet Union, Sudovian language, Tandy Warnow, The Horse, the Wheel, and Language, Thracian language, Thracians, Trakai, Trakiškiai (Varėna), United States, United States Department of Defense, Ural Mountains, Uralic languages, Vistula, Vladimir Toporov, Volga River, Vyacheslav Ivanov (philologist), Yotvingians. Expand index (49 more) » « Shrink index
Albanian (shqip, or gjuha shqipe) is a language of the Indo-European family, in which it occupies an independent branch.
Ancient history is the aggregate of past events, "History" from the beginning of recorded human history and extending as far as the Early Middle Ages or the post-classical history.
In linguistics, attested languages are languages (living or dead) that have been documented and for which the evidence has survived to the present day.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.
The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany and the North and Central European Plain.
The Baltic states, also known as the Baltic countries, Baltic republics, Baltic nations or simply the Baltics (Balti riigid, Baltimaad, Baltijas valstis, Baltijos valstybės), is a geopolitical term used for grouping the three sovereign countries in Northern Europe on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.
The Balto-Slavic languages are a branch of the Indo-European family of languages.
The Balts or Baltic people (baltai, balti) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the Baltic languages, a branch of the Indo-European language family, which was originally spoken by tribes living in the area east of Jutland peninsula in the west and in the Moscow, Oka and Volga rivers basins in the east.
Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
A catechism (from κατηχέω, "to teach orally") is a summary or exposition of doctrine and serves as a learning introduction to the Sacraments traditionally used in catechesis, or Christian religious teaching of children and adult converts.
The Celtic languages are a group of related languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or "Common Celtic"; a branch of the greater Indo-European language family.
Comparative linguistics (originally comparative philology) is a branch of historical linguistics that is concerned with comparing languages to establish their historical relatedness.
In linguistics, a conservative form, variety, or modality is one that has changed relatively little over its history, or which is relatively resistant to change.
The Curonian language (Kurisch; kuršu valoda; kuršių kalba), or Old Curonian, is a nearly unattested extinct language spoken by the Curonians, a Baltic tribe who inhabited the Courland Peninsula (now western Latvia) and the nearby Baltic shore.
The extinct Dacian language was spoken in the Carpathian region in antiquity.
The Dacians (Daci; loc Δάοι, Δάκαι) were an Indo-European people, part of or related to the Thracians.
The Danube or Donau (known by various names in other languages) is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga.
The Defense Language Institute (DLI) is a United States Department of Defense (DoD) educational and research institution consisting of two separate entities which provide linguistic and cultural instruction to the Department of Defense, other Federal Agencies and numerous customers around the world.
The Dnieper River, known in Russian as: Dnepr, and in Ukrainian as Dnipro is one of the major rivers of Europe, rising near Smolensk, Russia and flowing through Russia, Belarus and Ukraine to the Black Sea.
The East Slavs are Slavic peoples speaking the East Slavic languages.
The Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture (abbreviation: EIEC) is an encyclopedia of Indo-European studies and the Proto-Indo-Europeans.
Ernst Eduard Samuel Fraenkel (born 16 October 1881, Berlin and died 2 October 1957, Hamburg) was a German linguist who made major contributions to the fields of Indo-European linguistics and Baltic studies.
Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.
Estonian (eesti keel) is the official language of Estonia, spoken natively by about 1.1 million people: 922,000 people in Estonia and 160,000 outside Estonia.
The Eurasian Steppe, also called the Great Steppe or the steppes, is the vast steppe ecoregion of Eurasia in the temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome.
An extinct language is a language that no longer has any speakers, especially if the language has no living descendants.
False friends are words in two languages that look or sound similar, but differ significantly in meaning.
Galindian is the poorly attested extinct language of the Galindians, thought to have been very similar to Old Prussian.
In linguistics, genetic relationship is the usual term for the relationship which exists between languages that are members of the same language family.
The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.
Historical linguistics, also called diachronic linguistics, is the scientific study of language change over time.
The concept of Germany as a distinct region in central Europe can be traced to Roman commander Julius Caesar, who referred to the unconquered area east of the Rhine as Germania, thus distinguishing it from Gaul (France), which he had conquered.
A hydronym (from ὕδωρ, hydor, "water" and ὄνομα, onoma, "name") is a proper name of a body of water.
Hymnal or hymnary or hymnbook is a collection of hymns, i.e. religious songs, usually in the form of a book.
The Illyrian languages are a group of Indo-European languages that were spoken in the western part of the Balkans in former times by groups identified as Illyrians: Ardiaei, Delmatae, Pannonii, Autariates, Taulantii (see list of ancient tribes in Illyria).
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
Jonas Basanavičius (Jan Basanowicz; 23 November 1851 – 16 February 1927) was an activist and proponent of the Lithuanian National Revival.
Kaliningrad (p; former German name: Königsberg; Yiddish: קעניגסבערג, Kenigsberg; r; Old Prussian: Twangste, Kunnegsgarbs, Knigsberg; Polish: Królewiec) is a city in the administrative centre of Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave between Poland and Lithuania on the Baltic Sea.
Königsberg is the name for a former German city that is now Kaliningrad, Russia.
Kiev or Kyiv (Kyiv; Kiyev; Kyjev) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper.
A language family is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestral language or parental language, called the proto-language of that family.
Latgalian is spoken in Latgale, the eastern part of Latvia.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Latvia (or; Latvija), officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika), is a sovereign state in the Baltic region of Northern Europe.
Latvian (latviešu valoda) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.
This article contains a list of reconstructed words of the ancient Dacian language.
Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.
Lithuanian (lietuvių kalba) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.
The Lithuanian press ban (spaudos draudimas) was a ban on all Lithuanian language publications printed in the Latin alphabet in force from 1865 to 1904 within the Russian Empire, which controlled Lithuania at the time.
Lituanus is an English language quarterly journal dedicated to Lithuanian and Baltic languages, linguistics, political science, arts, history, literature, and related topics.
Martynas Mažvydas (1510 – 21 May 1563) was the author and the editor of the first printed book in the Lithuanian language.
A modern language is any human language that is currently in use.
The Mordvinic languages, alternatively Mordvin languages, or Mordvinian languages (Мордовские языки, Mordovskiye yazyki, the official Russian term for the language pair), are a subgroup of the Uralic languages, comprising the closely related Erzya language and Moksha language (both spoken in Mordovia).
Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.
In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without prior familiarity or special effort.
The New Curonian language (New Curonian: Kuršu valoda; Nehrungskurisch, Spit Curonian) is a dialect of the Latvian language spoken by the Kurši of the Curonian Spit, a thin strip of land stretching between southwestern Lithuania and Russia.
The Northern Crusades or Baltic Crusades were religious wars undertaken by Catholic Christian military orders and kingdoms, primarily against the pagan Baltic, Finnic and West Slavic peoples around the southern and eastern shores of the Baltic Sea, and to a lesser extent also against Orthodox Christian Slavs (East Slavs).
Northern Europe is the general term for the geographical region in Europe that is approximately north of the southern coast of the Baltic Sea.
Oka (Ока́) is a river in central Russia, the largest right tributary of the Volga.
Old Prussian is an extinct Baltic language once spoken by the Old Prussians, the Baltic peoples of Prussia (not to be confused with the later and much larger German state of the same name)—after 1945 northeastern Poland, the Kaliningrad Oblast of Russia and southernmost part of Lithuania.
Onomastics or onomatology is the study of the origin, history, and use of proper names.
In taxonomy, a group is paraphyletic if it consists of the group's last common ancestor and all descendants of that ancestor excluding a few—typically only one or two—monophyletic subgroups.
The Partitions of Poland were three partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth that took place toward the end of the 18th century and ended the existence of the state, resulting in the elimination of sovereign Poland and Lithuania for 123 years.
The name Pelasgians (Πελασγοί, Pelasgoí, singular: Πελασγός, Pelasgós) was used by classical Greek writers to either refer to populations that were the ancestors or forerunners of the Greeks, or to signify all pre-classical indigenes of Greece.
The Phrygian language was the Indo-European language of the Phrygians, spoken in Asia Minor during Classical Antiquity (c. 8th century BCE to 5th century CE).
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, after 1791 the Commonwealth of Poland, was a dualistic state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithuania.
Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.
Proto-Balto-Slavic is a reconstructed proto-language descending from Proto-Indo-European (PIE).
Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, the most widely spoken language family in the world.
Proto-Slavic is the unattested, reconstructed proto-language of all the Slavic languages.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
Russification (Русификация), or Russianization, is a form of cultural assimilation process during which non-Russian communities, voluntarily or not, give up their culture and language in favor of the Russian one.
Ruthenian or Old Ruthenian (see other names) was the group of varieties of East Slavic spoken in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and later in the East Slavic territories of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Samogitian (Samogitian: žemaitiu ruoda, žemaitiu kalba, žemaitiu rokunda, žemaičių tarmė) is a dialect of the Lithuanian language, considered a separate language by most linguists outside Lithuania, however, recognition as such is increasing in recent years, spoken mostly in Samogitia (in the western part of Lithuania), in Northern Europe.
Selonian was a Baltic language spoken by the Eastern Baltic tribe of the Selonians, who until the 15th century lived in Selonia, a territory in southeastern Latvia and northeastern Lithuania.
Semigallian, or Zemgalian, is an extinct language of the Baltic language sub-family of the Indo-European languages.
The Scalovians (Skalviai; Schalauer), also known as the Skalvians, Schalwen and Schalmen, were a Baltic tribe related to the Prussians.
The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) are the Indo-European languages spoken by the Slavic peoples.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Sudovian (also known as Yotvingian, Yatvingian, or Jatvingian) is an extinct western Baltic language of Northeastern Europe.
Tandy Warnow is an American computer scientist, the Founder Professor of Engineering (and Professor of Computer Science) at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
The Horse, the Wheel, and Language: How Bronze-Age Riders from the Eurasian Steppes Shaped the Modern World is a 2007 book by David W. Anthony, in which the author describes his "Revised Steppe Theory." He explores the origins and spread of the Indo-European languages from the Pontic-Caspian steppes throughout Western Europe, and Central and South Asia.
The Thracian language was the Indo-European language spoken in ancient times in Southeast Europe by the Thracians, the northern neighbors of the Ancient Greeks.
The Thracians (Θρᾷκες Thrāikes; Thraci) were a group of Indo-European tribes inhabiting a large area in Eastern and Southeastern Europe.
Trakai (see names section for alternate and historic names) is a historic city and lake resort in Lithuania.
Trakiškiai (Varėna) is a village in Varėna district municipality, in Alytus County, in southeastern Lithuania.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The Department of Defense (DoD, USDOD, or DOD) is an executive branch department of the federal government of the United States charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the United States Armed Forces.
The Ural Mountains (p), or simply the Urals, are a mountain range that runs approximately from north to south through western Russia, from the coast of the Arctic Ocean to the Ural River and northwestern Kazakhstan.
The Uralic languages (sometimes called Uralian languages) form a language family of 38 languages spoken by approximately 25million people, predominantly in Northern Eurasia.
The Vistula (Wisła, Weichsel,, ווייסל), Висла) is the longest and largest river in Poland, at in length. The drainage basin area of the Vistula is, of which lies within Poland (54% of its land area). The remainder is in Belarus, Ukraine and Slovakia. The Vistula rises at Barania Góra in the south of Poland, above sea level in the Silesian Beskids (western part of Carpathian Mountains), where it begins with the White Little Vistula (Biała Wisełka) and the Black Little Vistula (Czarna Wisełka). It then continues to flow over the vast Polish plains, passing several large Polish cities along its way, including Kraków, Sandomierz, Warsaw, Płock, Włocławek, Toruń, Bydgoszcz, Świecie, Grudziądz, Tczew and Gdańsk. It empties into the Vistula Lagoon (Zalew Wiślany) or directly into the Gdańsk Bay of the Baltic Sea with a delta and several branches (Leniwka, Przekop, Śmiała Wisła, Martwa Wisła, Nogat and Szkarpawa).
Vladimir Nikolayevich Toporov (Влади́мир Никола́евич Топоро́в; 5 July 1928 in Moscow5 December 2005 in Moscow) was a leading Russian philologist associated with the Tartu-Moscow semiotic school.
The Volga (p) is the longest river in Europe.
Vyacheslav Vsevolodovich Ivanov (Вячесла́в Все́володович Ива́нов, 21 August 1929 – 7 October 2017) was a prominent Soviet/Russian philologist, semiotician and Indo-Europeanist probably best known for his glottalic theory of Indo-European consonantism and for placing the Indo-European urheimat in the area of the Armenian Highlands and Lake Urmia.
Yotvingians, or Sudovians (also called Suduvians, Jatvians, or Jatvingians in English; Jotvingiai, Sūduviai; Jātvingi; Jaćwingowie, Яцвягі, Ятвяги Sudauer), were a Baltic people with close cultural ties in the 13th century to the Lithuanians and Prussians.
Baltic (language), Baltic Languages, Baltic culture, Baltic language, Baltic languages language, East Baltic languages, Eastern Baltic, Eastern Baltic languages, ISO 639:bat, List of Baltic languages, West Baltic language, West Baltic languages, Western Baltic language, Western Baltic languages.