336 relations: Acidosasa, Actinocladum, African Great Lakes, Agnesia, Allergic response, Alvimia, Ampelocalamus, Andaman Islands, Andes, Anji County, Anomochlooideae, Apoclada, Arashiyama, Arberella, Arecaceae, Argentina, Arthrostylidiinae, Arthrostylidium, Arundinaria, Arundinarieae, Asian furniture, Athroostachys, Atractantha, Aulonemia, Bai Juyi, Bambara language, Bamboo bicycle, Bamboo blossom, Bamboo cannon, Bamboo charcoal, Bamboo floor, Bamboo fly rod, Bamboo lemur, Bamboo processing machine, Bamboo torture, Bambooworking, Bambusa, Bambusa balcooa, Bambusa blumeana, Bambusa vulgaris, Bambuseae, Bambusinae, Batumi Botanical Garden, Bay of Bengal, Bihar, Biofuel, Bonia, BOP clade, Borax, Boric acid, ..., Borinda, Bozo people, Bract, Brazil, Bubonic plague, Buergersiochloa, Building material, Calcium carbide, Carbon disulfide, Caterpillar, Central America, Cephalostachyum, Ceremonial pole, Chile, Chimonobambusa, Chimonocalamus, Chimpanzee, China, Chinese culture, Chinese furniture, Chopsticks, Chrysanthemum, Chusquea, Chusqueinae, Clade, Climate, Climate change, Colanthelia, Competition Bureau (Canada), Composite material, Compressed tea, Compressive strength, Confucianism, Contact dermatitis, Creation myth, Cretaceous, Cryptochloa, Culm (botany), Culture of Vietnam, Davidsea, Decaryochloa, Dendrocalamus, Dendrocalamus asper, Desalination, Diandrolyra, Dicotyledon, Dinochloa, Dissolving pulp, Dracaena sanderiana, Drepanostachyum, Dry season, East Asia, Ekmanochloa, Elytrostachys, Emperor Shun, Emperor Yao, Entomophagy, Eremocaulon, Evergreen, Evil, Evolution, Expo 2010, Fallopia japonica, Famine, Fargesia, Federal Trade Commission, Feng shui, Fermentation in food processing, Fermentation in winemaking, Ferrocalamus, Fire lance, Fishing rod, Flowering plant, Fly fishing, Four Gentlemen, France, Froesiochloa, Gaoligongshania megalothyrsa, Gatka, Gautama Buddha, Gelidocalamus, Giant bamboo, Giant panda, Gigantochloa, Glaziophyton, Golden bamboo lemur, Greslania, Growing season, Guadua, Guaduinae, Han dynasty, Hard and soft (martial arts), Hardiness zone, Hardwood, Hawaiian Islands, Hickelia, Hickeliinae, High-density polyethylene, Himalayas, Hindu, History of paper, Hitchcockella, Holttumochloa, House, Huangshan, Immunoglobulin E, Indocalamus, Indonesia, Indonesian language, Indosasa, Integer, International Network for Bamboo and Rattan, International Organization for Standardization, Isère, Janka hardness test, Japanese architecture, Japanese folktales, Joss paper, Julienning, Junzi, Kannada, Kansas State University, Kāne, Kendo, Kinabaluchloa, KwaZulu-Natal, Kyūdō, List of bamboo species, Lithachne, Lodicule, Lumpia, Lye, Maclurolyra, Maharashtra, Malay language, Malaysia, Maranao people, Mautam, Melocalamus, Melocanna, Melocanninae, Merostachys, Mexico, Mniochloa, Molecular phylogenetics, Monocotyledon, Monophyly, Monopodial, Moth, Mountain gorilla, Myanmar, Myriocladus, Nastus, Neohouzeaua, Nepal, Nepali language, New Jersey, Nipa hut, Nova (TV series), Oak, Ochlandra, Oligostachyum, Olmeca, Olyra (plant), Olyreae, Omphisa fuscidentalis, Orchidaceae, Oryzoideae, Otatea, Pariana, Parodiolyra, Perennial plant, Perrierbambus, Pest (organism), Petrifaction, Philippine mythology, Photosynthesis, Phyllostachys, Phyllostachys bambusoides, Phyllostachys edulis, Phyllostachys nigra, Phylogenetic tree, Pine, Piresia, Piresiella, Pith, Plant stem, Poaceae, Polymath, Polynesian narrative, Pooideae, Prime number, Printing and writing paper, Prunus mume, Pseudosasa, Pseudostachyum, Pu'er tea, Puelioideae, Pulp (paper), Racemobambos, Raddia, Raddiella, Rayon, Red panda, Regular script, Rehia, Reitzia, Rhipidocladum, Rhizome, Rice flour, Robert Knud Friedrich Pilger, Ryokan (inn), Saffron, Saint Lucia, Sakhalin, Sambalpur, Sap, Sasa (plant), Sayur lodeh, Scaffolding, Schizostachyum, Seal script, Secondary growth, Semelparity and iteroparity, Semiarundinaria, Serra dos Órgãos National Park, Shaanbei, Shaanxi, Shang dynasty, Shen Kuo, Shibataea, Shibataeinae, Shinai, Shinto shrine, Silambam, Simple suspension bridge, Sinobambusa, Skin allergy test, Softwood, Soil, Song dynasty, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Southeastern United States, Sphaerobambos, Spotted bamboo, Stabilizing selection, Stamen, Stigma (botany), Sub-Saharan Africa, Subfamily, Sucrea, Sushi, Sympodial, Synchronous flowering, Temburongia, Thamnocalamus, Thánh Gióng, The Home Depot, The Hundred-knot Bamboo Tree, The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter, Three Friends of Winter, Thyrsostachys, Tiki culture, Tribe (biology), Typhoid fever, Typhus, Ultimate tensile strength, United Nations Industrial Development Organization, United States Department of Agriculture, Uttar Pradesh, Vascular bundle, Vietnamese people, Vovinam, Warring States period, Wet season, Wood, Woody plant, Xiang River, Xiangshuishen, Xylem, Yan'an, Yumi, Yunnan, Yushania, Zongzi. Expand index (286 more) » « Shrink index
Acidosasa is a genus of East Asian bamboo in the grass family.
Actinocladum is a South American species of bamboo in the grass family.
The African Great Lakes (Maziwa Makuu) are a series of lakes constituting the part of the Rift Valley lakes in and around the East African Rift.
Agnesia is a genus of herbaceous South American bamboo in the grass family.
An allergic response is a hypersensitive immune reaction to a substance that normally is harmless or would not cause an immune response in everyone.
Alvimia is a Brazilian genus of bamboo in the grass family.
Ampelocalamus is a genus of Asian bamboo in the grass family). It is found mostly in Southern China, with some species in the eastern Himalayas and northern Indochina.;Species.
The Andaman Islands form an archipelago in the Bay of Bengal between India, to the west, and Myanmar, to the north and east.
The Andes or Andean Mountains (Cordillera de los Andes) are the longest continental mountain range in the world.
() is a county in the prefecture-level city of Huzhou in northwestern Zhejiang province, People's Republic of China, with a population of 461,800 as of the end of 2013.
Anomochlooideae is a subfamily of the true grass family Poaceae.
Apoclada is a genus of Brazilian bamboo in the grass family). The only known species is Apoclada simplex, found in the forests of southeastern Brazil (States of Santa Catarina, Paraná, and São Paulo). The genus was for many years thought to contain four species (Apoclada cannavieira, A. arenicola, A. diversa & A. simplex)McClure, F. 1973. Genera of Bamboos Native to the New World(Gramineae: Bambusoideae). Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 9: 1–148. Upon further examination and fieldwork at the collection locality, the single piece of material at the US National Herbarium from which A. diversa had been described, was found to be merely a deformed stem of A. simplexGuala, G.F. 1992. All About Apoclada (Poaceae: Bambusoideae) a monograph of the genus. Thesis presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida.Guala, G.F. 1995 A cladistic analysis and revision of the genus Apoclada (Poaceae:Bambusoideae). Systematic Botany 20(3): 207–223 Later, with revised concepts of morphological interpretation in the bamboos and strong molecular evidenceGuala, G.F., D. Bogler, J. Sadle and J. Francisco Ortega 2000. Molecular Evidence for polyphyly in the genus Apoclada (Poaceae: Bambusoideae). Bamboo Science and Culture 14:(1): 15–20. it became clear that the two species formerly known as A. arenicola, and A. cannavieira which are endemic to the cerrado of central Brazil are actually unrelated to A. simplex and are correctly placed in their own genus Filgueirasia.Guala, G.F. 2003. A new genus of bamboos from the cerrados of Brazil. Bamboo Science and Culture 17(1): 1–3 The stems of this bamboo grow to more than 13 m tall although half that is more common. Like all bamboos, the upright stems (also called culms) grow from horizontal underground stems called rhizomes. In A. simplex these rhizomes can be more than 40 cm long, thus although this species is technically a clumping type of bamboo, groves of it often appear much like those of the Asian running bamboos because of the long distance between culms. The culms are light to dark green or sometimes reddish, and about 1.9–4 cm in diameter with internodes every 7–38 cm. The foliage leaf blades are long and thin, 1.3–16.4 cm long and 2–7 mm wide.;formerly included see Filgueirasia.
is a district on the western outskirts of Kyoto, Japan.
Arberella is a genus of Neotropical bamboo in the grass family.
The Arecaceae are a botanical family of perennial trees, climbers, shrubs, and acaules commonly known as palm trees (owing to historical usage, the family is alternatively called Palmae).
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
The Arthrostylidiinae is a subtribe of bamboo (tribe Bambuseae of the family Poaceae).
Arthrostylidium is a Neotropical genus of climbing bamboo in the grass family.
Arundinaria, commonly known as canes, is a genus of bamboo in the grass family.
Arundinarieae is a tribe of bamboo in the grass family (Poaceae), placed in its own supertribe Arundinarodae and containing a single subtribe, Arundinariinae, and 30 genera.
The term Asian furniture, or sometimes Oriental furniture, refers to a type of furniture that originated in the continent of Asia.
Athroostachys is a Brazilian genus of bamboo in the grass family.
Atractantha is a South American genus of bamboo in the grass family, native to Brazil, Colombia, and Venezuela.
Aulonemia is a genus of Latin American bamboo in the grass family.
Bai Juyi (also Bo Juyi or Po Chü-i;; 772–846) was a renowned Chinese poet and Tang dynasty government official.
The Bambara (Bamana) language, Bamanankan, is a lingua franca and national language of Mali spoken by perhaps 15 million people, natively by 5 million Bambara people and about 10 million second-language users.
Bamboo bicycles are pedal-and-chain-driven, human-powered, single-track vehicles that have two wheels attached to a bamboo frame.
Bamboo blossom is a natural phenomenon in which the bamboos in a location blossom and become hung with bamboo seeds.
A bamboo cannon (meriam buluh, Jawi: مريام بولوه; kanyóng kawayan;, Bahasa Indonesia: meriam bambu, Javanese: mercon bumbung) is a type of home-made firecracker which is popular during the Hari Raya festive season in Malaysia, and during New Year's Eve celebrations in the Philippines.
Bamboo charcoal comes from pieces of bamboo plants, harvested after at least five years, and burned in ovens at temperatures ranging from 800 to 1200 °C.
A bamboo floor is a type of flooring manufactured from the bamboo plant.
A bamboo fly rod or a split cane rod is a fly fishing rod that is made from bamboo.
The bamboo or gentle lemurs are the lemurs in genus Hapalemur.
Bamboo processing machines are used to prepare bamboo for use in manufacture of handicrafts, furniture and other products.
Bamboo torture is a possibly apocryphal form of torture where a bamboo shoot grows through the body of a victim, reported to have been used in East and South Asia but for which no reliable evidence exists.
Bambooworking is the activity or skill of making items from bamboo, and includes architecture, carpentry, furniture and cabinetry, carving, joinery, and weaving.
Bambusa is a large genus of clumping bamboos.
Bambusa balcooa is a clumping bamboo native to Indochina and the Indian subcontinent.
Bambusa blumeana,J.J.Roemer & J.A.Schultes, 1830 In: Syst.
Bambusa vulgaris, common bamboo, is an open-clump type bamboo species.
The Bambuseae are the most diverse tribe of bamboos in the grass family (Poaceae).
The Bambusinae are a subtribe of bamboo (tribe Bambuseae of the family Poaceae).
The Batumi Botanical Garden (ბათუმის ბოტანიკური ბაღი) is a 108 hectare area of land 9 km north of the city of Batumi, capital of Autonomous Republic of Adjara, Georgia.
The Bay of Bengal (Bengali: বঙ্গোপসাগর) is the northeastern part of the Indian Ocean, bounded on the west and north by India and Bangladesh, and on the east by Myanmar and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (India).
Bihar is an Indian state considered to be a part of Eastern as well as Northern India.
A biofuel is a fuel that is produced through contemporary biological processes, such as agriculture and anaerobic digestion, rather than a fuel produced by geological processes such as those involved in the formation of fossil fuels, such as coal and petroleum, from prehistoric biological matter.
Bonia is a genus of Chinese and Vietnamese bamboos in the grass family.
The BOP clade (sometimes BEP clade) is one of two major lineages (or clades) of undefined taxonomic rank in the grasses (Poaceae), containing more than 5,400 species, about half of all grasses.
Borax, also known as sodium borate, sodium tetraborate, or disodium tetraborate, is an important boron compound, a mineral, and a salt of boric acid.
Boric acid, also called hydrogen borate, boracic acid, orthoboric acid and acidum boricum, is a weak, monobasic Lewis acid of boron, which is often used as an antiseptic, insecticide, flame retardant, neutron absorber, or precursor to other chemical compounds.
Borinda is a genus of clumping bamboos erected in 1994 by Christopher Mark Adrian Stapleton and previously included in the genera Fargesia and Yushania.
The Bozo are a West African ethnic group located predominantly along the Niger River in Mali.
In botany, a bract is a modified or specialized leaf, especially one associated with a reproductive structure such as a flower, inflorescence axis or cone scale.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
Bubonic plague is one of three types of plague caused by bacterium Yersinia pestis.
Buergersiochloa is a genus of New Guinean in the grass family.
Building material is any material which is used for construction purposes.
Calcium carbide is a chemical compound with the chemical formula of CaC2.
Carbon disulfide is a colorless volatile liquid with the formula CS2.
Caterpillars are the larval stage of members of the order Lepidoptera (the insect order comprising butterflies and moths).
Central America (América Central, Centroamérica) is the southernmost, isthmian portion of the North American continent, which connects with the South American continent on the southeast.
Cephalostachyum is a genus of Asian and Madagascan bamboo in the grass family.
A ceremonial pole symbolizes a variety of concepts in several different cultures.
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
Chimonobambusa is a genus of East Asian bamboo in the grass family.
Chimonocalamus is a genus of Asian bamboo in the grass family.
The taxonomical genus Pan (often referred to as chimpanzees or chimps) consists of two extant species: the common chimpanzee and the bonobo.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chinese culture is one of the world's oldest cultures, originating thousands of years ago.
The forms of Chinese furniture evolved along three distinct lineages which dates back to 1000 BC, based on frame and panel, yoke and rack (based on post and rail seen in architecture) and bamboo construction techniques.
Chopsticks are shaped pairs of equal-length sticks that have been used as kitchen and eating utensils in virtually all of East Asia for over 2000 years.
Chrysanthemums, sometimes called mums or chrysanths, are flowering plants of the genus Chrysanthemum in the family Asteraceae.
Chusquea is a genus of evergreen bamboos in the grass family.
The Chusqueinae is a subtribe of bamboo (tribe Bambuseae of the family Poaceae).
A clade (from κλάδος, klados, "branch"), also known as monophyletic group, is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life".
Climate is the statistics of weather over long periods of time.
Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years).
Colanthelia is a genus of South American bamboo in the grass family, native to southern Brazil and northeastern Argentina.
The Competition Bureau (Bureau de la concurrence) is an independent Canadian law enforcement agency that ensures that businesses operate in a competitive, innovative manner.
A composite material (also called a composition material or shortened to composite, which is the common name) is a material made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties that, when combined, produce a material with characteristics different from the individual components.
Compressed tea, called tea bricks, tea cakes or tea lumps, and tea nuggets according to the shape and size, are blocks of whole or finely ground black tea, green tea, or post-fermented tea leaves that have been packed in molds and pressed into block form.
Compressive strength or compression strength is the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads tending to reduce size, as opposed to tensile strength, which withstands loads tending to elongate.
Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is described as tradition, a philosophy, a religion, a humanistic or rationalistic religion, a way of governing, or simply a way of life.
Contact dermatitis is a type of inflammation of the skin.
A creation myth (or cosmogonic myth) is a symbolic narrative of how the world began and how people first came to inhabit it.
The Cretaceous is a geologic period and system that spans 79 million years from the end of the Jurassic Period million years ago (mya) to the beginning of the Paleogene Period mya.
Cryptochloa is a genus of Neotropical plants in the grass family, widespread across much of Mexico, Central America, and South America.
Culm, in botanical context, originally referred to a stem of any type of plant.
The cultural of Vietnam (Văn hóa Việt Nam The culture of Vietnam) is one of the oldest in Southeast Asia, with the ancient Bronze age Đông Sơn culture being widely considered one of its most important progenitors.
Davidsea attenuata is a Sri Lankan species of bamboo in the grass family.
Decaryochloa is a genus of Madagascan bamboo in the grass family.
Dendrocalamus is a tropical Asian genus of giant clumping bamboos in the grass family.
Dendrocalamus asper, also known as giant bamboo, or dragon bamboo (in China), is a giant tropical, dense-clumping species native to Southeast Asia.
Desalination is a process that extracts mineral components from saline water.
Diandrolyra is a genus of Brazilian plants in the grass family.
The dicotyledons, also known as dicots (or more rarely dicotyls), are one of the two groups into which all the flowering plants or angiosperms were formerly divided.
Dinochloa is a genus of tropical clumping high-climbing bamboos in the grass family.
Dissolving pulp, also called dissolving cellulose, is bleached wood pulp or cotton linters that has a high cellulose content (> 90%).
Dracaena sanderiana is a species of flowering plant in the family Asparagaceae, also known as Dracaena braunii.
Drepanostachyum is an Asian genus of medium-sized mountain clumping bamboos in the grass family.
The dry season is a yearly period of low rainfall, especially in the tropics.
East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.
Ekmanochloa is a genus of plants in the grass family.
Elytrostachys is a genus of bamboo (tribe Bambuseae of the family Poaceae), found in the rainforests from Honduras to Venezuela.
Shun, also known as Emperor Shun and Chonghua, was a legendary leader of ancient China, regarded by some sources as one of the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors.
Emperor Yao (traditionally c. 2356 – 2255 BC) was a legendary Chinese ruler, according to various sources, one of the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors.
Entomophagy (from Greek ἔντομον éntomon, "insect", and φᾰγεῖν phagein, "to eat") is the human use of insects as food.
Eremocaulon is a genus of Brazilian bamboo in the grass family).;Species.
In botany, an evergreen is a plant that has leaves throughout the year, always green.
Evil, in a colloquial sense, is the opposite of good, the word being an efficient substitute for the more precise but religion-associated word "wickedness." As defined in philosophy it is the name for the psychology and instinct of individuals which selfishly but often necessarily defends the personal boundary against deadly attacks and serious threats.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
Expo 2010, officially the Expo 2010 Shanghai China, was held on both banks of the Huangpu River in Shanghai, China, from 1 May to 31 October 2010.
Fallopia japonica, synonyms Reynoutria japonica and Polygonum cuspidatum, commonly known as Asian knotweed or Japanese knotweed, is a large, herbaceous perennial plant of the knotweed and buckwheat family Polygonaceae.
A famine is a widespread scarcity of food, caused by several factors including war, inflation, crop failure, population imbalance, or government policies.
Fargesia is a genus of flowering plants in the grass family.
The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is an independent agency of the United States government, established in 1914 by the Federal Trade Commission Act.
Feng shui (pronounced), also known as Chinese geomancy, is a pseudoscience originating from China, which claims to use energy forces to harmonize individuals with their surrounding environment.
Fermentation in food processing is the process of converting carbohydrates to alcohol or organic acids using microorganisms—yeasts or bacteria—under anaerobic conditions.
The process of fermentation in winemaking turns grape juice into an alcoholic beverage.
Ferrocalamus (iron bamboo) is a genus of Chinese bamboo in the grass family.
The fire lance was a very early gunpowder weapon that appeared in 10th century China during the Jin-Song Wars.
A fishing rod is a long, flexible rod used to catch fish.
The flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with 416 families, approximately 13,164 known genera and c. 295,383 known species.
Fly fishing is an angling method in which an artificial "fly" is used to catch fish.
In Chinese art, the Four Gentlemen, also called the Four Noble Ones, are four plants: the plum blossom, the orchid, the bamboo, and the chrysanthemum.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Froesiochloa is a genus of South American plants in the grass family.
Gaoligongshania megalothyrsa is a species of small, bushy mountain bamboo, of the monotypic genus Gaoligongshania.
Gatka (ਗਤਕਾ Urdu: گٹکا gatkā) is the name of an Sikh religion martial art associated with the Sikhs of the Punjab region.
Gautama Buddha (c. 563/480 – c. 483/400 BCE), also known as Siddhārtha Gautama, Shakyamuni Buddha, or simply the Buddha, after the title of Buddha, was an ascetic (śramaṇa) and sage, on whose teachings Buddhism was founded.
Gelidocalamus is a genus of small to medium-sized bamboos in the grass family, native primarily to the mountains of eastern China, although one species (G. kunishii) is native to Taiwan and to the Nansei-shoto (Ryukyu Islands) region in Japan.
Giant bamboo is a common name for several large species of bamboo and may refer to.
The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca, literally "black and white cat-foot";, literally "big bear cat"), also known as panda bear or simply panda, is a bear native to south central China.
Gigantochloa is a tropical Asian and Papuasian genus of giant clumping bamboos in the grass family.
Glaziophyton is a Brazilian genus of bamboo in the grass family.
The golden bamboo lemur (Hapalemur aureus, Malagasy bokombolomena) is a medium-sized bamboo lemur endemic to south-eastern Madagascar.
Greslania is a genus of small bamboo in the grass family, endemic to New Caledonia, with c. 3 species.
The growing season is the part of the year during which local weather conditions (i.e. rainfall and temperature) permit normal plant growth.
Guadua is a Neotropical genus of thorny, clumping bamboo in the grass family, ranging from moderate to very large species.
The Guaduinae is a subtribe of bamboo (tribe Bambuseae of the family Poaceae).
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.
In martial arts, the terms hard and soft technique denote how forcefully a defender martial artist counters the force of an attack in armed and unarmed combat.
A hardiness zone is a geographic area defined to encompass a certain range of climatic conditions relevant to plant growth and survival.
Hardwood is wood from dicot trees.
The Hawaiian Islands (Mokupuni o Hawai‘i) are an archipelago of eight major islands, several atolls, numerous smaller islets, and seamounts in the North Pacific Ocean, extending some from the island of Hawaiokinai in the south to northernmost Kure Atoll.
Hickelia is a genus of African bamboo in the grass family.
The Hickeliinae are a subtribe of bamboo (tribe Bambuseae of the family Poaceae).
High-density polyethylene (HDPE) or polyethylene high-density (PEHD) is a polyethylene thermoplastic made from petroleum.
The Himalayas, or Himalaya, form a mountain range in Asia separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau.
Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.
Paper, a thin unwoven material made from milled plant fibers, is primarily used for writing, artwork, and packaging; it is commonly white.
Hitchcockella baronii is a species of bamboo, the only known species of the genus Hitchcockella.
Holttumochloa is a genus of Malaysian bamboos in the grass family native to the hill forests of Peninsular Malaysia.
A house is a building that functions as a home.
Huangshan (Bernstein, pp. 125–127., literal meaning: Yellow Mountain) is a mountain range in southern Anhui province in eastern China.
Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a type of antibody (or immunoglobulin (Ig) "isotype") that has only been found in mammals.
Indocalamus is a genus of about 35 species of flowering plants in the grass family Poaceae, native to China, Vietnam and Japan.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
Indonesian (bahasa Indonesia) is the official language of Indonesia.
Indosasa is a genus of East Asian bamboo in the grass family.
An integer (from the Latin ''integer'' meaning "whole")Integer 's first literal meaning in Latin is "untouched", from in ("not") plus tangere ("to touch").
The International Network for Bamboo and Rattan (INBAR) is an independent intergovernmental organization established in 1997 to develop and promote innovative solutions to poverty and environmental sustainability using bamboo and rattan.
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations.
Isère (Arpitan: Isera, Occitan: Isèra) is a department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region in eastern France named after the river Isère.
The Janka hardness test measures the resistance of a sample of wood to denting and wear.
has traditionally been typified by wooden structures, elevated slightly off the ground, with tiled or thatched roofs.
Japanese folktales are an important cultural aspect of Japan.
Joss paper (or, also known as ghost money) are sheets of paper or papercrafts made into burnt offerings common in Chinese ancestral worship such as the veneration of the deceased family members and relatives on holidays and special occasions.
Julienne, allumette, or french cut, is a culinary knife cut in which the food item is cut into long thin strips, similar to matchsticks.
The junzi is a Chinese philosophical term often translated as "gentleman" or "superior person"Sometimes "exemplary person".
Kannada (ಕನ್ನಡ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Kannada people in India, mainly in the state of Karnataka, and by significant linguistic minorities in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Kerala, Goa and abroad.
Kansas State University (KSU), commonly shortened to Kansas State or K-State, is a public research university with its main campus in Manhattan, Kansas, United States.
In Hawaiian mythology, Kāne is considered the highest of the four major Hawaiian deities, along with Kanaloa, Kū, and Lono, though he is most closely associated with Kanaloa.
is a traditional Japanese martial art, which descended from swordsmanship (kenjutsu) and uses bamboo swords (shinai) and protective armour (bōgu).
Kinabaluchloa is a genus of Southeast Asian bamboos in the grass family.
KwaZulu-Natal (also referred to as KZN and known as "the garden province") is a province of South Africa that was created in 1994 when the Zulu bantustan of KwaZulu ("Place of the Zulu" in Zulu) and Natal Province were merged.
Kyūdō is the Japanese martial art of archery.
Bamboo is a group of woody perennial grasses in the true grass family Poaceae, which is a large family with over 10,000 species.
Lithachne is a genus of Neotropical plants in the grass family.
A lodicule is the structure that consists of between one and three small scales at the base of the ovary in a grass flower that represent the corolla, believed to be a rudimentary perianth.
Lumpia is a spring roll commonly found in Indonesia and the Philippines.
A lye is a metal hydroxide traditionally obtained by leaching ashes (containing largely potassium carbonate or "potash"), or a strong alkali which is highly soluble in water producing caustic basic solutions.
Maclurolyra is a genus of Neotropical plants in the grass family.
Maharashtra (abbr. MH) is a state in the western region of India and is India's second-most populous state and third-largest state by area.
Malay (Bahasa Melayu بهاس ملايو) is a major language of the Austronesian family spoken in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore.
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.
The Maranao people (Maranao:; Filipino: Mëranaw (based on Papanoka Mera)), also spelled Meranao, Maranaw (based on Marapatik) and Mëranaw, is the term used by the Philippine government to refer to the southern tribe who are the "people of the lake" (Ranao in the Iranaon language), a predominantly-Muslim region of the Philippine island of Mindanao.
Mautam (Mizo for "bamboo death") is a cyclic ecological phenomenon that occurs every 48 years in the northeastern Indian states of Mizoram and Manipur, which are 30% covered by wild bamboo forests, as well as Chin State in Burma, particularly Hakha, Thantlang, Falam, Paletwa, and Matupi Townships.
Melocalamus is a genus of Asian bamboos in the grass family.
Melocanna is a genus of Asian clumping bamboo in the grass family.
The Melocanninae is a subtribe of bamboo (tribe Bambuseae of the family Poaceae).
Merostachys is a Neotropical genus of bamboo in the grass family.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
Mniochloa is a genus of Cuban plants in the grass family.
Molecular phylogenetics is the branch of phylogeny that analyzes genetic, hereditary molecular differences, predominately in DNA sequences, to gain information on an organism's evolutionary relationships.
Monocotyledons, commonly referred to as monocots, (Lilianae sensu Chase & Reveal) are flowering plants (angiosperms) whose seeds typically contain only one embryonic leaf, or cotyledon.
In cladistics, a monophyletic group, or clade, is a group of organisms that consists of all the descendants of a common ancestor.
Vascular plants with monopodial growth habits grow upward from a single point.
Moths comprise a group of insects related to butterflies, belonging to the order Lepidoptera.
The mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei beringei) is one of the two subspecies of the eastern gorilla.
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
Myriocladus is a South American genus of bamboo in the grass family.). It is found in the sandstone tablelands of Venezuela, Guyana, Surinam, and northern Brazil.;Species.
Nastus is a genus of slender, erect, scrambling or climbing bamboos in the grass family.
Neohouzeaua is a genus of Asian bamboo within the grass family). These species have culms growing in large tufts, often somewhat scandent. Neohouzeaua is sometimes included in the genus Schizostachyum.;Species.
Nepal (नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल), is a landlocked country in South Asia located mainly in the Himalayas but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.
Nepali known by endonym Khas-kura (खस कुरा) is an Indo-Aryan language of the sub-branch of Eastern Pahari.
New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the Northeastern United States.
The Nipa hut, or Payag, Kamalig or Bahay Kubo, is a type of stilt house indigenous to the cultures of the Philippines.
Nova (stylized NOVΛ) is an American popular science television series produced by WGBH Boston.
An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus (Latin "oak tree") of the beech family, Fagaceae.
Ochlandra is a genus of Indian bamboo in the grass family). The species are endemic to the Western Ghats (India), except for one species from Sri Lanka.;Species;formerly included see Cathariostachys Nastus Schizostachyum Valiha.
Oligostachyum is a genus of bamboo in the grass family, native to coastal China.
Olmeca is a genus of Mesoamerican bamboo in the grass family.
Olyra is a genus of tropical bamboos in the grass family.
Olyreae is a tribe of grasses in the bamboo subfamily (Bambusoideae).
Omphisa fuscidentalis, the bamboo worm (and one of the insects called bamboo borer), is a moth of the Crambidae family.
The Orchidaceae are a diverse and widespread family of flowering plants, with blooms that are often colourful and fragrant, commonly known as the orchid family.
Oryzoideae (syn. Ehrhartoideae) is a subfamily of the true grass family Poaceae.
Otatea, called weeping bamboo, is a genus of clumping bamboos in the grass family, native to Mexico, Central America, and Colombia.
Pariana is a genus of tropical American plants in the grass family.
Parodiolyra is a genus of Neotropical plants in the grass family.
A perennial plant or simply perennial is a plant that lives more than two years.
Perrierbambus is a genus of Madagascan bamboo in the grass family.
A pest is a plant or animal detrimental to humans or human concerns including crops, livestock, and forestry.
In geology, petrifaction or petrification is the process by which organic material becomes a fossil through the replacement of the original material and the filling of the original pore spaces with minerals.
Philippine mythology is the body of myths, tales, and superstitions held by Filipinos, mostly originating from beliefs held during the pre-Hispanic era.
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).
Phyllostachys is a genus of Asian bamboo in the grass family.
Phyllostachys bambusoides, commonly called madake, giant timber bamboo, or Japanese timber bamboo, is a species of flowering plant in the bamboo subfamily of the grass family Poaceae, native to China, and possibly also to Japan.
Phyllostachys edulis, moso bamboo, or tortoise-shell bamboo, or mao zhu, (Japanese モウソウチク（孟宗竹）) is a temperate species of giant timber bamboo native to China and Taiwan and naturalised elsewhere, including Japan where it is widely distributed south of Hokkaido.
Phyllostachys nigra, common name black bamboo, is a species of flowering plant in the bamboo subfamily of the grass family Poaceae, native to Hunan Province of China, and widely cultivated elsewhere.
A phylogenetic tree or evolutionary tree is a branching diagram or "tree" showing the evolutionary relationships among various biological species or other entities—their phylogeny—based upon similarities and differences in their physical or genetic characteristics.
A pine is any conifer in the genus Pinus,, of the family Pinaceae.
Piresia is a genus of South American plants in the grass family.
Piresiella is a genus of Cuban bamboo in the grass family.
Pith, or medulla, is a tissue in the stems of vascular plants.
A stem is one of two main structural axes of a vascular plant, the other being the root.
Poaceae or Gramineae is a large and nearly ubiquitous family of monocotyledonous flowering plants known as grasses, commonly referred to collectively as grass.
A polymath (πολυμαθής,, "having learned much,"The term was first recorded in written English in the early seventeenth century Latin: uomo universalis, "universal man") is a person whose expertise spans a significant number of different subject areas—such a person is known to draw on complex bodies of knowledge to solve specific problems.
The Polynesian narrative or Polynesian mythology encompasses the oral traditions of the people of Polynesia, a grouping of Central and South Pacific Ocean island archipelagos in the Polynesian Triangle together with the scattered cultures known as the Polynesian outliers.
The Pooideae are the largest subfamily of the grass family Poaceae, with over 4,200 species in 14 tribes and roughly 200 genera.
A prime number (or a prime) is a natural number greater than 1 that cannot be formed by multiplying two smaller natural numbers.
Printing and writing papers are paper grades used for newspapers, magazines, catalogs, books, commercial printing, business forms, stationeries, copying and digital printing.
The Prunus mume is an Asian tree species classified in the Armeniaca section of the genus Prunus subgenus Prunus.
Pseudosasa is a genus of East Asian bamboo in the grass family.
Pseudostachyum polymorphum (thin-walled bamboo) is an Asian species of bamboo in the grass family.
Pu'er or pu-erh is a variety of fermented tea produced in Yunnan province, China.
The Puelioideae is a subfamily of the true grass family Poaceae with two genera, Guaduella and Puelia, each in its own tribe.
Pulp is a lignocellulosic fibrous material prepared by chemically or mechanically separating cellulose fibres from wood, fiber crops, waste paper, or rags.
Racemobambos is a genus of bamboo (tribe Bambuseae within the Poaceae) and the sole genus of its subtribe, the Racemobambodinae.
Raddia is a genus of South American plants in the grass family, most of the species found only in Brazil.
Raddiella is a genus of Neotropical plants in the grass family native to South America, Panama and Trinidad.
Rayon is a manufactured fiber made from regenerated cellulose fiber.
The red panda (Ailurus fulgens), also called the lesser panda, the red bear-cat, and the red cat-bear, is a mammal native to the eastern Himalayas and southwestern China.
Regular script (Hepburn: kaisho), also called 正楷, 真書 (zhēnshū), 楷體 (kǎitǐ) and 正書 (zhèngshū), is the newest of the Chinese script styles (appearing by the Cao Wei dynasty ca. 200 CE and maturing stylistically around the 7th century), hence most common in modern writings and publications (after the Ming and gothic styles, used exclusively in print).
Rehia is a genus of plants in the grass family.
Reitzia is a genus of plants in the grass family.
Rhipidocladum is a genus of New World woody bamboo in the grass family). It found in Mesoamerica, Trinidad, and South America. The genus is characterized by 1) erect, non-pseudopetiolate culm leaves, 2) numerous branchlets arising in an apsidate (fan-like) array, and 3) fruits being true caryopses. The name is derived from the Greek rhipid meaning "fanlike" and clad meaning "branch".;Species.
In botany and dendrology, a rhizome (from script "mass of roots", from rhizóō "cause to strike root") is a modified subterranean stem of a plant that sends out roots and shoots from its nodes.
Rice flour (also rice powder) is a form of flour made from finely milled rice.
Robert Knud Friedrich Pilger (3 July 1876, in Helgoland – 1 September 1953, in Berlin) Zürcher Herbarien - Sammler Details was a German botanist, who specialised in the study of conifers.
A is a type of traditional Japanese inn that has existed since the eighth century A.D. during the Keiun period, in which the oldest hotel in the world, Nishiyama Onsen Keiunkan, was created in 705 A.D. Another old ryokan called Hōshi Ryokan was founded in 718 A.D and was also known as the world's second oldest hotel.
Saffron (pronounced or) is a spice derived from the flower of Crocus sativus, commonly known as the "saffron crocus".
Saint Lucia (Sainte-Lucie) is a sovereign island country in the West Indies in the eastern Caribbean Sea on the boundary with the Atlantic Ocean.
Sakhalin (Сахалин), previously also known as Kuye Dao (Traditional Chinese:庫頁島, Simplified Chinese:库页岛) in Chinese and in Japanese, is a large Russian island in the North Pacific Ocean, lying between 45°50' and 54°24' N.
Sambalpur is located in the western part of Odisha, and is one of the largest and oldest cities in the state.
Sap is a fluid transported in xylem cells (vessel elements or tracheids) or phloem sieve tube elements of a plant.
Sasa (Japanese: or), also called broad-leaf bamboo, is a genus of running bamboo.
Sayur lodeh is a vegetable soup prepared from vegetables in coconut milk popular in Indonesia, but most often associated with Javanese cuisine.
Scaffolding, also called scaffold or staging, is a temporary structure used to support a work crew and materials to aid in the construction, maintenance and repair of buildings, bridges and all other man made structures.
Schizostachyum is a tall or shrub-like tropical genus of bamboo.
Seal script is an ancient style of writing Chinese characters that was common throughout the latter half of the 1st millennium BC.
In botany, secondary growth is the growth that results from cell division in the cambia or lateral meristems and that causes the stems and roots to thicken, while primary growth is growth that occurs as a result of cell division at the tips of stems and roots, causing them to elongate, and gives rise to primary tissue.
Semelparity and iteroparity are two classes of possible reproductive strategies available to living organisms.
Semiarundinaria is a genus of East Asian bamboo in the grass family.
Serra dos Órgãos National Park (Parque Nacional da Serra dos Órgãos: "Organs Range") is a national park in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Shaanbei is the northern portion of Shaanxi province in Northwest China, and is a natural as well as cultural area, forming part of the Loess Plateau.
Shaanxi is a province of the People's Republic of China.
The Shang dynasty or Yin dynasty, according to traditional historiography, ruled in the Yellow River valley in the second millennium BC, succeeding the Xia dynasty and followed by the Zhou dynasty.
Shen Kuo (1031–1095), courtesy name Cunzhong (存中) and pseudonym Mengqi (now usually given as Mengxi) Weng (夢溪翁),Yao (2003), 544.
Shibataea is a genus of Chinese bamboo in the grass family.
Shibataeinae is a subtribe of bamboo (tribe Arundinarieae of the family Poaceae).
is a weapon used for practice and competition in kendo representing a Japanese sword.
A is a structure whose main purpose is to house ("enshrine") one or more kami.
Silambam (சிலம்பம்) is a weapon-based martial art of India, more specifically in the state of Tamil Nadu, where it originated around 1000 BC.
A simple suspension bridge (also rope bridge, swing bridge (in New Zealand), suspended bridge, hanging bridge and catenary bridge) is a primitive type of bridge that is supported entirely from anchors at either end and has no towers or piers.
Sinobambusa is a genus of East Asian bamboo in the grass family.
Skin allergy testing or Skin prick test is a method for medical diagnosis of allergies that attempts to provoke a small, controlled, allergic response.
Scots Pine, a typical and well-known softwood Softwood is wood from gymnosperm trees such as conifers.
Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life.
The Song dynasty (960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279.
South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
The Southeastern United States (Sureste de Estados Unidos, Sud-Est des États-Unis) is the eastern portion of the Southern United States, and the southern portion of the Eastern United States.
Sphaerobambos is a genus of Southeast Asian bamboo, in the grass family.
Spotted bamboo refers to several types of bamboo with stems that are mottled by dark spots, sometimes considered to be within the genus Phyllostachys and forms of Phyllostachys bambusoides, also known as teardrop bamboo and as mottled bamboo.
Stabilizing selection (not to be confused with negative or purifying selection) is a type of natural selection in which the population mean stabilizes on a particular non-extreme trait value.
The stamen (plural stamina or stamens) is the pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower.
The stigma (plural: stigmata) is the receptive tip of a carpel, or of several fused carpels, in the gynoecium of a flower.
Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara.
In biological classification, a subfamily (Latin: subfamilia, plural subfamiliae) is an auxiliary (intermediate) taxonomic rank, next below family but more inclusive than genus.
Sucrea is a genus of Brazilian plants in the grass family.
is a Japanese dish of specially prepared, usually with some sugar and salt, combined with a variety of, such as seafood, vegetables, and occasionally tropical fruits.
In botany, sympodial growth is a specialized lateral growth pattern in which the apical meristem is terminated and growth is continued by one or more lateral meristems, which repeat the process.
Synchronus flowering, also called mast flowering or gregarious flowering, is when plants growing together all flower at the same time.
Temburongia is a genus of bamboo from the Sultanate of Brunei on the Island of Borneo.
Thamnocalamus is a genus of clumping bamboo in the grass family.
Thánh Gióng (God Gióng), also known as Phù Đổng Thiên Vương (Phù Đổng sky king), Ông Dóng (sir Gióng) and Xung Thiên Thần Vương (holy king of the sky) is a mythical folk hero of Vietnam's history and one of The Four Immortals.
The Home Depot Inc. or Home Depot is an American home improvement supplies retailing company that sells tools, construction products, and services.
The Hundred-knot Bamboo Tree (also The Bamboo of 100 Joints) (Cây tre trăm đốt) is a Vietnamese fable and parable, Vietnamese fairy tale and part of Vietnamese oral tradition.
is a 10th-century Japanese monogatari (fictional prose narrative) containing Japanese folklore.
The Three Friends of Winter, also known as Suihan Sanyou, is an art motif that comprises the pine, bamboo, and plum.
Thyrsostachys is a genus of Chinese and Indochinese bamboo in the grass family.
Tiki culture is a 20th-century theme used in Polynesian-style restaurants and clubs originally in the United States and then, to a lesser degree, around the world.
In biology, a tribe is a taxonomic rank above genus, but below family and subfamily.
Typhoid fever, also known simply as typhoid, is a bacterial infection due to ''Salmonella'' typhi that causes symptoms.
Typhus, also known as typhus fever, is a group of infectious diseases that include epidemic typhus, scrub typhus and murine typhus.
Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), often shortened to tensile strength (TS), ultimate strength, or Ftu within equations, is the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads tending to elongate, as opposed to compressive strength, which withstands loads tending to reduce size.
The United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), French/Spanish acronym ONUDI, is a specialized agency in the United Nations system, headquartered in Vienna, Austria.
The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), also known as the Agriculture Department, is the U.S. federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming, forestry, and food.
Uttar Pradesh (IAST: Uttar Pradeś) is a state in northern India.
A vascular bundle is a part of the transport system in vascular plants.
The Vietnamese people or the Kinh people (người Việt or người Kinh), are an ethnic group originating from present-day northern Vietnam.
Vovinam (short for Võ Việt Nam; Việt Võ Đạo, Martial Arts of Vietnam) is a Vietnamese martial art.
The Warring States period was an era in ancient Chinese history of warfare, as well as bureaucratic and military reforms and consolidation, following the Spring and Autumn period and concluding with the Qin wars of conquest that saw the annexation of all other contender states, which ultimately led to the Qin state's victory in 221 BC as the first unified Chinese empire known as the Qin dynasty.
The monsoon season, is the time of year when most of a region's average annual rainfall occurs.
Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of trees and other woody plants.
A woody plant is a plant that produces wood as its structural tissue.
The Xiang River is the chief river of the Lake Dongting drainage system of the middle Yangtze, the largest river in Hunan Province, China.
The Xiangshuishen or Xiang River Goddesses are goddesses (or spirits, and sometimes gods) of the Xiang River in Chinese folk religion.
Xylem is one of the two types of transport tissue in vascular plants, phloem being the other.
Yan'an is a prefecture-level city in the Shanbei region of Shaanxi province, China, bordering Shanxi to the east and Gansu to the west.
is the Japanese term for a bow.
Yunnan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the far southwest of the country.
Yushania is a genus of bamboo in the grass family.
Zongzi is a traditional Chinese food made of glutinous rice stuffed with different fillings and wrapped in bamboo leaves, generally of the species Indocalamus tessellatus, sometimes, with reed leaves, or other large flat leaves.
Bamboo beans, Bamboo food, Bamboo forest, Bamboo forestry, Bamboo paper, Bamboo spear, Bamboo wood, Bamboos, Bambusicolous, Bambusodae, Bambusoideae, Bambusoideae Bambuseae, Bambusoideae species, Bambusoideae types, Clumping bamboo, Flowering of Bamboo, Invasive bamboo species, Sympodial rhizome bamboo.