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# Banach space

In mathematics, more specifically in functional analysis, a Banach space (pronounced) is a complete normed vector space. 

## Absolute continuity

In calculus, absolute continuity is a smoothness property of functions that is stronger than continuity and uniform continuity.

## Absolute convergence

In mathematics, an infinite series of numbers is said to converge absolutely (or to be absolutely convergent) if the sum of the absolute values of the summands is finite.

## Absolute value

In mathematics, the absolute value or modulus of a real number is the non-negative value of without regard to its sign.

## Affine space

In mathematics, an affine space is a geometric structure that generalizes the properties of Euclidean spaces in such a way that these are independent of the concepts of distance and measure of angles, keeping only the properties related to parallelism and ratio of lengths for parallel line segments.

## Alexander Grothendieck

Alexander Grothendieck (28 March 1928 – 13 November 2014) was a German-born French mathematician who became the leading figure in the creation of modern algebraic geometry.

## Algebra over a field

In mathematics, an algebra over a field (often simply called an algebra) is a vector space equipped with a bilinear product.

## Annals of Mathematics

The Annals of Mathematics is a bimonthly mathematical journal published by Princeton University and the Institute for Advanced Study.

## Antilinear map

In mathematics, a mapping f:V\to W from a complex vector space to another is said to be antilinear (or conjugate-linear) if for all a, \, b \, \in \mathbb and all x, \, y \, \in V, where \bar and \bar are the complex conjugates of a and b respectively.

## Approximation property

In mathematics, specifically functional analysis, a Banach space is said to have the approximation property (AP), if every compact operator is a limit of finite-rank operators.

## Ba space

In mathematics, the ba space ba(\Sigma) of an algebra of sets \Sigma is the Banach space consisting of all bounded and finitely additive signed measures on \Sigma.

## Baire category theorem

The Baire category theorem (BCT) is an important tool in general topology and functional analysis.

## Baire function

In mathematics, Baire functions are functions obtained from continuous functions by transfinite iteration of the operation of forming pointwise limits of sequences of functions.

## Ball (mathematics)

In mathematics, a ball is the space bounded by a sphere.

## Banach algebra

In mathematics, especially functional analysis, a Banach algebra, named after Stefan Banach, is an associative algebra A over the real or complex numbers (or over a non-Archimedean complete normed field) that at the same time is also a Banach space, i.e. a normed space and complete in the metric induced by the norm.

## Banach–Alaoglu theorem

In functional analysis and related branches of mathematics, the Banach–Alaoglu theorem (also known as Alaoglu's theorem) states that the closed unit ball of the dual space of a normed vector space is compact in the weak* topology.

## Banach–Mazur compactum

In the mathematical study of functional analysis, the Banach–Mazur distance is a way to define a distance on the set Q(n) of n-dimensional normed spaces.

## Banach–Mazur theorem

In mathematics, the Banach–Mazur theorem is a theorem of functional analysis.

## Banach–Stone theorem

In mathematics, the Banach–Stone theorem is a classical result in the theory of continuous functions on topological spaces, named after the mathematicians Stefan Banach and Marshall Stone.

## Basis (linear algebra)

In mathematics, a set of elements (vectors) in a vector space V is called a basis, or a set of, if the vectors are linearly independent and every vector in the vector space is a linear combination of this set.

## Bounded operator

In functional analysis, a bounded linear operator is a linear transformation L between normed vector spaces X and Y for which the ratio of the norm of L(v) to that of v is bounded above by the same number, over all non-zero vectors v in X. In other words, there exists some M\ge 0 such that for all v in X The smallest such M is called the operator norm \|L\|_ \, of L. A bounded linear operator is generally not a bounded function; the latter would require that the norm of L(v) be bounded for all v, which is not possible unless L(v).

## Bounded variation

In mathematical analysis, a function of bounded variation, also known as function, is a real-valued function whose total variation is bounded (finite): the graph of a function having this property is well behaved in a precise sense.

## Bs space

In the mathematical field of functional analysis, the space bs consists of all infinite sequences (xi) of real or complex numbers such that is finite.

## C space

In the mathematical field of functional analysis, the space denoted by c is the vector space of all convergent sequences (xn) of real numbers or complex numbers.

## C*-algebra

C∗-algebras (pronounced "C-star") are an area of research in functional analysis, a branch of mathematics.

## Cauchy sequence

In mathematics, a Cauchy sequence, named after Augustin-Louis Cauchy, is a sequence whose elements become arbitrarily close to each other as the sequence progresses.

## Closed graph theorem

In mathematics, the closed graph theorem is a basic result which characterizes continuous functions in terms of their graphs.

## Closed set

In geometry, topology, and related branches of mathematics, a closed set is a set whose complement is an open set.

## Closure (topology)

In mathematics, the closure of a subset S of points in a topological space consists of all points in S together with all limit points of S. The closure of S may equivalently be defined as the union of S and its boundary, and also as the intersection of all closed sets containing S. Intuitively, the closure can be thought of as all the points that are either in S or "near" S. A point which is in the closure of S is a point of closure of S. The notion of closure is in many ways dual to the notion of interior.

## Compact operator

In functional analysis, a branch of mathematics, a compact operator is a linear operator L from a Banach space X to another Banach space Y, such that the image under L of any bounded subset of X is a relatively compact subset (has compact closure) of Y. Such an operator is necessarily a bounded operator, and so continuous.

## Compact space

In mathematics, and more specifically in general topology, compactness is a property that generalizes the notion of a subset of Euclidean space being closed (that is, containing all its limit points) and bounded (that is, having all its points lie within some fixed distance of each other).

## Comparison of topologies

In topology and related areas of mathematics, the set of all possible topologies on a given set forms a partially ordered set.

## Complete metric space

In mathematical analysis, a metric space M is called complete (or a Cauchy space) if every Cauchy sequence of points in M has a limit that is also in M or, alternatively, if every Cauchy sequence in M converges in M. Intuitively, a space is complete if there are no "points missing" from it (inside or at the boundary).

## Complex conjugate

In mathematics, the complex conjugate of a complex number is the number with an equal real part and an imaginary part equal in magnitude but opposite in sign.

## Complex number

A complex number is a number that can be expressed in the form, where and are real numbers, and is a solution of the equation.

## Continuous function

In mathematics, a continuous function is a function for which sufficiently small changes in the input result in arbitrarily small changes in the output.

## Continuous functions on a compact Hausdorff space

In mathematical analysis, and especially functional analysis, a fundamental role is played by the space of continuous functions on a compact Hausdorff space with values in the real or complex numbers.

## Convex function

In mathematics, a real-valued function defined on an ''n''-dimensional interval is called convex (or convex downward or concave upward) if the line segment between any two points on the graph of the function lies above or on the graph, in a Euclidean space (or more generally a vector space) of at least two dimensions.

## Convex set

In convex geometry, a convex set is a subset of an affine space that is closed under convex combinations.

## Countable set

In mathematics, a countable set is a set with the same cardinality (number of elements) as some subset of the set of natural numbers.

## David Hilbert

David Hilbert (23 January 1862 – 14 February 1943) was a German mathematician.

## Dense set

In topology and related areas of mathematics, a subset A of a topological space X is called dense (in X) if every point x in X either belongs to A or is a limit point of A, that is the closure of A is constituting the whole set X. Informally, for every point in X, the point is either in A or arbitrarily "close" to a member of A &mdash; for instance, every real number either is a rational number or has a rational number arbitrarily close to it (see Diophantine approximation).

## Derived set (mathematics)

In mathematics, more specifically in point-set topology, the derived set of a subset S of a topological space is the set of all limit points of S. It is usually denoted by S'.

## Differentiable function

In calculus (a branch of mathematics), a differentiable function of one real variable is a function whose derivative exists at each point in its domain.

## Dirac measure

In mathematics, a Dirac measure assigns a size to a set based solely on whether it contains a fixed element x or not.

## Directional derivative

In mathematics, the directional derivative of a multivariate differentiable function along a given vector v at a given point x intuitively represents the instantaneous rate of change of the function, moving through x with a velocity specified by v. It therefore generalizes the notion of a partial derivative, in which the rate of change is taken along one of the curvilinear coordinate curves, all other coordinates being constant.

## Disk algebra

In functional and complex analysis, the disk algebra A(D) (also spelled disc algebra) is the set of holomorphic functions where D is the open unit disk in the complex plane C, f extends to a continuous function on the closure of D. That is, where H^\infty(\mathbf) denotes the Banach space of bounded analytic functions on the unit disc D (i.e. a Hardy space).

## Distortion problem

In functional analysis, a branch of mathematics, the distortion problem is to determine by how much one can distort the unit sphere in a given Banach space using an equivalent norm.

## Distribution (mathematics)

Distributions (or generalized functions) are objects that generalize the classical notion of functions in mathematical analysis.

## Dual space

In mathematics, any vector space V has a corresponding dual vector space (or just dual space for short) consisting of all linear functionals on V, together with the vector space structure of pointwise addition and scalar multiplication by constants.

## Dvoretzky's theorem

In mathematics, Dvoretzky's theorem is an important structural theorem about normed vector spaces proved by Aryeh Dvoretzky in the early 1960s, answering a question of Alexander Grothendieck.

## Eberlein–Šmulian theorem

In the mathematical field of functional analysis, the Eberlein–Šmulian theorem (named after William Frederick Eberlein and Witold Lwowitsch Schmulian) is a result that relates three different kinds of weak compactness in a Banach space.

## Eduard Helly

Eduard Helly (June 1, 1884, Vienna – 1943, Chicago) was a mathematician after whom Helly's theorem, Helly families, Helly's selection theorem, Helly metric, and the Helly–Bray theorem were named.

## Errett Bishop

Errett Albert Bishop (July 14, 1928 – April 14, 1983) was an American mathematician known for his work on analysis.

## Euclidean space

In geometry, Euclidean space encompasses the two-dimensional Euclidean plane, the three-dimensional space of Euclidean geometry, and certain other spaces.

## Extreme point

In mathematics, an extreme point of a convex set S in a real vector space is a point in S which does not lie in any open line segment joining two points of S. Intuitively, an extreme point is a "vertex" of S.

## F-space

In functional analysis, an F-space is a vector space V over the real or complex numbers together with a metric d: V × V → R so that.

## Field (mathematics)

In mathematics, a field is a set on which addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division are defined, and behave as when they are applied to rational and real numbers.

## Fréchet derivative

In mathematics, the Fréchet derivative is a derivative defined on Banach spaces.

## Fréchet space

In functional analysis and related areas of mathematics, Fréchet spaces, named after Maurice Fréchet, are special topological vector spaces.

## Frigyes Riesz

Frigyes Riesz (Riesz Frigyes,; 22 January 1880 – 28 February 1956) was a HungarianEberhard Zeidler: Nonlinear Functional Analysis and Its Applications: Linear monotone operators.

## Function space

In mathematics, a function space is a set of functions between two fixed sets.

## Functional analysis

Functional analysis is a branch of mathematical analysis, the core of which is formed by the study of vector spaces endowed with some kind of limit-related structure (e.g. inner product, norm, topology, etc.) and the linear functions defined on these spaces and respecting these structures in a suitable sense.

## Gâteaux derivative

In mathematics, the Gâteaux differential or Gâteaux derivative is a generalization of the concept of directional derivative in differential calculus.

## Gelfand representation

In mathematics, the Gelfand representation in functional analysis (named after I. M. Gelfand) has two related meanings.

## Gelfand–Mazur theorem

In operator theory, the Gelfand–Mazur theorem is a theorem named after Israel Gelfand and Stanisław Mazur which states that a Banach algebra with unit over the complex numbers in which every nonzero element is invertible is isometrically isomorphic to the complex numbers, i. e., the only complex Banach algebra that is a division algebra is the complex numbers C. The theorem follows from the fact that the spectrum of any element of a complex Banach algebra is nonempty: for every element a of a complex Banach algebra A there is some complex number λ such that λ1 &minus; a is not invertible.

## Gelfand–Naimark theorem

In mathematics, the Gelfand–Naimark theorem states that an arbitrary C*-algebra A is isometrically *-isomorphic to a C*-algebra of bounded operators on a Hilbert space.

## Gilles Pisier

Gilles I. Pisier (born 18 November 1950) is a Professor of Mathematics at the Pierre and Marie Curie University and a Distinguished Professor and A.G. and M.E. Owen Chair of Mathematics at the Texas A&M University.

## Goldstine theorem

In functional analysis, a branch of mathematics, the Goldstine theorem, named after Herman Goldstine, is stated as follows: The conclusion of the theorem is not true for the norm topology, which can be seen by considering the Banach space of real sequences that converge to zero, ''c''0, and its bi-dual space ℓ∞.

## Ground field

In mathematics, a ground field is a field K fixed at the beginning of the discussion.

## Haar wavelet

In mathematics, the Haar wavelet is a sequence of rescaled "square-shaped" functions which together form a wavelet family or basis.

## Hahn–Banach theorem

In mathematics, the Hahn–Banach theorem is a central tool in functional analysis.

## Hans Hahn (mathematician)

Hans Hahn (27 September 1879 – 24 July 1934) was an Austrian mathematician who made contributions to functional analysis, topology, set theory, the calculus of variations, real analysis, and order theory.

## Hardy space

In complex analysis, the Hardy spaces (or Hardy classes) Hp are certain spaces of holomorphic functions on the unit disk or upper half plane.

## Harmonic analysis

Harmonic analysis is a branch of mathematics concerned with the representation of functions or signals as the superposition of basic waves, and the study of and generalization of the notions of Fourier series and Fourier transforms (i.e. an extended form of Fourier analysis).

## Hausdorff space

In topology and related branches of mathematics, a Hausdorff space, separated space or T2 space is a topological space in which distinct points have disjoint neighbourhoods.

## Hermitian function

In mathematical analysis, a Hermitian function is a complex function with the property that its complex conjugate is equal to the original function with the variable changed in sign: (where the ^* indicates the complex conjugate) for all x in the domain of f. This definition extends also to functions of two or more variables, e.g., in the case that f is a function of two variables it is Hermitian if for all pairs (x_1, x_2) in the domain of f. From this definition it follows immediately that: f is a Hermitian function if and only if.

## Hilbert space

The mathematical concept of a Hilbert space, named after David Hilbert, generalizes the notion of Euclidean space.

## Holomorphic function

In mathematics, a holomorphic function is a complex-valued function of one or more complex variables that is complex differentiable in a neighborhood of every point in its domain.

## Homeomorphism

In the mathematical field of topology, a homeomorphism or topological isomorphism or bi continuous function is a continuous function between topological spaces that has a continuous inverse function.

## Hyperplane

In geometry, a hyperplane is a subspace whose dimension is one less than that of its ambient space.

## Infinite-dimensional optimization

In certain optimization problems the unknown optimal solution might not be a number or a vector, but rather a continuous quantity, for example a function or the shape of a body.

## Injective function

In mathematics, an injective function or injection or one-to-one function is a function that preserves distinctness: it never maps distinct elements of its domain to the same element of its codomain.

## Inner product space

In linear algebra, an inner product space is a vector space with an additional structure called an inner product.

## Interior (topology)

In mathematics, specifically in topology, the interior of a subset S of points of a topological space X consists of all points of S that do not belong to the boundary of S. A point that is in the interior of S is an interior point of S. The interior of S is the complement of the closure of the complement of S. In this sense interior and closure are dual notions.

## Interpolation space

In the field of mathematical analysis, an interpolation space is a space which lies "in between" two other Banach spaces.

## Involution (mathematics)

In mathematics, an involution, or an involutory function, is a function that is its own inverse, for all in the domain of.

## Isometry

In mathematics, an isometry (or congruence, or congruent transformation) is a distance-preserving transformation between metric spaces, usually assumed to be bijective.

## Israel Gelfand

Israel Moiseevich Gelfand, also written Israïl Moyseyovich Gel'fand, or Izrail M. Gelfand (ישראל געלפֿאַנד, Изра́иль Моисе́евич Гельфа́нд; – 5 October 2009) was a prominent Soviet mathematician.

## James's theorem

In mathematics, particularly functional analysis, James's theorem, named for Robert C. James, states that a Banach space B is reflexive if and only if every continuous linear functional on B attains its supremum on the closed unit ball in B. A stronger version of the theorem states that a weakly closed subset C of a Banach space B is weakly compact if and only if each continuous linear functional on B attains a maximum on C. The hypothesis of completeness in the theorem cannot be dropped.

## LF-space

In mathematics, an LF-space is a topological vector space V that is a locally convex inductive limit of a countable inductive system (V_n, i_) of Fréchet spaces.

## Limit of a sequence

As the positive integer n becomes larger and larger, the value n\cdot \sin\bigg(\frac1\bigg) becomes arbitrarily close to 1.

## Linear form

In linear algebra, a linear functional or linear form (also called a one-form or covector) is a linear map from a vector space to its field of scalars.

## Linear map

In mathematics, a linear map (also called a linear mapping, linear transformation or, in some contexts, linear function) is a mapping between two modules (including vector spaces) that preserves (in the sense defined below) the operations of addition and scalar multiplication.

## Linear span

In linear algebra, the linear span (also called the linear hull or just span) of a set of vectors in a vector space is the intersection of all subspaces containing that set.

## Linear subspace

In linear algebra and related fields of mathematics, a linear subspace, also known as a vector subspace, or, in the older literature, a linear manifold, is a vector space that is a subset of some other (higher-dimension) vector space.

## Locally convex topological vector space

In functional analysis and related areas of mathematics, locally convex topological vector spaces or locally convex spaces are examples of topological vector spaces (TVS) that generalize normed spaces.

## Lp space

In mathematics, the Lp spaces are function spaces defined using a natural generalization of the ''p''-norm for finite-dimensional vector spaces.

## Mathematical analysis

Mathematical analysis is the branch of mathematics dealing with limits and related theories, such as differentiation, integration, measure, infinite series, and analytic functions.

## Mathematics

Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.

## Maurice René Fréchet

Maurice Fréchet (2 September 1878 – 4 June 1973) was a French mathematician.

## Measure (mathematics)

In mathematical analysis, a measure on a set is a systematic way to assign a number to each suitable subset of that set, intuitively interpreted as its size.

## Metric (mathematics)

In mathematics, a metric or distance function is a function that defines a distance between each pair of elements of a set.

## Metric space

In mathematics, a metric space is a set for which distances between all members of the set are defined.

## Metrization theorem

In topology and related areas of mathematics, a metrizable space is a topological space that is homeomorphic to a metric space.

## Milman–Pettis theorem

In mathematics, the Milman–Pettis theorem states that every uniformly convex Banach space is reflexive.

## Natural number

In mathematics, the natural numbers are those used for counting (as in "there are six coins on the table") and ordering (as in "this is the third largest city in the country").

## Net (mathematics)

In mathematics, more specifically in general topology and related branches, a net or Moore&ndash;Smith sequence is a generalization of the notion of a sequence.

## Nicole Tomczak-Jaegermann

Nicole Tomczak-Jaegermann FRSC is a Polish Canadian mathematician, a professor of mathematics at the University of Alberta, and the holder of the Canada Research Chair in Geometric Analysis.

## Norm (mathematics)

In linear algebra, functional analysis, and related areas of mathematics, a norm is a function that assigns a strictly positive length or size to each vector in a vector space—save for the zero vector, which is assigned a length of zero.

## Normed vector space

In mathematics, a normed vector space is a vector space over the real or complex numbers, on which a norm is defined.

## Open mapping theorem (functional analysis)

In functional analysis, the open mapping theorem, also known as the Banach–Schauder theorem (named after Stefan Banach and Juliusz Schauder), is a fundamental result which states that if a continuous linear operator between Banach spaces is surjective then it is an open map.

## Operator

Operator may refer to.

## Operator norm

In mathematics, the operator norm is a means to measure the "size" of certain linear operators.

## Order topology

In mathematics, an order topology is a certain topology that can be defined on any totally ordered set.

## Ordinal number

In set theory, an ordinal number, or ordinal, is one generalization of the concept of a natural number that is used to describe a way to arrange a collection of objects in order, one after another.

## Parallelogram law

In mathematics, the simplest form of the parallelogram law (also called the parallelogram identity) belongs to elementary geometry.

## Parseval's theorem

In mathematics, Parseval's theorem usually refers to the result that the Fourier transform is unitary; loosely, that the sum (or integral) of the square of a function is equal to the sum (or integral) of the square of its transform.

## Partial differential equation

In mathematics, a partial differential equation (PDE) is a differential equation that contains unknown multivariable functions and their partial derivatives.

## Per Enflo

Per H. Enflo (born 20 May 1944) is a Swedish mathematician working primarily in functional analysis, a field in which he solved problems that had been considered fundamental.

## Pointwise convergence

In mathematics, pointwise convergence is one of various senses in which a sequence of functions can converge to a particular function.

## Polarization identity

In mathematics, the polarization identity is any one of a family of formulas that express the inner product of two vectors in terms of the norm of a normed vector space.

## Probability measure

In mathematics, a probability measure is a real-valued function defined on a set of events in a probability space that satisfies measure properties such as countable additivity.

## Projection (linear algebra)

In linear algebra and functional analysis, a projection is a linear transformation P from a vector space to itself such that.

## Quasi-derivative

In mathematics, the quasi-derivative is one of several generalizations of the derivative of a function between two Banach spaces.

In mathematics (specifically in measure theory), a Radon measure, named after Johann Radon, is a measure on the &sigma;-algebra of Borel sets of a Hausdorff topological space X that is locally finite and inner regular.

## Range (mathematics)

In mathematics, and more specifically in naive set theory, the range of a function refers to either the codomain or the image of the function, depending upon usage.

## Real number

In mathematics, a real number is a value of a continuous quantity that can represent a distance along a line.

## Reflexive space

In the area of mathematics known as functional analysis, a reflexive space is a Banach space (or more generally a locally convex topological vector space) that coincides with the continuous dual of its continuous dual space, both as linear space and as topological space.

## Riesz representation theorem

There are several well-known theorems in functional analysis known as the Riesz representation theorem.

## Robert Phelps

Robert Ralph Phelps (March 22, 1926 – January 4, 2013) was an American mathematician who was known for his contributions to analysis, particularly to functional analysis and measure theory.

## Schur's property

In mathematics, Schur's property, named after Issai Schur, is the property of normed spaces that is satisfied precisely if weak convergence of sequences entails convergence in norm.

## Separable space

In mathematics, a topological space is called separable if it contains a countable, dense subset; that is, there exists a sequence \_^ of elements of the space such that every nonempty open subset of the space contains at least one element of the sequence.

## Sequence space

In functional analysis and related areas of mathematics, a sequence space is a vector space whose elements are infinite sequences of real or complex numbers.

## Series (mathematics)

In mathematics, a series is, roughly speaking, a description of the operation of adding infinitely many quantities, one after the other, to a given starting quantity.

## Sigma-algebra

In mathematical analysis and in probability theory, a σ-algebra (also σ-field) on a set X is a collection Σ of subsets of X that includes the empty subset, is closed under complement, and is closed under countable unions and countable intersections.

## Smith space

In functional analysis and related areas of mathematics, Smith space is a complete compactly generated locally convex space X having a compact set K which absorbs every other compact set T\subseteq X (i.e. T\subseteq\lambda\cdot K for some \lambda>0).

## Sobolev space

In mathematics, a Sobolev space is a vector space of functions equipped with a norm that is a combination of ''Lp''-norms of the function itself and its derivatives up to a given order.

## Space (mathematics)

In mathematics, a space is a set (sometimes called a universe) with some added structure.

## Spectrum of a C*-algebra

In mathematics, the spectrum of a C*-algebra or dual of a C*-algebra A, denoted Â, is the set of unitary equivalence classes of irreducible *-representations of A. A *-representation π of A on a Hilbert space H is irreducible if, and only if, there is no closed subspace K different from H and which is invariant under all operators π(x) with x ∈ A. We implicitly assume that irreducible representation means non-null irreducible representation, thus excluding trivial (i.e. identically 0) representations on one-dimensional spaces.

## Stefan Banach

Stefan Banach (30 March 1892 – 31 August 1945) was a Polish mathematician who is generally considered one of the world's most important and influential 20th-century mathematicians.

## Stefan Mazurkiewicz

Stefan Mazurkiewicz (25 September 1888 – 19 June 1945) was a Polish mathematician who worked in mathematical analysis, topology, and probability.

## Sublinear function

A sublinear function (or functional, as is more often used in functional analysis), in linear algebra and related areas of mathematics, is a function f: V \rightarrow \mathbf on a vector space V over F, an ordered field (e.g. the real numbers \mathbb), which satisfies \mathbf and any x &isin; V (positive homogeneity), and f(x + y) \le f(x) + f(y) for any x, y &isin; V (subadditivity).

## Surjective function

In mathematics, a function f from a set X to a set Y is surjective (or onto), or a surjection, if for every element y in the codomain Y of f there is at least one element x in the domain X of f such that f(x).

## Taylor's theorem

In calculus, Taylor's theorem gives an approximation of a k-times differentiable function around a given point by a k-th order Taylor polynomial.

## Tensor product

In mathematics, the tensor product of two vector spaces and (over the same field) is itself a vector space, together with an operation of bilinear composition, denoted by, from ordered pairs in the Cartesian product into, in a way that generalizes the outer product.

## Timothy Gowers

Sir William Timothy Gowers, (born 20 November 1963) is a British mathematician.

## Topological vector space

In mathematics, a topological vector space (also called a linear topological space) is one of the basic structures investigated in functional analysis.

## Total variation

In mathematics, the total variation identifies several slightly different concepts, related to the (local or global) structure of the codomain of a function or a measure.

## Tychonoff's theorem

In mathematics, Tychonoff's theorem states that the product of any collection of compact topological spaces is compact with respect to the product topology.

## Uniform boundedness principle

In mathematics, the uniform boundedness principle or Banach–Steinhaus theorem is one of the fundamental results in functional analysis.

## Uniform space

In the mathematical field of topology, a uniform space is a set with a uniform structure.

## Uniformly convex space

In mathematics, uniformly convex spaces (or uniformly rotund spaces) are common examples of reflexive Banach spaces.

## Unit sphere

In mathematics, a unit sphere is the set of points of distance 1 from a fixed central point, where a generalized concept of distance may be used; a closed unit ball is the set of points of distance less than or equal to 1 from a fixed central point.

## Universal property

In various branches of mathematics, a useful construction is often viewed as the “most efficient solution” to a certain problem.

## Vector space

A vector space (also called a linear space) is a collection of objects called vectors, which may be added together and multiplied ("scaled") by numbers, called scalars.

## Wacław Sierpiński

Wacław Franciszek Sierpiński (14 March 1882 – 21 October 1969) was a Polish mathematician.

## Weak topology

In mathematics, weak topology is an alternative term for certain initial topologies, often on topological vector spaces or spaces of linear operators, for instance on a Hilbert space.

## Wiener algebra

In mathematics, the Wiener algebra, named after Norbert Wiener and usually denoted by, is the space of absolutely convergent Fourier series.

## References

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