1076 relations: A. F. M. Ahsanuddin Chowdhury, A. K. 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Cricket World Cup, 2016 Asia Cup, 2016 Summer Olympics, 2017 ICC Champions Trophy, 2018 Women's Twenty20 Asia Cup, 7 March Speech of Bangabandhu. 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Justice Abul Fazal Mohammad 'AFM' Ahsanuddin Chowdhury (1 July 1915 – 30 August 2001) was the ninth President of Bangladesh.
Abul Kasem Fazlul Huq (26 October 1873—27 April 1962); was a Bengali lawyer, legislator and statesman in the 20th century.
Aarong is one of the retail chains in Bangladesh operating under BRAC.
Abdul Hakim (আব্দুল হাকিম; c. 1620 – c. 1690) was a poet in medieval Bengal.
Abdullah Abu Sayeed (born 25 July 1939) is a Bangladeshi writer, television presenter, organizer, and activist.
Abdus Sattar (আব্দুস সাত্তার; 1 March 1906 – 5 October 1985) was a Bangladeshi statesman.
Justice Abu Sadat Mohammad Sayem (March 29, 1916 – July 8, 1997) was a Bangladeshi jurist and statesman.
Acts of Parliament, also called primary legislation, are statutes passed by a parliament (legislature).
Adivasi is the collective term for the indigenous peoples of mainland South Asia.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
The Agartala Conspiracy Case was a sedition case in Pakistan during the Ayub Regime against Awami League, brought by the government of Pakistan in 1968 against Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, the then leader of the Awami League and East Pakistan, and 34 other persons.
Ahmadiyya (officially, the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community or the Ahmadiyya Muslim Jama'at; الجماعة الإسلامية الأحمدية, transliterated: al-Jamā'ah al-Islāmiyyah al-Aḥmadiyyah; احمدیہ مسلم جماعت) is an Islamic religious movement founded in Punjab, British India, in the late 19th century.
Ahsan Manzil (আহসান মঞ্জিল, Ahsan Monjil) was the official residential palace and seat of the Nawab of Dhaka.
Abu'l-Fath Jalal-ud-din Muhammad Akbar (15 October 1542– 27 October 1605), popularly known as Akbar I, was the third Mughal emperor, who reigned from 1556 to 1605.
The Akhil Bhāratiya Hindū Mahāsabhā (translation: All-India Hindu Grand-Assembly) is a right wing Hindu nationalist political party in India.
Akhteruzzaman Elias (12 February 1943 – 4 January 1997) was a Bangladeshi novelist and short story writer.
Al Jazeera (translit,, literally "The Island", though referring to the Arabian Peninsula in context), also known as JSC (Jazeera Satellite Channel), is a state-funded broadcaster in Doha, Qatar, owned by the Al Jazeera Media Network.
Mir Abdus Shukur Al Mahmud (known as Al Mahmud; born on 11 July 1936) is a Bangladeshi poet, novelist, and short-story writer.
Alamgir Kabir (December 26, 1938 – January 20, 1989) was a Bangladeshi film director and cultural activist.
Syed Alaol (সৈয়দ আলাওল; 1607 – 1673) was a poet in Bengal during the medieval age.
Sir Alexander Cunningham (23 January 1814 – 28 November 1893) was a British army engineer with the Bengal Engineer Group who later took an interest in the history and archaeology of India.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
The Aligarh Movement was the push to establish a modern system of education for the Muslim population of British India, during the later decades of the 19th century.
All Pakistan Awami Muslim League (آل پاکستان عوامی مسلم لیگ) is a Pakistani political party founded by Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy in February 1950.
The All-India Muslim League (popularised as Muslim League) was a political party established during the early years of the 20th century in the British Indian Empire.
An all-rounder is a cricketer who regularly performs well at both batting and bowling.
Alluvium (from the Latin alluvius, from alluere, "to wash against") is loose, unconsolidated (not cemented together into a solid rock) soil or sediments, which has been eroded, reshaped by water in some form, and redeposited in a non-marine setting.
Amar Sonar Bangla (আমার সোনার বাংলা, "My Golden Bengal") is the national anthem of Bangladesh.
The '''Constitution of the People's Republic of Bangladesh''' was adopted and enacted on 4 November 1972, after the victory of the independent country on 16 December 1971.
Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a London-based non-governmental organization focused on human rights.
Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the class Amphibia.
André Malraux DSO (3 November 1901 – 23 November 1976) was a French novelist, art theorist and Minister of Cultural Affairs.
Angling is a method of fishing by means of an "angle" (fish hook).
Anisul Hoque (born 4 March 1965) is a Bangladeshi author, screenwriter, novelist, dramatist and journalist.
Anti Corruption Commission (দুর্নীতি দমন কমিশন) often abbreviated: ACC (দুদক) was formed through an act promulgated on 23 February 2004 that came into force on 9 May 2004.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Arabic literature (الأدب العربي / ALA-LC: al-Adab al-‘Arabī) is the writing, both prose and poetry, produced by writers in the Arabic language.
Arakan is a historic coastal region in Southeast Asia.
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.
The areca nut is the fruit of the areca palm (Areca catechu), which grows in much of the tropical Pacific (Melanesia and Micronesia), Southeast and South Asia, and parts of east Africa.
Aricha Ghat is an important river port in Bangladesh.
The Armenians in Bangladesh are ethnic Armenians who lived in what is now called Bangladesh.
Arsenic is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33.
Arsenic contamination of groundwater is a form of groundwater pollution which is often due to naturally occurring high concentrations of arsenic in deeper levels of groundwater.
Article 70 of the Constitution of Bangladesh is a controversial clause restricting voting freedom in the Parliament of Bangladesh.
"Aryan" is a term that was used as a self-designation by Indo-Iranian people.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
The ACC Asia Cup is a men's One Day International & Twenty20 International cricket tournament.
The Asian black bear (Ursus thibetanus, previously known as Selenarctos thibetanus), also known as the moon bear and the white-chested bear, is a medium-sized bear species native to Asia and largely adapted to arboreal life.
The Asian elephant, or Asiatic elephant (Elephas maximus), is the only living species of the genus Elephas and is distributed in Southeast Asia, from India and Nepal in the west to Borneo in the south.
Asian University for Women (AUW) is an independent, international university in Chittagong, Bangladesh seeking to educate a new generation of leaders in Asia.
Varanus salvator, commonly known as the water monitor or common water monitor, is a large lizard native to South and Southeast Asia.
The Asiatic Society of Bangladesh was established as the Asiatic Society of Pakistan in Dhaka in 1952, and renamed in 1972.
Assam Province was a province of British India, created in 1911 by the partition of the Eastern Bengal and Assam Province.
The assassination of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was the killing of the president of Bangladesh, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and almost his entire family.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
Ataur Rahman Khan (আতাউর রহমান খান; 6 March 1905 – 7 December 1991) was a Bangladeshi lawyer, politician and writer, and served as Chief Minister of East Pakistan from 1956–1958, and as the Prime Minister of Bangladesh from 30 March 1984 to 1 January 1985.
(অতীশ দীপংকর শ্রীজ্ঞান; ཇོ་བོ་རྗེ་དཔལ་ལྡན་ཨ་ཏི་ཤ།) (982 - 1054 CE) was a Buddhist Bengali religious leader and master.
Attacks by Islamic extremists in Bangladesh refers to increased attacks since 2013 on a number of secularist and atheist writers, bloggers, and publishers in Bangladesh and foreigners, and religious minorities such as Hindus, Buddhists, Christians, and Shias.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
Austric is a large hypothetical grouping of languages primarily spoken in Southeast Asia and Pacific.
The Austroasiatic languages, formerly known as Mon–Khmer, are a large language family of Mainland Southeast Asia, also scattered throughout India, Bangladesh, Nepal and the southern border of China, with around 117 million speakers.
Mohammad Ayub Khan (محمد ایوب خان; 14 May 1907 – 19 April 1974),, was a Pakistani military dictator and the 2nd President of Pakistan who forcibly assumed the presidency from 1st President through coup in 1958, the first successful coup d'état of the country. The popular demonstrations and labour strikes which were supported by the protests in East Pakistan ultimately led to his forced resignation in 1969., Retrieved 25 August 2015 Trained at the British Royal Military College, Ayub Khan fought in the World War II as a Colonel in the British Indian Army before deciding to transfer to join the Pakistan Army as an aftermath of partition of British India in 1947. His command assignment included his role as chief of staff of Eastern Command in East-Bengal and elevated as the first native commander-in-chief of Pakistan Army in 1951 by then-Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan in a controversial promotion over several senior officers., Retrieved 25 August 2015 From 1953–58, he served in the civilian government as Defence and Home Minister and supported Iskander Mirza's decision to impose martial law against Prime Minister Feroze Khan's administration in 1958., Retrieved 27 August 2015 Two weeks later, he took over the presidency from Mirza after the meltdown of civil-military relations between the military and the civilian President., Retrieved 25 August 2015 After appointing General Musa Khan as an army chief in 1958, the policy inclination towards the alliance with the United States was pursued that saw the allowance of American access to facilities inside Pakistan, most notably the airbase outside of Peshawar, from which spy missions over the Soviet Union were launched. Relations with neighboring China were strengthened but deteriorated with Soviet Union in 1962, and with India in 1965. His presidency saw the war with India in 1965 which ended with Soviet Union facilitating the Tashkent Declaration between two nations. At home front, the policy of privatisation and industrialization was introduced that made the country's economy as Asia's fastest-growing economies. During his tenure, several infrastructure programs were built that consisted the completion of hydroelectric stations, dams and reservoirs, as well as prioritizing the space program but reducing the nuclear deterrence. In 1965, Ayub Khan entered in a presidential race as PML candidate to counter the popular and famed non-partisan Fatima Jinnah and controversially reelected for the second term. He was faced with allegations of widespread intentional vote riggings, authorized political murders in Karachi, and the politics over the unpopular peace treaty with India which many Pakistanis considered an embarrassing compromise. In 1967, he was widely disapproved when the demonstrations across the country were led by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto over the price hikes of food consumer products and, dramatically fell amid the popular uprising in East led by Mujibur Rahman in 1969. Forced to resign to avoid further protests while inviting army chief Yahya Khan to impose martial law for the second time, he fought a brief illness and died in 1974. His legacy remains mixed; he is credited with an ostensible economic prosperity and what supporters dub the "decade of development", but is criticized for beginning the first of the intelligence agencies' incursions into the national politics, for concentrating corrupt wealth in a few hands, and segregated policies that later led to the breaking-up of nation's unity that resulted in the creation of Bangladesh., Retrieved 25 August 2015.
The Central Treaty Organization (CENTO), originally known as the Baghdad Pact or the Middle East Treaty Organization (METO), was formed in 1955 by Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, Turkey and the United Kingdom.
Mirza Abu Zafar Sirajuddin Muhammad Bahadur Shah Zafar (24 October 1775 – 7 November 1862) was the last Mughal emperor.
Baitul Mukarram, also spelled as Baytul Mukarrom (بيت المكرّم; বায়তুল মোকাররম; The Holy House) is the national mosque of Bangladesh.
Bakarkhani or BaqarKhani (باقرخانی), also known as bakar khani roti, is a thick, spiced flat-bread that is part of the Mughlai cuisine of the Indian subcontinent.
Bakhtiar Khilji, the Muslim conqueror of Bengal under the Delhi Sultanate, launched a campaign to invade Tibet in the 13th century.
The bamboos are evergreen perennial flowering plants in the subfamily Bambusoideae of the grass family Poaceae.
The Bangabandhu Satellite-1 is the first Bangladeshi geostationary communications and Broadcasting Satellite.
The Bangla Academy is Bangladesh's national language authority, established in 1955.
The Bangladesh Army (BA, বাংলাদেশ সেনাবাহিনী, Bangladesh Senabahini) is the land forces branch and the largest of the three defence service of the Bangladesh Armed Forces.
Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission is a scientific research organization and regulatory body of Bangladesh.
The Bangladesh Awami League (BAL) (বাংলাদেশ আওয়ামী লীগ; translated from Urdu: Bangladesh People's League), often simply called the Awami League or AL, is one of the two major political parties of Bangladesh.
Bangladesh Betar (বাংলাদেশ বেতার) or BB is the state-owned radio broadcasting organisation of Bangladesh.
The Bangladesh Code is an official compilation and codification of laws in Bangladesh, which is published by the Ministry of Law, Justice and Parliamentary Affairs of the Government of Bangladesh.
Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (BCSIR) (বাংলাদেশ বিজ্ঞান ও শিল্প গবেষণা পরিষদ) is a scientific research organization and regulatory body of Bangladesh.
Bangladesh Environment Conservation Act (BECA) is set of laws enacted by the government of Bangladesh in 1995 to conserve the nation's environment.
The Bangladesh Export Processing Zone Authority (BEPZA) (বাংলাদেশ রপ্তানি প্রক্রিয়াকরণ অঞ্চল কর্তৃপক্ষ) is an agency of the Government of Bangladesh and is administered out of the Prime Minister's Office.
The Bangladesh famine of 1974 refers to a period of mass starvation beginning in March 1974 and ending in about December of the same year.
Bangladesh Islami Chhatrashibir (বাংলাদেশ ইসলামী ছাত্রশিবির), known as Shibir, is a student organization in Bangladesh that works among the students.
Bangladesh Jamaat-e-Islami (বাংলাদেশ জামায়াতে ইসলামী), previously known as Jamaat-e-Islami Bangladesh, or Jamaat for short, is the largest Islamist political party in Bangladesh.
Bangladesh Judicial Service Commission is a government commission that is responsible for the recruitment and examination of judges in Bangladesh and is located in Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Bangladesh Krishak Sramik Awami League (BaKSAL) (বাংলাদেশ কৃষক শ্রমিক আওয়ামী লীগ "Bangladesh Worker-Peasant's People's League"; বাকশাল) was a political front comprising Bangladesh Awami League, Communist Party of Bangladesh, National Awami Party (Mozaffar) and Jatiyo League.
The Bangladesh Liberation War (মুক্তিযুদ্ধ), also known as the Bangladesh War of Independence, or simply the Liberation War in Bangladesh, was a revolution and armed conflict sparked by the rise of the Bengali nationalist and self-determination movement in what was then East Pakistan during the 1971 Bangladesh genocide.
The Bangladesh national cricket team (বাংলাদেশ জাতীয় ক্রিকেট দল), nicknamed The Tigers, is administered by the Bangladesh Cricket Board (BCB).
The Bangladesh National Museum (বাংলাদেশ জাতীয় যাদুঘর), is the national museum of Bangladesh.
Bangladesh Nationalist Party (বাংলাদেশ জাতীয়তাবাদী দল, transliterated: Bangladesh Jātīẏatābādī Dôl), always abbreviated as BNP, is one of the two major contemporary political parties of Bangladesh.
The Bangladesh Navy (বাংলাদেশ নৌবাহিনী; Bangladesh Nou Bahini) is the naval warfare branch of the Bangladesh Armed Forces, responsible for Bangladesh's of maritime territorial area, and the defense of important harbors, military bases and economic zones.
Bangladesh Ordnance Factories (BOF) is the largest industrial supplier of the Bangladesh Army.
Bangladesh Railway (বাংলাদেশ রেলওয়ে) is the state owned rail transport agency of Bangladesh.
Bangladesh Standard Time (BST) (বাংলাদেশ মান সময়) is the time zone of Bangladesh.
Bangladesh Television (বাংলাদেশ টেলিভিশন), also known by the acronym BTV, is the state-owned Television network in Bangladesh.
Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology (বাংলাদেশ প্রকৌশল বিশ্ববিদ্যালয়়), commonly known as BUET (বুয়েট), is a public university in Bangladesh, which focuses on the study of engineering and architecture.
The Bangladesh University of Textiles or BUTEX, informally known as Textile Engineering University, is the only public university in Bangladesh specialising in Textile Engineering.
The Bangladesh women's national cricket team is the team that represents the country of Bangladesh in international women's cricket matches.
Bangladesh-China relations are the bilateral relations of Bangladesh and China.
Bangladesh and India are South Asian neighbours.
Bangladesh–British relations are the foreign relations between Bangladesh and the United Kingdom.
Bangladesh-United States relations are the current and historical relations between Bangladesh and the United States.
The Bangladeshi diaspora consists of people of Bangladeshi descent who have immigrated to or were born in another country.
Bangladeshi English literature (BEL) refers to the body of literary work written in the English language in Bangladesh and the Bangladeshi diaspora.
Bangladeshi Folk Literature (বাংলা লোক/পল্লী সাহিত্য) constitutes a considerable portion of Bengali literature.
General elections were held in Bangladesh on 5 January 2014, in accordance with the constitutional requirement that the election must take place within the 90-day period before the expiration of the term of the Jatiya Sangshad on 24 January 2014.
Presidential elections were held in Bangladesh on 15 November 1981.
The Bangladeshi taka (টাকা, sign: ৳ or Tk, code: BDT) is the currency of the People's Republic of Bangladesh.
Although Bangladesh only came into existence in 1971, the land which is today Bangladesh has strong ties to the Middle East.
Banglalink (বাংলালিংক), is the third largest cellular service providers in Bangladesh.
Barind Tract (alternately called the Varendra Tract in English and Borendro Bhumi in Bengali) is the largest Pleistocene era pysiographic unit in the Bengal Basin.
Barisal, officially known as Barishal, বরিশাল Bengali Pron) is a major city that lies on the bank of Kirtankhola river in south-central Bangladesh. It is the largest city and the administrative headquarter of both Barisal district and Barisal Division. It is one of the oldest municipalities and river ports of the country. Barisal municipality was established in the year 1876 during the British Raj and upgraded to City Corporation on 25 July 2002. The city consists of 30 wards and 50 mahallas with a population of 328,278 according to the 2011 national census. The area of the city is 58 km².
Barisal Division, officially known as Barishal Division, is one of the eight administrative divisions of Bangladesh.
The Baro-Bhuyans (spelled variously as Baro-Bhuinas, "Baro-Bhuiyan" etc.) were warrior chiefs and landlords (zamindars) on the Indian subcontinent; in the region of medieval Assam and Bengal, who maintained a loosely independent confederacy.
Baron Northbrook, of Stratton in the County of Southampton, is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
The barramundi (Lates calcarifer) or Asian sea bass, is a species of catadromous fish in family Latidae of order Perciformes.
The Battle of Plassey was a decisive victory of the British East India Company over the Nawab of Bengal and his French allies on 23 June 1757.
Baul or Bauls (বাউল) are a group of mystic minstrels from Bengal, which includes Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal.
The Bom, or Bawm (বম), are an ethnic community inhabiting in the Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh.
The Bay of Bengal (Bengali: বঙ্গোপসাগর) is the northeastern part of the Indian Ocean, bounded on the west and north by India and Bangladesh, and on the east by Myanmar and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (India).
The Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC) is an international organisation of seven nations of South Asia and South East Asia, housing 1.5 billion people and having a combined gross domestic product of $2.5 trillion (2014).
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
BBC Bangla (বিবিসি বাংলা) is a foreign language service of the BBC World Service.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
The Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal (BBIN) Initiative is a sub regional architecture of countries in Eastern South Asia, a subregion of South Asia.
The Bangladesh–China–India–Myanmar Forum for Regional Cooperation (BCIM) is a sub-regional organisation of Asian nations aimed at greater integration of trade and investment between the four countries.
Beef is the culinary name for meat from cattle, particularly skeletal muscle.
Begum is a Bengali language monthly magazine founded in 1947.
Begum Rokeya Sakhawat Hossain (বেগম রোকেয়া সাখাওয়াত হোসেন; 9 December 1880 – 9 December 1932), commonly known as Begum Rokeya, was a Bengali writer, thinker, educationist, social activist, advocate of women's rights, and widely regarded as the pioneer of women's education in the Indian subcontinent during the time of the British rule.
Bengal (Bānglā/Bôngô /) is a geopolitical, cultural and historical region in Asia, which is located in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent at the apex of the Bay of Bengal.
The Bengal famine of 1943 (Bengali: pañcāśēra manvantara) was a major famine in the Bengal province in British India during World War II.
The Bengal fox (Vulpes bengalensis), also known as the Indian fox, is a fox endemic to the Indian subcontinent and is found from the Himalayan foothills and Terai of Nepal through southern India and from southern and eastern Pakistan to eastern India and southeastern Bangladesh.
The Bengal Legislative Assembly was the largest legislature in British India, serving as the lower chamber of the legislature of Bengal (now Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal).
The Bengal Legislative Council was the legislative council of British Bengal (now Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal).
The Bengal Presidency was once the largest subdivision (presidency) of British India, with its seat in Calcutta (now Kolkata).
The Bengal Provincial Muslim League (BPML) was the branch of the All India Muslim League in the British Indian province of Bengal.
The Bengal Subah was a subdivision of the Mughal Empire encompassing modern Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal between the 16th and 18th centuries.
The Sultanate of Bengal (also known as the Bengal Sultanate; Bangalah (بنگاله Bangālah, বাঙ্গালা/বঙ্গালা) and Shahi Bangalah (شاهی بنگاله. Shāhī Bangālah, শাহী বাঙ্গলা)) was a Muslim state, established in Bengal during the 14th century, as part of the Muslim conquest of the Indian subcontinent.
The Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) is the most numerous tiger subspecies in Asia, and was estimated at fewer than 2,500 individuals by 2011.
Bengali Buddhists, (বাঙালি বৌদ্ধ, are Buddhists of Bengali ethnic and linguistic identity. Bengali Buddhists constitute 0.4% of the population in Bangladesh. Buddhism has a rich ancient heritage in the Bengal. The region was a bastion of the ancient Buddhist Mauryan and Palan empires, when the Mahayana and Vajrayana schools flourished. South-eastern Bengal was ruled by the medieval Buddhist Kingdom of Mrauk U during the 16th and 17th centuries. The British Raj influenced the emergence of modern community. Today, Bengali Buddhists are followers of orthodox Therevada Buddhism.
The Bengali Calendar or Bangla Calendar (Baṅgābda) is a solar calendar used in the region of Bengal.
Bengali Christians (বাঙালি খ্রিস্টান) are adherents of Christianity among the Bengali people.
The dialects of the Bengali language (বাংলা উপভাষাসমূহ) are part of the Eastern Indo-Aryan language group of the Indo-European language family widely spoken in the Bengal region of South Asia.
Bengali Hindus (বাঙালি হিন্দু) are ethnic Bengali adherents of Hinduism, and are native to the Bengal region of the Indian subcontinent.
Bengali, also known by its endonym Bangla (বাংলা), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in South Asia.
Bengali Muslims (বাঙালি মুসলমান) are an ethnic, linguistic, and religious population who make up the majority of Bangladesh's citizens and the largest minority in the Indian states of West Bengal and Assam.
The Bengali renaissance or simply Bengal renaissance, (বাংলার নবজাগরণ; Bānglār nabajāgaraṇ) was a cultural, social, intellectual and artistic movement in Bengal region of the Indian subcontinent during the period of the British Indian Empire, from the nineteenth century to the early twentieth century.
Bengali science fiction (বাংলা বিজ্ঞান কল্পকাহিনী) is a part of Bengali literature containing science fiction elements.
Bengalis (বাঙালি), also rendered as the Bengali people, Bangalis and Bangalees, are an Indo-Aryan ethnic group and nation native to the region of Bengal in the Indian subcontinent, which is presently divided between most of Bangladesh and the Indian states of West Bengal, Tripura, Assam, Jharkhand.
The Bharatiya Janata Party (translation: Indian People's Party; BJP) is one of the two major political parties in India, along with the Indian National Congress.
Bhatiali or bhatiyali is a form of folk music in both Bangladesh and West Bengal.
Bhawaiya (ভাওয়াইয়া) is a musical form or a popular folk music in Northern Bangladesh, especially Rangpur District and in Cooch Behar, Jalpaiguri, part of Darjeeling and North Dinajpur district of West Bengal and Dhubri and Goalpara of Assam in India.
Bhutan, officially the Kingdom of Bhutan (Druk Gyal Khap), is a landlocked country in South Asia.
Bibi Russell (born 1950) is a Bangladeshi fashion designer and former international model.
The Biharis is a demonym given to the inhabitants of the Indian state of Bihar.
Bikrampur ("City of Courage") is a pargana situated south of Dhaka, the modern capital city of Bangladesh.
Biman Bangladesh Airlines (বিমান বাংলাদেশ এয়ারলাইন্স), partly transcribed from English into Bengali and the other way around, commonly known as Biman (বিমান), is the flag carrier of Bangladesh.
Biodiversity, a portmanteau of biological (life) and diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.
A biodiversity action plan (BAP) is an internationally recognized program addressing threatened species and habitats and is designed to protect and restore biological systems.
Bipradash Barua (born 1940) is a Bangladeshi novelist.
Birth control, also known as contraception and fertility control, is a method or device used to prevent pregnancy.
Biryani, also known as biriyani, biriani, birani or briyani, ¨spicy rice¨ is a South Asian mixed rice dish with its origins among the Muslims of the Indian subcontinent.
The Bishnupriya Manipuris are a group of Indo-Aryan people that are indigenous to the Indian state of Manipur and are also found in neighboring Assam, Tripura and northeastern Bangladesh.
The Bishwa Ijtema (বিশ্ব ইজতেমা, meaning Global Congregation) is an annual gathering of Muslims in Tongi, by the banks of the River Turag, in the outskirts of Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Bishwo Shahitto Kendro (BSK) (বিশ্ব সাহিত্য কেন্দ্র, meaning 'World-Literature Centre'), is a non-profit institution in Bangladesh to promote reading habits, enlightenment and progressive ideas among students and general public.
The black giant squirrel or Malayan giant squirrel (Ratufa bicolor) is a large tree squirrel in the genus Ratufa native to the Indomalayan zootope.
A black panther is the melanistic color variant of any big cat species.
Black tea is a type of tea that is more oxidized than oolong, green, and white teas.
In the United States and (at least some) other English-speaking countries, a blue-collar worker is a working class person who performs manual labor.
Bob Dylan (born Robert Allen Zimmerman, May 24, 1941) is an American singer-songwriter, author, and painter who has been an influential figure in popular music and culture for more than five decades.
Bogra, officially known as Bogura, is a major city located in the Bogra District, Rajshahi Division, Bangladesh.
A bookmobile or mobile library is a vehicle designed for use as a library.
BRAC, an international development organisation based in Bangladesh, is the largest non-governmental development organisation in the world, in terms of number of employees as of September 2016.
The Brahmaputra (is one of the major rivers of Asia, a trans-boundary river which flows through China, India and Bangladesh. As such, it is known by various names in the region: Assamese: ব্ৰহ্মপুত্ৰ নদ ('নদ' nôd, masculine form of 'নদী' nôdi "river") Brôhmôputrô; ब्रह्मपुत्र, IAST:; Yarlung Tsangpo;. It is also called Tsangpo-Brahmaputra (when referring to the whole river including the stretch within Tibet). The Manas River, which runs through Bhutan, joins it at Jogighopa, in India. It is the ninth largest river in the world by discharge, and the 15th longest. With its origin in the Manasarovar Lake, located on the northern side of the Himalayas in Burang County of Tibet as the Yarlung Tsangpo River, it flows across southern Tibet to break through the Himalayas in great gorges (including the Yarlung Tsangpo Grand Canyon) and into Arunachal Pradesh (India). It flows southwest through the Assam Valley as Brahmaputra and south through Bangladesh as the Jamuna (not to be mistaken with Yamuna of India). In the vast Ganges Delta, it merges with the Padma, the popular name of the river Ganges in Bangladesh, and finally the Meghna and from here it is known as Meghna before emptying into the Bay of Bengal. About long, the Brahmaputra is an important river for irrigation and transportation. The average depth of the river is and maximum depth is. The river is prone to catastrophic flooding in the spring when Himalayas snow melts. The average discharge of the river is about, and floods can reach over. It is a classic example of a braided river and is highly susceptible to channel migration and avulsion. It is also one of the few rivers in the world that exhibit a tidal bore. It is navigable for most of its length. The river drains the Himalaya east of the Indo-Nepal border, south-central portion of the Tibetan plateau above the Ganga basin, south-eastern portion of Tibet, the Patkai-Bum hills, the northern slopes of the Meghalaya hills, the Assam plains, and the northern portion of Bangladesh. The basin, especially south of Tibet, is characterized by high levels of rainfall. Kangchenjunga (8,586 m) is the only peak above 8,000 m, hence is the highest point within the Brahmaputra basin. The Brahmaputra's upper course was long unknown, and its identity with the Yarlung Tsangpo was only established by exploration in 1884–86. This river is often called Tsangpo-Brahmaputra river. The lower reaches are sacred to Hindus. While most rivers on the Indian subcontinent have female names, this river has a rare male name, as it means "son of Brahma" in Sanskrit (putra means "son").
Brahmi (IAST) is the modern name given to one of the oldest writing systems used in Ancient India and present South and Central Asia from the 1st millennium BCE.
Brass is a metallic alloy that is made of copper and zinc.
The British Armed Forces, also known as Her/His Majesty's Armed Forces, are the military services responsible for the defence of the United Kingdom, its overseas territories and the Crown dependencies.
The Indian Army (IA), often known since 1947 (but rarely during its existence) as the British Indian Army to distinguish it from the current Indian Army, was the principal military of the British Indian Empire before its decommissioning in 1947.
The British Raj (from rāj, literally, "rule" in Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
Brutalist architecture flourished from 1951 to 1975, having descended from the modernist architectural movement of the early 20th century.
BTCL or Bangladesh Telecommunications Company Limited is the largest telecommunications company in Bangladesh.
The Buddha Dhatu Jadi (বুদ্ধ ধাতু জাদি; also known as the Bandarban Golden Temple) is located close to Balaghata town, in Bandarban City, in Bangladesh.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
It is said that Buddha once in his life came to this region East Bengal to spread Buddhism and he was successful to convert the local people of East Bengal to Buddhism.
A bungalow is a type of building, originally developed in the Bengal region in South Asia.
The Burma Campaign was a series of battles fought in the British colony of Burma, South-East Asian theatre of World War II, primarily between the forces of the British Empire and China, with support from the United States, against the invading forces of Imperial Japan, Thailand, and the Indian National Army.
The Cabinet of Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশের মন্ত্রিসভা –) or Council of Ministers (বাংলাদেশের মন্ত্রিপরিষদ –) is the chief executive body of the People's Republic of Bangladesh.
Candy, also called sweets or lollies, is a confection that features sugar as a principal ingredient.
The Cannes Festival (Festival de Cannes), named until 2002 as the International Film Festival (Festival international du film) and known in English as the Cannes Film Festival, is an annual film festival held in Cannes, France, which previews new films of all genres, including documentaries from all around the world.
A capital city (or simply capital) is the municipality exercising primary status in a country, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of government.
The capped langur (Trachypithecus pileatus) is a species of primate in the family Cercopithecidae.
The Caretaker Government of Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশের তত্ত্বাবধায়ক সরকার) was a form of government in which Bangladesh used to be ruled by a selected government for an interim period during the transition from one elected government to another, after the completion of tenure of the former, during the period between 1996 to 2008.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
Central Public Library (কেন্দ্রীয় গণগ্রন্থাগার) of Bangladesh (between 1996 and 2007 it was named Begum Sufia Kamal National Public Library) is the largest public library in Bangladesh.
The ceramics industry is a growing manufacturing sector in Bangladesh.
Chaand Raat (Bengali: চাঁদ রাত, چاند رات, Hindi: चाँद रात; literally Night of the moon) is a Bengali, Urdu and Hindi locution used in Bangladesh, Pakistan and India for the eve of the Muslim festival of Eid ul-Fitr; it can also mean a night with a new moon for the new Islamic month shawwal.
The Chaks (চাক.), are a community inhabiting the Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh and also in Burma.
The Chakmas, also known as the Changma, Daingnet people, are an ethnic group scattered in Arunachal Pradesh, Tripura, Assam, Mizoram, Meghalaya and West Bengal of India and in Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh.
The Chalcolithic (The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998), p. 301: "Chalcolithic /,kælkəl'lɪθɪk/ adjective Archaeology of, relating to, or denoting a period in the 4th and 3rd millennium BCE, chiefly in the Near East and SE Europe, during which some weapons and tools were made of copper. This period was still largely Neolithic in character. Also called Eneolithic... Also called Copper Age - Origin early 20th cent.: from Greek khalkos 'copper' + lithos 'stone' + -ic". χαλκός khalkós, "copper" and λίθος líthos, "stone") period or Copper Age, in particular for eastern Europe often named Eneolithic or Æneolithic (from Latin aeneus "of copper"), was a period in the development of human technology, before it was discovered that adding tin to copper formed the harder bronze, leading to the Bronze Age.
Chandidas (চণ্ডীদাস; born 1408 CE) refers to a medieval poet of Bengal or possibly more than one.
The Chandra dynasty were a family who ruled over the kingdom of Harikela in eastern Bengal (comprising the ancient lands of Harikela, Vanga and Samatala) for roughly 150 years from the beginning of the 10th century CE.
The Charyapada (চর্যাপদ Sôrzapôd) (চর্যাপদ Chôrjapôd) is a collection of mystical poems, songs of realization in the Vajrayana tradition of Buddhism from the tantric tradition during the Pala Empire in Ancient Bengal, Bihar, Orissa.
Chashi Nazrul Islam (23 October 1941 – 11 January 2015) was a Bangladeshi film director and producer.
Chevron Corporation is an American multinational energy corporation.
Chicken tikka (چِکن تِکّہ), is a chicken dish originating in the Punjab region of the Indian Subcontinent; the dish is popular in India and Pakistan.
The Chief Adviser was the head of the Caretaker Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh who served as the Head of Government for 90 days during transition between one elected government to another during the term of the caretaker government.
The Chief Justice of Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশের প্রধান বিচারপতি —) is the chief amongst the judges of the Supreme Court of Bangladesh, and also head of the whole judicial establishments, including subordinate courts.
The office of the Chief Martial Law Administrator was a senior government authoritative post created in countries such as Pakistan, Bangladesh and Indonesia that gave considerable executive authority and powers to the holder of the post to enforce martial law in the country in an events to ensure the continuity of government.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
There are several hundred Chinese citizens and nationals who live in Bangladesh.
The chital or cheetal (Axis axis), also known as spotted deer or axis deer, is a species of deer that is native in the Indian subcontinent.
Chittagong, officially known as Chattogram, is a major coastal city and financial centre in southeastern Bangladesh.
Chittagong District, officially known as Chattogram District, is a district located in the south-eastern region of Bangladesh.
Chittagong Division, officially known as Chattogram Division, is geographically the largest of the eight administrative divisions of Bangladesh.
The Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT; Bengali: পার্বত্য চট্টগ্রাম, Parbotto Choŧŧogram; or the Hill Tracts for short) are an area within the Chattogram Division in southeastern Bangladesh, bordering India and Myanmar (Burma).
The Chittagong Hill Tracts conflict was a political and armed conflict between the government of Bangladesh and the Parbatya Chattagram Jana Sanghati Samiti (United People's Party of the Chittagong Hill Tracts) and its armed wing, the Shanti Bahini, over the issue of autonomy and the land rights of Jumma people, Chakma people and the other indigenous of Chittagong Hill Tracts.
The Chittagong Hill Tracts Peace Accord also known as Chittagong Hill Tracts Treaty, 1997 is a political agreement and peace treaty signed between the Bangladeshi Government and the Parbatya Chattagram Jana Sanghati Samiti (United People's Party of the Chittagong Hill Tracts), the political organisation that controlled the Shanti Bahini militia on 2 December 1997.
The Chittagong Stock Exchange (চট্টগ্রাম স্টক এক্সচেঞ্জ) is a stock exchange based in the port city of Chittagong, Bangladesh.
Chittagong University of Engineering & Technology (চট্টগ্রাম প্রকৌশল ও প্রযুক্তি বিশ্ববিদ্যালয়) commonly referred to as CUET (চুয়েট), located in Raozan Upazila, Chittagong District, Bangladesh, is renowned as one of the public engineering universities in Bangladesh.
Chittagonian or Chittagong Bangla, also Chatgaya (চাঁটগাঁইয়া) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by the people of Chittagong in Bangladesh and in much of the southeast of the country.
Chobi Mela is a biennial international festival of photography held in Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Chomchom, cham cham, or chum chum (চমচম) is a traditional Bengali sweet originated from Porabari, Tangail, Bangladesh.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
The earliest recorded Christians in the territory of modern-day Bangladesh arrived during the Bengal Sultanate.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The cinema of Bangladesh is the Bengali language film industry based in Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Citrus macroptera, with English common names Melanesian papeda, wild orange,Harley I. Manner, Richard S. Buker, Virginia Easton Smith, Deborah Ward, and Craig R. Elevitch 2006.
Civil and political rights are a class of rights that protect individuals' freedom from infringement by governments, social organizations, and private individuals.
Civil disobedience is the active, professed refusal of a citizen to obey certain laws, demands, orders or commands of a government or occupying international power.
Civil society is the "aggregate of non-governmental organizations and institutions that manifest interests and will of citizens".
Climate change in Bangladesh is a pressing issue.
The clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa) is a wild cat occurring from the Himalayan foothills through mainland Southeast Asia into China.
The coconut tree (Cocos nucifera) is a member of the family Arecaceae (palm family) and the only species of the genus Cocos.
A coin is a small, flat, (usually) round piece of metal or plastic used primarily as a medium of exchange or legal tender.
Comilla, officially known as Cumilla, is a city in the Chittagong Division of Bangladesh, located along the Dhaka-Chittagong Highway.
Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.
Common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is that body of law derived from judicial decisions of courts and similar tribunals.
The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.
Community-led total sanitation (CLTS) is an approach used to improve sanitation and hygiene practices in a community.
Company rule in India (sometimes, Company Raj, "raj, lit. "rule" in Hindi) refers to the rule or dominion of the British East India Company over parts of the Indian subcontinent.
The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is a multilateral treaty that bans all nuclear explosions, for both civilian and military purposes, in all environments.
A conscience vote or free vote is a type of vote in a legislative body where legislators are allowed to vote according to their own personal conscience rather than according to an official line set down by their political party.
Constantinos Apostolou Doxiadis (also Konstantinos; 14 May 1913 – 28 June 1975), often cited as C. A. Doxiadis, was a Greek architect and town planner.
The Constituent Assembly of Bangladesh was the constituent assembly of Bangladesh.
An idea for a Constituent Assembly of India was proposed in 1934 by M. N. Roy, a pioneer of the Communist movement in India and an advocate of radical democracy.
The Constituent Assembly of Pakistan (পাকিস্তান্ গণপরিষদ্ Pākistān Gaṇapariṣad; آئین ساز اسمبلی, Aāin Sāz Asimblī.), was formed to write Pakistan's constitution and serve as its first parliament.
The Constitution of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh is the constitutional document of Bangladesh.
The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), known informally as the Biodiversity Convention, is a multilateral treaty.
The Cooperation Afloat Readiness and Training (Exercise CARAT) is a series of annual bilateral military exercises conducted by the United States Pacific Fleet with several member nations of ASEAN in Southeast Asia.
Coral reefs are diverse underwater ecosystems held together by calcium carbonate structures secreted by corals.
Corruption in Bangladesh has been a continuing problem.
Transparency International (TI) has published the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) since 1995, annually ranking countries "by their perceived levels of corruption, as determined by expert assessments and opinion surveys." The CPI generally defines corruption as "the misuse of public power for private benefit".
Islamic cosmology is the cosmology of Islamic societies.
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae.
The countries dependent on the Bay of Bengal include littoral and landlocked countries that depend on the Bay of Bengal for maritime usage.
Cox's Bazar (কক্সবাজার) is a city, fishing port, tourism centre and district headquarters in southeastern Bangladesh.
Cox's Bazar Beach, located at Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh, is the longest unbroken sea beach in the world, running.
Cox's Bazar (কক্সবাজার জেলা, Cox's Bazar Jela also Cox's Bazar Zila) is a district in the Chittagong Division of Bangladesh.
A credit rating is an evaluation of the credit risk of a prospective debtor (an individual, a business, company or a government), predicting their ability to pay back the debt, and an implicit forecast of the likelihood of the debtor defaulting.
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, at the centre of which is a rectangular pitch with a target at each end called the wicket (a set of three wooden stumps upon which two bails sit).
The ICC Cricket World Cup is the international championship of One Day International (ODI) cricket.
In politics, crossing the floor is when a politician changes their allegiance or votes against their party in a Westminster system parliament.
Crown colony, dependent territory and royal colony are terms used to describe the administration of United Kingdom overseas territories that are controlled by the British Government.
The culture of Bengal encompasses the Bengal region in South Asia, including Bangladesh and the Indian states of West Bengal, Tripura and Assam (Barak Valley), where the Bengali language is the official and primary language.
Curry (sometimes, plural curries) is an umbrella term referring to a number of dishes originating in the cuisine of the Indian subcontinent.
A cutter is typically a small, but in some cases a medium-sized, watercraft designed for speed rather than for capacity.
In meteorology, a cyclone is a large scale air mass that rotates around a strong center of low atmospheric pressure.
Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.
Cyril John Radcliffe, 1st Viscount Radcliffe, (30 March 1899 – 1 April 1977) was a British lawyer and Law Lord best known for his role in the partition of British India.
The D-8 Organization for Economic Cooperation, also known as Developing-8, is an organisation for development co-operation among the following countries: Bangladesh, Egypt, Nigeria, Indonesia, Iran, Malaysia, Pakistan, and Turkey.
The Daily FT or the Daily Financial Times is a daily English-language newspaper published in Colombo, Sri Lanka, by Wijeya Newspapers.
The Daily Press Inc. is a daily morning newspaper published in Newport News, Virginia, which covers the lower and middle Peninsula of Tidewater Virginia.
Darfur (دار فور, Fur) is a region in western Sudan.
Phoenix dactylifera, commonly known as date or date palm, is a flowering plant species in the palm family, Arecaceae, cultivated for its edible sweet fruit.
Daulat Qazi (–) was a medieval Bengali poet, believed to have been born into a Qazi family in the village of Sultanpur in Raozan Upazila, Chittagong.
Deaths along the Bangladesh–India border occur hundreds of times a year because of those attempting to cross into India from Bangladesh illegally mainly for trade purpose.
In the fields of horticulture and botany, the term deciduous (/dɪˈsɪdʒuəs/) means "falling off at maturity" and "tending to fall off", in reference to trees and shrubs that seasonally shed leaves, usually in the autumn; to the shedding of petals, after flowering; and to the shedding of ripe fruit.
Decolonization (American English) or decolonisation (British English) is the undoing of colonialism: where a nation establishes and maintains its domination over one or more other territories.
Deforestation, clearance, or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use.
The Delhi Sultanate (Persian:دهلی سلطان, Urdu) was a Muslim sultanate based mostly in Delhi that stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent for 320 years (1206–1526).
Democracy (δημοκρατία dēmokraa thetía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting.
The Democracy Index is an index compiled by the UK-based company the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) that intends to measure the state of democracy in 167 countries, of which 166 are sovereign states and 165 are UN member states.
The Democratic Republic of the Congo (République démocratique du Congo), also known as DR Congo, the DRC, Congo-Kinshasa or simply the Congo, is a country located in Central Africa.
Bangladesh is largely ethnically homogeneous, and its name derives from the Bengali ethno-linguistic group which comprises 98% of the population.
Deva Dynasty (c. 12th – 13th centuries) was a Hindu dynasty which originated in the Bengal region of the Indian subcontinent; the dynasty ruled over eastern Bengal after the Sena dynasty.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
Dhaka (or; ঢাকা); formerly known as Dacca is the capital and largest city of Bangladesh.
Dhaka Division (ঢাকা বিভাগ, Ḑhaka Bibhag) is an administrative division within Bangladesh.
Dhaka Lit Fest (also known as Dhaka Literary Festival or DLF) is an annual literary festival held in Dhaka, Bangladesh.
The Dhaka Stock Exchange (DSE) (ঢাকা স্টক এক্সচেঞ্জ Dhaka stôk ekschenj), located in Motijheel, Dhaka, is one of the two stock exchanges of Bangladesh (the other being the Chittagong Stock Exchange).
Dhaka University of Engineering & Technology, Gazipur (ঢাকা প্রকৌশল ও প্রযুক্তি বিশ্ববিদ্যালয়, গাজীপুর) or DUET, Gazipur is a public university for the study of engineering in Bangladesh,which focuses on the study of engineering and architecture.
A Dhakai is a type of sari (traditional cloth for women of South Asia) made with cotton.
Dhakeshwari National Temple (''Ðhakeshshori Jatio Mondir''.) is a Hindu temple in Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Dhol (ढोल, ਢੋਲ, ڈھول, ঢোল, ઢોલ, ढोल, ঢোল) can refer to any one of a number of similar types of double-headed drum widely used, with regional variations, throughout the Indian subcontinent.
The Vesti, also known as panche, Dhoti, dhuti, mardani, chaadra, dhotar, and panchey, is a traditional men's garment worn in the Indian subcontinent.
Dinajpur (দিনাজপুর) is a city situated in northern part of Bangladesh.
Dinajpur district (দিনাজপুর জেলা) is a district in the Rangpur Division of northern Bangladesh.
Dinajpur Sadar (দিনাজপুর সদর) is an Upazila of Dinajpur District in the Division of Rangpur, Bangladesh.
The administration of Bangladesh is divided into eight major regions called divisions (bibhag).
Pakistan (পাকিস্তান অধিরাজ্য; مملکتِ پاکستان), also called the Dominion of Pakistan, was an independent federal dominion in South Asia that was established in 1947 as a result of the Pakistan movement, followed by the simultaneous partition of British India to create a new country called Pakistan.
The dotara (or dotar) (দোতারা, দোতাৰা, literally, 'Of or having two wires') is a two, four, or sometimes five-stringed musical instrument resembling a sarod.
Dravidians are native speakers of any of the Dravidian languages.
Fresh fish rapidly deteriorates unless some way can be found to preserve it.
Duck is the common name for a large number of species in the waterfowl family Anatidae, which also includes swans and geese.
Durga Puja, also called Durgotsava, is an annual Hindu festival in the Indian subcontinent that reveres the goddess Durga. Durga Puja is believed to be the greatest festival of the Bengali people. It is particularly popular in West Bengal, Bihar, Jharkhand, Odisha, Assam, Tripura, Bangladesh and the diaspora from this region, and also in Nepal where it is called Dashain. The festival is observed in the Hindu calendar month of Ashvin, typically September or October of the Gregorian calendar, and is a multi-day festival that features elaborate temple and stage decorations (pandals), scripture recitation, performance arts, revelry, and processions. It is a major festival in the Shaktism tradition of Hinduism across India and Shakta Hindu diaspora. Durga Puja festival marks the battle of goddess Durga with the shape-shifting, deceptive and powerful buffalo demon Mahishasura, and her emerging victorious. Thus, the festival epitomises the victory of good over evil, but it also is in part a harvest festival that marks the goddess as the motherly power behind all of life and creation. The Durga Puja festival dates coincide with Vijayadashami (Dussehra) observed by other traditions of Hinduism, where the Ram Lila is enacted — the victory of Rama is marked and effigies of demon Ravana are burnt instead. The primary goddess revered during Durga Puja is Durga, but her stage and celebrations feature other major deities of Hinduism such as goddess Lakshmi (goddess of wealth, prosperity), Saraswati (goddess of knowledge and music), Ganesha (god of good beginnings) and Kartikeya (god of war). The latter two are considered to be children of Durga (Parvati). The Hindu god Shiva, as Durga's husband, is also revered during this festival. The festival begins on the first day with Mahalaya, marking Durga's advent in her battle against evil. Starting with the sixth day (Sasthi), the goddess is welcomed, festive Durga worship and celebrations begin in elaborately decorated temples and pandals hosting the statues. Lakshmi and Saraswati are revered on the following days. The festival ends of the tenth day of Vijaya Dashami, when with drum beats of music and chants, Shakta Hindu communities start a procession carrying the colorful clay statues to a river or ocean and immerse them, as a form of goodbye and her return to divine cosmos and Mount Kailash. The festival is an old tradition of Hinduism, though it is unclear how and in which century the festival began. Surviving manuscripts from the 14th century provide guidelines for Durga puja, while historical records suggest royalty and wealthy families were sponsoring major Durga Puja public festivities since at least the 16th century. The prominence of Durga Puja increased during the British Raj in its provinces of Bengal and Assam. Durga Puja is a ten-day festival, of which the last five are typically special and an annual holiday in regions such as West Bengal, Odisha and Tripura where it is particularly popular. In the contemporary era, the importance of Durga Puja is as much as a social festival as a religious one wherever it is observed.
A trading post of the Dutch East India Company (VOC) existed in Rajshahi, Bengal, during the 18th century.
East Bengal (পূর্ব বাংলা Purbô Bangla) was a geographically noncontiguous province of the Dominion of Pakistan covering Bangladesh.
Legislative elections were held in East Bengal between 8 and 12 March 1954, the first since Pakistan became an independent country in 1947.
The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to trade with the East Indies (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent.
East Pakistan was the eastern provincial wing of Pakistan between 1955 and 1971, covering the territory of the modern country Bangladesh.
The East Pakistan Provincial Assembly, known as the East Bengal Legislative Assembly between 1947 and 1955, was the legislature of Bangladesh when the country was a province of Pakistan as East Bengal (1947-1955) and East Pakistan (1955-1971).
Eastern Bengal and Assam was an administrative subdivision (province) of the British Raj between 1905 and 1912.
The Eastern Bengal Railway (full name Eastern Bengal Railway Company, shortened EBR) was one of the pioneering railway companies that operated from 1857 to 1942, in Bengal and Assam provinces of British India.
Eastern South Asia is a subregion of South Asia.
An Ecologically Critical Area (ECA) is an environmental protection zone in Bangladesh.
Economic discrimination is discrimination based on economic factors.
Economic efficiency is, roughly speaking, a situation in which nothing can be improved without something else being hurt.
Economic liberalization (or economic liberalisation) is the lessening of government regulations and restrictions in an economy in exchange for greater participation by private entities; the doctrine is associated with classical liberalism.
The Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) is a British business within the Economist Group providing forecasting and advisory services through research and analysis, such as monthly country reports, five-year country economic forecasts, country risk service reports, and industry reports.
Education For All (EFA) is a global movement led by UNESCO (United Nation Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization), aiming to meet the learning needs of all children, youth and adults by 2015.
Education in Bangladesh is overseen by the Bangladesh's Ministry of Education.
An egg is the organic vessel containing the zygote in which an animal embryo develops until it can survive on its own; at which point the animal hatches.
Eid al-Adha (lit), also called the "Festival of Sacrifice", is the second of two Islamic holidays celebrated worldwide each year (the other being Eid al-Fitr), and considered the holier of the two.
Eid al-Fitr (عيد الفطر) is an important religious holiday celebrated by Muslims worldwide that marks the end of Ramadan, the Islamic holy month of fasting (sawm).
Ektara (एकतारा, একতারা, ਇਕ ਤਾਰਾ; literally "one-string", also called iktar, ektar, yaktaro, gopichand, gopichant, gopijiantra, tun tuna) is a one-string instrument most often used in traditional music from Bangladesh, Egypt, India, and Pakistan.
The Ekushey Book Fair or Amar Ekushe Grantha Melā (lit), popularly known as Ekushey Boi Mela (একুশে বই মেলা) is the national book fair of Bangladesh.
Elections in Bangladesh gives information on election and election results in Bangladesh.
An electoral college is a set of electors who are selected to elect a candidate to a particular office.
Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of electric charge.
Electronics industry in Bangladesh is one of the fastest growing industries in the country with great potential.
Embroidery is the craft of decorating fabric or other materials using a needle to apply thread or yarn.
An emerging market is a country that has some characteristics of a developed market, but does not meet standards to be a developed market.
Energy in Bhutan has been a primary focus of development in the kingdom under its Five-Year Plans.
Nepal had a total primary energy supply (TPES) of 10.29 Mtoe in 2012.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Climate refugees or environmental migrants are people who are forced to leave their home region due to sudden or long-term changes to their local environment.
In earth science, erosion is the action of surface processes (such as water flow or wind) that remove soil, rock, or dissolved material from one location on the Earth's crust, and then transport it to another location (not to be confused with weathering which involves no movement).
An estuary is a partially enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea.
Ethnic cleansing is the systematic forced removal of ethnic or racial groups from a given territory by a more powerful ethnic group, often with the intent of making it ethnically homogeneous.
The Ethnological Museum of Chittagong (জাতিতাত্ত্বিক জাদুঘর) is the only ethnological museum in Bangladesh and is located in Agrabad, Chittagong.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
In botany, an evergreen is a plant that has leaves throughout the year, always green.
An exclusive economic zone (EEZ) is a sea zone prescribed by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea over which a state has special rights regarding the exploration and use of marine resources, including energy production from water and wind.
Export-oriented industrialization (EOI) sometimes called export substitution industrialization (ESI), export led industrialization (ELI) or export-led growth is a trade and economic policy aiming to speed up the industrialization process of a country by exporting goods for which the nation has a comparative advantage.
An extrajudicial killing (also known as extrajudicial execution) is the killing of a person by governmental authorities without the sanction of any judicial proceeding or legal process.
The Faculty of Fine Arts (FFA) was established in 1948 as the Dhaka Art School.
Fakhruddin Ahmed (born 1 May 1940) is a Bangladeshi economist, civil servant, and a former governor of the Bangladesh Bank, the country's central bank.
Family law (also called matrimonial law or the law of domestic relations) is an area of the law that deals with family matters and domestic relations.
Farah Ghuznavi is a Bangladeshi writer, development worker, journalist and translator.
Farrukh Ahmad (10 June 1918 – 19 October 1974) was a poet and writer of Bangladesh.
Fashion is a popular style, especially in clothing, footwear, lifestyle products, accessories, makeup, hairstyle and body.
Fatima Jinnah English IPA: fətɪ̈mɑ d͡ʒinnəɦ, (فاطمہ جناح; 31 July 1893 – 9 July 1967) was a Pakistani dental surgeon, biographer, stateswoman and one of the leading founders of Pakistan.
The feminist movement (also known as the women's movement, or simply feminism) refers to a series of political campaigns for reforms on issues such as reproductive rights, domestic violence, maternity leave, equal pay, women's suffrage, sexual harassment, and sexual violence, all of which fall under the label of feminism and the feminist movement.
Feminist science fiction is a subgenre of science fiction (abbreviated "SF") focused on theories that include but are not limited to gender inequality, sexuality, race, economics, and reproduction.
Field hockey is a team game of the hockey family.
A first-past-the-post (FPTP) voting method is one in which voters indicate on a ballot the candidate of their choice, and the candidate who receives the most votes wins.
A fiscal year (or financial year, or sometimes budget year) is the period used by governments for accounting and budget purposes, which vary between countries.
The fishing cat (Prionailurus viverrinus) is a medium-sized wild cat of South and Southeast Asia.
A flag carrier is a transportation company, such as an airline or shipping company, that, being locally registered in a given sovereign state, enjoys preferential rights or privileges accorded by the government for international operations.
A flood is an overflow of water that submerges land that is usually dry.
Bangladesh is prone to flooding due to being situated on the Ganges Delta and the many distributaries flowing into the Bay of Bengal.
Food processing is the transformation of cooked ingredients, by physical or chemical means into food, or of food into other forms.
Food security is a condition related to the availability of food supply, group of people such as (ethnicities, racial, cultural and religious groups) as well as individuals' access to it.
In international human rights law, a forced disappearance (or enforced disappearance) occurs when a person is secretly abducted or imprisoned by a state or political organization or by a third party with the authorization, support, or acquiescence of a state or political organization, followed by a refusal to acknowledge the person's fate and whereabouts, with the intent of placing the victim outside the protection of the law.
Forced Disappearances in Bangladesh first occurred after the independence of Bangladesh in 1971, under Sheikh Mujibur Rahman's regime between 1972 and 1975.
Sir Frederick Chalmers Bourne (12 August 1891 – 3 November 1977) was an English colonial administrator who served in British India until 1947 and then in the new Dominion of Pakistan until 1950.
Free economic zones (FEZ), free economic territories (FETs) or free zones (FZ) are a class of special economic zone (SEZ) designated by the trade and commerce administrations of various countries.
Freedom House is a U.S.-based 501(c)(3) U.S. government-funded non-governmental organization (NGO) that conducts research and advocacy on democracy, political freedom, and human rights.
Freedom in the World is a yearly survey and report by the U.S.-based non-governmental organization Freedom House that measures the degree of civil liberties and political rights in every nation and significant related and disputed territories around the world.
Freedom of the press or freedom of the media is the principle that communication and expression through various media, including printed and electronic media, especially published materials, should be considered a right to be exercised freely.
Freshwater swamp forests, or flooded forests, are forests which are inundated with freshwater, either permanently or seasonally.
A frigate is any of several types of warship, the term having been used for ships of various sizes and roles over the last few centuries.
Gangaridai (Γανγαρίδαι; Latin: Gangaridae) is a term used by the ancient Greco-Roman writers to describe a people or a geographical region of the ancient Indian subcontinent.
The Ganges, also known as Ganga, is a trans-boundary river of Asia which flows through the nations of India and Bangladesh.
The Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta (also known as the Brahmaputra Delta, the Sunderbans Delta or the Bengal Delta) is a river delta in the Bengal region of the South Asia, consisting of Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal.
The Garos are a Tibeto-Burman ethnic group in Meghalaya, Assam, Tripura, Nagaland and neighboring areas of Bangladesh like Mymensingh, Netrokona, Jamalpur, Sherpur and Sylhet, who call themselves A·chik Mande (literally "hill people," from a·chik "bite soil" + mande "people") or simply A·chik or Mande.
Gautama Buddha (c. 563/480 – c. 483/400 BCE), also known as Siddhārtha Gautama, Shakyamuni Buddha, or simply the Buddha, after the title of Buddha, was an ascetic (śramaṇa) and sage, on whose teachings Buddhism was founded.
Gazipur (গাজীপুর) is a city in central Bangladesh.
George Harrison (25 February 1943 – 29 November 2001) was an English guitarist, singer-songwriter, and producer who achieved international fame as the lead guitarist of the Beatles.
Ghee is a class of clarified butter that originated from the Indian subcontinent.
Global Peace Index (GPI) measures the relative position of nations' and regions' peacefulness.
GlobaLex is an online publication of the Hauser Global Law School Program at the New York University School of Law providing research tools for comparative law, international law, and the laws of various jurisdictions around the world.
Goalundo Ghat (also Goalanda and Goalondo) (গোয়ালন্দঘাট) is a small town and pourasabha in Goalandaghat Upazila, Rajbari District, Dhaka Division, Bangladesh, South Asia.
The Golan Heights (هضبة الجولان or مرتفعات الجولان, רמת הגולן), or simply the Golan, is a region in the Levant, spanning about.
Gambhira is a type of song (originating in Chapai Nawabganj, in the Northern region of Bangladesh).
Gopalganj (গোপালগঞ্জ জেলা) is a district (zilla in Bengali) in the Dhaka division of Bangladesh.
Gopalganj is a city in Gopalgonj District in the Dhaka Division of Bangladesh.
The Government of Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ সরকার Bangladesh Sôrkar GOB) has three branches; the Executive branch, the Legislative branch and the Judicial branch.
The Government of India Act 1919 (9 & 10 Geo. 5 c. 101) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The Government of India Act,1935 was originally passed in August 1935 (25 & 26 Geo. 5 c. 42), and is said to be the longest Act (British) of Parliament ever enacted by that time.
The Government Seal of Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ সরকারের সীল - Bānglādēś sarkārēr sīl) used by the Cabinet of Bangladesh and the Government of Bangladesh on official documents.
The Governor-General of Pakistan (گورنر جنرل پاکستان), was the representative in Pakistan of the British monarch, from the country's independence in 1947.
Graft, as understood in American English, is a form of political corruption, being the unscrupulous use of a politician's authority for personal gain.
The Grameen Bank (গ্রামীণ বাংক) is a microfinance organisation and community development bank founded in Bangladesh.
Grameenphone (গ্রামীণফোন) (DSE: GP, CSE: GP), widely abbreviated as GP, is the leading telecommunications service provider in Bangladesh.
The Great Bengal Famine of 1770 (৭৬-এর মন্বন্তর, Chhiattōrer monnōntór; lit The Famine of '76) was a famine between 1769 and 1773 (1176 to 1180 in the Bengali calendar) that affected the lower Gangetic plain of India from Bihar to the Bengal region.
The Greco-Roman world, Greco-Roman culture, or the term Greco-Roman; spelled Graeco-Roman in the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth), when used as an adjective, as understood by modern scholars and writers, refers to those geographical regions and countries that culturally (and so historically) were directly, long-term, and intimately influenced by the language, culture, government and religion of the ancient Greeks and Romans. It is also better known as the Classical Civilisation. In exact terms the area refers to the "Mediterranean world", the extensive tracts of land centered on the Mediterranean and Black Sea basins, the "swimming-pool and spa" of the Greeks and Romans, i.e. one wherein the cultural perceptions, ideas and sensitivities of these peoples were dominant. This process was aided by the universal adoption of Greek as the language of intellectual culture and commerce in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, and of Latin as the tongue for public management and forensic advocacy, especially in the Western Mediterranean. Though the Greek and the Latin never became the native idioms of the rural peasants who composed the great majority of the empire's population, they were the languages of the urbanites and cosmopolitan elites, and the lingua franca, even if only as corrupt or multifarious dialects to those who lived within the large territories and populations outside the Macedonian settlements and the Roman colonies. All Roman citizens of note and accomplishment regardless of their ethnic extractions, spoke and wrote in Greek and/or Latin, such as the Roman jurist and Imperial chancellor Ulpian who was of Phoenician origin, the mathematician and geographer Claudius Ptolemy who was of Greco-Egyptian origin and the famous post-Constantinian thinkers John Chrysostom and Augustine who were of Syrian and Berber origins, respectively, and the historian Josephus Flavius who was of Jewish origin and spoke and wrote in Greek.
Green jobs or green-collared jobs are, according to the United Nations Environment Program, "work in agricultural, manufacturing, research and development (R&D), administrative, and service activities that contribute(s) substantially to preserving or restoring environmental quality.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
The Group of 77 (G77) at the United Nations is a coalition of developing nations, designed to promote its members' collective economic interests and create an enhanced joint negotiating capacity in the United Nations.
The Gupta Empire was an ancient Indian empire, existing from approximately 240 to 590 CE.
Haiti (Haïti; Ayiti), officially the Republic of Haiti and formerly called Hayti, is a sovereign state located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea.
Haji Shariatullah (17811840) was an eminent Islamic reformer of the Indian subcontinent in British India.
The Hajj (حَجّ "pilgrimage") is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, the holiest city for Muslims, and a mandatory religious duty for Muslims that must be carried out at least once in their lifetime by all adult Muslims who are physically and financially capable of undertaking the journey, and can support their family during their absence.
Halva (halawa, alva, haleweh, halava, helava, helva, halwa, halua, aluva, chalva, chałwa) is any of various dense, sweet confections served across the Middle East, South Asia, Central Asia, West Asia, the Caucasus, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, the Balkans, Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Malta and the Jewish diaspora.
Hand pumps are manually operated pumps; they use human power and mechanical advantage to move fluids or air from one place to another.
Handball (also known as team handball, fieldball, European handball or Olympic handball) is a team sport in which two teams of seven players each (six outfield players and a goalkeeper) pass a ball using their hands with the aim of throwing it into the goal of the other team.
A haor (হাওর., ꠀꠅꠞ) is a wetland ecosystem in the north eastern part of Bangladesh which physically is a bowl or saucer shaped shallow depression, also known as a backswamp.
Harikela was a kingdom in ancient Bengal encompassing much of the eastern regions of the Indian Subcontinent.
Haripada Datta (born 1947) is a Bangladeshi novelist.
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.
Health levels remain relatively low in Bangladesh, although they have improved recently as poverty (31% at 2010) levels have decreased.
The High Court Division (উচ্চ আদালত বিভাগ —) also known as High Court is the lower division of the Supreme Court of Bangladesh, the upper being the Appellate Division.
The Higher Secondary Certificate, also known as HSC or Intermediate or +2 examination, is a public examination taken by students of Intermediate college (Junior college) in Bangladesh, Pakistan and in the states of Gujarat, Kerala, Telangana, Punjab, Maharashtra, West Bengal and Goa in India.
The Himalayas, or Himalaya, form a mountain range in Asia separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau.
Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.
Hindu law, as a historical term, refers to the code of laws applied to Hindus, Buddhists, Jains and Sikhs in British India.
Hindu temple architecture has many varieties of style, though the basic nature of the Hindu temple remains the same, with the essential feature an inner sanctum, the garbha griha or womb-chamber, where the primary Murti or the image of a deity is housed in a simple bare cell.
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
For Hinduism in the State of India, see: Hinduism in West Bengal Hinduism is the second largest religious affiliation in Bangladesh, covering about 8.96% of the population, according to the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics for 2011 Bangladesh census.
Modern Bangladesh emerged as an independent nation in 1971 after breaking away and achieving independence from Pakistan in the Bangladesh Liberation War.
The history of the taka, also known as the tanka or tangka, refers to one of the major historical currencies of Asia, particularly in the Indian subcontinent and Tibet.
Homosexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction or sexual behavior between members of the same sex or gender.
The hoolock gibbons are three primate species of genus Hoolock in the gibbon family, Hylobatidae, native to eastern Bangladesh, Northeast India and Southwest China.
Human resources are the people who make up the workforce of an organization, business sector, or economy.
Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, December 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved August 14, 2014 that describe certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected as natural and legal rights in municipal and international law.
Human rights in Bangladesh are enshrined as fundamental rights in Part III of the Constitution of Bangladesh.
Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights.
Humayun Ahmed (13 November 194819 July 2012) was a Bangladeshi writer, dramatist, screenwriter, filmmaker, song writer, scholar, and lecturer.
Humayun Rasheed Choudhury (11 November 1928 – 10 July 2001) was a Bangladeshi career diplomat and Speaker of the Bangladesh National Parliament from 1996 to 2001.
Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy (English IPA: ɦusæŋ ʃɑid sɦuɾɑwɑɾdɪə; حسین شہید سہروردی; হোসেন শহীদ সোহ্রাওয়ার্দী; 8 September 18925 December 1963) is a Bengali politician and a lawyer who served as the fifth Prime Minister of Pakistan, appointed in this capacity on 12 September 1956 until resigning on 17 October 1957.
Hussain Muhammad Ershad (হুসেইন মুহাম্মদ এরশাদ; born 1 February 1930) is a Bangladeshi politician who served as the 10th President of Bangladesh from 1983 to 1990.
The Hussain Shahi dynasty ruled from 1494-1538.
Hydropower or water power (from ύδωρ, "water") is power derived from the energy of falling water or fast running water, which may be harnessed for useful purposes.
Iajuddin Ahmed (1 February 193110 December 2012) was the 14th President of Bangladesh, serving from 6 September 2002 until 12 February 2008.
Ibn Battuta (محمد ابن بطوطة; fully; Arabic: أبو عبد الله محمد بن عبد الله اللواتي الطنجي بن بطوطة) (February 25, 13041368 or 1369) was a Moroccan scholar who widely travelled the medieval world.
Tenualosa ilisha (ilish, hilsa, hilsa herring "ইলিশ" in Bangla, or hilsa shad) is a species of fish related to the herring, in the Clupeidae family.
An illiberal democracy, also called a partial democracy, low intensity democracy, empty democracy, or hybrid regime, is a governing system in which, although elections take place, citizens are cut off from knowledge about the activities of those who exercise real power because of the lack of civil liberties.
The Ilyas Shahi dynasty also called the Ilyas dynasty was the first independent Turkic Muslim ruling dynasty in late medieval Bengal, which ruled from the 14th century to the 15th century.
The Imperial Legislative Council was a legislature for British India from 1861 to 1947.
An improved water source (or improved drinking-water source or improved water supply) is a term used to categorize certain types or levels of water supply for monitoring purposes.
The Independence Day of Bangladesh (স্বাধীনতা দিবস Shadhinôta Dibôs), taking place on 26 March, is a national holiday.
The following is an alphabetical index of Bangladeshi-related articles.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The India women's national cricket team, nicknamed the Women in Blue, represents the country of India in international women's cricket.
The Indian Armed Forces (Hindi (in IAST): Bhāratīya Saśastra Senāeṃ) are the military forces of the Republic of India.
Indian classical dance, or Shastriya Nritya, is an umbrella term for various performance arts rooted in religious Hindu musical theatre styles,, Quote: All of the dances considered to be part of the Indian classical canon (Bharata Natyam, Chhau, Kathak, Kathakali, Manipuri, Mohiniattam, Odissi, Sattriya and Yakshagana) trace their roots to religious practices (...) the Indian diaspora has led to the translocation of Hindu dances to Europe, North America and the world." whose theory and practice can be traced to the Sanskrit text Natya Shastra.
Indian classical music is a genre of South Asian music.
The (9 Edw. 7 c. 4), commonly known as the Morley-Minto Reforms (or as the Minto-Morley Reforms), was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that brought about a limited increase in the involvement of Indians in the governance of British India.
The Indian independence movement encompassed activities and ideas aiming to end the East India Company rule (1757–1857) and the British Indian Empire (1857–1947) in the Indian subcontinent.
The Indian National Congress (INC, often called Congress Party) is a broadly based political party in India.
The Indian Rebellion of 1857 was a major uprising in India between 1857–58 against the rule of the British East India Company, which functioned as a sovereign power on behalf of the British Crown.
The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.
The Indian Ocean Rim Association (IORA), formerly known as the Indian Ocean Rim Initiative and Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Cooperation (IOR-ARC), is an international organisation consisting of coastal states bordering the Indian Ocean.
There are hundreds of thousands of Indians in Bangladesh, most of whom are illegal migrants and refugees.
Indigenous peoples, also known as first peoples, aboriginal peoples or native peoples, are ethnic groups who are the pre-colonial original inhabitants of a given region, in contrast to groups that have settled, occupied or colonized the area more recently.
The Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 was a culmination of skirmishes that took place between April 1965 and September 1965 between Pakistan and India. The conflict began following Pakistan's Operation Gibraltar, which was designed to infiltrate forces into Jammu and Kashmir to precipitate an insurgency against Indian rule. India retaliated by launching a full-scale military attack on West Pakistan. The seventeen-day war caused thousands of casualties on both sides and witnessed the largest engagement of armored vehicles and the largest tank battle since World War II. Hostilities between the two countries ended after a United Nations-mandated ceasefire was declared following diplomatic intervention by the Soviet Union and the United States, and the subsequent issuance of the Tashkent Declaration. Much of the war was fought by the countries' land forces in Kashmir and along the border between India and Pakistan. This war saw the largest amassing of troops in Kashmir since the Partition of British India in 1947, a number that was overshadowed only during the 2001–2002 military standoff between India and Pakistan. Most of the battles were fought by opposing infantry and armoured units, with substantial backing from air forces, and naval operations. Many details of this war, like those of other Indo-Pakistani Wars, remain unclear. India had the upper hand over Pakistan when the ceasefire was declared. "Satisfied that it had secured a strategic and psychological victory over Pakistan by frustrating its attempt to seize Kashmir by force, when the UN resolution was passed, India accepted its terms... with Pakistan's stocks of ammunition and other essential supplies all but exhausted, and with the military balance tipping steadily in India's favour." "Losses were relatively heavy—on the Pakistani side, twenty aircraft, 200 tanks, and 3,800 troops. Pakistan's army had been able to withstand Indian pressure, but a continuation of the fighting would only have led to further losses and ultimate defeat for Pakistan." Quote: The invading Indian forces outfought their Pakistani counterparts and halted their attack on the outskirts of Lahore, Pakistan's second-largest city. By the time the United Nations intervened on 22 September, Pakistan had suffered a clear defeat. Although the two countries fought to a standoff, the conflict is seen as a strategic and political defeat for Pakistan, "... the war itself was a disaster for Pakistan, from the first failed attempts by Pakistani troops to precipitate an insurgency in Kashmir to the appearance of Indian artillery within range of Lahore International Airport." – U.S. Department of State, – Interview with Steve Coll in United States House of Representatives 12 September 1994South Asia in World Politics By Devin T. Hagerty, 2005 Rowman & Littlefield,, p. 26 as it had neither succeeded in fomenting insurrection in Kashmir "... after some initial success, the momentum behind Pakistan's thrust into Kashmir slowed, and the state's inhabitants rejected exhortations from the Pakistani insurgents to join them in taking up arms against their Indian "oppressors." Pakistan's inability to muster support from the local Kashmiri population proved a disaster, both militarily and politically." nor had it been able to gain meaningful support at an international level. "Mao had decided that China would intervene under two conditions—that India attacked East Pakistan, and that Pakistan requested Chinese intervention. In the end, neither of them obtained." Internationally, the war was viewed in the context of the greater Cold War, and resulted in a significant geopolitical shift in the subcontinent. Before the war, the United States and the United Kingdom had been major material allies of both India and Pakistan, as their primary suppliers of military hardware and foreign developmental aid. During and after the conflict, both India and Pakistan felt betrayed by the perceived lack of support by the western powers for their respective positions; those feelings of betrayal were increased with the imposition of an American and British embargo on military aid to the opposing sides. As a consequence, India and Pakistan openly developed closer relationships with the Soviet Union and China, respectively. The perceived negative stance of the western powers during the conflict, and during the 1971 war, has continued to affect relations between the West and the subcontinent. In spite of improved relations with the U.S. and Britain since the end of the Cold War, the conflict generated a deep distrust of both countries within the subcontinent which to an extent lingers to this day."In retrospect, it is clear that the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 represented a watershed in the West's association with the subcontinent.""By extending the Cold War into South Asia, however, the United States did succeed in disturbing the subcontinent's established politico-military equilibrium, undermining British influence in the region, embittering relations between India and Pakistan and, ironically, facilitating the expansion of communist influence in the developing world." "The legacy of the Johnson arms cut-off remains alive today. Indians simply do not believe that America will be there when India needs military help... the legacy of the U.S. "betrayal" still haunts U.S.-Pakistan relations today.".
Indo-Saracenic Revival (also known as Indo-Gothic, Mughal-Gothic, Neo-Mughal, Hindoo style) was an architectural style mostly used by British architects in India in the later 19th century, especially in public and government buildings in the British Raj, and the palaces of rulers of the princely states.
The Indomalayan realm is one of the eight biogeographic realms.
An inland port is a port on an inland waterway, such as a river, lake, or canal, which may or may not be connected to the ocean.
An intangible cultural heritage (ICH) is a practice, representation, expression, knowledge, or skill, as well as the instruments, objects, artefacts, and cultural spaces that are considered by UNESCO to be part of a place's cultural heritage.
The International Cricket Council (ICC) is the international governing body of cricket.
The International Federation of Film Critics (FIPRESCI, short for Fédération Internationale de la Presse Cinématographique) is an association of national organizations of professional film critics and film journalists from around the world for "the promotion and development of film culture and for the safeguarding of professional interests." It was founded in June 1930 in Brussels, Belgium.
International Futures (IFs) is a global integrated assessment model designed to help in thinking strategically and systematically about key global systems (economic, demographic, education, health, environment, technology, domestic governance, infrastructure, agriculture, energy and environment) housed at the Frederick S. Pardee Center for International Futures.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
International Mother Language Day (IMLD) is a worldwide annual observance held on 21 February to promote awareness of linguistic and cultural diversity and promote multilingualism.
Since October 2016, thousands of Rohingya refugees have fled Myanmar due to persecution in Rakhine State.
The International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ITLOS) is an intergovernmental organization created by the mandate of the Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea.
The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.
The Irrawaddy dolphin (Orcaella brevirostris) is a euryhaline species of oceanic dolphin found in discontinuous subpopulations near sea coasts and in estuaries and rivers in parts of the Bay of Bengal and Southeast Asia.
Irrigation is the application of controlled amounts of water to plants at needed intervals.
Isa Khan (c. 1529 – September 1599) was a Muslim Rajput chief who led the Baro Bhuiyans (twelve landlords) and a Zamindar of the Bhati region in 16th-century Bengal.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Adherents of Islam constitute the world's second largest religious group.
Bangladesh is a Muslim majority nation.
Islamic architecture encompasses a wide range of both secular and religious styles from the early history of Islam to the present day.
Islamic extremism has been defined by the British government as any form of Islam that opposes "democracy, the rule of law, individual liberty and mutual respect and tolerance of different faiths and beliefs." Related terms include "Islamist extremism" and Islamism.
Islamic University of Technology (IUT) (الجامعة الإسلامية للتقنية) (Université islamique de Technoloy) (ইসলামিক ইউনিভার্সিটি অব টেকনোলজি) is an international university in Bangladesh.
Islamophobia is the fear, hatred of, or prejudice against, the Islamic religion or Muslims generally, especially when seen as a geopolitical force or the source of terrorism.
Ismāʿīlism (الإسماعيلية al-Ismāʿīliyya; اسماعیلیان; اسماعيلي; Esmāʿīliyān) is a branch of Shia Islam.
Ivory is a hard, white material from the tusks (traditionally elephants') and teeth of animals, that can be used in art or manufacturing.
Ivory Coast, also known as Côte d'Ivoire and officially as the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire, is a sovereign state located in West Africa.
The jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus), also known as jack tree, fenne, jakfruit, or sometimes simply jack or jak, is a species of tree in the fig, mulberry, and breadfruit family (Moraceae) native to southwest India.
Jalaluddin Muhammad Shah (জালালউদ্দীন মুহম্মদ শাহ; born as Yadu or Jadu) was a 15th-century Sultan of Bengal and an important figure in medieval Bengali history.
Jamaat-ul-Mujahideen ("Assembly of Mujahideen", abbreviated: JMB; জামাত-উল-মুজাহিদীন বাংলাদেশ) is an Islamic terrorist organisation operating in Bangladesh.
Jamdani (জামদানি) is one of the finest muslin textiles of Bengal, produced in South Rupshi, Narayanganj, Dhaka District, Bangladesh for centuries.
The Jamuna River (যমুনা Jomuna) is one of the three main rivers of Bangladesh.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
Jasimuddin (জসীম উদ্দীন) (1 January 1903 – 13 March 1976), popularly called Palli Kabi (Pastoral Poet), was a Bangladeshi poet and writer widely celebrated for his modern ballad sagas in the pastoral mode.
The Jatiya Party (Ershad) (National Party (Ershad)) is a conservative political party in Bangladesh.
The Jatiya Samajtantrik Dal (জাতীয় সমাজতান্ত্রিক দল, 'National Socialist Party', abbreviated JSD or 'জাসদ', JASAD) is a political party in Bangladesh.
The Jatiya Sangsad ("National Parliament"; জাতীয় সংসদ Jatiyô Sôngsôd), often referred to simply as the Sangsad or JS and also known as the House of the Nation, is the supreme legislative body of Bangladesh.
Jatiya Sangsad Bhaban or National Parliament House, (জাতীয় সংসদ ভবন Jatiyô Sôngsôd Bhôbôn) is the house of the Parliament of Bangladesh, located at Sher-e-Bangla Nagar in the Bangladeshi capital of Dhaka.
Jatra (যাত্রা, origin: Yatra meaning procession or journey in Sanskrit) is a popular folk-theatre form of Bengali theatre, spread throughout most of Bengali speaking areas of the Indian subcontinent, including Bangladesh and Indian states of West Bengal, Bihar, Assam, Orissa and Tripura As of 2005, there were some 55 troupes based in Calcutta's old jatra district, Chitpur Road, and all together, jatra is a $21m-a-year industry, performed on nearly 4,000 stages in West Bengal alone, where in 2001, over 300 companies employed over 20,000 people, more than the local film industry and urban theatre.
Jessore, officially known as Jashore, যশোর) is a city in south-western Bangladesh. It is the capital of Jessore District. Jessore town consists of 9 wards and 73 mahalls. Jessore municipality was established in 1864. The area of the town is 25.72 km2. It has a population of 201,796 at the 2011 Census. The literacy rate among the townspeople is 56.57% in 1991.
Jessore University of Science and Technology (যশোর বিজ্ঞান ও প্রযুক্তি বিশ্ববিদ্যালয়) also known as JUST (যবিপ্রবি) is a government-financed public university in Bangladesh.
Joan Chandos Baez (born January 9, 1941) is an American singer, songwriter, musician, and activist whose contemporary folk music often includes songs of protest or social justice.
The term judicial review is not expressly used in Bangladeshi law, but Article 102 of the Constitution of Bangladesh allows writ petitions to be filed at the High Court Division for reviewing the actions of public authorities, or suspending proceedings in lower courts.
The Judiciary of Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশের বিচার বিভাগ —) or Judicial system of Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশের বিচার ব্যবস্থা —) is based on the Constitution and the laws are enacted by the legislature and interpreted by the higher courts.
The jungle cat (Felis chaus), also called reed cat and swamp cat, is a medium-sized cat native to the Middle East, South and Southeast Asia and southern China.
The Junior School Certificate, also known as JSC, is a public examination taken by students in Bangladesh after successful completion of eight years of schooling.
Jute is a long, soft, shiny vegetable fiber that can be spun into coarse, strong threads.
Kabaddi is a contact team sport.
Kafil Ahmed (কফিল আহমেদ) (born September 1, 1962 in Kishoreganj, Bangladesh) is a poet, singer, and painter of Bangladesh of contemporary age.
Kaiser Hamidul Haq (born 7 December 1950) is a Bangladeshi poet, translator, essayist, critic and academic.
Kanak Chanpa Chakma (born 6 May 1963) is a Bangladeshi Chakma artist who has won national and international awards, and is renowned for her paintings depicting the lives of Bangladeshi ethnic minorities, focusing on the lives of women, and their daily lives combining semi realistic and abstract in the same frame.
Kantanagar Temple, commonly known as Kantaji Temple or Kantajew Temple (কান্তজীউ মন্দির) at Kantanagar, is a late-medieval Hindu temple in Dinajpur, Bangladesh.
Kaptai Dam (কাপ্তাই বাঁধ) is on the Karnaphuli River at Kaptai, upstream from Chittagong in Rangamati District, Bangladesh.
The Karrani dynasty (د کرلاڼيو واکمني) was founded in 1564 by Taj Khan Karrani, an ethnic Pashtun from the Karlani tribe.
Kathak also known in Hindi as कथक is one of the eight major forms of Indian classical dance.
Kazi Anis Ahmed (Bengali: কাজী আনিস আহমেদ) is a Bangladeshi businessman, investor and publisher who serves as the Director and Chief Strategist of Gemcon Group and CEO of organics, education and retail department of the same group.
Kazi Nazrul Islam (কাজী নজরুল ইসলাম,; 24 May 189929 August 1976) was a Bengali poet, writer, musician, and revolutionary.
Kazi Zafar Ahmed (1 July 193927 August 2015) was a Bangladeshi politician of the Jatiya Party, who was the Prime Minister of Bangladesh from 1989 to 1990.
Kebabs (also kabobs or kababs) are various cooked meat dishes, with their origins in Middle Eastern cuisine.
Keokradong is a peak located in Bandarban, Bangladesh, with an elevation of 986 metres (3,235 ft).
The Khadga dynasty was a Buddhist power during the Late Vedic period on the Indian Subcontinent, which originated in the region of Bengal.
Begum Khaleda Zia (IPA: kʰaled̪a dʒia; Majumder, born 1945) is a Bangladeshi politician who served as the Prime Minister of Bangladesh from 1991 to 1996, and again from 2001 to 2006.
A khanqah or khaniqah (also transliterated as khankahs, khaneqa, khanegah or khaneqah (خانقاه)), also known as a ribat (رباط) – among other terms – is a building designed specifically for gatherings of a Sufi brotherhood or tariqa and is a place for spiritual retreat and character reformation.
The Khasi people, endonym, ("Children of the Seven Huts"), are an indigenous ethnic group of Meghalaya in north-eastern India, with a significant population in the bordering state of Assam, and in certain parts of Bangladesh.
Sir Khawaja Nazimuddin(خواجہ ناظِمُ الدّین; খাজা নাজিমুদ্দীন; 19 July 1894 – 22 October 1964),, was a Bengali politician, conservative figure, and one of the leading founding fathers of Pakistan.
Khichdi, or khichri, is a dish from the Indian subcontinent made from rice and lentils (dal), but other variations include bajra and mung dal kichri.
The Khilafat movement (1919–22) was a pan-Islamist, political protest campaign launched by Muslims of India to influence the British government not to abolish the Ottoman Caliphate.
Khondaker Mostaq Ahmad (also spelled Khandakar Mushtaq Ahmed; – 5 March 1996) was a Bangladeshi politician who served as the President of Bangladesh from 15 August to 6 November 1975, after the assassination of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman.
Khulna (খুলনা) is the third-largest city of Bangladesh.
Khulna Division (খুলনা বিভাগ) is one of the eight divisions of Bangladesh.
Khulna Shipyard Limited is a ship construction and repair yard at Khulna, Bangladesh owned by the Government of Bangladesh under Ministry of Defence and managed by the Bangladesh Navy.
Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (খুলনা প্রকৌশল ও প্রযুক্তি বিশ্ববিদ্যালয়) commonly known as KUET (কুয়েট), formerly BIT, Khulna, is a public engineering university of Bangladesh emphasizing education and research on engineering and technology.
The Khumis (খুমী), are a community inhabiting in the Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh.
The king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah), also known as the hamadryad, is a venomous snake species in the family Elapidae, endemic to forests from India through Southeast Asia.
The King of Saudi Arabia is Saudi Arabia's absolute monarch who serves as head of state and head of government.
The Kingdom of Mrauk-U was an independent coastal kingdom of Arakan which existed for over 350 years.
Kolkata (also known as Calcutta, the official name until 2001) is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal.
The Krishak Sramik Party was a major anti-feudal political party in the British Indian province of Bengal and later in the Dominion of Pakistan's East Bengal and East Pakistan provinces.
Krishna Janmashtami (Devanagari कृष्ण जन्माष्टमी, IAST), also known simply as Janmashtami or Gokulashtami, is an annual Hindu festival that celebrates the birth of Krishna, the eighth avatar of Vishnu.
The Kukis constitute one of several hill tribes within the India, Bangladesh, and Burma.
A kurta (कुर्ता, কুর্তা, ਕੁੜਤਾ, کرتہ) is an upper garment for men and women, originating in the Indian subcontinent, with regional variations of form.
The Oraon or Kurukh tribe (Kurukh: Oṛāōn and Kuṛuḵẖ), also spelled Uraon, Oran, or Oram, are an Adivasi group inhabiting various states across central and eastern India, Rakhine State in Myanmar, Bangladesh, Nepal, and Bhutan.
The Lahore Resolution (قرارداد لاہور, Karardad-e-Lahore; Bengali: লাহোর প্রস্তাব, Lahor Prostab),was a declaration written by Muhammad Zafarullah Khan and others and presented by A. K. Fazl ul Huq, the Prime Minister of Bengal, was a formal political statement adopted by the All-India Muslim League on the occasion of its three-day general session in Lahore on 22–24 March 1940.
Lamb, hogget, and mutton are the meat of domestic sheep (species Ovis aries) at different ages.
Land reform (also agrarian reform, though that can have a broader meaning) involves the changing of laws, regulations or customs regarding land ownership.
The Language Movement (ভাষা আন্দোলন Bhasha Andolôn) was a political movement in former East Bengal (currently Bangladesh) advocating the recognition of the Bengali language as an official language of the then-Dominion of Pakistan in order to allow its use in government affairs, the continuation of its use as a medium of education, its use in media, currency and stamps, and to maintain its writing in the Bengali script.
Language Movement Day or Language Revolution Day or Bengali Language Movement Day (ভাষা আন্দোলন দিবস Bhasha Andolôn Dibôs), which is also referred to as Language Martyrs' Day or Martyrs' Day (শহীদ দিবস Shôhid Dibôs), is a national day of Bangladesh to commemorate protests and sacrifices to protect Bengali as a national language during Bengali Language Movement of 1952.
The official and de facto national language of Bangladesh is Modern Standard Bengali (Literary Bengali).
Latifur Rahman (1 March 1936 – 6 June 2017) was the 10th Chief Justice and the 2nd Chief Adviser of Bangladesh.
Bangladesh is part of the common law jurisdiction.
Leather is a durable and flexible material created by tanning animal rawhides, mostly cattle hide.
Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.
The Legislative Council of Eastern-Bengal and Assam was the legislative council of Eastern Bengal and Assam, a province of the British Indian Empire covering Bangladesh and Northeast India.
The Legislatures of British India included legislative bodies in the presidencies and provinces of British India, the Imperial Legislative Council, the Chamber of Princes and the Central Legislative Assembly.
The doctrine of legitimate expectation was first developed in English law as a ground of judicial review in administrative law to protect a procedural or substantive interest when a public authority rescinds from a representation made to a person.
The lentil (Lens culinaris or Lens esculenta) is an edible pulse.
A liberal education is a system or course of education suitable for the cultivation of a free (Latin: liber) human being.
The Liberation War Museum (মুক্তিযুদ্ধ যাদুঘর Muktijuddho Jadughôr) is a museum in Sher-e-Bangla Nagar, Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh, which commemorates the Bangladesh Liberation War that led to the independence of Bangladesh from Pakistan.
Liberia, officially the Republic of Liberia, is a country on the West African coast.
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
The Country Studies are works published by the Federal Research Division of the United States Library of Congress, freely available for use by researchers.
Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.
This is a list of airlines which have an Air Operator Certificate issued by the Civil Aviation Authority of Bangladesh.
This is a list of airports in Bangladesh, grouped by type and sorted by location.
This is a list of Bangladeshi Test cricketers.
Present day Bangladesh, due to its unique geographic location, suffers from devastating tropical cyclones frequently.
This page lists articles on Wikipedia that are related to Bangladesh, Bengal and Bangladesh/Bengali culture.
This is a list of notable Bangladeshi actors and actresses.
This is a list of notable Bangladeshi Americans, including both original immigrants who obtained American citizenship and their American descendants.
This list of Bangladeshi architects includes notable architects who were born in Bangladesh.
Following is a list of Bangladeshi painters (in alphabetical order).
Listed below are notable people who are either citizens of Bangladesh, born in the region of what is now Bangladesh, or of Bangladeshi origin living abroad.
Following is a list of Bangladeshi poets, either born in Bangladesh or who published much of their writing while living in the country.
The Writers listed below were either born in Bangladesh or else published much of their writing while living in that country.
This article provides lists of famous and notable Bengali people, from India or Bangladesh, or people with Bengali ancestry or people who speak Bengali as their primary language.
This is a list of the bird species recorded in Bangladesh.
This is a list of notable British Bangladeshi people (উল্লেখযোগ্য ব্রিটিশ বাংলাদেশী ব্যক্তিদের তালিকা).
Bangladesh is a sovereign state in South Asia.
This is a list of countries and dependent territories by population.
All figures are rounded to three significant.
Foreign-exchange reserves (also called Forex reserves) are, in a strict sense, only the foreign-currency deposits held by national central banks and monetary authorities (See List of countries by foreign-exchange reserves (excluding gold)).
Gross domestic product (GDP) is the market value of all final goods and services from a nation in a given year.
This article includes a list of countries by their forecasted estimated gross domestic product based on purchasing power parity, abbreviated GDP (PPP).
This list of culinary fruits contains the names of some fruits that are considered edible in some cuisines.
This is a list of government agencies engaged in activities related to outer space and space exploration.
In Bangladesh, a medical school is known as a medical college.
Bangladesh is a low-lying country.
A list of protected areas of Bangladesh.
The tribes mentioned in the Rigveda are described as semi-nomadic pastoralists.
Bangladesh is a riverine country.
The road network of Bangladesh consists of national highways (designated by a number preceded by "N"), regional highways (R numbers), and zilla or district roads (Z numbers).
During Bangladesh War of Independence, the Bangladesh Forces (not to be confused with Mukti Bahini) were divided in the geographical area of Bangladesh into 11 divisions, designated as sectors.
Universities in Bangladesh are mainly categorized into three different types: public (government owned and subsidized), private (private sector owned universities), and international (operated and funded by international organizations such as the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation).
This is a list of World Heritage Sites in Bangladesh with properties of cultural and natural heritage in Bangladesh as inscribed in UNESCO's World Heritage List or as on the country's tentative list.
Literacy is traditionally meant as the ability to read and write.
Lobsters comprise a family (Nephropidae, sometimes also Homaridae) of large marine crustaceans.
Louis Isadore Kahn (born Itze-Leib Schmuilowsky) (– March 17, 1974) was an American architect, based in Philadelphia.
Luchi (লুচি, লুচি lusi, ଲୁଚି) is a deep-fried flatbread, originating from the Indian subcontinent, made of wheat flour that is typical of Bengali, Assamese, Maithili and Oriya cuisine.
The lungi is a type of sarong, originating from the Indian subcontinent, and a traditional garment worn around the waist in Sri Lanka, India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Somalia, Nepal, Cambodia, Djibouti, Myanmar and Thailand, Saudi Arabia and Yemen.
Muhammad Ataul Gani Osmani (মহম্মদ আতাউল গণি ওসমানী; 1 September 1918 – 16 February 1984), also known as Bangabir (the Hero of Bengal), was the commander-in-chief of the Bangladesh Forces during the 1971 Bangladesh War of Independence.
Madhupur tract is a large upland area of 4,244 km² in north central part of Bangladesh, stretching from east of Jamalpur in the north, to Fatullah and Narayanganj, in the south.
Madison Square Garden, often called "MSG" or simply "The Garden", is a multi-purpose indoor arena in the New York City borough of Manhattan.
Magadhi Prakrit (Māgadhī) was a vernacular Middle Indo-Aryan language, replacing earlier Vedic Sanskrit in parts of the Indian subcontinents.
Magical realism, magic realism, or marvelous realism is a genre of narrative fiction and, more broadly, art (literature, painting, film, theatre, etc.) that, while encompassing a range of subtly different concepts, expresses a primarily realistic view of the real world while also adding or revealing magical elements.
Mahasthangarh (মহাস্থানগড় Môhasthangôṛ) is one of the earliest urban archaeological sites so far discovered in Bangladesh.
Mainamati (ময়নামতি Môynamoti) is an isolated low, dimpled range of hills, dotted with more than 50 ancient Buddhist settlements dating to between the 8th and 12th century CE.
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.
Malnutrition is a condition that results from eating a diet in which one or more nutrients are either not enough or are too much such that the diet causes health problems.
The Mamluk Dynasty (sometimes referred as Slave Dynasty or Ghulam Dynasty) (سلطنت مملوک), (غلام خاندان) was directed into Northern India by Qutb ud-Din Aibak, a Turkic Mamluk slave general from Central Asia.
Mangal Shobhajatra or Mangal Shovajatra is a mass procession that takes place at dawn on the first day of the Bengali New Year in Bangladesh.
Mangoes are juicy stone fruit (drupe) from numerous species of tropical trees belonging to the flowering plant genus Mangifera, cultivated mostly for their edible fruit.
A mangrove is a shrub or small tree that grows in coastal saline or brackish water.
Manipuri dance, also known as Jagoi, is one of the major Indian classical dance forms, named after the region of its origin – Manipur, a state in northeastern India bordering with Myanmar (Burma), Assam, Nagaland and Mizoram.
Margarita "Rita" Mamun-Sukhorukova (Маргарита Мамун Сухоруковa.; born 1 November 1995 in Moscow, Russia) is a retired Russian individual rhythmic gymnast.
Marine mammals are aquatic mammals that rely on the ocean and other marine ecosystems for their existence.
Reptiles that live in the sea. Marine reptiles are reptiles which have become secondarily adapted for an aquatic or semiaquatic life in a marine environment.
Maritime transport is the transport of people (passengers) or goods (cargo) by water.
The Marma (မရမာလူမျိုး) people are the second-largest ethnic community in the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT).
Martial law is the imposition of direct military control of normal civilian functions of government, especially in response to a temporary emergency such as invasion or major disaster, or in an occupied territory. Martial law can be used by governments to enforce their rule over the public.
The Proclamation of Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity was made by the Director-General of UNESCO starting in 2001 to raise awareness of intangible cultural heritage and encourage local communities to protect them and the local people who sustain these forms of cultural expressions.
Matir Moina (মাটির ময়না; also spelled Matir Moyna and known in English as The Clay Bird) is a 2002 Bengali drama film directed by Tareque Masud, a Bangladeshi film director.
Maulvi Tamizuddin Khan (M. T. Khan; March 1889 – 19 August 1963) was the Speaker of Pakistan's Constituent Assembly from 1948 to 1954 and National Assembly of Pakistan between 1962 and 1963.
The Maurya Empire was a geographically-extensive Iron Age historical power founded by Chandragupta Maurya which dominated ancient India between 322 BCE and 180 BCE.
Mawlid or Mawlid al-Nabi al-Sharif (مَولِد النَّبِي mawlidu n-nabiyyi, "Birth of the Prophet", sometimes simply called in colloquial Arabic مولد mawlid, mevlid, mevlit, mulud among other vernacular pronunciations; sometimes ميلاد mīlād) is the observance of the birthday of the Islamic prophet Muhammad which is commemorated in Rabi' al-awwal, the third month in the Islamic calendar.
The media of Bangladesh refers to the print, broadcast and online mass media available in Bangladesh.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
The Meghna River (মেঘনা নদী) is one of the most important rivers in Bangladesh, one of the three that forms the Ganges Delta, the largest delta on earth, which fans out to the Bay of Bengal.
A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the voters to a parliament.
Microcredit is the extension of very small loans (microloans) to impoverished borrowers who typically lack collateral, steady employment, or a verifiable credit history.
Microfinance initially had a limited definition - the provision of microloans to poor entrepreneurs and small businesses lacking access to banking and related services.
Bara'a Night (Laylat al-Bara’at) or Mid-Sha'ban (Niṣf Sha‘bān) is a holiday observed by various Muslim communities on the night between 14 and 15 Sha'ban.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
In international relations, a middle power is a sovereign state that is not a superpower nor a great power, but still has large or moderate influence and international recognition.
Militarism is the belief or the desire of a government or a people that a state should maintain a strong military capability and to use it aggressively to expand national interests and/or values; examples of modern militarist states include the United States, Russia and Turkey.
Bangladesh has undergone several changes of government due to her untimely and unorthodox independence, also officially dubbed Liberation from Pakistan that partially ended in 1971 and officially after withdrawal of Indian Army and civilian personnel on March 19, 1972.
A military dictatorship (also known as a military junta) is a form of government where in a military force exerts complete or substantial control over political authority.
The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were the eight international development goals for the year 2015 that had been established following the Millennium Summit of the United Nations in 2000, following the adoption of the United Nations Millennium Declaration.
The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (স্বাস্থ্য ও পরিবার কল্যাণ মন্ত্রণালয়; Sbāsthya ō paribār kalyāṇ Montronaloya) is an Bangladesh government ministry charged with health policy in Bangladesh.
A mixed economy is variously defined as an economic system blending elements of market economies with elements of planned economies, free markets with state interventionism, or private enterprise with public enterprise.
Mizanur Rahman Chowdhury (মিজানুর রহমান চৌধুরী; 19 October 1928 – 2 February 2006) was a Bengali politician, most notable for serving as Prime Minister of Bangladesh from 9 July 1986, to 27 March 1988.
The Mizo people (Mizo: Mizo hnam) are an ethnic group native to north-eastern India, western Burma (Myanmar) and eastern Bangladesh; this term covers several ethnic peoples who speak various northern and central Kuki-Chin languages.
Modern art includes artistic work produced during the period extending roughly from the 1860s to the 1970s, and denotes the styles and philosophy of the art produced during that era.
Sahibzada Mohammad Ali Bogra (মোহাম্মদ আলী বগুড়া); (19 October 1909 – 23 January 1963), also sometimes known as Mohammad Ali of Bogra, was a Bengali politician, statesman, and a career diplomat who served as third Prime Minister of Pakistan, appointed in this capacity in 1953 until he stepped down in 1955 in favor of Finance Minister Muhammad Ali.
Mohammad Kibria (- 7 June 2011) was a Bangladeshi artist.
Mongoose is the popular English name for 29 of the 34 species in the 14 genera of the family Herpestidae, which are small feliform carnivorans native to southern Eurasia and mainland Africa.
Monica Ali (born 20 October 1967) is a Bangladeshi-born British writer and novelist.
Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea.
The Mosque City of Bagerhat (মসজিদের শহর বাগেরহাট) is a formerly lost city, located in the suburbs of Bagerhat city in Bagerhat District, in the Khulna Division of southwest of Bangladesh.
Mostofa Sarwar Farooki is a Bangladeshi film director, producer and screenwriter.
In the textile arts, a motif (also called a block or square) is a smaller element in a much larger work.
A motion of no confidence (alternatively vote of no confidence, no-confidence motion, or (unsuccessful) confidence motion) is a statement or vote which states that a person(s) in a position of responsibility (government, managerial, etc.) is no longer deemed fit to hold that position, perhaps because they are inadequate in some respect, are failing to carry out obligations, or are making decisions that other members feel are detrimental.
Moudud Ahmed (born 24 May 1940) is a Bangladeshi lawyer and politician.
A movie theater/theatre (American English), cinema (British English) or cinema hall (Indian English) is a building that contains an auditorium for viewing films (also called movies) for entertainment.
Not to be confused with Mro (Wakim) or Mro (Khami) who originally have been living and known as Mro in the Arakan State.
Mud is a liquid or semi-liquid mixture of water and any combination of different kinds of soil (loam, silt, and clay).
Mughal architecture is the type of Indo-Islamic architecture developed by the Mughals in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries throughout the ever-changing extent of their empire in the Indian subcontinent.
The Mughal Empire (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān)) or Mogul Empire was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by a Muslim dynasty with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia, but with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; only the first two Mughal emperors were fully Central Asian, while successive emperors were of predominantly Rajput and Persian ancestry. The dynasty was Indo-Persian in culture, combining Persianate culture with local Indian cultural influences visible in its traits and customs. The Mughal Empire at its peak extended over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent and parts of Afghanistan. It was the second largest empire to have existed in the Indian subcontinent, spanning approximately four million square kilometres at its zenith, after only the Maurya Empire, which spanned approximately five million square kilometres. The Mughal Empire ushered in a period of proto-industrialization, and around the 17th century, Mughal India became the world's largest economic power, accounting for 24.4% of world GDP, and the world leader in manufacturing, producing 25% of global industrial output up until the 18th century. The Mughal Empire is considered "India's last golden age" and one of the three Islamic Gunpowder Empires (along with the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia). The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, in the First Battle of Panipat (1526). The Mughal emperors had roots in the Turco-Mongol Timurid dynasty of Central Asia, claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan (founder of the Mongol Empire, through his son Chagatai Khan) and Timur (Turco-Mongol conqueror who founded the Timurid Empire). During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur, the empire was briefly interrupted by the Sur Empire. The "classic period" of the Mughal Empire started in 1556 with the ascension of Akbar the Great to the throne. Under the rule of Akbar and his son Jahangir, the region enjoyed economic progress as well as religious harmony, and the monarchs were interested in local religious and cultural traditions. Akbar was a successful warrior who also forged alliances with several Hindu Rajput kingdoms. Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but most of them were subdued by Akbar. All Mughal emperors were Muslims; Akbar, however, propounded a syncretic religion in the latter part of his life called Dīn-i Ilāhī, as recorded in historical books like Ain-i-Akbari and Dabistān-i Mazāhib. The Mughal Empire did not try to intervene in the local societies during most of its existence, but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices and diverse and inclusive ruling elites, leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule. Traditional and newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Maratha Empire|Marathas, the Rajputs, the Pashtuns, the Hindu Jats and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience. The reign of Shah Jahan, the fifth emperor, between 1628 and 1658, was the zenith of Mughal architecture. He erected several large monuments, the best known of which is the Taj Mahal at Agra, as well as the Moti Masjid, Agra, the Red Fort, the Badshahi Mosque, the Jama Masjid, Delhi, and the Lahore Fort. The Mughal Empire reached the zenith of its territorial expanse during the reign of Aurangzeb and also started its terminal decline in his reign due to Maratha military resurgence under Category:History of Bengal Category:History of West Bengal Category:History of Bangladesh Category:History of Kolkata Category:Empires and kingdoms of Afghanistan Category:Medieval India Category:Historical Turkic states Category:Mongol states Category:1526 establishments in the Mughal Empire Category:1857 disestablishments in the Mughal Empire Category:History of Pakistan.
Muhammad Ali Jinnah (محمد علی جناح ALA-LC:, born Mahomedali Jinnahbhai; 25 December 1876 – 11 September 1948) was a lawyer, politician, and the founder of Pakistan.
Ikhtiyar al-Din Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khilji, also known as Malik Ghazi Ikhtiyar 'l-Din Muhammad Bakhtiyar Khilji or Muhammad Bakhtiyar Khilji or simply Bakhtiyar Khilji (died 1206), a military general of Qutb al-Din Aibak, was responsible for the destruction of Nalanda university.
Muhammad Habibur Rahman (3 December 1928 – 11 January 2014) was a Chief Justice of Bangladesh Supreme Court in 1995.
General Muhammad Musa Khan Hazara (جنرل محمد موسی خان ہزارہ, جنرال محمد موسی خان هزاره) (1908 – 12 March 1991),, was a four-star rank army general, politician, and the Commander in Chief of Pakistan Army, serving under President Ayub Khan from 1958 until 1966.
Muhammad Yunus (মুহাম্মদ ইউনূস; born 28 June 1940) is a Bangladeshi social entrepreneur, banker, economist, and civil society leader who was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for founding the Grameen Bank and pioneering the concepts of microcredit and microfinance.
Muhammed Zafar Iqbal (born 23 December 1952) is a Bangladeshi science fiction author, physicist, professor and activist.
Muḥarram (مُحَرَّم) is the first month of the Islamic calendar.
Mukh O Mukhosh (italic) (1956) was the first Bengali language feature film to be made in East Pakistan (now Bangladesh).
The Mukti Bahini (মুক্তি বাহিনী translates as 'Freedom Fighters', or Liberation Forces; also known as the Bangladesh Forces) is a popular Bengali term which refers to the guerrilla resistance movement formed by the Bangladeshi military, paramilitary and civilians during the War of Liberation that transformed East Pakistan into Bangladesh in 1971.
A multi-party system is a system in which multiple political parties across the political spectrum run for national election, and all have the capacity to gain control of government offices, separately or in coalition.
In international relations, multilateralism refers to an alliance of multiple countries pursuing a common goal.
The Munda people (Hindi: मुंडा, Assamese: মুনদা, Bengali: মুন্ডা) are an Adivasi ethnic group of India.
A municipal corporation is the legal term for a local governing body, including (but not necessarily limited to) cities, counties, towns, townships, charter townships, villages, and boroughs.
The Murang people are a tribe living in the Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh.
The music of Bangladesh, also referred to as Bangladeshi music, comprises a long tradition of religious and secular song-writing over a period of almost a millennium.
The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the unified Islamic community (Ummah), consisting of all those who adhere to the religion of Islam, or to societies where Islam is practiced.
Muslin, also mousseline, is a cotton fabric of plain weave.
Muslin, a cotton fabric of plain weave, was hand woven in the region around Dhaka, East Bengal (now Bangladesh), and exported to Europe, the Middle East, and other markets, for much of the 17th and 18th centuries.
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (19 May 1881 (conventional) – 10 November 1938) was a Turkish army officer, revolutionary, and founder of the Republic of Turkey, serving as its first President from 1923 until his death in 1938.
Mustard is a condiment made from the seeds of a mustard plant (white/ yellow mustard, Sinapis alba; brown/ Indian mustard, Brassica juncea; or black mustard, Brassica nigra).
Muzharul Islam (25 December 1923 – 15 July 2012) was a Bangladeshi architect, urban planner, educator and activist.
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
Mymensingh Division (ময়মনসিংহ বিভাগ) is one of the eight administrative divisions of Bangladesh.
Mymensingh Museum (Mymensingh Jadughar) is located at the bagan bari ("garden house") of zamindar Madan Babu at 17 Amrita Babu Road, Mymensingh, Bangladesh.
Naan is a leavened, oven-baked flatbread by Bernard Clayton, Donnie Cameron found in the cuisines of the Middle East, Central Asia, and South Asia.
Nabanna (নবান্ন, Nabānna; lit: new Feast) is a Bengali harvest celebration usually celebrated with food and dance and music in Bangladesh and in the Indian State of West Bengal.
Nakshi kantha, a type of embroidered quilt, is a centuries-old Bengali art tradition of West Bengal and Bangladesh.
Narayanganj (নারায়ণগঞ্জ Naraeongônj) is a city in central Bangladesh.
Qaumi Assembly Pakistan (قومی اسمبلئ پاکستان or National Assembly of Pakistan (ایوانِ زیریں پاکستان) is the lower house of the bicameral Majlis-e-Shura, which also comprises the President of Pakistan and Aiwan-e Bala (upper house). The Qaumi Assembly and the Aiwan-e Bala both convene at Parliament House in Islamabad. The National Assembly is a democratically elected body consisting of a total of 342 members who are referred to as Members of the National Assembly (MNAs), of which 272 are directly elected members and 70 reserved seats for women and religious minorities. A political party must secure 172 seats to obtain and preserve a majority. Members are elected through the first-past-the-post system under universal adult suffrage, representing electoral districts known as National Assembly constituencies. According to the constitution, the 70 seats reserved for women and religious minorities are allocated to the political parties according to their proportional representation. Each National Assembly is formed for a five-year term, commencing from the date of the first sitting, after which it is automatically dissolved. Currently the National Assembly can not be dissolved by the President of Pakistan, it is dissolved by the Prime Minister of Pakistan. Election for 13th National Assembly was held on 18 February 2008. On March 17, 2013 13th National Assembly was dissolved on completion of its five-year term under Article 52 of the Constitution. Pakistani general election, 2013 (for the 14th National Assembly) was held on May 11, 2013. Members of 14th National Assembly took oath on June 1, 2013. The 14th National Assembly dissolved on 31 May 2018 after completing its 5 year term.
The National Awami Party (NAP) was the major progressive political party in East and West Pakistan.
National Institute of Textile Engineering and Research (জাতীয় বস্ত্র প্রকৌশল ও গবেষণা ইনস্টিটিউট) is also known as NITER.
The National Library of Bangladesh (NLB) (বাংলাদেশ জাতীয় গ্রন্থাগার) is the legal depository of all new books and other printed materials published in Bangladesh under the copyright law of Bangladesh.
National Martyrs’ Memorial (জাতীয় স্মৃতি সৌধ Jatiya Smriti Saudha) is the national monument of Bangladesh, set up in the memory of those who died in the Bangladesh Liberation War of 1971, which brought independence and separated Bangladesh from Pakistan.
The National Sports Council (NSC) is the national overseer of the control authorities of 41 different sports in Bangladesh.
National University, Bangladesh (জাতীয় বিশ্ববিদ্যালয়, বাংলাদেশ) is a parent university of Bangladesh that was established by an Act of Parliament as an affiliating University of the country to impart graduate and post-graduate level education to the students through its affiliated colleges and professional institutions throughout the country.
Nationalization (or nationalisation) is the process of transforming private assets into public assets by bringing them under the public ownership of a national government or state.
Natore Rajbari (also known as Pagla Raja's Palace, Natore Palace) was a prominent royal palace in Natore, Bangladesh.
Bangladesh is the ninetenth-largest producer of natural gas in Asia.
A navy or maritime force is the branch of a nation's armed forces principally designated for naval and amphibious warfare; namely, lake-borne, riverine, littoral, or ocean-borne combat operations and related functions.
Nawab Begum Faizunnesa Choudhurani (নওয়াব বেগম ফয়জুন্নেসা চৌধুরানী; 1834–1903) was Zamindar of Homnabad-Pashchimgaon Estate in present-day Comilla District, Bangladesh.
The Nawab of Dhaka was the largest Muslim zamindar in British Bengal based in Dhaka city.
The Nawabs of Bengal (full title, the Nawab Nizam of Bengal and Orissa) were the rulers of the then provinces of Bengal and Orissa.
Nazrul Geeti (নজরুল গীতি) or Nazrul Sangeet (নজরুল সঙ্গীত), literally "music of Nazrul", refers to the songs written and composed by Kazi Nazrul Islam, the national poet of Bangladesh and active revolutionary during the Indian Independence Movement.
Neamat Imam (নেয়ামত ইমাম; born 5 January 1971) is a Bangladeshi-Canadian author of literary fiction.
A necktie, or simply a tie, is a long piece of cloth, worn usually by men, for decorative purposes around the neck, resting under the shirt collar and knotted at the throat.
Nelumbo nucifera, also known as Indian lotus, sacred lotus, bean of India, Egyptian bean or simply lotus, is one of two extant species of aquatic plant in the family Nelumbonaceae.
Nepal (नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल), is a landlocked country in South Asia located mainly in the Himalayas but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.
Nesari is a village in Gadhinglaj Taluka of Kolhapur district in Maharashtra, India.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
News broadcasting is the medium of broadcasting of various news events and other information via television, radio, or internet in the field of broadcast journalism.
The Next Eleven (known also by the numeronym N-11) are the eleven countries – Bangladesh, Egypt, Indonesia, Iran, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, the Philippines, Turkey, South Korea and Vietnam – identified by Goldman Sachs investment banker and economist Jim O'Neill in a research paper as having a high potential of becoming, along with the BRICS countries, among the world's largest economies in the 21st century.
Niaz Murshed (নিয়াজ মোরশেদ; also Morshed; born May 13, 1966) is a Bangladeshi chess Grandmaster.
Niccolò de' Conti (c. 1395–1469) was an Italian merchant and explorer, born in Chioggia, who traveled to India and Southeast Asia, and possibly to Southern China, during the early 15th century.
Nirmalendu Goon (born 21 June 1945) is a Bangladeshi poet known for his accessible verse.
Nitya Gopal Kundu (3 December 1935 – 15 September 2006) was a Bangladeshi artist, sculptor and entrepreneur.
The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish, Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is one of the five Nobel Prizes created by the Swedish industrialist, inventor, and armaments manufacturer Alfred Nobel, along with the prizes in Chemistry, Physics, Physiology or Medicine, and Literature.
The Nobel Prize in Literature (Nobelpriset i litteratur) is a Swedish literature prize that has been awarded annually, since 1901, to an author from any country who has, in the words of the will of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel, produced "in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction" (original Swedish: "den som inom litteraturen har producerat det mest framstående verket i en idealisk riktning").
The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is a group of states that are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc.
Non-denominational Muslims is an umbrella term that has been used for and by Muslims who do not belong to or do not self-identify with a specific Islamic denomination.
Non-governmental organizations, nongovernmental organizations, or nongovernment organizations, commonly referred to as NGOs, are usually non-profit and sometimes international organizations independent of governments and international governmental organizations (though often funded by governments) that are active in humanitarian, educational, health care, public policy, social, human rights, environmental, and other areas to effect changes according to their objectives.
Northbrook Hall, also known as Lalkuthi (because of its deep red color), was originally built as a town hall during the British period.
Northeast India (officially North Eastern Region, NER) is the easternmost region of India representing both a geographic and political administrative division of the country.
The Northern Black Polished Ware culture (abbreviated NBPW or NBP) is an urban Iron Age culture of the Indian Subcontinent, lasting c. 700–200 BCE, succeeding the Painted Grey Ware culture and Black and red ware culture.
Notuner Gaan (নতুনের গান, The Song of Youth), more popularly known (after its first line) as Chol Chol Chol is the national march (রণ-সঙ্গীত) of Bangladesh., whose lyrics and tune were written by national poet Kazi Nazrul Islam in 1928.
Novera Ahmed (29 May 1939 – 5 May 2015) was a modern sculptor of Bangladesh.
Nuclear proliferation is the spread of nuclear weapons, fissionable material, and weapons-applicable nuclear technology and information to nations not recognized as "Nuclear Weapon States" by the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, commonly known as the Non-Proliferation Treaty or NPT.
Nurul Islam Nahid (born 5 July 1945) is a Bangladeshi politician.
Nymphaeaceae is a family of flowering plants, commonly called water lilies.
Odissi (ଓଡ଼ିଶୀ Oḍiśī), also referred to as Orissi in older literature, is a major ancient Indian classical dance that originated in the Hindu temples of Odisha – an eastern coastal state of India.
A One Day International (ODI) is a form of limited overs cricket, played between two teams with international status, in which each team faces a fixed number of overs, usually 50.
The One Unit (ایک وحدت) was a geopolitical program launched by the government of Pakistan led by then-Prime Minister Muhammad Ali Bogra on 22 November 1954.
A one-party state, single-party state, one-party system, or single-party system is a type of state in which one political party has the right to form the government, usually based on the existing constitution.
Open defecation is the human practice of defecating outside (in the open environment) rather than into a toilet.
Operation Searchlight was a planned military operation carried out by the Pakistan Army to curb the Bengali nationalist movement in the erstwhile East Pakistan in March 1971, which the Pakistani state justified on the basis of anti-Bihari violence by Bengalis in early March.
The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC; منظمة التعاون الإسلامي; Organisation de la coopération islamique) is an international organization founded in 1969, consisting of 57 member states, with a collective population of over 1.3 billion as of 2009 with 47 countries being Muslim Majority countries.
The oriental pied hornbill (Anthracoceros albirostris) is an Indo-Malayan pied hornbill, a large canopy-dwelling bird belonging to the Bucerotidae family.
The location of Bangladesh An enlargeable map of the People's Republic of Bangladesh The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Bangladesh: Bangladesh – sovereign country located in South Asia.
Pabna University of Science and Technology (PUST) (পাবনা বিজ্ঞান ও প্রযুক্তি বিশ্ববিদ্যালয়) is a public university in Bangladesh.
The Padma (পদ্মা ''Pôdda'') is a major river in Bangladesh.
Pahela Baishakh (পহেলা বৈশাখ) or Bangla Nababarsha (বাংলা নববর্ষ, Bangla Nôbobôrsho) is the first day of Bengali Calendar.
Paisley or paisley pattern is an ornamental design using the buta (بته) or boteh, a teardrop-shaped motif with a curved upper end.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
Pakistan Army (پاک فوج Pak Fauj (IPA: pɑk fɒ~ɔd͡ʒ); Reporting name: PA) is the land-based force of the Pakistan Armed Forces.
The Pakistan Movement or Tehrik-e-Pakistan (تحریک پاکستان –) was a religious political movement in the 1940s that aimed for and succeeded in the creation of Pakistan from the Muslim-majority areas of the British Indian Empire.
The Pakistan Peoples Party (پاکِستان پیپلز پارٹی, commonly referred to as the PPP) is a left-wing, socialist-progressive political party of Pakistan.
The Pakistani Instrument of Surrender (পাকিস্তানের আত্মসমর্পণের দলিল, Pākistānēr Atmasamarpaṇēr Dalil) was a written agreement that enabled the surrender of the Pakistan Armed Forces on 16 December 1971 at the Ramna Race Course garden in Dhaka, thereby ending the Bangladesh Liberation War.
Pakistan's first ever Presidential Elections were held on January 2, 1965.
The Pala Empire was an imperial power during the Late Classical period on the Indian subcontinent, which originated in the region of Bengal.
Pangolins or scaly anteaters are mammals of the order Pholidota (from the Greek word φολῐ́ς, "horny scale").
Pantapath is an important east west road in Karwan Bazar area of Dhaka city, the capital of Bangladesh.
A paratha is a flatbread that originated in the Indian subcontinent.
The Parbatya Chattagram Jana Samhati Samiti (পার্বত্য চট্টগ্রাম জনসংহতি সমিতি; United People's Party of the Chittagong Hill Tracts; abbreviated PCJSS) is a political party formed to represent the people and indigenous tribes of the Chittagong Hill Tracts in Bangladesh.
The Parliament of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the UK Parliament or British Parliament, is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and overseas territories.
A parliamentary republic is a republic that operates under a parliamentary system of government where the executive branch (the government) derives its legitimacy from and is accountable to the legislature (the parliament).
A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.
The decision to effect the Partition of Bengal (বঙ্গভঙ্গ.) was announced on 19 July 1905 by the Viceroy of India, Lord Curzon.
The Partition of India was the division of British India in 1947 which accompanied the creation of two independent dominions, India and Pakistan.
Paul Marvin Rudolph (October 23, 1918 – August 8, 1997) was an American architect and the chair of Yale University's Department of Architecture for six years, known for his use of concrete and highly complex floor plans.
The peafowl include three species of birds in the genera Pavo and Afropavo of the Phasianidae family, the pheasants and their allies.
The Permanent Settlement, also known as the Permanent Settlement of Bengal, was an agreement between the East India Company and Bengali landlords to fix revenues to be raised from land, with far-reaching consequences for both agricultural methods and productivity in the entire British Empire and the political realities of the Indian countryside.
Persian literature (ادبیات فارسی adabiyāt-e fārsi), comprises oral compositions and written texts in the Persian language and it is one of the world's oldest literatures.
A Persianate society, or Persified society, is a society that is based on or strongly influenced by the Persian language, culture, literature, art and/or identity.
PetroBangla (Bangladesh Oil, Gas & Mineral Corporation; পেট্রোবাংলা) is a government-owned national oil company of Bangladesh.
The pharmaceutical industry in Bangladesh is one of the most developed technology sectors within Bangladesh.
Pilaf or pilau is a dish in which rice is cooked in a seasoned broth.
Pitha (Bengali/Assamese: পিঠা piṭha, ପିଠା or ꠙꠤꠑꠣ; fiṭa) is a type of rice cake from the eastern regions of the Indian subcontinent, common in Bangladesh, Nepal and India, especially the eastern states of Odisha, Assam, West Bengal, Jharkhand, Bihar and the northeastern region of India.
A plantation economy is an economy based on agricultural mass production, usually of a few commodity crops grown on large farms called plantations.
The Pnar, also known as Jaintia, are a tribal group in Meghalaya, India.
Population density (in agriculture: standing stock and standing crop) is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume; it is a quantity of type number density.
A port is a maritime commercial facility which may comprise one or more wharves where ships may dock to load and discharge passengers and cargo.
The Port of Ashuganj is a notable river port in eastern Bangladesh.
The Port of Chittagong (চট্টগ্রাম বন্দর) is the busiest seaport on the coastline of the Bay of Bengal, and the second busiest in the overall region of countries dependent on the Bay of Bengal. According to Lloyd's, it ranked as the 71st busiest port in the world in 2017 Located in the Bangladeshi port city of Chittagong and on the banks of the Karnaphuli River, the port of Chittagong handles 90% of Bangladesh's export-import trade, and has been used by India, Nepal and Bhutan for transshipment. Congestion is a major challenge in Chittagong port. The port had a congestion rate of 84.3 hours between January and July in 2017.
The Port of Dhaka is a major river port on the Buriganga River in Dhaka, the capital and largest city of Bangladesh.
The Port of Mongla is the second busiest seaport of Bangladesh.
The Port of Narayanganj is a river port in Narayanganj, Bangladesh.
The Port of Pangaon is an inland port and container terminal on the Buriganga River in Dhaka District, Bangladesh.
The Port of Payra is a small seaport in southern Bangladesh.
Portuguese people are an ethnic group indigenous to Portugal that share a common Portuguese culture and speak Portuguese.
Chittagong (Xatigan in Portuguese), the second largest city and main port of Bangladesh, was home to a thriving trading post of the Portuguese Empire in the 16th and 17th centuries.
The potato is a starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial nightshade Solanum tuberosum.
Pottery is the ceramic material which makes up pottery wares, of which major types include earthenware, stoneware and porcelain.
Poverty in Bangladesh have declined remarkably since the early-2000s, as result decades of accelerated economic growth.
The poverty threshold, poverty limit or poverty line is the minimum level of income deemed adequate in a particular country.
PRAN-RFL Group (প্রাণ-আরএফএল গ্রুপ) is one of the largest conglomerates in Bangladesh.
In common law legal systems, a precedent, or authority, is a principle or rule established in a previous legal case that is either binding on or persuasive for a court or other tribunal when deciding subsequent cases with similar issues or facts.
The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the subcontinent.
The President of Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশের রাষ্ট্রপতি —) is the Head of State of Bangladesh.
A presidential system is a democratic and republican system of government where a head of government leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch.
The Prime Minister of the People's Republic of Bangladesh (translit) is the Head of the Government of Bangladesh.
The Prime Minister of Bengal was the head of government and the Leader of the House in the Bengal Legislative Assembly in British India.
Privatization (also spelled privatisation) is the purchase of all outstanding shares of a publicly traded company by private investors, or the sale of a state-owned enterprise to private investors.
The independence of Bangladesh was declared on 26 March 1971 at the onset of the Bangladesh Liberation War.
Proto-Dravidian is the linguistic reconstruction of the common ancestor of the Dravidian languages.
The Provisional Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh was established following the declaration of independence of East Pakistan on 10 April 1971.
The Ptolemy world map is a map of the world known to Hellenistic society in the 2nd century.
In international relations, public diplomacy or people's diplomacy, broadly speaking, is the communication with and dissemination of propaganda to the general public of foreign nations to establish a dialogue designed to inform and influence.
Bangladesh has numerous public holidays, including national memorial, religious and secular holidays of Bengali origin.
Pundra (also known as Paundraka, Paundraya) was an ancient kingdom during the Late Vedic period on the Indian Subcontinent, based in modern-day West Bengal and Bangladesh.
Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a neoclassical economic theory that states that the exchange rate between two countries is equal to the ratio of the currencies' respective purchasing power.
Pardah or pardah is the term used primarily in South Asia, (from پرده, meaning "curtain") to describe in the South Asian context, the global religious and social practice of female seclusion that is associated with Muslim communities.
Puthia Rajbari is a palace in Puthia Upazila, in Bangladesh, built in 1895, for Rani Hemanta Kumari, it is an example of Indo-Saracenic Revival architecture.
Python, from the Greek word (πύθων/πύθωνας), is a genus of nonvenomous Pythonidae found in Africa and Asia.
Qayyum Chowdhury (9 March 1932 – 30 November 2014) was a Bangladeshi painter.
Quamrul Hassan (1921–1988) was a Bengali artist.
In statistics and probability quantiles are cut points dividing the range of a probability distribution into contiguous intervals with equal probabilities, or dividing the observations in a sample in the same way.
A quilt is a multi-layered textile, traditionally composed of three layers of fiber: a woven cloth top, a layer of batting or wadding, and a woven back, combined using the technique of quilting, the process of sewing the three layers together.
Quisling is a term originating in Norway, which is used in Scandinavian languages and in English for a person who collaborates with an enemy occupying force – or more generally as a synonym for traitor.
The Quit India Movement or the India August Movement, was a movement launched at the Bombay session of the All-India Congress Committee by Mahatma Gandhi on 8 August 1942, during World War II, demanding an end to British Rule of India.
Rabindranath Tagore FRAS, also written Ravīndranātha Ṭhākura (7 May 1861 – 7 August 1941), sobriquet Gurudev, was a Bengali polymath who reshaped Bengali literature and music, as well as Indian art with Contextual Modernism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
The Radcliffe Line was the boundary demarcation line between India and Pakistan published on 17 August 1947 upon the Partition of India.
Muhammad Rafiq Azam is a Bangladeshi architect.
Rafiqun Nabi (also Ranabi, born 28 November 1943) is a Bangladeshi artist and cartoonist.
Rajshahi (রাজশাহী,; historically Rampur Boalia; nicknamed Silk City) is a metropolitan city in Bangladesh and a major urban, commercial and educational centre of North Bengal.
Rajshahi Division (রাজশাহী বিভাগ) is one of the eight first-level administrative divisions of Bangladesh.
Rajshahi silk is the name given to the silk products produced in Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
Rajshahi University of Engineering & Technology, commonly known as RUET (রুয়েট), is one of the seventeen PhD granting public research universities in Bangladesh.
Raja Ram Mohan Roy (c. 1774 -- 27 September 1833) was a founder of the Brahma Sabha the precursor of the Brahmo Samaj, a socio-religious reform movement in India.
Ramna (রমনা) is a historic colonial neighborhood in central Dhaka.
The Ramon Magsaysay Award is an annual award established to perpetuate former Philippine President Ramon Magsaysay's example of integrity in governance, courageous service to the people, and pragmatic idealism within a democratic society.
Rangamati (রাঙামাটি) (Chakma: 𑄢𑄋𑄟𑄖𑄳𑄡) is the administrative headquarters of Rangamati Hill District in the Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh.
Rangpur (রংপুর) is one of the major cities in Bangladesh and Rangpur Division.
Rangpur Division (রংপুর বিভাগ) was formed on 25 January 2010, as Bangladesh's 7th division.
Kamtapuri, Rangpuri or Rajbangshi is a Bengali-Assamese language spoken by the Rajbongshi people in Bangladesh and India, and Rajbanshi and Tajpuria in Nepal.
Rapid Action Battalion or RAB, is an elite anti-crime and anti-terrorism unit of the Bangladesh Police.
Rasgulla is a syrupy dessert popular in the Indian subcontinent and regions with South Asian diaspora.
Rashid Hossain Choudhury, who is mostly known as Rashid Choudhury (April 1, 1932 – December 12, 1985) was a second generation artist, sculpture, writer and professor in Bangladesh.
Ratha Yatra, also referred to as Rathayatra, Rathjatra or Chariot festival is any public procession in a chariot.
Razia Khan Amin (1936 – 28 December 2011) was a Bangladeshi writer, poet and educationist.
A refugee camp is a temporary settlement built to receive refugees and people in refugee-like situations.
Regional Cooperation for Development (RCD) or Organization for Regional Cooperation and Development (ORCD) was a multi-governmental organization which was originally established on the 21st of July 1964 by Iran, Pakistan and Turkey, regional members of the Central Treaty Organization (CENTO), to allow socio-economic development of the member states.
Religious violence is a term that covers phenomena where religion is either the subject or the object of violent behavior.
Remittance has become a major contributor to the Bangladeshi economy.
Renewable energy is energy that is collected from renewable resources, which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat.
A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.
A rhinoceros, commonly abbreviated to rhino, is one of any five extant species of odd-toed ungulates in the family Rhinocerotidae, as well as any of the numerous extinct species.
Rhythmic gymnastics is a sport in which individuals or groups of five manipulate one or two pieces of apparatus: rope, hoop, ball, clubs, ribbon and freehand (no apparatus).
Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or Oryza glaberrima (African rice).
Richard Joseph Neutra (April 8, 1892 – April 16, 1970) was an Austrian-American architect.
The Rigveda (Sanskrit: ऋग्वेद, from "praise" and "knowledge") is an ancient Indian collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns along with associated commentaries on liturgy, ritual and mystical exegesis.
A riparian zone or riparian area is the interface between land and a river or stream.
Robert Boughey is an American architect born in Pennsylvania, United States.
Robi Axiata Limited, DBA Robi (রবি), is the second largest mobile network operator of Bangladesh.
Rohingya, or Ruáingga, is a language spoken by the Rohingya people of Rakhine State.
The Rohingya people are a stateless Indo-Aryan-speaking people who reside in Rakhine State, Myanmar (also known as Burma).
Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh refer to the Rohingya refugees from Myanmar living in Bangladesh.
The rohu, rui, or roho labeo (Labeo rohita) is a species of fish of the carp family, found in rivers in South Asia.
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Dhaka (Archidioecesis Dhakensis) is the Latin, main Metropolitan Metropolitan diocese of the Roman Catholic Church in Bangladesh, but no longer the only one.
The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (often referred to as the International Criminal Court Statute or the Rome Statute) is the treaty that established the International Criminal Court (ICC).
Rooppur Nuclear Power Plant is an underconstruction 2.4 GWe nuclear power plant in Bangladesh.
Rowing, often referred to as crew in the United States, is a sport whose origins reach back to Ancient Egyptian times.
Saffron terror is a neologism used to describe acts of violence motivated by Hindu nationalism.
Saidpur (Syedpur) (bn:সৈয়দপুর Saiy.adpur) is a city of Nilphamari district in Rangpur Division of Bangladesh.
Saifuddin Ahmed (1927 – 27 September 2010) was a Bangladeshi actor.
Saifur Rahman (Saudi Arabiaسيف الرحمن.) is a male Muslim given name, meaning sword of the Most Gracious.
The saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus), also known as the estuarine crocodile, Indo-Pacific crocodile, marine crocodile, sea crocodile or informally as saltie, is the largest of all living reptiles, as well as the largest riparian predator in the world.
The Kingdom of Samatata (or Samata) was an ancient kingdom during the Classical period on the Indian subcontinent, located at the mouth of the Brahmaputra river in the south east of Bengal.
The sambar (Rusa unicolor) is a large deer native to the Indian subcontinent, southern China, and Southeast Asia that is listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List since 2008.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
The Santal, or rarely Santals (Santali:ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲ,सांथाल, translit, translit), are an ethnic group, native to Nepal and the Indian states of Jharkhand, West Bengal, Bihar and Odisha.
The santoor is an Indo-Persian trapezoid-shaped hammered dulcimer or string musical instrument generally made of walnut, usually with seventy-two strings.
Sarat Chandra Chattopadhyay, alternatively spelt as Sarat Chandra Chatterjee (15 September 1876 – 16 January 1938), was a prominent Bengali novelist and short story writer of the early 20th century.
The sarod (or sarode) (सरोद, সরোদ) is a stringed instrument, used mainly in Hindustani music.
Savar (সাভার Savar or Shabhar) is an Upazila of Dhaka District in the Division of Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Sea bathing is swimming in the sea or in sea water and a sea bath is a protective enclosure for sea bathing.
The Secondary School Certificate, also called SSC or Matriculation examination, is a public examination in Bangladesh, India and Pakistan conducted by educational boards as completion exam of secondary education in these countries.
Secularism is the principle of the separation of government institutions and persons mandated to represent the state from religious institution and religious dignitaries (the attainment of such is termed secularity).
Secularism in Turkey defines the relationship between religion and state in the country of Turkey.
Secularity (adjective form secular, from Latin saeculum meaning "worldly", "of a generation", "temporal", or a span of about 100 years) is the state of being separate from religion, or of not being exclusively allied with or against any particular religion.
Seekh kebab (سیخ کباب) is a type of kebab, popular in South Asia, made with spiced minced or ground meat, formed into cylinders on skewers and grilled.
Selina Hossain (born 14 June 1947) is a Bangladeshi novelist.
A semi-presidential system or dual executive system is a system of government in which a president exists alongside a prime minister and a cabinet, with the latter two being responsible for the legislature of a state.
The Sena Empire (সেন সাম্রাজ্য, Shen Shamrajjo) was a Hindu dynasty during the Late Classical period on the Indian subcontinent, that ruled from Bengal through the 11th and 12th centuries.
Shah (Šāh, pronounced, "king") is a title given to the emperors, kings, princes and lords of Iran (historically also known as Persia).
Shahabuddin Ahmed (born 1 February 1930) served as the 12th President of Bangladesh from 1996 to 2001 and the 6th Chief Justice of Bangladesh from 1990 to 1995.
Shahabuddin Ahmed (born 11 September 1950) is a Bangladeshi painter.
The Shaheed Minar (শহীদ মিনার Shohid Minar lit. "Martyr Monument") is a national monument in Dhaka, Bangladesh, established to commemorate those killed during the Bengali Language Movement demonstrations of 1952 in then East Pakistan.
Shahidullah Kaiser (শহীদুল্লা কায়সার; 16 February 192714 December 1971) was a Bangladeshi novelist and writer.
Hazrat Shahjalal International Airport (হযরত শাহ্‌জালাল আন্তর্জাতিক বিমানবন্দর Hôzrôt Shahjalal Antôrjatik Bimanbôndôr), formerly known as Dacca International Airport and Zia International Airport, is the largest airport in Bangladesh.
Shahjalal University of Science and Technology also known as SUST is a state supported university located in Sylhet, Bangladesh.
Shakib Al Hasan (সাকিব আল হাসান; born 24 March 1987) is a Bangladeshi international cricketer who currently captains the Bangladesh national team in test and T20I formats.
Shalwar kameez, also spelled salwar kameez or shalwar qameez, is a traditional outfit originating in the Indian subcontinent.
Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah (শামসুদ্দীন ইলিয়াস শাহ) was the first Sultan of Bengal and founder of the Ilyas Shahi dynasty, which lasted for nearly one hundred and fifty years.
Shamsur Rahman (23 October 1929 – 17 August 2006) was a Bangladeshi poet, columnist and journalist.
Sharia, Sharia law, or Islamic law (شريعة) is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.
King Shashanka (Śaśāṃka) created the first separate political entity in the Bengal region of the Indian subcontinent, called the Gauda Kingdom and is a major figure in Bengali history.
Shashlik or shashlyk (شیشلیک – Šišlik, խորոված khorovats, şişlik or tikə kabab, მწვადი mtsvadi, шашлы́к šašlýk, шашли́к šašlýk, szaszłyk, šašliks, šašlykas, şaşlık, שישליק šíšliq, Urdu: شاشلِک śāślik, শাশলিক śāślik), is a name given to a dish of skewered and grilled cubes of meat popular in Eastern Europe, eastern Central Europe, the Baltics, Caucasus, Central Asia and some parts of the Middle East, including Iran, Israel, and Turkey.
Sheikh Azizur Rahman (2 January 1917 – 14 May 1998; known as Shawkat Osman) was a Bangladeshi novelist and short story writer.
Sheikh Hasina Wazed (শেখ হাসিনা ওয়াজেদ;,; born 28 September 1947) is the current Prime Minister of Bangladesh, in office since January 2009.
Sheikh Mujibur Rahman (শেখ মুজিবুর রহমান);; (17 March 1920 – 15 August 1975), shortened as Sheikh Mujib or just Mujib, was a Bengali politician and statesman.
Sher-e-Bangla Nagar (meaning City of the Tiger of Bengal) is one of the thanas of Dhaka city, the capital of Bangladesh.
Sherwani (शेरवानी; شیروانی; শেরওয়ানি) is a long coat-like garment worn in the Indian subcontinent, very similar to a British frock coat or a Polish żupan.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
Shipbuilding is a growing industry in Bangladesh with great potentials.
Shirin Sharmin Chaudhury (born 6 October 1966) is the current and the first woman Speaker of the Jatiya Sangsad since April 2013.
Shooting sports is a collective group of competitive and recreational sporting activities involving proficiency tests of accuracy, precision and speed in using various types of ranged weapons, mainly referring to man-portable guns (firearms and airguns, in forms such as handguns, rifles and shotguns) and bows/crossbows.
The term shrimp is used to refer to some decapod crustaceans, although the exact animals covered can vary.
A silent film is a film with no synchronized recorded sound (and in particular, no spoken dialogue).
Silk is a natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be woven into textiles.
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.
The sitar (or; सितार, Punjabi: ਸਿਤਾਰ) is a plucked stringed instrument used in Hindustani classical music.
The Six Point Movement was a movement in East Pakistan, spearheaded by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, which called for greater autonomy for East Pakistan.
The Sixty Dome Mosque (Shaṭ Gombuj Moshjid; more commonly known as Shait Gambuj Mosque or Saith Gunbad Masjid), a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is a mosque in Bangladesh, the largest in that country from the Sultanate period.
Sheikh Mohammed Sultan (known as SM Sultan; 10 August 1923 – 10 October 1994), was a Bengali avant-garde artist who worked in painting and drawing.
A social enterprise is an organization that applies commercial strategies to maximize improvements in financial, social and environmental well-being—this may include maximizing social impact alongside profits for external shareholders.
Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.
Soil fertility refers to the ability of a soil to sustain agricultural plant growth, i.e. to provide plant habitat and result in sustained and consistent yields of high quality.
Soil retrogression and degradation are two regressive evolution processes associated with the loss of equilibrium of a stable soil.
Somapura Mahavihara (সোমপুর মহাবিহার Shompur Môhabihar) in Paharpur, Badalgachhi Upazila, Naogaon District, Bangladesh is among the best known Buddhist viharas in the Indian Subcontinent and is one of the most important archaeological sites in the country.
Sonargaon (সোনারগাঁও; also transcribed as Sunārgāon, meaning Village of Gold) was a historic administrative, commercial and maritime centre in Bengal.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) is the regional intergovernmental organization and geopolitical union of nations in South Asia.
The South Asian river dolphin (Platanista gangetica) is an endangered freshwater or river dolphin found in the Indian subcontinent which is split into two subspecies, the Ganges river dolphin (P. g. gangetica)(~3,500 individuals) and the Indus river dolphin (P. g. minor)(~1,500 individuals).
South Sudan, officially known as the Republic of South Sudan, is a landlocked country in East-Central Africa.
The Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) was an international organization for collective defense in Southeast Asia created by the Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty, or Manila Pact, signed in September 1954 in Manila, Philippines.
The Bangladesh Space Research and Remote Sensing Organization (বাংলাদেশ মহাকাশ গবেষণা ও দূর অনুধাবন কেন্দ্র Bangladesh môhakash gôbeshôna o dur ônudhabôn kendrô), or SPARRSO, is a state agency concerned with astronomical research and the application of space technology in Bangladesh.
The Speaker is the presiding officer of Parliament of Bangladesh.
In culinary terminology, squab is a young domestic pigeon, typically under four weeks old, or its meat.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
Standard & Poor's Financial Services LLC (S&P) is an American financial services company.
Stanley Tigerman (born September 20, 1930) is an American architect, theorist and designer.
A state of emergency is a situation in which a government is empowered to perform actions that it would normally not be permitted.
A state religion (also called an established religion or official religion) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state.
Steel industry is an established and growing industry in Bangladesh.
STOL is an acronym for a short takeoff and landing aircraft, which have short runway requirements for takeoff and landing.
The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric period during which stone was widely used to make implements with an edge, a point, or a percussion surface.
Stranded Pakistanis in Bangladesh (پھنسے ہوئے پاکستانی, উদ্বাস্তু পাকিস্তানী) are Urdu-speaking Muslim migrants with homelands in present-day India and Pakistan who settled in East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) following the partition of India in 1947.
Straw is an agricultural by-product, the dry stalks of cereal plants, after the grain and chaff have been removed.
The family Stromateidae of butterfish contains 15 species of fish in three genera.
A submarine (or simply sub) is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater.
Begum Sufia Kamal (সুফিয়া কামাল; 20 June 1911 – 20 November 1999) was a Bengali poet (born in present-day Bangladesh) and political activist.
Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.
In clothing, a suit is a set of garments made from the same cloth, usually consisting of at least a jacket and trousers.
Sunamganj (Bengali: সুনামগঞ্জ, Sylheti: ꠡꠥꠘꠣꠝꠉꠘ꠆ꠎ) is a district located in north-eastern Bangladesh within the Sylhet Division.
The Sundarbans is a vast forest in the coastal region of the Bay of Bengal and considered one of the natural wonders of the world.
Sundarbans East Wildlife Sanctuary, a protected forest in Bangladesh, extends over an area of 31,227 ha.
Sundarbans South Wildlife Sanctuary is a reserve forest in Bangladesh that extends over an area of 36,970 hectares of mangrove forest.
The Sundarban Tiger project is a Bangladesh Forest Department initiative that effectively started its field activities in February 2005.
Sundarbans West Wildlife Sanctuary is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and animal sanctuary in Bangladesh.
Sunflower oil is the non-volatile oil pressed from the seeds of sunflower (Helianthus annuus).
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
The Supreme Court of Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ সুপ্রীম কোর্ট) is the highest court of law in Bangladesh.
The Sur Empire was an empire established by a Muslim dynasty of Pashtun origin who ruled a large territory in northern part of the Indian subcontinent for nearly 16 years, between 1540 and 1556, with Delhi serving as its capital.
Syed Ahmad Taqvi bin Syed Muhammad Muttaqi KCSI (سید احمد خان.; 17 October 1817 – 27 March 1898), commonly known as Sir Syed Ahmad Khan, was an Indian Muslim pragmatist, Islamic reformist, philosopher of nineteenth century British India and the first who named the term "Two Nation theory" to the theory of separate nation of Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Born into a family with strong ties with Mughal court, Syed studied the Quran and sciences within the court. He was awarded honorary LLD from the University of Edinburgh. In 1838, Syed Ahmad entered the service of East India Company and went on to become a judge at a Small Causes Court in 1867, and retired from service in 1876. During the Indian Rebellion of 1857, he remained, loyal to the British Empire and was noted for his actions in saving European lives.Glasse, Cyril, The New Encyclopedia of Islam, Altamira Press, (2001) After the rebellion, he penned the booklet ''The Causes of the Indian Mutiny'' – a daring critique, at the time, of British policies that he blamed for causing the revolt. Believing that the future of Muslims was threatened by the rigidity of their orthodox outlook, Sir Syed began promoting Western–style scientific education by founding modern schools and journals and organising Muslim entrepreneurs. In 1859, Syed established Gulshan School at Muradabad, Victoria School at Ghazipur in 1863, and a scientific society for Muslims in 1864. In 1875, founded the Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College, the first Muslim university in South Asia. During his career, Syed repeatedly called upon Muslims to loyally serve the British Empire and promoted the adoption of Urdu as the lingua franca of all Indian Muslims. Syed heavily critiqued the Indian National Congress. Syed maintains a strong legacy in Pakistan and Indian Muslims. He strongly influenced other Muslim leaders including Allama Iqbal and Jinnah. His advocacy of Islam's rationalist (Muʿtazila) tradition, and at broader, radical reinterpretation of the Quran to make it compatible with science and modernity, continues to influence the global Islamic reformation. Many universities and public buildings in Pakistan bear Sir Syed's name. Aligarh Muslim University celebrated his 200th birth centenary with much enthusiasm on 17 October 2017. Former President of India shri Pranab Mukherjee was the chief guest.
Syed Jahangir (born 2 January 1935) is a Bangladeshi painter.
Syed Mahmud Hossain (born 31 December 1954) is a Bangladeshi lawyer and jurist who is currently the 22nd Chief Justice of Bangladesh.
Syed Mujtaba Ali (সৈয়দ মুজতবা আলী; 13 September 1904 – 11 February 1974) was a Bengali author, journalist, travel enthusiast, academician, scholar and linguist.
Syed Nazrul Islam (সৈয়দ নজরুল ইসলাম Soiod Nozrul Islam) (1925 – 3 November 1975) was a Bangladeshi politician and a senior leader of the Awami League.
Syed Waliullah (August 15, 1922 – October 10, 1971) was a Bangladeshi novelist, short-story writer and playwright.
Sylhet (সিলেট, ꠍꠤꠟꠐ), also known as Jalalabad, the spiritual capital; is a metropolitan city in northeastern Bangladesh.
Sylhet Division (সিলেট বিভাগ, ꠍꠤꠟꠐ ꠛꠤꠜꠣꠉ), also known as Greater Sylhet, is the northeastern division of Bangladesh, named after its main city, Sylhet.
The Sylhet referendum was a referendum held in Sylhet to decide whether Sylhet would remain in Assam and join the new country of India or would join the province of East Bengal and the new country of Pakistan.
Sylheti (ꠍꠤꠟꠐꠤ Silôṭi) is an Eastern Indo-Aryan language, primarily spoken in the Sylhet Division of Bangladesh and in the Barak Valley of the Indian state of Assam.
Syncretism is the combining of different beliefs, while blending practices of various schools of thought.
The tabla is a membranophone percussion instrument originating from the Indian subcontinent, consisting of a pair of drums, used in traditional, classical, popular and folk music.
Tablighi Jamaat (تبلیغی جماعت, Tablīghī Jamā‘at; جماعة التبليغ, Jamā‘at at-Tablīgh; তাবলীগ জামাত; तबलीग़ी जमात; English: Society for spreading faith) is a non-political global Sunni Islamic missionary movement that focuses on urging Muslims to return to primary Sunni Islam, and particularly in matters of ritual, dress, and personal behavior.
Tahmima Anam (তাহমিমা আনাম; born 8 October 1975) is a British Bangladeshi writer, novelist and columnist.
A tailor is a person who makes, repairs, or alters clothing professionally, especially suits and men's clothing.
Tajhat Palace, Tajhat Rajbari, is a historic palace of Bangladesh, located in Tajhat, Rangpur.
Tajuddin Ahmad (তাজউদ্দীন আহমদ; 23 July 1925 – 3 November 1975) was a Bangladeshi statesman and freedom fighter.
The Tanchangya people or Tanchangyas are indigenous ethnic group living in the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) of Bangladesh.
Tangail (টাঙ্গাইল) is a city of Dhaka Division in the central region of Bangladesh 98 km north-west of Dhaka, the capital.
Tanvir Mokammel (born 8 March 1955) is a Bangladeshi filmmaker and writer.
Tareque Masud (6 December 1956 – 13 August 2011) was a Bangladeshi independent film director, film producer, screenwriter and lyricist.
Taslima Nasrin (also Taslima Nasreen, born 25 August 1962) is a Bangladeshi-Swedish author and former physician who has been living in exile since 1994.
Bangladesh is an important tea producing country.
Edward Moore "Ted" Kennedy (February 22, 1932 – August 25, 2009) was an American politician who served in the United States Senate from Massachusetts for almost 47 years, from 1962 until his death in 2009.
The liberalisation of Bangladesh's telecommunications sector began with small steps in 1989 with the issuance of a licence to a private operator for the provision of inter alia cellular mobile services to compete with Bangladesh Telegraph and Telephone Board (BTTB), the previous monopoly provider of telecommunications services within Bangladesh.
The country calling code for Bangladesh is +880.
Terracotta, terra cotta or terra-cotta (Italian: "baked earth", from the Latin terra cocta), a type of earthenware, is a clay-based unglazed or glazed ceramic, where the fired body is porous.
Test cricket is the longest form of the sport of cricket and is considered its highest standard.
The textile and clothing industries provide the single source of growth in Bangladesh's rapidly developing economy.
Textile manufacturing is a major industry.
Thatching is the craft of building a roof with dry vegetation such as straw, water reed, sedge (Cladium mariscus), rushes, heather, or palm fronds, layering the vegetation so as to shed water away from the inner roof.
The Concert for Bangladesh (or Bangla Desh, as the country was originally spelled) was the name given to two benefit concerts organised by former Beatles lead guitarist George Harrison and Indian sitar master Ravi Shankar.
The Diplomat is an online international news magazine covering politics, society, and culture in the Asia-Pacific region.
The Penal Code, 1860 is the main criminal code of Bangladesh.
The Sydney Morning Herald (SMH) is a daily compact newspaper published by Fairfax Media in Sydney, Australia.
Theatre in Bangladesh is believed to have its origin in the 4th century AD in the form of Sanskrit drama.
Tibet is a historical region covering much of the Tibetan Plateau in Central Asia.
The Tibeto-Burman languages are the non-Sinitic members of the Sino-Tibetan language family, over 400 of which are spoken throughout the highlands of Southeast Asia as well as certain parts of East Asia and South Asia.
A tidal bore, often simply given as bore in context, is a tidal phenomenon in which the leading edge of the incoming tide forms a wave (or waves) of water that travels up a river or narrow bay against the direction of the river or bay's current.
Tilapia is the common name for nearly a hundred species of cichlid fish from the tilapiine cichlid tribe.
Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from stannum) and atomic number 50.
Syed Mir Nisar Ali Titumir (সৈয়দ মীর নিসার আলী তিতুমীর; 27 January 1782 – 19 November 1831) was an Islamic preacher who led a peasant uprising against the Hindu zamindars, British India during the 19th century.
A tornado is a rapidly rotating column of air that is in contact with both the surface of the Earth and a cumulonimbus cloud or, in rare cases, the base of a cumulus cloud.
Torture (from the Latin tortus, "twisted") is the act of deliberately inflicting physical or psychological pain in order to fulfill some desire of the torturer or compel some action from the victim.
The total fertility rate (TFR), sometimes also called the fertility rate, absolute/potential natality, period total fertility rate (PTFR), or total period fertility rate (TPFR) of a population is the average number of children that would be born to a woman over her lifetime if.
Bangladesh's tourist attractions include historical and monuments, resorts, beaches, picnic spots, forests and tribal people, wildlife of various species.
A transboundary river is a river that crosses at least one political border, either a border within a nation or an international boundary.
Transparency International e.V. (TI) is an international non-governmental organization which is based in Berlin, Germany, and was founded in 1993.
The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, commonly known as the Non-Proliferation Treaty or NPT, is an international treaty whose objective is to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology, to promote cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, and to further the goal of achieving nuclear disarmament and general and complete disarmament.
TRIGA (Training, Research, Isotopes, General Atomics) is a class of research nuclear reactor designed and manufactured by General Atomics.
The Tripuri (also Tipra or Tipperah) people are the original inhabitants of the Twipra Kingdom in North-East India and Bangladesh.
The Tropic of Cancer, also referred to as the Northern Tropic, is the most northerly circle of latitude on Earth at which the Sun can be directly overhead.
Tropical and subtropical coniferous forests are a tropical forest biome.
A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain.
The Tughlaq dynasty also referred to as Tughluq or Tughluk dynasty, was a Muslim dynasty of Turko-Indian origin which ruled over the Delhi sultanate in medieval India.
The twenty-foot equivalent unit (often TEU or teu) is an inexact unit of cargo capacity often used to describe the capacity of container ships and container terminals.
Union councils (or union parishads or rural council or Unions) are the smallest rural administrative and local government units in Bangladesh.
A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.
United Bengal is a political ideology for a unified Bengali-speaking nation in South Asia.
The United Front was a coalition of political parties in East Bengal which contested and won Pakistan's first provincial general election to the East Bengal Legislative Assembly.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; Assemblée Générale AG) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), the only one in which all member nations have equal representation, and the main deliberative, policy-making and representative organ of the UN.
Peacekeeping by the United Nations is a role held by the Department of Peacekeeping Operations as "a unique and dynamic instrument developed by the organization as a way to help countries torn by conflict to create the conditions for lasting peace." It is distinguished from peacebuilding, peacemaking, and peace enforcement although the United Nations does acknowledge that all activities are "mutually reinforcing" and that overlap between them is frequent in practice.
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Armed Forces are the military forces of the United States of America.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
The concept of universal suffrage, also known as general suffrage or common suffrage, consists of the right to vote of all adult citizens, regardless of property ownership, income, race, or ethnicity, subject only to minor exceptions.
Universities in Bangladesh represent about 75 academic bodies out of a total of about 105 institutions of the conventional higher education institution (HEI) in Bangladesh.
The University Grants Commission (UGC) (বিশ্ববিদ্যালয় মঞ্জুরী কমিশন Biśbobidyālaẏ mañjurī komiśan) of Bangladesh was established on 16 December 1972.
The University of Dhaka (ঢাকা বিশ্ববিদ্যালয়, also known as Dhaka University or simply DU) is the oldest university in modern Bangladesh.
Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language.
A usurper is an illegitimate or controversial claimant to power, often but not always in a monarchy.
The Uttara Ganabhaban (meaning Northern People's House) is an 18th-century (1734) a royal palace also known as Jaminder country house and retreat, it was made by Raja Doyaram who was the Dewan (like minister) of Rani Bhavanee.
The Vanga Kingdom was an ancient seafaring thalassocracy during the Late Vedic period on the Indian Subcontinent, which originated in the region of Bengal.
Varendra Museum (বরেন্দ্র জাদুঘর) is a museum, research centre, and popular visitor attraction at the heart of Rajshahi town and maintained by Rajshahi University in Bangladesh.
The Varman dynasty (350-650) is the first historical dynasty of the Kamarupa kingdom.
Venison is the meat of a deer.
Vernacular architecture is an architectural style that is designed based on local needs, availability of construction materials and reflecting local traditions.
Vesak (Pali: Vesākha, Vaiśākha), also known as Buddha Purnima and Buddha Day, is a holiday traditionally observed by Buddhists and some Hindus on different days in India, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Tibet, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Indonesia, Singapore, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Mongolia and the Philippines and in China, Japan, South Korea, North Korea, Taiwan and Vietnam as "Buddha's Birthday" as well as in other parts of the world.
The Vice-President of Bangladesh was formerly the second highest constitutional office in Bangladesh, when the country was governed under a presidential system.
Victoria Ocampo (7 April 189027 January 1979) was an Argentine writer and intellectual, described by Jorge Luis Borges as La mujer más argentina ("The quintessential Argentine woman").
Victory day (বিজয় দিবস Bijôy Dibôs) is a national holiday in Bangladesh celebrated on December 16 to commemorate the victory of the allied forces over the Pakistani forces in the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971.
Vihara (विहार, IAST: vihāra) generally refers to a Buddhist bhikkhu monastery.
Voice of America (VOA) is a U.S. government-funded international radio broadcast source that serves as the United States federal government's official institution for non-military, external broadcasting.
Walton (ওয়াল্টন) is a conglomerate based in Kaliakair, Bangladesh.
The Wari-Bateshwar region (উয়ারী-বটেশ্বর Uari-Bôṭeshshor) in Narsingdi, Bangladesh is the site of an ancient fort city dating back to 450 BCMM Hoque and SS Mostafizur Rahman,, Banglapedia: The National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Retrieved: 20 February 2012 during the era of Maurya dynasty.
Water skiing (also waterskiing or water-skiing) is a surface water sport in which an individual is pulled behind a boat or a cable ski installation over a body of water, skimming the surface on two skis or one ski.
A waterway is any navigable body of water.
West Bengal (Paśchimbāṅga) is an Indian state, located in Eastern India on the Bay of Bengal.
The West Indies or the Caribbean Basin is a region of the North Atlantic Ocean in the Caribbean that includes the island countries and surrounding waters of three major archipelagoes: the Greater Antilles, the Lesser Antilles and the Lucayan Archipelago.
Westminster is an area of central London within the City of Westminster, part of the West End, on the north bank of the River Thames.
A wetland is a land area that is saturated with water, either permanently or seasonally, such that it takes on the characteristics of a distinct ecosystem.
White rice is milled rice that has had its husk, bran, and germ removed.
In many countries (such as Australia, Canada, France, New Zealand, United Kingdom, and United States), a white-collar worker is a person who performs professional, managerial, or administrative work.
The wild boar (Sus scrofa), also known as the wild swine,Heptner, V. G.; Nasimovich, A. A.; Bannikov, A. G.; Hoffman, R. S. (1988), Volume I, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Libraries and National Science Foundation, pp.
The wildlife of Bangladesh includes Bangladesh's flora and fauna.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade.
The World Travel & Tourism Council (WTTC) is a forum for the travel and tourism industry.
Xuanzang (fl. c. 602 – 664) was a Chinese Buddhist monk, scholar, traveller, and translator who travelled to India in the seventh century and described the interaction between Chinese Buddhism and Indian Buddhism during the early Tang dynasty.
Yachting refers to the use of recreational boats and ships called yachts for sporting purposes.
Agha Muhammad Yahya Khan (آغا محمد یحییٰ خان; 4 February 1917 – 10 August 1980), widely known as Yahya Khan,, was the third President of Pakistan, serving in this post from 25 March 1969 until turning over his presidency in December 1971.
Zahir Raihan (19 August 1935 – disappeared 30 January 1972) was a Bangladeshi novelist, writer and filmmaker.
Zainul Abedin (29 December 1914 – 28 May 1976) was a Bengali painter.
A zamindar in the Indian subcontinent was an aristocrat.
Zheng He (1371–1433 or 1435) was a Chinese mariner, explorer, diplomat, fleet admiral, and court eunuch during China's early Ming dynasty.
Zia Haider Rahman (জিয়া হায়দার রহমান) is a British novelist who was born in Bangladesh and raised in the UK.
Ziaur Rahman (জিয়াউর রহমান Ji-yaur Rôhman; 19 January 1936 – 30 May 1981) was the 7th President of Bangladesh.
Zimbabwe, officially the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country located in southern Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers, bordered by South Africa, Botswana, Zambia and Mozambique. The capital and largest city is Harare. A country of roughly million people, Zimbabwe has 16 official languages, with English, Shona, and Ndebele the most commonly used. Since the 11th century, present-day Zimbabwe has been the site of several organised states and kingdoms as well as a major route for migration and trade. The British South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes first demarcated the present territory during the 1890s; it became the self-governing British colony of Southern Rhodesia in 1923. In 1965, the conservative white minority government unilaterally declared independence as Rhodesia. The state endured international isolation and a 15-year guerrilla war with black nationalist forces; this culminated in a peace agreement that established universal enfranchisement and de jure sovereignty as Zimbabwe in April 1980. Zimbabwe then joined the Commonwealth of Nations, from which it was suspended in 2002 for breaches of international law by its then government and from which it withdrew from in December 2003. It is a member of the United Nations, the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the African Union (AU), and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). It was once known as the "Jewel of Africa" for its prosperity. Robert Mugabe became Prime Minister of Zimbabwe in 1980, when his ZANU-PF party won the elections following the end of white minority rule; he was the President of Zimbabwe from 1987 until his resignation in 2017. Under Mugabe's authoritarian regime, the state security apparatus dominated the country and was responsible for widespread human rights violations. Mugabe maintained the revolutionary socialist rhetoric of the Cold War era, blaming Zimbabwe's economic woes on conspiring Western capitalist countries. Contemporary African political leaders were reluctant to criticise Mugabe, who was burnished by his anti-imperialist credentials, though Archbishop Desmond Tutu called him "a cartoon figure of an archetypal African dictator". The country has been in economic decline since the 1990s, experiencing several crashes and hyperinflation along the way. On 15 November 2017, in the wake of over a year of protests against his government as well as Zimbabwe's rapidly declining economy, Mugabe was placed under house arrest by the country's national army in a coup d'état. On 19 November 2017, ZANU-PF sacked Robert Mugabe as party leader and appointed former Vice President Emmerson Mnangagwa in his place. On 21 November 2017, Mugabe tendered his resignation prior to impeachment proceedings being completed.
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto (5 January 1928 – 4 April 1979) was a Pakistani politician who served as the 9th Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1973 to 1977, and prior to that as the 4th President of Pakistan from 1971 to 1973.
.বাংলা (romanized as.bangla) is a secondary Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Bangladesh.
.bd is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Bangladesh.
The 1958 Pakistani coup d'état refers to the events between October 7, when the President of Pakistan Iskander Mirza abrogated the Constitution of Pakistan and declared martial law, and October 27, when Mirza himself was deposed by Gen.
1969 uprising in East Pakistan (ঊনসত্তরের গণঅভ্যুত্থান) was a democratic political movement in East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) that took place in 1969.
The 1970 Bhola cyclone was a devastating tropical cyclone that struck East Pakistan (present-day Bangladesh) and India's West Bengal on November 12, 1970.
The genocide in Bangladesh began on 26 March 1971 with the launch of Operation Searchlight, as West Pakistan began a military crackdown on the Eastern wing of the nation to suppress Bengali calls for self-determination rights.
Dhaka University was the centre for development of Independence of Bangladesh.
In 1971 the Pakistan Army and their local collaborators, most notably the extreme right wing Islamist militia groups Al-Badr, engaged in the systematic execution of Bengali pro-liberation intellectuals during the Bangladesh liberation war of 1971, a war crime.
The 1982 Bangladeshi military coup d'état deposed the civilian government headed by the president of Bangladesh Abdus Sattar and brought to power the Chief of Army Staff of the Bangladesh Army Lt.
The 1990 mass uprising was a democratic movement that took place on 4 December and led to the fall of General Hussain Muhammad Ershad in Bangladesh.
The 1991 Bangladesh cyclone (IMD designation: BOB 01, JTWC designation: 02B) was among the deadliest tropical cyclones on record.
The 1st millennium BC encompasses the Iron Age and sees the rise of many successive empires, and spanned from 1000 BC to 1 BC.
The 2006–2008 Bangladeshi political crisis began as a caretaker government (CTG) assumed power at the end of October 2006 following the end of term of the Bangladesh National Party administration.
The 2010 Asian Games, also known as the XVI Asian Games, was a multi-sport event celebrated in Guangzhou, Guangdong, China from 12 to 27 November 2010, although several events has commenced from 7 November 2010.
The 2011 ICC Cricket World Cup (officially known as ICC Cricket World Cup 2011) was the tenth Cricket World Cup.
The 2012 Asia Cup (also called Asia Cup) was the eleventh edition of the tournament and was held in Bangladesh.
The 2014 ICC World Twenty20 was the fifth ICC World Twenty20 competition, an international Twenty20 cricket tournament, that took place in Bangladesh from 16 March to 6 April 2014.
The 2015 Cricket World Cup (officially known as ICC Cricket World Cup 2015) was the 11th Cricket World Cup, jointly hosted by Australia and New Zealand from 14 February to 29 March 2015.
The 2016 Asia Cup (also called the Micromax Asia Cup T20) was a Twenty20 International (T20I) cricket tournament that was held in Bangladesh from 24 February to 6 March 2016.
The 2016 Summer Olympics (Jogos Olímpicos de Verão de 2016), officially known as the Games of the XXXI Olympiad and commonly known as Rio 2016, was an international multi-sport event that was held from 5 to 21 August 2016 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with preliminary events in some sports beginning on 3 August.
The 2017 ICC Champions Trophy was the eighth ICC Champions Trophy, a cricket tournament for the eight top-ranked One Day International (ODI) teams in the world.
The 2018 Women's Twenty20 Asia Cup was the seventh edition of the ACC Women's Asia Cup, organized by the Asian Cricket Council (ACC).
The 7 March Speech of Bangabandhu was a speech given by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, the founding father of Bangladesh on 7 March 1971 at the Ramna Race Course in Dhaka to a gathering of over two million people.
B'desh, B-desh, BANGLADESH, BNGL, Bangaladesh, Bangaldesh, Bangla Desh, Bangla-Desh, Bangladash, Bangladeish, Bangladeshi Republic, Bangledesh, Bdesh, Bengaldesh, Bengaledesh, Bengali People's Republic, Bengali Republic, Bengladesh, Biodiversity in Bangladesh, Blangadesh, Gana Praja-tantri Bangladesh, Gaṇaprajātantrī Bāṃlādēśa, Gônoprojatontri Bangladesh, Gônôprôjatôntri Bangladesh, ISO 3166-1:BD, People's Republic of Bangladash, People's Republic of Bangladesh, Peoples Republic of Bangladesh, Peoples' Republic of Bangladesh, People’s Republic of Bangladesh, Republic of Bangladash, Republic of Bangladesh, গনপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলােদশ, বাংলাদেশ.