271 relations: Accounting standard, Agricultural Bank of China, Ancient Greece, Ancient history, Asset quality, Asset–liability mismatch, Assyria, ATM card, Automated attendant, Automated Clearing House, Automated teller machine, Babylonia, Bad bank, Bailment, Balance sheet, Banca Monte dei Paschi di Siena, Bancassurance, Bank fraud, Bank of China, Bank of England, Bank of Saint George, Bank of Scotland, Bank regulation, Bank robbery, Bank run, Bankers' bank, Bankers' bonuses, Banking agent, Banking and insurance in Iran, Banking in Australia, Banking in Austria, Banking in Bangladesh, Banking in Canada, Banking in China, Banking in France, Banking in Germany, Banking in Greece, Banking in India, Banking in Israel, Banking in Italy, Banking in Pakistan, Banking in Russia, Banking in Switzerland, Banking in the United Kingdom, Banking in the United States, Banking in Tunisia, Banknote, Bardi family, Basel Accords, Berenberg Bank, ..., Berenberg family, Bond (finance), Branch (banking), Brokerage firm, Building society, Bureau de change, Business cycle, Call report, Capital market, Capital requirement, Central bank, Certificate of deposit, Charles Pepys, 1st Earl of Cottenham, Cheque, Cheque fraud, China Construction Bank, Clearing (finance), Commercial bank, Commodity, Commodity market, Common stock, Community bank, Community development bank, Consumption smoothing, Cooperative, Cooperative banking, Credit, Credit card, Credit risk, Credit union, Cross-selling, Customer relationship management, Debit card, Debt, Default (finance), Demand deposit, Deposit (finance), Deposit account, Derivative (finance), Direct bank, Direct debit, Direct Selling Association, Disintermediation, Economy of Hong Kong, Economy of Singapore, EFTPOS, Electronic funds transfer, English law, Equity (finance), Ethical banking, Europe, Factoring (finance), Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council, Federal Reserve System, Fee, Finance, Financial crisis of 2007–2008, Financial institution, Financial instrument, Financial market, Financial risk, Financial services, Financial Services Authority, Fixed deposit, Florence, Foley v Hill, Foreign exchange market, Fractional-reserve banking, Fugger, Full-reserve banking, Futures exchange, Genoa, Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici, Goldsmith, Gramm–Leach–Bliley Act, Great Depression, Greenwood Publishing Group, Hedge fund, High-net-worth individual, History of banking, History of India, Hot money, House of Medici, Hybrid security, Index of accounting articles, Individual retirement account, Industrial and Commercial Bank of China, Industrial loan company, Installment loan, Insurance, Interest, Interest rate, Interest rate risk, International Bank Account Number, International finance, International Monetary Fund, Investment banking, Investment management, Islamic banking and finance, Italian language, Italian Renaissance, Italy, Japan, Jews, Keogh Plan, Land development bank, Landesbank, Lender of last resort, Lien, Liquidity risk, List of bank mergers in the United States, List of banking families, List of banks in Hong Kong, List of largest banks, List of largest U.S. bank failures, List of oldest banks in continuous operation, List of stock exchanges, Lists of banks, Loan, London, Lucca, Macroeconomics, Market risk, Markup (business), Maturity transformation, Medici Bank, Merchant, Merchant bank, Middle English, Middle French, Minimum capital requirement, Mobile banking, Money, Money creation, Money laundering, Money market, Money market account, Mortgage bank, Mortgage fraud, Mortgage loan, Mutual fund, Mutual savings bank, Narrow banking, Negotiable instrument, Net interest spread, Noble Foster Hoggson, Nonprofit organization, Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, Office of Thrift Supervision, Offshore bank, Old High German, Online banking, Operational risk, Outline of economics, Outline of finance, Overdraft, Passbook, Peer-to-peer lending, Peruzzi, Piggy bank, Pigmy Deposit Scheme, Portmanteau, Postal savings system, Private banking, Promissory note, Public bank, Punjab, Receipt, Recurring deposit, Renaissance, Reputational risk, Retail banking, Retained earnings, Revolving credit, Risk management, Risk-based pricing, Risk-weighted asset, Roman Empire, Rothschild family, Royal Bank of Scotland, Savings account, Savings and loan association, Savings and loan crisis, Savings bank, Sharia, Siena, Smart card, Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication, Sparebank, Stock market, Stockbroker, Subordinated debt, Subprime mortgage crisis, Substitute check, Suez Canal, Switchboard operator, Tax haven, Telegraphic transfer, Telephone banking, Term loan, The New York Times, Time deposit, Trade finance, Trade union, Transaction account, Transaction banking, Underwriting, United Dominions Trust Ltd v Kirkwood, United States Department of the Treasury, Universal bank, Unsecured debt, Venice, Venture capital, Video banking, Videotelephony, Washington, D.C., Wealth management, Welser, Westport, Connecticut, Wire transfer. 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Financial statements prepared and presented by a company typically follow an external standard that specifically guides their preparation.
Agricultural Bank of China Limited (ABC), also known as AgBank, is one of the "Big Four" banks in the People's Republic of China.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
Ancient history is the aggregate of past events, "History" from the beginning of recorded human history and extending as far as the Early Middle Ages or the post-classical history.
Asset quality is an evaluation of asset to measure the credit risk associated with it.
In finance, an asset–liability mismatch occurs when the financial terms of an institution's assets and liabilities do not correspond.
Assyria, also called the Assyrian Empire, was a major Semitic speaking Mesopotamian kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East and the Levant.
An ATM card is a payment card or dedicated payment card le card issued by a financial institution which enables a customer to access automated teller machines (ATMs).
In telephony, an automated attendant (also auto attendant, auto-attendant, autoattendant or AA, or virtual receptionist) allows callers to be automatically transferred to an extension without the intervention of an operator/receptionist.
Automated Clearing House (ACH) is an electronic network for financial transactions in the United States.
An automated teller machine (ATM) is an electronic telecommunications device that enables customers of financial institutions to perform financial transactions, such as cash withdrawals, deposits, transfer funds, or obtaining account information, at any time and without the need for direct interaction with bank staff.
Babylonia was an ancient Akkadian-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq).
A bad bank is a corporate structure to isolate illiquid and high risk assets held by a bank or a financial organisation, or perhaps a group of banks or financial organisations.
Bailment describes a legal relationship in common law where physical possession of personal property, or a chattel, is transferred from one person (the "bailor") to another person (the "bailee") who subsequently has possession of the property.
In financial accounting, a balance sheet or statement of financial position is a summary of the financial balances of an individual or organization, whether it be a sole proprietorship, a business partnership, a corporation, private limited company or other organization such as Government or not-for-profit entity.
Banca Monte dei Paschi di Siena S.p.A., known as BMPS or just MPS, is an Italian bank.
Bankassurance, is a relationship between a bank and an insurance company, aimed at offering insurance products or insurance benefits to the bank's customers.
Bank fraud is the use of potentially illegal means to obtain money, assets, or other property owned or held by a financial institution, or to obtain money from depositors by fraudulently posing as a bank or other financial institution.
Bank of China (often abbreviated as 中行 or BOC) is one of the four biggest state-owned commercial banks in China.
The Bank of England, formally the Governor and Company of the Bank of England, is the central bank of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the model on which most modern central banks have been based.
The Bank of Saint George (Casa delle compere e dei banchi di San Giorgio or informally as Ufficio di San Giorgio or Banco) was a financial institution of the Republic of Genoa.
The Bank of Scotland plc (Bank o Scotland, Banca na h-Alba) is a commercial and clearing bank based in Edinburgh, Scotland.
Bank regulation is a form of government regulation which subjects banks to certain requirements, restrictions and guidelines, designed to create market transparency between banking institutions and the individuals and corporations with whom they conduct business, among other things.
Bank robbery is the crime of stealing money from a bank, while bank employees and customers are subjected to force, violence, or a threat of violence.
A bank run (also known as a run on the bank) occurs when a large number of people withdraw their money from a bank, because they believe the bank may cease to function in the near future.
A bankers' bank is a financial institution that provides financial services to community banks in the United States of America.
Bankers' bonuses are traditionally paid or awarded to some workers in the finance industry at the end of the bank's financial year.
A banking agent is a retail or postal outlet contracted by a financial institution or a mobile network operator to process clients’ transactions.
Following the Iranian Revolution, Iran's banking system was transformed to be run on an Islamic interest-free basis.
Banking in Australia is dominated by four major banks: Commonwealth Bank of Australia, Westpac Banking Corporation, Australia and New Zealand Banking Group, and National Australia Bank.
The Austrian National Bank (Österreichische Nationalbank), originally opened on January 2, 1923 but taken over by the German Reichsbank in 1938, was reestablished on July 3, 1945.
Bangladesh is a third world country with an under developed banking system, particularly in terms of the services and customer care provided by the government run banks.
Banking in Canada is widely considered one of the safest banking systems in the world,, World Economic Forum, In the 2010-2011 report Canada is ranked 1st in the "Soundness of banks" indicator ranking as the world's soundest banking system for the past six years according to reports by the World Economic Forum.
During the 1990s and 2000s, China's banking system underwent significant changes: banks are now functioning more like western banks than before.
The banking industry in France has, as of 11 October 2008, an average leverage ratio (assets/net worth) of 28 to 1, and its short-term liabilities are equal to 60% of the French GDP or 128% of its national debt.
Banking in Germany is a highly leveraged industry, as its average leverage ratio (assets divided by net worth) as of 11 October 2008 is 52 to 1 (while, in comparison, that of France is 28 to 1 and United Kingdom is 24 to 1); its short-term liabilities are equal to 60% of the German GDP or 167% of its national debt.
Banking in Greece is an industry that has an average leverage ratio (assets/net worth) 16 to 1, and short-term liabilities equal to 35% of the Greek GDP or 38% of the Greek national debt, as of 11 October 2008.
Banking in India, in the modern sense, originated in the last decades of the 18th century.
Banking in Israel has its roots in the Zionist movement at the beginning of the 20th century prior to the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948.
Banking in Italy has, as of 11 October 2008, an average leverage ratio (assets/liabilities) of 12 to 1, while the banks's short-term liabilities are equal to 86% of the Italian GDP or 43% of the Italian national debt.
Banking in Pakistan first formally started in Pakistan during the period of British colonialism in the South Asia.
Banking in Russia is subject to significant regulations as banks in the Russian Federation have to meet mandatory Russian legislation requirements, and comply with numerous Bank of Russia instructions and regulations.
Banking in Switzerland began in the early 18th century through Switzerland's merchant trade and has, over the centuries, grown into a complex, regulated, and international industry.
Banking in the United Kingdom can be considered to have started in the Kingdom of England in the 17th century.
Banking in the United States began in the late 1790s along with the country's founding and has developed into highly influential and complex system of banking and financial services.
Banking in Tunisia is a service industry comprising 18 small domestic banks and three publicly controlled banks, which are the largest.
A banknote (often known as a bill, paper money, or simply a note) is a type of negotiable promissory note, made by a bank, payable to the bearer on demand.
The Bardi family were an influential Florentine family that started the powerful banking company Compagnia dei Bardi.
The Basel Accords (see alternative spellings below) refer to the banking supervision Accords (recommendations on banking regulations)—Basel I, Basel II and Basel III—issued by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS).
The Berenberg family (Dutch for "bear mountain") was a Flemish-origined Hanseatic family of merchants, bankers and senators in Hamburg, with branches in London, Livorno and other European cities.
In finance, a bond is an instrument of indebtedness of the bond issuer to the holders.
A branch, banking center or financial center is a retail location where a bank, credit union, or other financial institution (including a brokerage firm) offers a wide array of face-to-face and automated services to its customers.
A brokerage firm, or simply brokerage, is a financial institution that facilitates the buying and selling of financial securities between a buyer and a seller.
A building society is a financial institution owned by its members as a mutual organization.
A bureau de change (plural bureaux de change, both) (British English) or currency exchange (American English) is a business where people can exchange one currency for another.
The business cycle, also known as the economic cycle or trade cycle, is the downward and upward movement of gross domestic product (GDP) around its long-term growth trend.
All regulated financial institutions in the United States are required to file periodic financial and other information with their respective regulators and other parties.
A capital market is a financial market in which long-term debt (over a year) or equity-backed securities are bought and sold.
Capital requirement (also known as regulatory capital or capital adequacy) is the amount of capital a bank or other financial institution has to hold as required by its financial regulator.
A central bank, reserve bank, or monetary authority is an institution that manages a state's currency, money supply, and interest rates.
A certificate of deposit (CD) is a time deposit, a financial product commonly sold in the United States and elsewhere by banks, thrift institutions, and credit unions.
Charles Christopher Pepys, 1st Earl of Cottenham PC QC (29 April 178129 April 1851) was an English lawyer, judge and politician.
A cheque, or check (American English; see spelling differences), is a document that orders a bank to pay a specific amount of money from a person's account to the person in whose name the cheque has been issued.
Cheque fraud refers to a category of criminal acts that involve making the unlawful use of cheques in order to illegally acquire or borrow funds that do not exist within the account balance or account-holder's legal ownership.
China Construction Bank Corporation (CCB) is one of the "big four" banks in the People's Republic of China.
In banking and finance, clearing denotes all activities from the time a commitment is made for a transaction until it is settled.
A commercial bank is an institution that provides services such as accepting deposits, providing business loans, and offering basic investment products.
In economics, a commodity is an economic good or service that has full or substantial fungibility: that is, the market treats instances of the good as equivalent or nearly so with no regard to who produced them.
A commodity market is a market that trades in primary economic sector rather than manufactured products.
Common stock is a form of corporate equity ownership, a type of security.
A community bank is a depository institution that is typically locally owned and operated.
In the United States, community development banks (CDBs or CDFI Banks) are commercial banks that operate with a mission to generate economic development in low- to moderate-income (LMI) geographical areas and serve residents of these communities.
Consumption smoothing is the economic concept used to express the desire of people to have a stable path of consumption.
A cooperative (also known as co-operative, co-op, or coop) is "an autonomous association of persons united voluntarily to meet their common economic, social, and cultural needs and aspirations through a jointly-owned and democratically-controlled enterprise".
Cooperative banking is retail and commercial banking organized on a cooperative basis.
Credit (from Latin credit, "(he/she/it) believes") is the trust which allows one party to provide money or resources to another party where that second party does not reimburse the first party immediately (thereby generating a debt), but instead promises either to repay or return those resources (or other materials of equal value) at a later date.
A credit card is a payment card issued to users (cardholders) to enable the cardholder to pay a merchant for goods and services based on the cardholder's promise to the card issuer to pay them for the amounts so paid plus the other agreed charges.
A credit risk is the risk of default on a debt that may arise from a borrower failing to make required payments.
A credit union is a member-owned financial cooperative, controlled by its members and operated on the principle of people helping people, providing its members credit at competitive rates as well as other financial services.
Cross-selling is the action or practice of selling an additional product or service to an existing customer.
Customer relationship management (CRM) is an approach to manage a company's interaction with current and potential customers.
A debit card (also known as a bank card, plastic card or check card) is a plastic payment card that can be used instead of cash when making purchases.
Debt is when something, usually money, is owed by one party, the borrower or debtor, to a second party, the lender or creditor.
In finance, default is failure to meet the legal obligations (or conditions) of a loan, for example when a home buyer fails to make a mortgage payment, or when a corporation or government fails to pay a bond which has reached maturity.
Demand deposits, bank money or scriptural money are funds held in demand deposit accounts in commercial banks.
A deposit is the monetary amount that is placed with some entity.
A deposit account is a savings account, current account or any other type of bank account that allows money to be deposited and withdrawn by the account holder.
In finance, a derivative is a contract that derives its value from the performance of an underlying entity.
A direct bank (sometimes called a branchless bank, virtual bank or an internet-only bank) is a bank without any branch network that offers its services remotely via online banking and telephone banking and may also provide access via ATMs (often through interbank network alliances), mail and mobile.
A direct debit or direct withdrawal is a financial transaction in which one person withdraws funds from another person's bank account.
The Direct Selling Association (DSA) is the name of several similar trade associations in the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Malaysia, Singapore, and New Zealand that represent direct selling companies, primarily those that use multi-level marketing compensation plans.
Disintermediation is the removal of intermediaries in economics from a supply chain, or cutting out the middlemen in connection with a transaction or a series of transactions.
As one of the world's leading international financial centres, Hong Kong's service-oriented economy is characterized by its low taxation, almost free port trade and well established international financial market.
The economy of Singapore is a highly developed free-market economy.
Electronic funds transfer at point of sale (EFTPOS) is an electronic payment system involving electronic funds transfers based on the use of payment cards, such as debit or credit cards, at payment terminals located at points of sale.
Electronic funds transfer (EFT) is the electronic transfer of money from one bank account to another, either within a single financial institution or across multiple institutions, via computer-based systems, without the direct intervention of bank staff.
English law is the common law legal system of England and Wales, comprising mainly criminal law and civil law, each branch having its own courts and procedures.
In accounting, equity (or owner's equity) is the difference between the value of the assets and the value of the liabilities of something owned.
An ethical bank, also known as a social, alternative, civic, or sustainable bank, is a bank concerned with the social and environmental impacts of its investments and loans.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
Factoring is a financial transaction and a type of debtor finance in which a business sells its accounts receivable (i.e., invoices) to a third party (called a factor) at a discount.
The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) is a United States government corporation providing deposit insurance to depositors in U.S. commercial banks and savings institutions.
The Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council (FFIEC) is a formal U.S. government interagency body composed of five banking regulators that is "empowered to prescribe uniform principles, standards, and report forms to promote uniformity in the supervision of financial institutions".
The Federal Reserve System (also known as the Federal Reserve or simply the Fed) is the central banking system of the United States of America.
A fee is the price one pays as remuneration for rights or services.
Finance is a field that is concerned with the allocation (investment) of assets and liabilities (known as elements of the balance statement) over space and time, often under conditions of risk or uncertainty.
The financial crisis of 2007–2008, also known as the global financial crisis and the 2008 financial crisis, is considered by many economists to have been the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s.
Financial institutions, otherwise known as banking institutions, are corporations which provide services as intermediaries of financial markets.
Financial instruments are monetary contracts between parties.
A financial market is a market in which people trade financial securities and derivatives such as futures and options at low transaction costs.
Financial risk is any of various types of risk associated with financing, including financial transactions that include company loans in risk of default.
Financial services are the economic services provided by the finance industry, which encompasses a broad range of businesses that manage money, including credit unions, banks, credit-card companies, insurance companies, accountancy companies, consumer-finance companies, stock brokerages, investment funds, individual managers and some government-sponsored enterprises.
The Financial Services Authority (FSA) was a quasi-judicial body responsible for the regulation of the financial services industry in the United Kingdom between 2001 and 2013.
A fixed deposit (FD) is a financial instrument provided by banks or NBFCs which provides investors a higher rate of interest than a regular savings account, until the given maturity date.
Florence (Firenze) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany.
Foley v Hill (1848) 2 HLC 28, 9 ER 1002 is a judicial decision of the House of Lords in relation to the fundamental nature of a bank account.
The foreign exchange market (Forex, FX, or currency market) is a global decentralized or over-the-counter (OTC) market for the trading of currencies.
Fractional-reserve banking is the practice whereby a bank accepts deposits, makes loans or investments, but is required to hold reserves equal to only a fraction of its deposit liabilities.
Fugger is a German family that was a historically prominent group of European bankers, members of the fifteenth- and sixteenth-century mercantile patriciate of Augsburg, international mercantile bankers, and venture capitalists.
Full-reserve banking (also known as 100% reserve banking) is a proposed alternative to fractional-reserve banking in which banks would be required to keep the full amount of each depositor's funds in cash, ready for immediate withdrawal on demand.
A futures exchange or futures market is a central financial exchange where people can trade standardized futures contracts; that is, a contract to buy specific quantities of a commodity or financial instrument at a specified price with delivery set at a specified time in the future.
Genoa (Genova,; Zêna; English, historically, and Genua) is the capital of the Italian region of Liguria and the sixth-largest city in Italy.
Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici (c. 1360 – 20/28 February 1429) was an Italian banker and founder of the Medici Bank.
A goldsmith is a metalworker who specializes in working with gold and other precious metals.
The Gramm–Leach–Bliley Act (GLBA), also known as the Financial Services Modernization Act of 1999, is an act of the 106th United States Congress (1999–2001).
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.
ABC-CLIO/Greenwood is an educational and academic publisher (middle school through university level) which is today part of ABC-CLIO.
A hedge fund is an investment fund that pools capital from accredited individuals or institutional investors and invests in a variety of assets, often with complex portfolio-construction and risk-management techniques.
High-net-worth individual (HNWI) is a term used by some segments of the financial services industry to designate persons whose investible assets (such as stocks and bonds) exceed a given amount.
The history of banking began with the first prototype banks were the merchants of the world, who made grain loans to farmers and traders who carried goods between cities.
The history of India includes the prehistoric settlements and societies in the Indian subcontinent; the advancement of civilisation from the Indus Valley Civilisation to the eventual blending of the Indo-Aryan culture to form the Vedic Civilisation; the rise of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism;Sanderson, Alexis (2009), "The Śaiva Age: The Rise and Dominance of Śaivism during the Early Medieval Period." In: Genesis and Development of Tantrism, edited by Shingo Einoo, Tokyo: Institute of Oriental Culture, University of Tokyo, 2009.
In economics, hot money is the flow of funds (or capital) from one country to another in order to earn a short-term profit on interest rate differences and/or anticipated exchange rate shifts.
The House of Medici was an Italian banking family and political dynasty that first began to gather prominence under Cosimo de' Medici in the Republic of Florence during the first half of the 15th century.
Hybrid securities are a broad group of securities that combine the characteristics of the two broader groups of securities, debt and equity.
This page is an index of accounting topics.
An individual retirement account (IRA) is a form of "individual retirement plan", provided by many financial institutions, that provides tax advantages for retirement savings in the United States.
Industrial and Commercial Bank of China Limited (abb. ICBC) is a Chinese multinational banking company.
An industrial loan company (ILC) or industrial bank is a financial institution in the United States that lends money, and may be owned by non-financial institutions.
An installment loan is a loan that is repaid over time with a set number of scheduled payments; normally at least two payments are made towards the loan.
Insurance is a means of protection from financial loss.
Interest is payment from a borrower or deposit-taking financial institution to a lender or depositor of an amount above repayment of the principal sum (i.e., the amount borrowed), at a particular rate.
An interest rate is the amount of interest due per period, as a proportion of the amount lent, deposited or borrowed (called the principal sum).
Interest rate risk is the risk that arises for bond owners from fluctuating interest rates.
The International Bank Account Number (IBAN) is an internationally agreed system of identifying bank accounts across national borders to facilitate the communication and processing of cross border transactions with a reduced risk of transcription errors.
International finance (also referred to as international monetary economics or international macroeconomics) is the branch of financial economics broadly concerned with monetary and macroeconomic interrelations between two or more countries.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
An investment bank is typically a private company that provides various finance-related and other services to individuals, corporations, and governments such as raising financial capital by underwriting or acting as the client's agent in the issuance of securities.
Investment management is the professional asset management of various securities (shares, bonds and other securities) and other assets (e.g., real estate) in order to meet specified investment goals for the benefit of the investors.
Islamic banking or Islamic finance (مصرفية إسلامية) or sharia-compliant finance is banking or financing activity that complies with sharia (Islamic law) and its practical application through the development of Islamic economics.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
The Italian Renaissance (Rinascimento) was the earliest manifestation of the general European Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement that began in Italy during the 14th century (Trecento) and lasted until the 17th century (Seicento), marking the transition between Medieval and Modern Europe.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Keogh plans are a type of retirement plan for self-employed people and small businesses in the United States.
A land development bank (ভূমি উন্নয়ন ব্যাংক.), abbreviated LDB, is a special kind of bank in India, and is of quasi-commercial type that provides services such as accepting deposits, making business loans, and offering basic investment products.
The Landesbanken in Germany are a group of state-owned banks of a type unique to Germany.
A lender of last resort (LOLR) is the institution in a financial system that acts as the provider of liquidity to a financial institution which finds itself unable to obtain sufficient liquidity in the interbank lending market and other facilities or sources have been exhausted.
A lien is a form of security interest granted over an item of property to secure the payment of a debt or performance of some other obligation.
Liquidity risk is a financial risk that for a certain period of time a given financial asset, security or commodity cannot be traded quickly enough in the market without impacting the market price.
This is a partial list of major banking company mergers in the United States.
Banking families are families which have been involved in banking for multiple generations, in the modern era generally as owners or co-owners of banks, often named for their families.
Hong Kong maintains a three-tier system of deposit-taking institutions, i.e. licensed banks, restricted licence banks and deposit-taking companies.
These are a list of the banks in the world, as measured by total assets.
This is a list of the largest U.S. bank failures with respect to total assets under management at the time of the bank failure (banks with $1.0 billion or more in assets are listed here).
This list of the oldest banks includes financial institutions in continuous operation, operating with the same legal identity without interruption since their establishment until the present time.
This is a list of major stock exchanges.
Lists of banks are contained in the following articles.
In finance, a loan is the lending of money by one or more individuals, organizations, and/or other entities to other individuals, organizations etc.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Lucca is a city and comune in Tuscany, Central Italy, on the Serchio, in a fertile plain near the Tyrrhenian Sea.
Macroeconomics (from the Greek prefix makro- meaning "large" and economics) is a branch of economics dealing with the performance, structure, behavior, and decision-making of an economy as a whole.
Market risk is the risk of losses in positions arising from movements in market prices.
Markup is the ratio between the cost of a good or service and its selling price.
Maturity transformation is the practice by financial institutions of borrowing money on shorter timeframes than they lend money out.
The Medici Bank (Italian: Banco dei Medici) was a financial institution created by the Medici family in Italy during the 15th century (1397–1494).
A merchant is a person who trades in commodities produced by other people.
A merchant bank is historically a bank dealing in commercial loans and investment.
Middle English (ME) is collectively the varieties of the English language spoken after the Norman Conquest (1066) until the late 15th century; scholarly opinion varies but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies the period of 1150 to 1500.
Middle French (le moyen français) is a historical division of the French language that covers the period from the 14th to the early 17th centuries.
Academics, practitioners, and regulators all recognise and agree that capital is required for banks to operate smoothly because capital provides protection.
Mobile banking is a service provided by a bank or other financial institution that allows its customers to conduct financial transactions remotely using a mobile device such as a smartphone or tablet.
Money is any item or verifiable record that is generally accepted as payment for goods and services and repayment of debts in a particular country or socio-economic context.
Money creation is the process by which the money supply of a country, or of an economic or monetary region,Such as the Eurozone or ECCAS is increased.
Money laundering is the act of concealing the transformation of profits from illegal activities and corruption into ostensibly "legitimate" assets.
As money became a commodity, the money market became a component of the financial markets for assets involved in short-term borrowing, lending, buying and selling with original maturities of one year or less.
A money market account (MMA) or money market deposit account (MMDA) is a deposit account that pays interest based on current interest rates in the money markets.
Mortgage bank is a bank that specializes in originating and/or servicing mortgage loans.
Mortgage fraud is a crime in which the intent is to materially misrepresent or omit information on a mortgage loan application in order to obtain a loan or to obtain a larger loan than could have been obtained had the lender or borrower known the truth.
A mortgage loan, or simply mortgage, is used either by purchasers of real property to raise funds to buy real estate, or alternatively by existing property owners to raise funds for any purpose, while putting a lien on the property being mortgaged.
A mutual fund is a professionally managed investment fund that pools money from many investors to purchase securities.
A mutual savings bank is a financial institution chartered by a central or regional government, without capital stock, that is owned by its members who subscribe to a common fund.
Narrow banking is a proposed type of bank called a narrow bank also called a safe bank.
A negotiable instrument is a document guaranteeing the payment of a specific amount of money, either on demand, or at a set time, with the payer usually named on the document.
Net interest spread refers to the difference in borrowing and lending rates of financial institutions (such as banks) in nominal terms.
Noble Foster Hoggson Sr. (1865 – ?) was a builder, architect, and author in the United States.
A non-profit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity or non-profit institution, is dedicated to furthering a particular social cause or advocating for a shared point of view.
The Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC) is an independent bureau within the United States Department of the Treasury that was established by the National Currency Act of 1863 and serves to charter, regulate, and supervise all national banks and thrift institutions and the federal branches and agencies of foreign banks in the United States.
The Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS) was a United States federal agency under the Department of the Treasury that chartered, supervised, and regulated all federally chartered and state-chartered savings banks and savings and loans associations.
An offshore bank is a bank regulated under international banking license (often called offshore license), which usually prohibits the bank from establishing any business activities in the jurisdiction of establishment.
Old High German (OHG, Althochdeutsch, German abbr. Ahd.) is the earliest stage of the German language, conventionally covering the period from around 700 to 1050.
Online banking, also known as internet banking, it is an electronic payment system that enables customers of a bank or other financial institution to conduct a range of financial transactions through the financial institution's website.
Operational risk is "the risk of a change in value caused by the fact that actual losses, incurred for inadequate or failed internal processes, people and systems, or from external events (including legal risk), differ from the expected losses".
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to economics: Economics – analyzes the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to finance: Finance – addresses the ways in which individuals and organizations raise and allocate monetary resources over time, taking into account the risks entailed in their projects.
An overdraft occurs when money is withdrawn from a bank account and the available balance goes below zero.
A passbook or bankbook is a paper book used to record bank, or building society transactions on a deposit account.
According to some finance regulators, while a legal definition of Peer-to-Peer P2P Lending is not yet in existence, the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) the Canadian Intellectual Property Office (CIPO) and the United States Government Accountability Office (GAO) acknowledge that Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Lending (synonymous with the term Person-to-Person Lending, "Private Lending", "Cryptolending"), also known as P2P Lending is the "practice of lending/investing or borrowing money from one private individual (or person) to another private individual (or person).
The Peruzzi were bankers of Florence, among the leading families of the city in the 14th century, before the rise to prominence of the Medici.
Piggy bank (sometimes penny bank or money box) is the traditional name of a coin container normally used by children.
Pigmy Deposit Scheme is a monetary deposit scheme introduced by Syndicate Bank, India.
A portmanteau or portmanteau word is a linguistic blend of words,, p. 644 in which parts of multiple words or their phones (sounds) are combined into a new word, as in smog, coined by blending smoke and fog, or motel, from motor and hotel.
Postal savings systems provide depositors who do not have access to banks a safe and convenient method to save money.
Private banking is banking, investment and other financial services provided by banks to high-net-worth individuals (HNWIs) with high levels of income or sizable assets.
A promissory note, sometimes referred to as a note payable, is a legal instrument (more particularly, a financial instrument and a debt instrument), in which one party (the maker or issuer) promises in writing to pay a determinate sum of money to the other (the payee), either at a fixed or determinable future time or on demand of the payee, under specific terms.
A public bank is a bank, a financial institution, in which a state or public actors are the owners.
The Punjab, also spelled Panjab (land of "five rivers"; Punjabi: پنجاب (Shahmukhi); ਪੰਜਾਬ (Gurumukhi); Πενταποταμία, Pentapotamia) is a geographical and cultural region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northern India.
A receipt (also known as a bill of parcel, unpacking note, packaging slip, (delivery) docket, shipping list, packing list, packing slip, delivery list, manifest or customer receipt), is a document acknowledging that a person has received money or property in payment following a sale or other transfer of goods or provision of a service.
Recurring Deposit is a special kind of Term Deposit offered by banks in India which help people with regular incomes to deposit a fixed amount every month into their Recurring Deposit account and earn interest at the rate applicable to Fixed Deposits.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
Reputational risk, often called reputation risk, is a risk of loss resulting from damages to a firm's reputation, in lost revenue; increased operating, capital or regulatory costs; or destruction of shareholder value, consequent to an adverse or potentially criminal event even if the company is not found guilty.
Retail banking, also known as consumer banking, is the provision of services by a bank to the general public, rather than to companies, corporations or other banks, which are often described as wholesale banking.
The retained earnings of a corporation is the accumulated net income of the corporation that is retained by the corporation at a particular point of time, such as at the end of the reporting period.
Revolving credit is a type of credit that does not have a fixed number of payments, in contrast to installment credit.
Risk management is the identification, evaluation, and prioritization of risks (defined in ISO 31000 as the effect of uncertainty on objectives) followed by coordinator and economical application of resources to minimize, monitor, and control the probability or impact of unfortunate events or to maximize the realization of opportunities.
Risk-based pricing is a methodology adopted by many lenders in the mortgage and financial services industries.
Risk-weighted asset (also referred to as RWA) is a bank's assets or off-balance-sheet exposures, weighted according to risk.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
The Rothschild family is a wealthy Jewish family descending from Mayer Amschel Rothschild (1744–1812), a court factor to the German Landgraves of Hesse-Kassel in the Free City of Frankfurt, Holy Roman Empire, who established his banking business in the 1760s. Unlike most previous court factors, Rothschild managed to bequeath his wealth and established an international banking family through his five sons, who established themselves in London, Paris, Frankfurt, Vienna, and Naples. The family was elevated to noble rank in the Holy Roman Empire and the United Kingdom. During the 19th century, the Rothschild family possessed the largest private fortune in the world, as well as the largest private fortune in modern world history.The House of Rothschild: Money's prophets, 1798–1848, Volume 1, Niall Ferguson, 1999, page 481-85The Secret Life of the Jazz Baroness, from The Times 11 April 2009, Rosie Boycott The family's wealth was divided among various descendants, and today their interests cover a diverse range of fields, including financial services, real estate, mining, energy, mixed farming, winemaking and nonprofits.The Rothschilds: Portrait of a Dynasty, By Frederic Morton, page 11 The Rothschild family has frequently been the subject of conspiracy theories, many of which have antisemitic origins.
The Royal Bank of Scotland (Banca Rìoghail na h-Alba, Ryal Bank o Scotland, Banc Brenhinol yr Alban), commonly abbreviated as RBS, is one of the retail banking subsidiaries of The Royal Bank of Scotland Group plc, together with NatWest and Ulster Bank.
A savings account is a deposit account held at a retail bank that pays interest but cannot be used directly as money in the narrow sense of a medium of exchange (for example, by writing a cheque).
A savings and loan association (S&L), or thrift institution, is a financial institution that specializes in accepting savings, deposits, and making mortgage and other loans.
The savings and loan crisis of the 1980s and 1990s (commonly dubbed the S&L crisis) was the failure of 1,043 out of the 3,234 savings and loan associations in the United States from 1986 to 1995: the Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation (FSLIC) closed or otherwise resolved 296 institutions from 1986 to 1989 and the Resolution Trust Corporation (RTC) closed or otherwise resolved 747 institutions from 1989 to 1995.
A savings bank is a financial institution whose primary purpose is accepting savings deposits and paying interest on those deposits.
Sharia, Sharia law, or Islamic law (شريعة) is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.
Siena (in English sometimes spelled Sienna; Sena Iulia) is a city in Tuscany, Italy.
A smart card, chip card, or integrated circuit card (ICC), is any pocket-sized card that has embedded integrated circuits.
The Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication (SWIFT) provides a network that enables financial institutions worldwide to send and receive information about financial transactions in a secure, standardized and reliable environment.
Sparebank is a Norwegian savings bank without external owners.
A stock market, equity market or share market is the aggregation of buyers and sellers (a loose network of economic transactions, not a physical facility or discrete entity) of stocks (also called shares), which represent ownership claims on businesses; these may include securities listed on a public stock exchange as well as those only traded privately.
A stockbroker is a regulated professional individual, usually associated with a brokerage firm or broker-dealer, who buys and sells stocks and other securities for both retail and institutional clients through a stock exchange or over the counter in return for a fee or commission.
In finance, subordinated debt (also known as subordinated loan, subordinated bond, subordinated debenture or junior debt) is debt which ranks after other debts if a company falls into liquidation or bankruptcy.
The United States subprime mortgage crisis was a nationwide banking emergency, occurring between 2007 and 2010, that contributed to the U.S. recession of December 2007 – June 2009.
A substitute check or cheque, also called an image cash letter (ICL), clearing replacement document (CRD), or image replacement document (IRD), is a negotiable instrument used in electronic banking systems to represent a physical paper cheque (check).
thumb The Suez Canal (قناة السويس) is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea through the Isthmus of Suez.
In the early days of telephony, through roughly the 1960s, companies used manual telephone switchboards, and switchboard operators connected calls by inserting a pair of phone plugs into the appropriate jacks.
A tax haven is defined as a jurisdiction with very low "effective" rates of taxation ("headline" rates may be higher).
Telegraphic Transfer or telex transfer, often abbreviated to TT, is a term used to refer to an electronic means of transferring funds.
Telephone banking is a service provided by a bank or other financial institution, that enables customers to perform over the telephone a range of financial transactions which do not involve for cash or documents (such as cheques), without the need to visit a bank branch or ATM.
A term loan is a monetary loan that is repaid in regular payments over a set period of time.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
A time deposit or term deposit (also known as a certificate of deposit in the United States) is a deposit with a specified period of maturity and earns interest.
Trade finance signifies financing for trade, and it concerns both domestic and international trade transactions.
A trade union or trades union, also called a labour union (Canada) or labor union (US), is an organization of workers who have come together to achieve many common goals; such as protecting the integrity of its trade, improving safety standards, and attaining better wages, benefits (such as vacation, health care, and retirement), and working conditions through the increased bargaining power wielded by the creation of a monopoly of the workers.
A transaction account, checking account, current account, demand deposit account, or share draft account (at credit unions) is a deposit account held at a bank or other financial institution.
Transaction Banking (TB) can be defined as the set of instruments and services that a bank offers to trading partners to financially support their reciprocal exchanges of goods (e.g.trade), (e.g., cash), or commercial papers (e.g., exchanges).
Underwriting services are provided by some large specialist financial institutions, such as banks, insurance or investment houses, whereby they guarantee payment in case of damage or financial loss and accept the financial risk for liability arising from such guarantee.
United Dominions Trust Ltd v Kirkwood 2 QB 431 was a decision of the Court of Appeal relating to what constitutes "banking business" as a matter of English law.
The Department of the Treasury (USDT) is an executive department and the treasury of the United States federal government.
A universal bank participates in many kinds of banking activities and is both a commercial bank and an investment bank as well as providing other financial services such as insurance.
In finance, unsecured debt refers to any type of debt or general obligation that is not protected by a guarantor, or collateralized by a lien on specific assets of the borrower in the case of a bankruptcy or liquidation or failure to meet the terms for repayment.
Venice (Venezia,; Venesia) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.
Venture capital (VC) is a type of private equity, a form of financing that is provided by firms or funds to small, early-stage, emerging firms that are deemed to have high growth potential, or which have demonstrated high growth (in terms of number of employees, annual revenue, or both).
Video banking is a term used for performing banking transactions or professional banking consultations via a remote video connection.
Videotelephony comprises the technologies for the reception and transmission of audio-video signals by users at different locations, for communication between people in real-time.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
Wealth management is an investment-advisory discipline which incorporates financial planning, investment portfolio management and a number of aggregated financial services.
Welser was a German banking and merchant family, originally a patrician family from Augsburg, that rose to great prominence in international high finance in the 16th century as financiers of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor.
Westport is an affluent town located in Connecticut, along Long Island Sound within Connecticut's Gold Coast in Fairfield County, Connecticut.
Wire transfer, bank transfer or credit transfer is a method of electronic funds transfer from one person or entity to another.
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