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Bankruptcy

Index Bankruptcy

Bankruptcy is a legal status of a person or other entity that cannot repay debts to creditors. [1]

120 relations: Administration (law), Al-Maqrizi, Ancient Greece, Austria, Automatic stay, Bankruptcy Act, Bankruptcy alternatives, Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act, Bankruptcy in the United Kingdom, Bankruptcy Law in the Republic of Ireland, Board for Industrial and Financial Reconstruction, Brazil, Capital punishment, Chang'an, Chapter 11, Title 11, United States Code, Chapter 12, Title 11, United States Code, Chapter 13, Title 11, United States Code, Chapter 15, Title 11, United States Code, Chapter 7, Title 11, United States Code, Chapter 9, Title 11, United States Code, Child support, Corporation, Corporations Act 2001, Court order, Credit counseling, Creditor, Creditors' rights, Crime, Debt bondage, Debt consolidation, Debt relief, Debt relief order, Debt restructuring, Debtor, Debtor in possession, Debtor-in-possession financing, Default (finance), Discount store, Distressed securities, East Asia, Enforcement Authority, English law, Enterprise Act 2002, Examinership, Federal Circuit Court of Australia, Federal Court of Australia, Federal crime in the United States, Financial distress, France, Fraud, ..., Genghis Khan, Goguryeo, Government of Canada, Greece, History of Athens, Independent school fee fixing scandal, Individual voluntary arrangement, Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada, Insolvency, Insolvency Act 1986, Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016, Insolvency practitioner, Judgment debtor, Judicial estoppel, Law of the United States, Legal person, Liquidation, Manual labour, Mens rea, Natural monopoly, Natural person, Net (economics), Official receiver, Parliament of India, Partnership, Pension, Perjury, Personal bankruptcy, Philip II of Spain, Phoenix (band), Polis, Portugal, Protected trust deed, Prussia, Pyongyang, Receivership, Republic of Genoa, Security interest, Sequestration (law), Sole trader insolvency, Solon, Solonian Constitution, Sovereign default, Soviet Union, Spain, Stalking horse offer, Statute of Bankrupts, Statutory law, Strategic bankruptcy, Student loan, Sui dynasty, Superintendent of Bankruptcy, Switzerland, Target Canada, Target Corporation, Time limit, Title 11 of the United States Code, Tools of trade, Trustee, Trustee in bankruptcy, Turnaround ADR, United Kingdom, United States, United States bankruptcy court, United States Code, United States Congress, United States Constitution, United States district court, White-collar crime, Yassa. Expand index (70 more) »

Administration (law)

As a legal concept, administration is a procedure under the insolvency laws of a number of common law jurisdictions, similar to bankruptcy in the United States.

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Al-Maqrizi

Taqi al-Din Abu al-Abbas Ahmad ibn 'Ali ibn 'Abd al-Qadir ibn Muhammad al-Maqrizi (1364–1442)Franz Rosenthal,.

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Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).

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Austria

Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.

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Automatic stay

In United States bankruptcy law, an automatic stay is an automatic injunction that halts actions by creditors, with certain exceptions, to collect debts from a debtor who has declared bankruptcy.

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Bankruptcy Act

Bankruptcy Act (with its variations) is a stock short title used for legislation in Australia, Hong Kong, Malaysia, the Republic of Ireland, the United Kingdom and the United States relating to bankruptcy.

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Bankruptcy alternatives

Bankruptcy is a legally declared inability or impairment of ability of an individual or organization to pay their creditors.

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Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

The Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act ("BIA") (Loi sur la faillite et l’insolvabilité) is one of the statutes that regulates the law on bankruptcy and insolvency in Canada.

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Bankruptcy in the United Kingdom

Bankruptcy in the United Kingdom is divided into separate local regimes for England and Wales, for Northern Ireland, and for Scotland.

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Bankruptcy Law in the Republic of Ireland

Bankruptcy in Irish Law is a legal process, supervised by the High Court whereby the assets of a personal debtor are realised and distributed amongst his or her creditors in cases where the debtor is unable or unwilling to pay his debts.

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Board for Industrial and Financial Reconstruction

The Board for Industrial and Financial Reconstruction (BIFR) was an agency of the government of India, part of the Department of Financial Services of the Ministry of Finance.

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Brazil

Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.

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Capital punishment

Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is a government-sanctioned practice whereby a person is put to death by the state as a punishment for a crime.

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Chang'an

Chang'an was an ancient capital of more than ten dynasties in Chinese history, today known as Xi'an.

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Chapter 11, Title 11, United States Code

Chapter 11 is a chapter of Title 11, the United States Bankruptcy Code, which permits reorganization under the bankruptcy laws of the United States.

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Chapter 12, Title 11, United States Code

Chapter 12 of Title 11 of the United States Code, or simply chapter 12, is a chapter of the Bankruptcy Code.

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Chapter 13, Title 11, United States Code

Title 11 of the United States Code sets forth the statutes governing the various types of relief for bankruptcy in the United States.

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Chapter 15, Title 11, United States Code

Chapter 15, Title 11, United States Code is a section of the United States bankruptcy code that deals with jurisdiction.

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Chapter 7, Title 11, United States Code

Chapter 7 of the Title 11 of the United States Code (Bankruptcy Code) governs the process of liquidation under the bankruptcy laws of the United States (in contrast, Chapters 11 and 13 govern the process of reorganization of a debtor in bankruptcy).

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Chapter 9, Title 11, United States Code

Chapter 9, Title 11, United States Code is a chapter of the United States Bankruptcy Code, available exclusively to municipalities and assisting them in the restructuring of their debt.

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Child support

In family law and public policy, child support (or child maintenance) is an ongoing, periodic payment made by a parent for the financial benefit of a child (or parent, caregiver, guardian, or state) following the end of a marriage or other relationship.

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Corporation

A corporation is a company or group of people or an organisation authorized to act as a single entity (legally a person) and recognized as such in law.

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Corporations Act 2001

The Corporations Act 2001 (Cth) (the Corporations Act, or CA 2001) is an Act of the Commonwealth of Australia which sets out the laws dealing with business entities in Australia at federal and interstate level.

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Court order

A court order is an official proclamation by a judge (or panel of judges) that defines the legal relationships between the parties to a hearing, a trial, an appeal or other court proceedings.

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Credit counseling

Credit counseling (known in the United Kingdom as Debt counselling) is commonly a process that is used to help individual debtors with debt settlement through education, budgeting and the use of a variety of tools with the goal to reduce and ultimately eliminate debt.

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Creditor

A creditor is a party (for example, person, organization, company, or government) that has a claim on the services of a second party.

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Creditors' rights

Creditors' rights are the procedural provisions designed to protect the ability of creditors—persons who are owed money—to collect the money that they are owed.

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Crime

In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority.

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Debt bondage

Debt bondage, also known as debt slavery or bonded labour, is a person's pledge of labour or services as security for the repayment for a debt or other obligation, where there is no hope of actually repaying the debt.

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Debt consolidation

Debt consolidation is a form of debt refinancing that entails taking out one loan to pay off many others.

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Debt relief

Debt relief or debt cancellation is the partial or total forgiveness of debt, or the slowing or stopping of debt growth, owed by individuals, corporations, or nations.

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Debt relief order

Debt relief orders (DROs) are a new form of insolvency measure in the United Kingdom.

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Debt restructuring

Debt restructuring is a process that allows a private or public company, or a sovereign entity facing cash flow problems and financial distress to reduce and renegotiate its delinquent debts to improve or restore liquidity so that it can continue its operations.

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Debtor

A debtor is an entity that owes a debt to another entity.

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Debtor in possession

A debtor in possession in United States bankruptcy law is a person or corporation who has filed a bankruptcy petition, but remains in possession of property upon which a creditor has a lien or similar security interest.

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Debtor-in-possession financing

Debtor-in-possession financing or DIP financing is a special form of financing provided for companies in financial distress, typically during restructuring under corporate bankruptcy law (such as Chapter 11 bankruptcy in the US or CCAA in Canada).

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Default (finance)

In finance, default is failure to meet the legal obligations (or conditions) of a loan, for example when a home buyer fails to make a mortgage payment, or when a corporation or government fails to pay a bond which has reached maturity.

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Discount store

A discount store or discount shop is a retail shop which sells products at prices that are lower than the typical market price.

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Distressed securities

Distressed securities are securities over companies or government entities that are experiencing financial or operational distress, default, or are under bankruptcy.

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East Asia

East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.

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Enforcement Authority

The Enforcement Authority (Kronofogdemyndigheten; literally: The Crown Bailiff Authority) is a government agency handling debt collection, distraint and evictions in Sweden.

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English law

English law is the common law legal system of England and Wales, comprising mainly criminal law and civil law, each branch having its own courts and procedures.

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Enterprise Act 2002

The Enterprise Act 2002 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which made major changes to UK competition law with respect to mergers and also changed the law governing insolvency bankruptcy.

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Examinership

Examinership is a process in Irish law whereby the protection of the Court is obtained to assist the survival of a company.

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Federal Circuit Court of Australia

The Federal Circuit Court of Australia (formerly known as the Federal Magistrates Court of Australia) is an Australian court with jurisdiction over matters broadly relating to family law and child support, administrative law, admiralty law, bankruptcy, copyright, human rights, industrial law, migration, privacy and trade practices.

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Federal Court of Australia

The Federal Court of Australia is an Australian superior court of record which has jurisdiction to deal with most civil disputes governed by federal law (with the exception of family law matters), along with some summary (less serious) criminal matters.

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Federal crime in the United States

In the United States, a federal crime or federal offense is an act that is made illegal by U.S. federal legislation.

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Financial distress

Financial distress is a term in corporate finance used to indicate a condition when promises to creditors of a company are broken or honored with difficulty.

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France

France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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Fraud

In law, fraud is deliberate deception to secure unfair or unlawful gain, or to deprive a victim of a legal right.

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Genghis Khan

Genghis Khan or Temüjin Borjigin (Чингис хаан, Çingis hán) (also transliterated as Chinggis Khaan; born Temüjin, c. 1162 August 18, 1227) was the founder and first Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death.

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Goguryeo

Goguryeo (37 BCE–668 CE), also called Goryeo was a Korean kingdom located in the northern and central parts of the Korean Peninsula and the southern and central parts of Manchuria.

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Government of Canada

The Government of Canada (Gouvernement du Canada), formally Her Majesty's Government (Gouvernement de Sa Majesté), is the federal administration of Canada.

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Greece

No description.

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History of Athens

Athens is one of the oldest named cities in the world, having been continuously inhabited for at least 5000 years.

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Independent school fee fixing scandal

In September 2005, fifty prominent independent schools in the United Kingdom were found guilty of operating a fee-fixing cartel by the Office of Fair Trading.

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Individual voluntary arrangement

In England and Wales, an individual voluntary arrangement (IVA) is a formal alternative for individuals wishing to avoid bankruptcy.

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Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada

Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada (Innovation, Sciences et Développement économique Canada), or ISED, formerly Industry Canada, is the department of the Government of Canada with a mandate of fostering a growing, competitive, and knowledge-based Canadian economy.

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Insolvency

Insolvency is the state of being unable to pay the money owed, by a person or company, on time; those in a state of insolvency are said to be insolvent.

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Insolvency Act 1986

The Insolvency Act 1986 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that provides the legal platform for all matters relating to personal and corporate insolvency in the UK.

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Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016

The Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016 (IBC) is the bankruptcy law of India which seeks to consolidate the existing framework by creating a single law for insolvency and bankruptcy.

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Insolvency practitioner

In the United Kingdom, only an authorised or licensed Insolvency Practitioner (usually abbreviated to IP) may be appointed in relation to formal insolvency procedures.

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Judgment debtor

In English and American law, a judgment debtor is a person against whom a judgment ordering him to pay a sum of money has been obtained and remains unsatisfied.

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Judicial estoppel

In the practice of law, judicial estoppel (also known as estoppel by inconsistent positions) is an estoppel that precludes a party from taking a position in a case that is contrary to a position it has taken in earlier legal proceedings.

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Law of the United States

The law of the United States comprises many levels of codified and uncodified forms of law, of which the most important is the United States Constitution, the foundation of the federal government of the United States.

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Legal person

A legal person (in legal contexts often simply person, less ambiguously legal entity) is any human or non-human entity, in other words, any human being, firm, or government agency that is recognized as having privileges and obligations, such as having the ability to enter into contracts, to sue, and to be sued.

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Liquidation

In United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland and United States law and business, liquidation is the process by which a company is brought to an end.

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Manual labour

Manual labour (in British English, manual labor in American English) or manual work is physical work done by people, most especially in contrast to that done by machines, and to that done by working animals.

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Mens rea

Mens rea (Law Latin for "guilty mind") is the mental element of a person's intention to commit a crime; or knowledge that one's action or lack of action would cause a crime to be committed.

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Natural monopoly

A natural monopoly is a monopoly in an industry in which high infrastructural costs and other barriers to entry relative to the size of the market give the largest supplier in an industry, often the first supplier in a market, an overwhelming advantage over potential competitors.

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Natural person

In jurisprudence, a natural person is a person (in legal meaning, i.e., one who has its own legal personality) that is an individual human being, as opposed to a legal person, which may be a private (i.e., business entity or non-governmental organization) or public (i.e., government) organization.

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Net (economics)

A net (sometimes written nett) value is the resultant amount after accounting for the sum or difference of two or more variables.

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Official receiver

An officer of the Insolvency Service of the United Kingdom, an official receiver (OR) is an officer of the court to which he is attached.

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Parliament of India

The Parliament of India is the supreme legislative body of the Republic of India.

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Partnership

A partnership is an arrangement where parties, known as partners, agree to cooperate to advance their mutual interests.

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Pension

A pension is a fund into which a sum of money is added during an employee's employment years, and from which payments are drawn to support the person's retirement from work in the form of periodic payments.

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Perjury

Perjury is the intentional act of swearing a false oath or falsifying an affirmation to tell the truth, whether spoken or in writing, concerning matters a generation material to an official proceeding.

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Personal bankruptcy

Personal bankruptcy law allows, in certain jurisdictions, an individual to be declared bankrupt.

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Philip II of Spain

Philip II (Felipe II; 21 May 1527 – 13 September 1598), called "the Prudent" (el Prudente), was King of Spain (1556–98), King of Portugal (1581–98, as Philip I, Filipe I), King of Naples and Sicily (both from 1554), and jure uxoris King of England and Ireland (during his marriage to Queen Mary I from 1554–58).

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Phoenix (band)

Phoenix are an indie pop band from Versailles, France, consisting of Thomas Mars (lead vocals), Deck d'Arcy (bass/ keyboards/ backing vocals), Christian Mazzalai (guitar/ backing vocals) and Laurent Brancowitz (guitar/ keyboards/ backing vocals).

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Polis

Polis (πόλις), plural poleis (πόλεις), literally means city in Greek.

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Portugal

Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.

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Protected trust deed

A protected trust deed, overseen by the Accountant in Bankruptcy, is a voluntary but formal arrangement that is used by Scottish residents where a debtor (who can be a natural person or partnership) grants a trust deed in favour of the trustee which transfers their estate to the trustee for the benefit of creditors.

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Prussia

Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.

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Pyongyang

Pyongyang, or P'yŏngyang, is the capital and largest city of North Korea.

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Receivership

In law, receivership is a situation in which an institution or enterprise is held by a receiver—a person "placed in the custodial responsibility for the property of others, including tangible and intangible assets and rights"—especially in cases where a company cannot meet financial obligations or enters bankruptcy.

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Republic of Genoa

The Republic of Genoa (Repúbrica de Zêna,; Res Publica Ianuensis; Repubblica di Genova) was an independent state from 1005 to 1797 in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast, incorporating Corsica from 1347 to 1768, and numerous other territories throughout the Mediterranean.

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Security interest

A security interest is a legal right granted by a debtor to a creditor over the debtor's property (usually referred to as the collateral) which enables the creditor to have recourse to the property if the debtor defaults in making payment or otherwise performing the secured obligations.

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Sequestration (law)

In law, sequestration is the act of removing, separating, or seizing anything from the possession of its owner under process of law for the benefit of creditors or the state.

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Sole trader insolvency

According to the Office for National Statistics, sole proprietors represented 23.8% of all UK enterprise in 2010.

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Solon

Solon (Σόλων Sólōn; BC) was an Athenian statesman, lawmaker and poet.

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Solonian Constitution

The Solonian Constitution was created by Solon in the early 6th century BC.

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Sovereign default

A sovereign default is the failure or refusal of the government of a sovereign state to pay back its debt in full.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Spain

Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.

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Stalking horse offer

A stalking horse offer, agreement, or bid is an attempt by a bankrupt debtor to test the market for the debtor's assets in advance of an auction of them.

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Statute of Bankrupts

The Statute of Bankrupts or An Acte againste suche persones as doo make Bankrupte, 34 & 35 Henry VIII, c. 4, was an Act passed by the Parliament of England in 1542.

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Statutory law

Statutory law or statute law is written law set down by a body of legislature or by a singular legislator (in the case of absolute monarchy).

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Strategic bankruptcy

A strategic bankruptcy may occur when an otherwise solvent company makes use of the bankruptcy laws for some specific business purpose.

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Student loan

A student loan is a type of loan designed to help students pay for post-secondary education and the associated fees, such as tuition, books and supplies, and living expenses.

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Sui dynasty

The Sui Dynasty was a short-lived imperial dynasty of China of pivotal significance.

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Superintendent of Bankruptcy

The Superintendent of Bankruptcy is a Canadian government position charged to ensure that bankruptcies and insolvencies in Canada are conducted in a fair and orderly manner.

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Switzerland

Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.

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Target Canada

Target Canada Co. was the Canadian subsidiary of the Target Corporation, the second-largest discount retailer in the United States.

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Target Corporation

Target Corporation is the second-largest department store retailer in the United States, behind Walmart, and is a component of the S&P 500 Index.

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Time limit

A time limit or deadline is a narrow field of time, or a particular point in time, by which an objective or task must be accomplished.

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Title 11 of the United States Code

Title 11 of the United States Code, also known as the United States Bankruptcy Code, is the source of bankruptcy law in the United States Code.

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Tools of trade

Tools of trade is a term generally used in bankruptcy law to determine what property a person would commonly use for the purpose of making a living, as items that are tools of trade are separately exempt from attachment with an additional amount above that normally given for a person's property.

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Trustee

Trustee (or the holding of a trusteeship) is a legal term which, in its broadest sense, is a synonym for anyone in a position of trust and so can refer to any person who holds property, authority, or a position of trust or responsibility for the benefit of another.

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Trustee in bankruptcy

A trustee in bankruptcy is an entity, often an individual, in charge of administering a bankruptcy estate.

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Turnaround ADR

, also known as Business Revitalization ADR, is a process increasingly used by companies in Japan to adjust their debt.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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United States bankruptcy court

United States bankruptcy courts are courts created under Article I of the United States Constitution.

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United States Code

The Code of Laws of the United States of America (variously abbreviated to Code of Laws of the United States, United States Code, U.S. Code, U.S.C., or USC) is the official compilation and codification of the general and permanent federal statutes of the United States.

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United States Congress

The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.

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United States Constitution

The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States.

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United States district court

The United States district courts are the general trial courts of the United States federal court system.

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White-collar crime

White-collar crime refers to financially motivated, nonviolent crime committed by business and government professionals.

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Yassa

Yasser (alternatively: Yasa, Yasaq, Jazag, Zasag, Mongolian: Их засаг, Yehe Zasag) was a secret written code of law created by Genghis Khan.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bankruptcy

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