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Index Barley

Barley (Hordeum vulgare), a member of the grass family, is a major cereal grain grown in temperate climates globally. [1]

271 relations: Adjuncts, Africa, Ale, Aleurone, Alkaloid, Allele, Alphitomancy, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Israelite cuisine, Arab cuisine, Arab world, Archaeology, Ashkenazi Jews, Assyrian cuisine, Australia, Avicenna, Awn (botany), B vitamins, Bacterial blight (barley), Bannock (food), Barley, Barley bread, Barley flour, Barley mild mosaic bymovirus, Barley stripe mosaic virus, Barley tea, Barley water, Barley wine, Barley yellow dwarf, Barleycorn (unit), Barn, Beer, Beer in England, Beer in Germany, Beer in the United States, Bere (grain), Beta-glucan, Biscuit, Blood lipids, Blood sugar level, Blumeria graminis, Book of Deuteronomy, Book of Numbers, Borage, Bran, Bread, Breakfast cereal, Butter tea, Caffè d'orzo, Caffeic acid, ..., Caithness, Calorie, Canaan, Canada, Carbohydrate, Cardiovascular disease, Carl Linnaeus, Catechin, Catechin-7-O-glucoside, Cattle feeding, Cell biology, Central Asia, Cereal germ, Cholent, Chromosome, Cochliobolus sativus, Coeliac disease, Corsned, Covered smut (barley), Crete, Cultivar, Demeter, Determinative, Dietary fiber, Dominance (genetics), Egypt, Egyptian hieroglyphs, Einkorn wheat, Eleusinian Mysteries, Emmer, England, Epipalaeolithic, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Eurasia, Europe, Fat, Fertile Crescent, Ferulic acid, Flavonoid, Flour, Fodder, Folk music, Food and Agriculture Organization Corporate Statistical Database, Food and Drug Administration, France, Fusarium ear blight, Genetic linkage, Germany, Germination, Gluten, Gluten-related disorders, Great Britain, Greece, Grits, Groat (grain), Gruel, Guns, Germs, and Steel, Health Canada, Health food, Healthy diet, Herb, Highland barley, Homeric Hymns, Hordenine, Husk, Ideogram, India, Indus Valley Civilisation, Iran, Iranian cuisine, Iraq, Israelites, Italy, Jared Diamond, Jarmo, Jews, John Barleycorn, John Chadwick, Justice, Karl Koch (botanist), Kashk, Keşkek, Kindred, North Dakota, Knossos, Kraków, Kurdish cuisine, Kurdistan, Kvasir, Kykeon, Lager, Latin, Linear B, Liquor, Loose smut, Maize, Malt, Manganese, Maris Otter, Mímir, Mesopotamia, Microbrewery, Middle Ages, Middle East, Mineral (nutrient), Mizrahi Jews, Molecular biology, Muhammad, Mumun pottery period, Murri (condiment), Mutation, Mutation breeding, Natural History (Pliny), Neolithic, Neolithic founder crops, Niacin, Nile, Non-celiac gluten sensitivity, North Africa, North Dakota State University, Northern United States, Nutrient, Oatmeal, Ohalo, Old English, Old World, Orkney, Ottoman Empire, Outer Hebrides, Oxford English Dictionary, P-Coumaric acid, Pearl barley, Phosphorus, Pliny the Elder, Ploidy, Plumpness, Poaceae, Poppy seed, Porridge, Potato, Powdery mildew (barley), Pre-Pottery Neolithic B, Procyanidin B3, Procyanidin C2, Prodelphinidin B3, Promised Land, Protein, Proto-Indo-European language, Puccinia coronata, Pulitzer Prize, Pyrenophora teres, Raceme, Rachis, Ramadan, Reference Daily Intake, Rhynchosporium secalis, Ričet, Rice, Rigveda, Root rot, Russia, Rust (fungus), Rye, Sacrifice, Salmon, Sanskrit, Saponarin, Saudi Arabia, Scald (barley disease), Scotland, Sea of Galilee, Secondary succession, Seed dispersal, Self-pollination, Septoria, Seven Species, Shabbat, Shala, Shattering (agriculture), Shetland, Shoe size, Soil salinity, Spot blotch (barley), Staple food, Stem rust, Straw, Sumerian language, Susceptible individual, Syria, Talbina, Tanakh, Tell (archaeology), Temperate climate, The Canon of Medicine, The New York Times, Tibet, Tibetan cuisine, Tibetan Plateau, Tommy Windich, Tonne, Torah, Triticale, Trout, Tsampa, United Nations, United States Department of Agriculture, University of Alberta, Upper Egypt, Validly published name, Variegation, Vedic Sanskrit, Vitamin B6, Vomitoxin, Wheat, Wheat allergy, Whisky, Whole grain, Winter cereal, Yagan, Zygosity, 8,5'-Diferulic acid. Expand index (221 more) »


Adjuncts are unmalted grains (such as corn, rice, rye, oats, barley, and wheat) or grain products used in brewing beer which supplement the main mash ingredient (such as malted barley).

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Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).

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Ale is a type of beer brewed using a warm fermentation method, resulting in a sweet, full-bodied and fruity taste.

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Aleurone (from Greek aleuron, flour) is a protein found in protein granules of maturing seeds and tubers.

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Alkaloids are a class of naturally occurring chemical compounds that mostly contain basic nitrogen atoms.

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An allele is a variant form of a given gene.

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Alphitomancy (from Greek ἄλφιτον alphiton, 'barley', and μαντεία manteia, 'divination') is a form of divination involving barley cakes or loaves of barley bread.

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Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.

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Ancient Israelite cuisine

Ancient Israelite cuisine refers to the food eaten by the ancient Israelites during a period of over a thousand years, from the beginning of the Israelite presence in the Land of Israel at the beginning of the Iron Age until the Roman period.

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Arab cuisine

Arab cuisine (مطبخ عربي) is the cuisine of the Arabs, defined as the various regional cuisines spanning the Arab world, from the Maghreb to the Fertile Crescent and the Arabian Peninsula.

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Arab world

The Arab world (العالم العربي; formally: Arab homeland, الوطن العربي), also known as the Arab nation (الأمة العربية) or the Arab states, currently consists of the 22 Arab countries of the Arab League.

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Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.

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Ashkenazi Jews

Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or simply Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכְּנַזִּים, Ashkenazi Hebrew pronunciation:, singular:, Modern Hebrew:; also), are a Jewish diaspora population who coalesced in the Holy Roman Empire around the end of the first millennium.

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Assyrian cuisine

Assyrian cuisine is the cuisine of the indigenous ethnic Assyrian people, Eastern Aramaic speaking Syriac Christians of northern Iraq, northeastern Syria, north western Iran and south eastern Turkey.

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Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.

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Avicenna (also Ibn Sīnā or Abu Ali Sina; ابن سینا; – June 1037) was a Persian polymath who is regarded as one of the most significant physicians, astronomers, thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age.

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Awn (botany)

In botany, an awn is either a hair- or bristle-like appendage on a larger structure, or in the case of the Asteraceae, a stiff needle-like element of the pappus.

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B vitamins

B vitamins are a class of water-soluble vitamins that play important roles in cell metabolism.

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Bacterial blight (barley)

Bacterial blight is a disease of barley caused by the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv.

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Bannock (food)

Bannock is a variety of flat quick bread or any large, round article baked or cooked from grain.

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Barley (Hordeum vulgare), a member of the grass family, is a major cereal grain grown in temperate climates globally.

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Barley bread

Barley bread is a type of bread made from barley flour derived from the grain of the barley plant.

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Barley flour

Barley flour is a flour prepared from dried and ground barley.

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Barley mild mosaic bymovirus

Barley mild mosaic bymovirus is a plant virus.

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Barley stripe mosaic virus

Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV),of genus Hordevirus, is an RNA viral plant pathogen whose main hosts are barley and wheat.

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Barley tea

Barley tea is a roasted-grain-based infusion made from barley which is a staple across Korea, China, and Japan.

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Barley water

Barley water is a traditional drink consumed in various parts of the world.

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Barley wine

Barley wine is a style of strong ale of between 6-11% or 8-12% alcohol by volume.

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Barley yellow dwarf

Barley yellow dwarf is a plant disease caused by the barley yellow dwarf virus, and is the most widely distributed viral disease of cereals.

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Barleycorn (unit)

The barleycorn is a small English unit of length equal to of an inch (i.e., close to) still used as the basis of shoe sizes in English-speaking countries.

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A barn is an agricultural building usually on farms and used for various purposes.

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Beer is one of the oldest and most widely consumed alcoholic drinks in the world, and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea.

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Beer in England

Beer in England has been brewed for hundreds of years.

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Beer in Germany

Beer is a major part of German culture.

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Beer in the United States

Beer in the United States is manufactured by more than 3,000 breweries, which range in size from industry giants to brew pubs and microbreweries.

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Bere (grain)

Bere, pronounced "bear," is a six-row barley currently cultivated mainly on 5-15 hectares of land in Orkney, Scotland.

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β-Glucans (beta-glucans) comprise a group of β-D-glucose polysaccharides naturally occurring in the cell walls of cereals, bacteria, and fungi, with significantly differing physicochemical properties dependent on source.

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Biscuit is a term used for a variety of primarily flour-based baked food products.

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Blood lipids

Blood lipids (or blood fats) are lipids in the blood, either free or bound to other molecules.

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Blood sugar level

The blood sugar level, blood sugar concentration, or blood glucose level is the amount of glucose present in the blood of humans and other animals.

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Blumeria graminis

Blumeria graminis (commonly called barley powdery mildew or corn mildew) is a fungus that causes powdery mildew on grasses, including cereals.

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Book of Deuteronomy

The Book of Deuteronomy (literally "second law," from Greek deuteros + nomos) is the fifth book of the Torah (a section of the Hebrew Bible) and the Christian Old Testament.

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Book of Numbers

The Book of Numbers (from Greek Ἀριθμοί, Arithmoi; בְּמִדְבַּר, Bəmiḏbar, "In the desert ") is the fourth book of the Hebrew Bible, and the fourth of five books of the Jewish Torah.

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Borage (Borago officinalis), also known as a starflower, is an annual herb in the flowering plant family Boraginaceae.

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Bran, also known as miller's bran, is the hard outer layers of cereal grain.

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Bread is a staple food prepared from a dough of flour and water, usually by baking.

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Breakfast cereal

Breakfast cereal is a food product made from processed cereal grains that is often eaten as a breakfast in primarily Western societies.

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Butter tea

Butter tea, also known as po cha ("Tibetan tea"), cha süma ("churned tea"), Mandarin Chinese: sūyóu chá (酥油茶) or gur gur in the Ladakhi language, is a drink of the people in the Himalayan regions of Nepal, Bhutan, India (particularly in Ladakh, Sikkim) and, most famously, Tibet.

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Caffè d'orzo

Caffè d'orzo (Italian for "coffee of barley"), often shortened to simply orzo, is a type of hot drink, originating in Italy.

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Caffeic acid

Caffeic acid is an organic compound that is classified as a hydroxycinnamic acid.

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Caithness (Gallaibh, Caitnes; Katanes) is a historic county, registration county and lieutenancy area of Scotland.

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A calorie is a unit of energy.

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Canaan (Northwest Semitic:; Phoenician: 𐤊𐤍𐤏𐤍 Kenā‘an; Hebrew) was a Semitic-speaking region in the Ancient Near East during the late 2nd millennium BC.

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Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.

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A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).

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Cardiovascular disease

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.

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Carl Linnaeus

Carl Linnaeus (23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von LinnéBlunt (2004), p. 171.

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Catechin is a flavan-3-ol, a type of natural phenol and antioxidant.

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Catechin-7-O-glucoside is a flavan-3-ol glycoside formed from catechin.

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Cattle feeding

Different cattle feeding production systems have separate advantages and disadvantages.

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Cell biology

Cell biology (also called cytology, from the Greek κυτος, kytos, "vessel") is a branch of biology that studies the structure and function of the cell, the basic unit of life.

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Central Asia

Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.

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Cereal germ

The germ of a cereal is the reproductive part that germinates to grow into a plant; it is the embryo of the seed.

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Cholent (tsholnt or tshoolnt) or hamin (חמין) is a traditional Jewish stew.

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A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.

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Cochliobolus sativus

The fungus Cochliobolus sativus is the teleomorph (sexual stage) of Bipolaris sorokiniana (anamorph) which is the causal agent of a wide variety of cereal diseases.

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Coeliac disease

Coeliac disease, also spelled celiac disease, is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects the small intestine.

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In Anglo-Saxon law, corsned (OE cor, "trial, investigation", + snǽd, "bit, piece"; Latin panis conjuratus), also known as the accursed or sacred morsel, or the morsel of execration, was a type of trial by ordeal that consisted of a suspected person eating a piece of barley bread and cheese totalling about an ounce in weight and consecrated with a form of exorcism as a trial of his innocence.

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Covered smut (barley)

Covered smut of barley is caused by the fungus Ustilago hordei.

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Crete (Κρήτη,; Ancient Greek: Κρήτη, Krḗtē) is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the 88th largest island in the world and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, Sardinia, Cyprus, and Corsica.

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The term cultivarCultivar has two denominations as explained in Formal definition.

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In ancient Greek religion and mythology, Demeter (Attic: Δημήτηρ Dēmḗtēr,; Doric: Δαμάτηρ Dāmā́tēr) is the goddess of the grain, agriculture, harvest, growth, and nourishment, who presided over grains and the fertility of the earth.

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A determinative, also known as a taxogram or semagram, is an ideogram used to mark semantic categories of words in logographic scripts which helps to disambiguate interpretation.

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Dietary fiber

Dietary fiber or roughage is the indigestible portion of food derived from plants.

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Dominance (genetics)

Dominance in genetics is a relationship between alleles of one gene, in which the effect on phenotype of one allele masks the contribution of a second allele at the same locus.

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Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

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Egyptian hieroglyphs

Egyptian hieroglyphs were the formal writing system used in Ancient Egypt.

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Einkorn wheat

Einkorn wheat (from German Einkorn, literally "single grain") can refer either to the wild species of wheat, Triticum boeoticum, or to the domesticated form, Triticum monococcum.

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Eleusinian Mysteries

The Eleusinian Mysteries (Ἐλευσίνια Μυστήρια) were initiations held every year for the cult of Demeter and Persephone based at Eleusis in ancient Greece.

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Emmer wheat, also known as farro especially in Italy, or hulled wheat, is a type of awned wheat.

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England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.

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In archaeology, the Epipalaeolithic, Epipaleolithic (sometimes Epi-paleolithic etc) is a term for a period intervening between the Upper Paleolithic and Neolithic in the Stone Age.

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Eritrea (ኤርትራ), officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in the Horn of Africa, with its capital at Asmara.

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Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.

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Eurasia is a combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia.

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Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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Fat is one of the three main macronutrients, along with carbohydrate and protein.

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Fertile Crescent

The Fertile Crescent (also known as the "cradle of civilization") is a crescent-shaped region where agriculture and early human civilizations like the Sumer and Ancient Egypt flourished due to inundations from the surrounding Nile, Euphrates, and Tigris rivers.

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Ferulic acid

Ferulic acid is a hydroxycinnamic acid, an organic compound.

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Flavonoids (or bioflavonoids) (from the Latin word flavus meaning yellow, their color in nature) are a class of plant and fungus secondary metabolites.

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Flour is a powder made by grinding raw grains or roots and used to make many different foods.

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Fodder, a type of animal feed, is any agricultural foodstuff used specifically to feed domesticated livestock, such as cattle, rabbits, sheep, horses, chickens and pigs.

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Folk music

Folk music includes both traditional music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th century folk revival.

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Food and Agriculture Organization Corporate Statistical Database

The Food and Agriculture Organization Corporate Statistical Database (FAOSTAT) website disseminates statistical data collected and maintained by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO).

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Food and Drug Administration

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.

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France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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Fusarium ear blight

Fusarium ear blight (FEB) (also called Fusarium head blight, FHB, or scab), is a fungal disease of cereals, including wheat, barley, oats, rye and triticale.

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Genetic linkage

Genetic linkage is the tendency of DNA sequences that are close together on a chromosome to be inherited together during the meiosis phase of sexual reproduction.

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Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.

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Germination is the process by which an organism grows from a seed or similar structure.

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Gluten (from Latin gluten, "glue") is a composite of storage proteins termed prolamins and glutelins and stored together with starch in the endosperm (which nourishes the embryonic plant during germination) of various cereal (grass) grains.

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Gluten-related disorders

Gluten-related disorders is the umbrella term for all diseases triggered by gluten.

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Great Britain

Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.

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No description.

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Grits is a porridge made from corn (maize) that is ground into a coarse meal and then boiled.

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Groat (grain)

Groats (or in some cases, "berries") are the hulled kernels of various cereal grains such as oat, wheat, rye, and barley.

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Gruel is a food consisting of some type of cereal—oat, wheat or rye flour, or rice—boiled in water or milk.

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Guns, Germs, and Steel

Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies (also titled Guns, Germs and Steel: A short history of everybody for the last 13,000 years) is a 1997 transdisciplinary non-fiction book by Jared Diamond, professor of geography and physiology at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA).

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Health Canada

Health Canada (Santé Canada) is the department of the government of Canada with responsibility for national public health.

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Health food

Health food is food marketed to provide human health effects beyond a normal healthy diet required for human nutrition.

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Healthy diet

A healthy diet is a diet that helps to maintain or improve overall health.

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In general use, herbs are plants with savory or aromatic properties that are used for flavoring and garnishing food, in medicine, or as fragrances.

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Highland barley

Highland barley, Tibetan barley or Himalayan barley (Tibetan: ནས་; Wylie: nas; Chinese: 青稞; qīngkē, or 藏青稞; zàng qīngkē) is the principal cereal cultivated on the Tibetan Plateau, used mainly to make milk tea, tsampa and alcohol.

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Homeric Hymns

The Homeric Hymns are a collection of thirty-three anonymous ancient Greek hymns celebrating individual gods.

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Hordenine (N,N-dimethyltyramine) is an alkaloid of the phenethylamine class that occurs naturally in a variety of plants, taking its name from one of the most common, barley (Hordeum species).

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Husk (or hull) in botany is the outer shell or coating of a seed.

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An ideogram or ideograph (from Greek ἰδέα idéa "idea" and γράφω gráphō "to write") is a graphic symbol that represents an idea or concept, independent of any particular language, and specific words or phrases.

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India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Indus Valley Civilisation

The Indus Valley Civilisation (IVC), or Harappan Civilisation, was a Bronze Age civilisation (5500–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) mainly in the northwestern regions of South Asia, extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India.

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Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).

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Iranian cuisine

Iranian cuisine comprises the cooking traditions of Iran.

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Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.

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The Israelites (בני ישראל Bnei Yisra'el) were a confederation of Iron Age Semitic-speaking tribes of the ancient Near East, who inhabited a part of Canaan during the tribal and monarchic periods.

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Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.

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Jared Diamond

Jared Mason Diamond (born September 10, 1937) is an American ecologist, geographer, biologist, anthropologist and author best known for his popular science books The Third Chimpanzee (1991); Guns, Germs, and Steel (1997, awarded a Pulitzer Prize); Collapse (2005); and The World Until Yesterday (2012).

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Ancient Assyria Jarmo Ancient Assyria (Qal'at Jarmo) is a prehistoric archeological site located in Iraq on the foothills of the Zagros Mountains.

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Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.

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John Barleycorn

John Barleycorn is a British folksong (Roud 164).

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John Chadwick

John Chadwick, (21 May 1920 – 24 November 1998) was an English linguist and classical scholar who, with Michael Ventris, was most notable for the decipherment of Linear B.

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Justice is the legal or philosophical theory by which fairness is administered.

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Karl Koch (botanist)

Karl Heinrich Emil Koch (6 June 1809 – 25 May 1879) was a German botanist.

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Kashk (کشک, كشك, keşk, keş peyniri), qurut (құрт, gurt, qurt, qurut, ҡорот, курут, قروت, kurut, sürk, taş yoğurt, kurutulmuş yoğurt, қурут), chortan (չորթան), aaruul (ааруул) is a range of dairy products used in cuisines of Iranian, Kurdish, Turkish, Mongolian, Central Asian, Transcaucasian, and the Levantine peoples.

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Keşkek, also known as Kashkak and Kashkek, is a sort of ceremonial meat or chicken and wheat or barley stew found in Turkish, Iranian and Greek cuisines.

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Kindred, North Dakota

Kindred is a city in Cass County, North Dakota, United States.

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Knossos (also Cnossos, both pronounced; Κνωσός, Knōsós) is the largest Bronze Age archaeological site on Crete and has been called Europe's oldest city.

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Kraków, also spelled Cracow or Krakow, is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland.

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Kurdish cuisine

Kurdish cuisine (چێشتی کوردی Çêştî Kurdî) consists of a wide variety of foods prepared by the Kurdish people.

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Kurdistan (کوردستان; lit. "homeland of the Kurds") or Greater Kurdistan is a roughly defined geo-cultural historical region wherein the Kurdish people form a prominent majority population and Kurdish culture, languages and national identity have historically been based.

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In Norse mythology, Kvasir was a being born of the saliva of the Æsir and the Vanir, two groups of gods.

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Kykeon (Gr. κυκεών, from κυκάω, "to stir, to mix") was an Ancient Greek drink of various descriptions.

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Lager is a type of beer conditioned at low temperatures.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Linear B

Linear B is a syllabic script that was used for writing Mycenaean Greek, the earliest attested form of Greek.

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Liquor (also hard liquor, hard alcohol, or spirits) is an alcoholic drink produced by distillation of grains, fruit, or vegetables that have already gone through alcoholic fermentation.

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Loose smut

Loose smut of barley is caused by Ustilago nuda.

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Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago.

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Malt is germinated cereal grains that have been dried in a process known as "malting".

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Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25.

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Maris Otter

Maris Otter is a two-row, autumn sown variety of barley commonly used in the production of malt for the brewing industry.

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Mímir (Old Norse "The rememberer, the wise one")Simek (2007:216).

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Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.

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A microbrewery or craft brewery is a brewery that produces small amounts of beer (or sometimes root beer), typically much smaller than large-scale corporate breweries, and is independently owned.

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Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Middle East

The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).

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Mineral (nutrient)

In the context of nutrition, a mineral is a chemical element required as an essential nutrient by organisms to perform functions necessary for life.

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Mizrahi Jews

Mizrahi Jews, Mizrahim (מִזְרָחִים), also referred to as Edot HaMizrach ("Communities of the East"; Mizrahi Hebrew), ("Sons of the East"), or Oriental Jews, are descendants of local Jewish communities in the Middle East from biblical times into the modern era.

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Molecular biology

Molecular biology is a branch of biology which concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions.

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MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.

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Mumun pottery period

The Mumun pottery period is an archaeological era in Korean prehistory that dates to approximately 1500-300 BC This period is named after the Korean name for undecorated or plain cooking and storage vessels that form a large part of the pottery assemblage over the entire length of the period, but especially 850-550 BC.

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Murri (condiment)

Murrī or Almorí (in Andalusia) was a condiment made of fermented barley or fish used in medieval Byzantine and Arab cuisine.

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In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.

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Mutation breeding

Mutation breeding, sometimes referred to as "variation breeding", is the process of exposing seeds to chemicals or radiation in order to generate mutants with desirable traits to be bred with other cultivars.

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Natural History (Pliny)

The Natural History (Naturalis Historia) is a book about the whole of the natural world in Latin by Pliny the Elder, a Roman author and naval commander who died in 79 AD.

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The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.

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Neolithic founder crops

The Neolithic founder crops (or primary domesticates) are the eight plant species that were domesticated by early Holocene (Pre-Pottery Neolithic A and Pre-Pottery Neolithic B) farming communities in the Fertile Crescent region of southwest Asia, and which formed the basis of systematic agriculture in the Middle East, North Africa, India, Persia and Europe.

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Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid, is an organic compound and a form of vitamin B3, an essential human nutrient.

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The Nile River (النيل, Egyptian Arabic en-Nīl, Standard Arabic an-Nīl; ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲱ, P(h)iaro; Ancient Egyptian: Ḥ'pī and Jtrw; Biblical Hebrew:, Ha-Ye'or or, Ha-Shiḥor) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, and is commonly regarded as the longest river in the world, though some sources cite the Amazon River as the longest.

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Non-celiac gluten sensitivity

Non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) or gluten sensitivity is defined as "a clinical entity induced by the ingestion of gluten leading to intestinal and/or extraintestinal symptoms that improve once the gluten-containing foodstuff is removed from the diet, and celiac disease and wheat allergy have been excluded".

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North Africa

North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.

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North Dakota State University

North Dakota State University of Agriculture and Applied Sciences, more commonly known as North Dakota State University (NDSU), is a public research university that sits on a 258-acre campus (~1 km2) in Fargo, North Dakota, U.S. The institution was founded as North Dakota Agricultural College in 1890 as the research land-grant institution for the state of North Dakota.

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Northern United States

The Northern United States, commonly referred to as the American North or simply the North, can be a geographic or historical term and definition.

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A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce.

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Oatmeal is made of hulled oat grains – groats – that have either been milled (ground), steel-cut, or rolled.

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Ohalo is the common designation for the archaeological site Ohalo II in the vicinity of the Sea of Galilee, and one of the best preserved hunter-gatherer archaeological sites of the Last Glacial Maximum, having been radiocarbon dated to around 19,400 BP.

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Old English

Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.

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Old World

The term "Old World" is used in the West to refer to Africa, Asia and Europe (Afro-Eurasia or the World Island), regarded collectively as the part of the world known to its population before contact with the Americas and Oceania (the "New World").

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Orkney (Orkneyjar), also known as the Orkney Islands, is an archipelago in the Northern Isles of Scotland, situated off the north coast of Great Britain.

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Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.

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Outer Hebrides

The Outer Hebrides, also known as the Western Isles (Na h-Eileanan Siar or Na h-Eileanan an Iar), Innse Gall ("islands of the strangers") or the Long Isle or the Long Island (An t-Eilean Fada), is an island chain off the west coast of mainland Scotland.

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Oxford English Dictionary

The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.

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P-Coumaric acid

p-Coumaric acid is a hydroxycinnamic acid, an organic compound that is a hydroxy derivative of cinnamic acid.

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Pearl barley

Pearl barley, or pearled barley, is barley that has been processed to remove its hull and bran.

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Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.

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Pliny the Elder

Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.

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Ploidy is the number of complete sets of chromosomes in a cell, and hence the number of possible alleles for autosomal and pseudoautosomal genes.

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No description.

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Poaceae or Gramineae is a large and nearly ubiquitous family of monocotyledonous flowering plants known as grasses, commonly referred to collectively as grass.

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Poppy seed

Poppy seed is an oilseed obtained from the poppy (Papaver somniferum).

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Porridge (also historically spelled porage, porrige, parritch) is a food commonly eaten as a breakfast cereal dish, made by boiling ground, crushed or chopped starchy plants—typically grain—in water or milk.

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The potato is a starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial nightshade Solanum tuberosum.

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Powdery mildew (barley)

Powdery mildew is a fungal disease of barley caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp.

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Pre-Pottery Neolithic B

Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB) is a Neolithic culture centered in upper Mesopotamia.

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Procyanidin B3

Procyanidin B3 is a B type proanthocyanidin.

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Procyanidin C2

Procyanidin C2 is a B type proanthocyanidin trimer, a type of condensed tannin.

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Prodelphinidin B3

Prodelphinidin B3 is a prodelphinidin dimer found in food products such as barley and beer, in fruits and pod vegetables.

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Promised Land

The Promised Land (הארץ המובטחת, translit.: Ha'Aretz HaMuvtahat; أرض الميعاد, translit.: Ard Al-Mi'ad; also known as "The Land of Milk and Honey") is the land which, according to the Tanakh (the Hebrew Bible), was promised and subsequently given by God to Abraham and his descendants, and in modern contexts an image and idea related both to the restored Homeland for the Jewish people and to salvation and liberation is more generally understood.

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Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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Proto-Indo-European language

Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, the most widely spoken language family in the world.

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Puccinia coronata

Puccinia coronata is a plant pathogen and causal agent of oat and barley crown rust.

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Pulitzer Prize

The Pulitzer Prize is an award for achievements in newspaper, magazine and online journalism, literature, and musical composition in the United States.

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Pyrenophora teres

Pyrenophora teres is a necrotrophic fungal pathogen of some plant species, the most significant of which are economically important agricultural crops such as barley.

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A raceme is an unbranched, indeterminate type of inflorescence bearing pedicellate flowers (flowers having short floral stalks called pedicels) along its axis.

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Rachis is a biological term for a main axis or "shaft" (from the Greek ράχις, backbone, spine).

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Ramadan (رمضان,;In Arabic phonology, it can be, depending on the region. also known as Ramazan, romanized as Ramzan, Ramadhan, or Ramathan) is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar, and is observed by Muslims worldwide as a month of fasting (Sawm) to commemorate the first revelation of the Quran to Muhammad according to Islamic belief.

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Reference Daily Intake

The Reference Daily Intake (RDI) is the daily intake level of a nutrient that is considered to be sufficient to meet the requirements of 97–98% of healthy individuals in every demographic in the United States.

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Rhynchosporium secalis

Rhynchosporium secalis is an ascomycete fungus that is the causal agent of barley and rye scald.

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Ričet (Ritschert; barley porridge boiled with beans) is a traditional Slovenian, Croatian, Austrian and Bavarian dish.

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Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or Oryza glaberrima (African rice).

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The Rigveda (Sanskrit: ऋग्वेद, from "praise" and "knowledge") is an ancient Indian collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns along with associated commentaries on liturgy, ritual and mystical exegesis.

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Root rot

Root rot is a condition found in both indoor and outdoor plants, although more common in indoor plants with poor drainage.

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Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

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Rust (fungus)

Rusts are plant diseases caused by pathogenic fungi of the order Pucciniales (previously also known as Uredinales).

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Rye (Secale cereale) is a grass grown extensively as a grain, a cover crop and a forage crop.

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Sacrifice is the offering of food, objects or the lives of animals to a higher purpose, in particular divine beings, as an act of propitiation or worship.

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Salmon is the common name for several species of ray-finned fish in the family Salmonidae.

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Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.

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Saponarin is a flavone glucoside.

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Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.

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Scald (barley disease)

Scald is common disease of barley in temperate regions.

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Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.

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Sea of Galilee

The Sea of Galilee, also Kinneret or Kinnereth, Lake of Gennesaret, or Lake Tiberias (יָם כִּנֶּרֶת, Judeo-Aramaic: יַמּא דטבריא; גִּנֵּיסַר بحيرة طبريا), is a freshwater lake in Israel.

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Secondary succession

Secondary succession is one of the two types of ecological succession of plant life.

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Seed dispersal

Seed dispersal is the movement or transport of seeds away from the parent plant.

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Self-pollination is when pollen from the same plant arrives at the stigma of a flower (in flowering plants) or at the ovule (in gymnosperms).

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Septoria are Ascomycete pycnidia-producing fungi that causes numerous leaf spot diseases on field crops, forages and many vegetables including tomatoes which are known to contract Septoria musiva from nearby cottonwood trees, and is responsible for yield losses.

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Seven Species

The Seven Species (שבעת המינים, Shiv'at HaMinim) are seven agricultural products - two grains and five fruits - which are listed in the Hebrew Bible as being special products of the Land of Israel.

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Shabbat (שַׁבָּת, "rest" or "cessation") or Shabbos (Ashkenazi Hebrew and שבת), or the Sabbath is Judaism's day of rest and seventh day of the week, on which religious Jews, Samaritans and certain Christians (such as Seventh-day Adventists, the 7th Day movement and Seventh Day Baptists) remember the Biblical creation of the heavens and the earth in six days and the Exodus of the Hebrews, and look forward to a future Messianic Age.

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Shala was an ancient Sumerian goddess of grain and the emotion of compassion.

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Shattering (agriculture)

In agriculture, shattering is the dispersal of a crop's seeds upon their becoming ripe.

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Shetland (Old Norse: Hjaltland), also called the Shetland Islands, is a subarctic archipelago of Scotland that lies northeast of Great Britain.

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Shoe size

A shoe size is an indication of the fitting size of a shoe for a person.

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Soil salinity

Soil salinity is the salt content in the soil; the process of increasing the salt content is known as salinization.

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Spot blotch (barley)

Spot blotch is a disease of barley caused by Cochliobolus sativus.

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Staple food

A staple food, or simply a staple, is a food that is eaten routinely and in such quantities that it constitutes a dominant portion of a standard diet for a given people, supplying a large fraction of energy needs and generally forming a significant proportion of the intake of other nutrients as well.

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Stem rust

The stem, black, and cereal rusts are caused by the fungus Puccinia graminis and are a significant disease affecting cereal crops.

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Straw is an agricultural by-product, the dry stalks of cereal plants, after the grain and chaff have been removed.

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Sumerian language

Sumerian (𒅴𒂠 "native tongue") is the language of ancient Sumer and a language isolate that was spoken in southern Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq).

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Susceptible individual

In epidemiology a susceptible individual (sometimes known simply as a susceptible) is a member of a population who is at risk of becoming infected by a disease.

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Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.

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Talbina is a meal made from barley flour, formed by adding milk and honey to the dried barley powder.

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The Tanakh (or; also Tenakh, Tenak, Tanach), also called the Mikra or Hebrew Bible, is the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is also a textual source for the Christian Old Testament.

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Tell (archaeology)

In archaeology, a tell, or tel (derived from تَل,, 'hill' or 'mound'), is an artificial mound formed from the accumulated refuse of people living on the same site for hundreds or thousands of years.

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Temperate climate

In geography, the temperate or tepid climates of Earth occur in the middle latitudes, which span between the tropics and the polar regions of Earth.

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The Canon of Medicine

The Canon of Medicine (القانون في الطب al-Qānūn fī al-Ṭibb) is an encyclopedia of medicine in five books compiled by Persian philosopher Avicenna (Ibn Sina) and completed in 1025.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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Tibet is a historical region covering much of the Tibetan Plateau in Central Asia.

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Tibetan cuisine

Tibetan cuisine includes the culinary traditions and practices of Tibet and its peoples, many of whom reside in India and Nepal.

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Tibetan Plateau

The Tibetan Plateau, also known in China as the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau or the Qing–Zang Plateau or Himalayan Plateau, is a vast elevated plateau in Central Asia and East Asia, covering most of the Tibet Autonomous Region and Qinghai in western China, as well as part of Ladakh in Jammu and Kashmir, India.

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Tommy Windich

Tommy Windich (c. 1840 – c. 20 February 1876) was an Indigenous Australian member of a number of exploring expeditions in Western Australia in the 1860s and 1870s.

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The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.

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Torah (תּוֹרָה, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") has a range of meanings.

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Triticale (× Triticosecale), is a hybrid of wheat (Triticum) and rye (Secale) first bred in laboratories during the late 19th century in Scotland and Germany.

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Trout is the common name for a number of species of freshwater fish belonging to the genera Oncorhynchus, Salmo and Salvelinus, all of the subfamily Salmoninae of the family Salmonidae.

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Tsampa or Tsamba (साम्पा) is a Tibetan and Himalayan Nepalese staple foodstuff, particularly prominent in the central part of the region.

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United Nations

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.

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United States Department of Agriculture

The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), also known as the Agriculture Department, is the U.S. federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming, forestry, and food.

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University of Alberta

The University of Alberta (also known as U of A and UAlberta) is a public research university located in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

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Upper Egypt

Upper Egypt (صعيد مصر, shortened to الصعيد) is the strip of land on both sides of the Nile that extends between Nubia and downriver (northwards) to Lower Egypt.

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Validly published name

In botanical nomenclature, a validly published name is a name that meets the requirements in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants for valid publication.

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Variegation is the appearance of differently coloured zones in the leaves, and sometimes the stems, of plants.

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Vedic Sanskrit

Vedic Sanskrit is an Indo-European language, more specifically one branch of the Indo-Iranian group.

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Vitamin B6

Vitamin B6 refers to a group of chemically similar compounds which can be interconverted in biological systems.

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Vomitoxin, also known as deoxynivalenol (DON), is a type B trichothecene, an epoxy-sesquiterpenoid.

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Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.

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Wheat allergy

Wheat allergy is an allergy to wheat which typically presents itself as a food allergy, but can also be a contact allergy resulting from occupational exposure.

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Whisky or whiskey is a type of distilled alcoholic beverage made from fermented grain mash.

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Whole grain

A whole grain is a grain of any cereal and pseudocereal that contains the endosperm, germ, and bran, in contrast to refined grains, which retain only the endosperm.

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Winter cereal

Winter cereals, also called winter grains, fall cereals/grains, autumn-sown grains, etc.) are the biennial cereals which are sown in the autumn. They germinate before the winter comes, may partially grow during mild winters or simply persevere under a sufficiently thick snow cover to continue their life cycle in spring. They are harvested earlier than the spring-sown grains of the same type. In general, winter cereals have a much higher yield than spring cereals because they can use snow as moisture for growth. Winter forms are known for rye (winter rye/fall rye), wheat (winter wheat/fall wheat), barley (winter barley/fall barley) and triticale (winter triticale).

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Yagan (c. 1795 – 11 July 1833) was an Indigenous Australian warrior from the Noongar people.

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Zygosity is the degree of similarity of the alleles for a trait in an organism.

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8,5'-Diferulic acid

8,5'-Diferulic acid is a non cyclic type of diferulic acid.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barley

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