161 relations: Allodial title, Ancien Régime, Aristocracy of Norway, Armenian language, Baron Athenry, Baron Carrickfergus, Baron Dunboyne, Baron Fermoy, Baron Louth, Baron of Dunsany, Baron of Renfrew (title), Baron Offaly, Baron Slane, Baron Trimlestown, Baronage, Barony, Bishop of Durham, Boyar, Brenda Hale, Baroness Hale of Richmond, Cadet, Charles, Prince of Wales, Coat of arms, Commoner, Coronet, Count, County, County court, County palatine, Courtesy title, Crown of Aragon, Danish nobility, Dialogus de Scaccario, Diana, Princess of Wales, Diet (assembly), Digby Jones, Baron Jones of Birmingham, Earl, Earl of Chester, Earl of Kerry, England, England in the High Middle Ages, English feudal barony, Ennoblement, Eric XIV of Sweden, Félix de Blochausen, Fee tail, Feudal land tenure in England, Feudalism, Fief, Finnish nobility, Frankish language, ..., Franklin (class), Freiherr, Germany, Grand Duchy of Finland, Grandee, Haakon V of Norway, Henry II of England, Holy Roman Emperor, Holy Roman Empire, Honour (feudal barony), House of Commons of England, House of Habsburg, House of Lords, House of Nobility (Finland), Irish feudal barony, Isidore of Seville, J. Horace Round, Japanese language, John Selden, Kingdom of England, Kingdom of Holland, Knight, Knights of the Shire, Korean language, L. G. Pine, Land tenure in England, Late Latin, Lendmann, Letters patent, Lex Alamannorum, Liechtenstein, Life peer, List of baronies in the peerages of Britain and Ireland, List of barons in the peerages of Britain and Ireland, Lord, Lord of Parliament, Lord of the manor, Louis XVIII of France, Low Countries, Lucius Annaeus Cornutus, Luxembourg, Magna Carta, Magnum Concilium, Magnus VI of Norway, Manorialism, March (territorial entity), Marcher Lord, Margaret Thatcher, Maurice Roche, 6th Baron Fermoy, Medieval Latin, Middle Ages, Morganatic marriage, Mr., Napoleon, Netherlands, Nobiliary particle, Nobility, Nobles of the Robe, Nobles of the Sword, Norman conquest of England, Norman invasion of Ireland, Old English, Old French, Oxford English Dictionary, Parliament, Parliament of England, Patrilineality, Peerage of England, Peerage of France, Peerage of Great Britain, Peerage of Ireland, Peerage of Scotland, Peerage of the United Kingdom, Peter the Great, Primogeniture, Prince Andrew, Duke of York, Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, Privilege (law), Privy Council of the United Kingdom, Rao (title), Riksdag of the Estates, Robber baron (feudalism), Royal and noble ranks, Russian Empire, Salic law, Scotland, Secession, Serjeanty, Sheriff, Sicily, Signoria, Southern Netherlands, Surname, Suzerainty, Swedish nobility, Tenant-in-chief, Tenures Abolition Act 1660, Territorial entity, Thane (Scotland), The Much Honoured, Thomas Becket, Title, Tonga, Tradition, Uradel, Vassal, Victor de Tornaco, Viscount, Viscount Gormanston, Von, William the Conqueror. Expand index (111 more) » « Shrink index
Allodial title constitutes ownership of real property (land, buildings, and fixtures) that is independent of any superior landlord.
The Ancien Régime (French for "old regime") was the political and social system of the Kingdom of France from the Late Middle Ages (circa 15th century) until 1789, when hereditary monarchy and the feudal system of French nobility were abolished by the.
Aristocracy of Norway refers to modern and medieval aristocracy in Norway.
The Armenian language (reformed: հայերեն) is an Indo-European language spoken primarily by the Armenians.
Baron Athenry is one of the oldest titles in the Peerage of Ireland, but the date of its creation is thoroughly uncertain; each of the first four Berminghams listed below is claimed by some writers to have been Lord Athenry, but the evidence is disputed.
Baron Carrickfergus is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, referring to Carrickfergus in County Antrim, Northern Ireland.
Baron Dunboyne was a title first held by the Petit family some time after the Norman invasion of Ireland.
Baron Fermoy is a title in the Peerage of Ireland.
Baron Louth is a title in the Peerage of Ireland.
The title Baron of Dunsany or, more commonly, Lord Dunsany, is one of the oldest dignities in the Peerage of Ireland, one of just a handful of 13th to 15th century titles still extant, having had 21 holders, of the Plunkett name, to date.
Baron of Renfrew is a dignity held by the heir apparent to the British throne, currently Prince Charles.
There have been two creations of the title Baron Offaly, both in the Peerage of Ireland.
Baron Slane was a title in the Peerage of Ireland.
Baron Trimlestown, of Trimlestown in County Meath, is a title in the Peerage of Ireland.
The baronage is the collectively inclusive term denoting all members of the feudal nobility, as observed by the constitutional authority Edward Coke.
A modern geographic barony, in Scotland, Ireland and outlying parts of England, constitutes an administrative division of a country, usually of lower rank and importance than a county.
The Bishop of Durham is the Anglican bishop responsible for the Diocese of Durham in the Province of York.
A boyar was a member of the highest rank of the feudal Bulgarian, Kievan, Moscovian, Wallachian and Moldavian and later, Romanian aristocracies, second only to the ruling princes (in Bulgaria, tsars), from the 10th century to the 17th century.
Brenda Marjorie Hale, Baroness Hale of Richmond, (born 31 January 1945) is a British judge and the current President of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom.
A cadet is a trainee.
Charles, Prince of Wales (Charles Philip Arthur George; born 14 November 1948) is the heir apparent to the British throne as the eldest child of Queen Elizabeth II.
A coat of arms is a heraldic visual design on an escutcheon (i.e., shield), surcoat, or tabard.
The common people, also known as the common man, commoners, or the masses, are the ordinary people in a community or nation who lack any significant social status, especially those who are members of neither royalty, nobility, the clergy, nor any member of the aristocracy.
In English, a coronet is a small crown consisting of ornaments fixed on a metal ring.
Count (Male) or Countess (Female) is a title in European countries for a noble of varying status, but historically deemed to convey an approximate rank intermediate between the highest and lowest titles of nobility.
A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposes,Chambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in certain modern nations.
A county court is a court based in or with a jurisdiction covering one or more counties, which are administrative divisions (subnational entities) within a country, not to be confused with the medieval system of county courts held by the High Sheriff of each county.
In England, a county palatine or palatinate was an area ruled by a hereditary nobleman enjoying special authority and autonomy from the rest of a kingdom or empire.
A courtesy title is a title that does not have legal significance but rather is used through custom or courtesy, particularly, in the context of nobility, the titles used by children of members of the nobility (c.f. substantive title).
The Crown of Aragon (Corona d'Aragón, Corona d'Aragó, Corona de Aragón),Corona d'AragónCorona AragonumCorona de Aragón) also referred by some modern historians as Catalanoaragonese Crown (Corona catalanoaragonesa) or Catalan-Aragonese Confederation (Confederació catalanoaragonesa) was a composite monarchy, also nowadays referred to as a confederation of individual polities or kingdoms ruled by one king, with a personal and dynastic union of the Kingdom of Aragon and the County of Barcelona. At the height of its power in the 14th and 15th centuries, the Crown of Aragon was a thalassocracy (a state with primarily maritime realms) controlling a large portion of present-day eastern Spain, parts of what is now southern France, and a Mediterranean "empire" which included the Balearic Islands, Sicily, Corsica, Sardinia, Malta, Southern Italy (from 1442) and parts of Greece (until 1388). The component realms of the Crown were not united politically except at the level of the king, who ruled over each autonomous polity according to its own laws, raising funds under each tax structure, dealing separately with each Corts or Cortes. Put in contemporary terms, it has sometimes been considered that the different lands of the Crown of Aragon (mainly the Kingdom of Aragon, the Principality of Catalonia and the Kingdom of Valencia) functioned more as a confederation than as a single kingdom. In this sense, the larger Crown of Aragon must not be confused with one of its constituent parts, the Kingdom of Aragon, from which it takes its name. In 1469, a new dynastic familial union of the Crown of Aragon with the Crown of Castile by the Catholic Monarchs, joining what contemporaries referred to as "the Spains" led to what would become the Kingdom of Spain under King Philip II. The Crown existed until it was abolished by the Nueva Planta decrees issued by King Philip V in 1716 as a consequence of the defeat of Archduke Charles (as Charles III of Aragon) in the War of the Spanish Succession.
Danish nobility is a social class and a former estate in the Kingdom of Denmark.
The Dialogus de Scaccario, or Dialogue concerning the Exchequer, is a mediaeval treatise on the practice of the English Exchequer written in the late 12th century by Richard FitzNeal.
Diana, Princess of Wales (born Diana Frances Spencer; 1 July 1961 – 31 August 1997) was a member of the British royal family.
In politics, a diet is a formal deliberative assembly.
Digby Marritt Jones, Baron Jones of Birmingham (born 28 October 1955), known as Sir Digby Jones between 2005 and 2007, is a British businessman and politician, who has served as Director General of the CBI (2000–06) and Minister of State for Trade and Investment (2007–08).
An earl is a member of the nobility.
The Earldom of Chester (Welsh: Iarll Caer) was one of the most powerful earldoms in medieval England, extending principally over the counties of Cheshire and Flintshire.
Baron Kerry is an ancient title in the Peerage of Ireland.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
England in the High Middle Ages includes the history of England between the Norman Conquest in 1066 and the death of King John, considered by some to be the last of the Angevin kings of England, in 1216.
In the kingdom of England, a feudal barony or barony by tenure was the highest degree of feudal land tenure, namely per baroniam (Latin for "by barony") under which the land-holder owed the service of being one of the king's barons.
Ennoblement is the conferring of nobility—the induction of an individual into the noble class.
Eric XIV (Erik XIV; 13 December 1533 – 26 February 1577) was King of Sweden from 1560 until he was deposed in 1568.
Baron Félix de Blochausen (5 March 1834 – 15 November 1915) was a Luxembourgish politician.
In English common law, fee tail or entail is a form of trust established by deed or settlement which restricts the sale or inheritance of an estate in real property and prevents the property from being sold, devised by will, or otherwise alienated by the tenant-in-possession, and instead causes it to pass automatically by operation of law to an heir pre-determined by the settlement deed.
Under the English feudal system several different forms of land tenure existed, each effectively a contract with differing rights and duties attached thereto.
Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.
A fief (feudum) was the central element of feudalism and consisted of heritable property or rights granted by an overlord to a vassal who held it in fealty (or "in fee") in return for a form of feudal allegiance and service, usually given by the personal ceremonies of homage and fealty.
The Finnish nobility (Fi. Aateli, Sw. Adel) was historically a privileged class in Finland, deriving from its period as part of Sweden and the Russian Empire.
Frankish (reconstructed Frankish: *italic), Old Franconian or Old Frankish was the West Germanic language spoken by the Franks between the 4th and 8th century.
In England in the 12th to 15th centuries, a franklin was a member of a certain social class or rank.
Freiherr (male, abbreviated as Frhr.), Freifrau (his wife, abbreviated as Frfr., literally "free lord" or "free lady") and Freiin (his unmarried daughters and maiden aunts) are designations used as titles of nobility in the German-speaking areas of the Holy Roman Empire, and in its various successor states, including Austria, Prussia, Bavaria, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, etc.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
The Grand Duchy of Finland (Suomen suuriruhtinaskunta, Storfurstendömet Finland, Великое княжество Финляндское,; literally Grand Principality of Finland) was the predecessor state of modern Finland.
Grandee (Grande,; Grande) is an official aristocratic title conferred on some Spanish nobility and, to a lesser extent, Portuguese nobility.
Haakon V Magnusson (10 April 1270 – 8 May 1319) (Old Norse: Hákon Magnússon; Norwegian: Håkon Magnusson) was king of Norway from 1299 until 1319.
Henry II (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189), also known as Henry Curtmantle (Court-manteau), Henry FitzEmpress or Henry Plantagenet, ruled as Count of Anjou, Count of Maine, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Count of Nantes, King of England and Lord of Ireland; at various times, he also partially controlled Wales, Scotland and Brittany.
The Holy Roman Emperor (historically Romanorum Imperator, "Emperor of the Romans") was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire (800-1806 AD, from Charlemagne to Francis II).
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
In medieval England, an honour could consist of a great lordship, comprising dozens or hundreds of manors.
The House of Commons of England was the lower house of the Parliament of England (which incorporated Wales) from its development in the 14th century to the union of England and Scotland in 1707, when it was replaced by the House of Commons of Great Britain.
The House of Habsburg (traditionally spelled Hapsburg in English), also called House of Austria was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe.
The House of Lords of the United Kingdom, also known as the House of Peers, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The House of Nobility either refers to the institution of the Finnish nobility or the palace of the noble estate.
An Irish feudal barony was a customary title of nobility: the holder was always referred to as a Baron, but was not the holder of a peerage, and had no right to sit in the Irish House of Lords.
Saint Isidore of Seville (Isidorus Hispalensis; c. 560 – 4 April 636), a scholar and, for over three decades, Archbishop of Seville, is widely regarded as the last of the Fathers of the Church, as the 19th-century historian Montalembert put it in an oft-quoted phrase, "The last scholar of the ancient world." At a time of disintegration of classical culture, and aristocratic violence and illiteracy, he was involved in the conversion of the Arian Visigothic kings to Catholicism, both assisting his brother Leander of Seville, and continuing after his brother's death.
(John) Horace Round (1854–1928) was an historian and genealogist of the English medieval period.
is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.
John Selden (16 December 1584 – 30 November 1654) was an English jurist, a scholar of England's ancient laws and constitution and scholar of Jewish law.
The Kingdom of England (French: Royaume d'Angleterre; Danish: Kongeriget England; German: Königreich England) was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from the 10th century—when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms—until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The Kingdom of Holland (Koninkrijk Holland, Royaume de Hollande) was set up by Napoléon Bonaparte as a puppet kingdom for his third brother, Louis Bonaparte, in order to better control the Netherlands.
A knight is a person granted an honorary title of knighthood by a monarch, bishop or other political leader for service to the monarch or a Christian Church, especially in a military capacity.
Knights of the shire (milites comitatus) was the formal title for members of parliament (MPs) representing a county constituency in the British House of Commons, from its origins in the medieval Parliament of England until the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885 ended the practice of each county (or shire) forming a single constituency.
The Korean language (Chosŏn'gŭl/Hangul: 조선말/한국어; Hanja: 朝鮮말/韓國語) is an East Asian language spoken by about 80 million people.
Leslie Gilbert Pine (22 December 1907 – 15 May 1987) was a British author, lecturer, and researcher in the areas of genealogy, nobility, history, heraldry and animal welfare.
Even before the Norman Conquest, there was a strong tradition of landholding in Anglo-Saxon law.
Late Latin is the scholarly name for the written Latin of Late Antiquity.
Lendmann (plural lendmenn) (Old Norse lendr maðr), was a title in medieval Norway.
Letters patent (always in the plural) are a type of legal instrument in the form of a published written order issued by a monarch, president, or other head of state, generally granting an office, right, monopoly, title, or status to a person or corporation.
The Lex Alamannorum and Pactus Alamannorum were two early medieval law codes of the Alamanni.
Liechtenstein, officially the Principality of Liechtenstein (Fürstentum Liechtenstein), is a doubly landlocked German-speaking microstate in Central Europe.
In the United Kingdom, life peers are appointed members of the peerage whose titles cannot be inherited, in contrast to hereditary peers.
The peerage is the collective term for all those holding titles of nobility of all degrees.
This is a list of the 1187 present and extant Barons (Lords of Parliament, in Scottish terms) in the Peerages of England, Scotland, Great Britain, Ireland, and the United Kingdom.
Lord is an appellation for a person or deity who has authority, control, or power over others acting like a master, a chief, or a ruler.
A Lord of Parliament (Laird o Pairlament) was the holder of the lowest form of peerage entitled as of right to take part in sessions of the pre-Union Parliament of Scotland.
In British or Irish history, the lordship of a manor is a lordship emanating from the feudal system of manorialism.
Louis XVIII (Louis Stanislas Xavier; 17 November 1755 – 16 September 1824), known as "the Desired" (le Désiré), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1814 to 1824, except for a period in 1815 known as the Hundred Days.
The Low Countries or, in the geographic sense of the term, the Netherlands (de Lage Landen or de Nederlanden, les Pays Bas) is a coastal region in northwestern Europe, consisting especially of the Netherlands and Belgium, and the low-lying delta of the Rhine, Meuse, Scheldt, and Ems rivers where much of the land is at or below sea level.
Lucius Annaeus Cornutus (Ἀνναῖος Κορνοῦτος), a Stoic philosopher, flourished in the reign of Nero (c. 60 AD), when his house in Rome was a school of philosophy.
Luxembourg (Lëtzebuerg; Luxembourg, Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in western Europe.
Magna Carta Libertatum (Medieval Latin for "the Great Charter of the Liberties"), commonly called Magna Carta (also Magna Charta; "Great Charter"), is a charter agreed to by King John of England at Runnymede, near Windsor, on 15 June 1215.
In the Kingdom of England, the Magnum Concilium, or Great Council, was an assembly convened at certain times of the year when church leaders and wealthy landowners were invited to discuss the affairs of the country with the king.
Magnus Haakonsson (Old Norse: Magnús Hákonarson, Norwegian: Magnus Håkonsson; 1 May 1238 – 9 May 1280) was King of Norway (as Magnus VI) from 1263 to 1280 (junior king from 1257).
Manorialism was an essential element of feudal society.
A march or mark was, in broad terms, a medieval European term for any kind of borderland, as opposed to a notional "heartland".
A Marcher Lord was a noble appointed by the King of England to guard the border (known as the Welsh Marches) between England and Wales.
Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, (13 October 19258 April 2013) was a British stateswoman who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 to 1990.
Patrick Maurice Burke Roche, 6th Baron Fermoy (born 11 October 1967) is an Irish peer.
Medieval Latin was the form of Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange, as the liturgical language of Chalcedonian Christianity and the Roman Catholic Church, and as a language of science, literature, law, and administration.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Morganatic marriage, sometimes called a left-handed marriage, is a marriage between people of unequal social rank, which in the context of royalty prevents the passage of the husband's titles and privileges to the wife and any children born of the marriage.
Mister, usually written in its abbreviated form Mr. (US) or Mr (UK), is a commonly used English honorific for men under the rank of knighthood.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
A nobiliary particle is used in a surname or family name in many Western cultures to signal the nobility of a family.
Nobility is a social class in aristocracy, normally ranked immediately under royalty, that possesses more acknowledged privileges and higher social status than most other classes in a society and with membership thereof typically being hereditary.
Under the Old Regime of France, the Nobles of the Robe or Nobles of the Gown (Noblesse de robe) were French aristocrats whose rank came from holding certain judicial or administrative posts.
The Nobles of the Sword (noblesse d'épée) were the noblemen of the oldest class of nobility in France dating from the Middle Ages and the Early Modern periods but still arguably in existence by descent.
The Norman conquest of England (in Britain, often called the Norman Conquest or the Conquest) was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England by an army of Norman, Breton, Flemish and French soldiers led by Duke William II of Normandy, later styled William the Conqueror.
The Norman invasion of Ireland took place in stages during the late 12th century, at a time when Gaelic Ireland was made up of several kingdoms, with a High King claiming lordship over all.
Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
Old French (franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French: ancien français) was the language spoken in Northern France from the 8th century to the 14th century.
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.
In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative body of government.
The Parliament of England was the legislature of the Kingdom of England, existing from the early 13th century until 1707, when it became the Parliament of Great Britain after the political union of England and Scotland created the Kingdom of Great Britain.
Patrilineality, also known as the male line, the spear side or agnatic kinship, is a common kinship system in which an individual's family membership derives from and is recorded through his or her father's lineage.
The Peerage of England comprises all peerages created in the Kingdom of England before the Act of Union in 1707.
The Peerage of France (Pairie de France) was a hereditary distinction within the French nobility which appeared in 1180 in the Middle Ages, and only a small number of noble individuals were peers.
The Peerage of Great Britain comprises all extant peerages created in the Kingdom of Great Britain after the Acts of Union 1707 but before the Acts of Union 1800.
The Peerage of Ireland consists of those titles of nobility created by the English monarchs in their capacity as Lord or King of Ireland, or later by monarchs of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
The Peerage of Scotland (Moraireachd na h-Alba) is the section of the Peerage of the British Isles for those peers created by the King of Scots before 1707.
The Peerage of the United Kingdom comprises most peerages created in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland after the Acts of Union in 1801, when it replaced the Peerage of Great Britain.
Peter the Great (ˈpʲɵtr vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj), Peter I (ˈpʲɵtr ˈpʲɛrvɨj) or Peter Alexeyevich (p; –)Dates indicated by the letters "O.S." are in the Julian calendar with the start of year adjusted to 1 January.
Primogeniture is the right, by law or custom, of the paternally acknowledged, firstborn son to inherit his parent's entire or main estate, in preference to daughters, elder illegitimate sons, younger sons and collateral relatives; in some cases the estate may instead be the inheritance of the firstborn child or occasionally the firstborn daughter.
Prince Andrew, Duke of York, (Andrew Albert Christian Edward, born 19 February 1960) is a member of the British royal family.
Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, (William Arthur Philip Louis; born 21 June 1982) is a member of the British royal family.
A privilege is a certain entitlement to immunity granted by the state or another authority to a restricted group, either by birth or on a conditional basis.
Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, usually known simply as the Privy Council, is a formal body of advisers to the Sovereign of the United Kingdom.
Rao (راؤ), is one of the cognate Hindi variations of the (originally Hindu) title Raja(h) (like Rawal and Rawat), used as equivalent royal style in certain princely states, notably of former British India.
Riksdag of the Estates (formally Riksens ständer; informally Ståndsriksdagen) was the name used for the Estates of Sweden when they were assembled.
A robber baron or robber knight (German Raubritter) was an unscrupulous feudal landowner who imposed high taxes and tolls out of keeping with the norm without authorization by some higher authority, while protected by his fief's legal status.
Traditional rank amongst European royalty, peers, and nobility is rooted in Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The Salic law (or; Lex salica), or the was the ancient Salian Frankish civil law code compiled around AD 500 by the first Frankish King, Clovis.
Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
Secession (derived from the Latin term secessio) is the withdrawal of a group from a larger entity, especially a political entity, but also from any organization, union or military alliance.
Under feudalism in England during the medieval era, tenure by serjeanty was a form of tenure in return for some specified non-standard service, thus distinguishing it from knight-service.
A sheriff is a government official, with varying duties, existing in some countries with historical ties to England, where the office originated.
Sicily (Sicilia; Sicìlia) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.
A signoria (from signore, or "lord"; an abstract noun meaning (roughly) "government; governing authority; de facto sovereignty; lordship"; plural: signorie) was the governing authority in many of the Italian city states during the medieval and renaissance periods.
The Southern Netherlands, also called the Catholic Netherlands, was the part of the Low Countries largely controlled by Spain (1556–1714), later Austria (1714–1794), and occupied then annexed by France (1794–1815).
A surname, family name, or last name is the portion of a personal name that indicates a person's family (or tribe or community, depending on the culture).
Suzerainty (and) is a back-formation from the late 18th-century word suzerain, meaning upper-sovereign, derived from the French sus (meaning above) + -erain (from souverain, meaning sovereign).
The Swedish nobility (Adeln) has historically been a legally and/or socially privileged class in Sweden, and part of the so-called frälse (a derivation from Old Swedish meaning free neck).
In medieval and early modern Europe the term tenant-in-chief (or vassal-in-chief), denoted a person who held his lands under various forms of feudal land tenure directly from the king or territorial prince to whom he did homage, as opposed to holding them from another nobleman or senior member of the clergy.
The Tenures Abolition Act 1660 (12 Car 2 c 24), sometimes known as the Statute of Tenures, was an Act of the Parliament of England which changed the nature of several types of feudal land tenure in England.
A territorial entity is an entity that covers a part of the surface of the Earth with specified borders.
Thane was the title given to a local royal official in medieval eastern Scotland, equivalent in rank to the son of an earl, who was at the head of an administrative and socio-economic unit known as a thanedom.
The Much Honoured (abbreviated as The Much Hon.) is an honorific prefix that is given to Scottish feudal barons and lairds.
Thomas Becket (also known as Saint Thomas of Canterbury, Thomas of London, and later Thomas à Becket; (21 December c. 1119 (or 1120) – 29 December 1170) was Archbishop of Canterbury from 1162 until his murder in 1170. He is venerated as a saint and martyr by both the Catholic Church and the Anglican Communion. He engaged in conflict with Henry II, King of England, over the rights and privileges of the Church and was murdered by followers of the king in Canterbury Cathedral. Soon after his death, he was canonised by Pope Alexander III.
A title is a prefix or suffix added to someone's name in certain contexts.
Tonga (Tongan: Puleʻanga Fakatuʻi ʻo Tonga), officially the Kingdom of Tonga, is a Polynesian sovereign state and archipelago comprising 169 islands, of which 36 are inhabited.
A tradition is a belief or behavior passed down within a group or society with symbolic meaning or special significance with origins in the past.
Uradel (German: "ancient nobility"; adjective uradelig or uradlig) is a genealogical term introduced in late 18th-century Germany to distinguish those families whose noble rank can be traced to the 14th century or earlier.
A vassal is a person regarded as having a mutual obligation to a lord or monarch, in the context of the feudal system in medieval Europe.
Baron Victor de Tornaco (5 July 1805 – 28 September 1875) was a Luxembourgian politician.
A viscount (for male) or viscountess (for female) is a title used in certain European countries for a noble of varying status.
Viscount Gormanston is a title in the Peerage of Ireland created in 1478 and held by the head of the Preston family, which hailed from Lancashire.
Von is a term used in German language surnames either as a nobiliary particle indicating a noble patrilineality or as a simple preposition that approximately means of or from in the case of commoners.
William I (c. 1028Bates William the Conqueror p. 33 – 9 September 1087), usually known as William the Conqueror and sometimes William the Bastard, was the first Norman King of England, reigning from 1066 until his death in 1087.