100 relations: A priori and a posteriori, Académie française, Adam Smith, Adam Weishaupt, Age of Enlightenment, Amsterdam, André Morellet, Anne Robert Jacques Turgot, Atheism, Émile Faguet, Étienne Bonnot de Condillac, Benjamin Franklin, Camille Desmoulins, Catholic Church, Catholic Church in France, Cesare Beccaria, Charles Marie de La Condamine, Christianity Unveiled, Claude Adrien Helvétius, David Garrick, David Hume, Deism, Deity, Democracy, Denis Diderot, Determinism, Dictionnaire philosophique, Edesheim, Edward Gibbon, Encyclopédie, Encyclopedia, Enlightened self-interest, Ferdinando Galiani, Frederick the Great, French Directory, French materialism, French Revolution, Friedrich Melchior, Baron von Grimm, Georges Danton, Given name, Guillaume Thomas François Raynal, Haussmann's renovation of Paris, Heeze Castle, Henry St John, 1st Viscount Bolingbroke, Historical materialism, Horace Walpole, House of Bourbon, Immanuel Kant, Jacques-André Naigeon, Jean François de Saint-Lambert, ..., Jean le Rond d'Alembert, Jean-Baptiste de Mirabaud, Jean-François Marmontel, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Jean-Paul Marat, John Locke, John Wilkes, Joseph Priestley, Julie, or the New Heloise, Karl Marx, Laissez-faire, Landau, Laurence Sterne, Leiden University, Lists of atheists, Louvre, Marc-Michel Rey, Marquis de Condorcet, Materialism, Michel Onfray, Morality, Nancy, France, Natural philosophy, Nicolas-Sylvestre Bergier, Ochlocracy, Oxford University Press, Palatinate (region), Paris Commune, Percy Bysshe Shelley, Philosopher, Pierre Bayle, Prince-bishop, Project Gutenberg, Religious text, Revolution, Rhineland-Palatinate, Roman Catholic Diocese of Speyer, Saint-Roch, Paris, Salon (gathering), Simon & Schuster, Sucy-en-Brie, Tax collector, Thérèse Levasseur, The Friends of Voltaire, The System of Nature, Thomas Hobbes, Val-de-Marne, Voltaire, William Godwin, Wine. Expand index (50 more) » « Shrink index
The Latin phrases a priori ("from the earlier") and a posteriori ("from the latter") are philosophical terms of art popularized by Immanuel Kant's Critique of Pure Reason (first published in 1781, second edition in 1787), one of the most influential works in the history of philosophy.
The Académie française is the pre-eminent French council for matters pertaining to the French language.
Adam Smith (16 June 1723 NS (5 June 1723 OS) – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish economist, philosopher and author as well as a moral philosopher, a pioneer of political economy and a key figure during the Scottish Enlightenment era.
Johann Adam Weishaupt (6 February 1748 – 18 November 1830)Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
Amsterdam is the capital and most populous municipality of the Netherlands.
André Morellet (7 March 172712 January 1819) was a French economist writer and contributor to the Encyclopédie ou Dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers.
Anne Robert Jacques Turgot, Baron de l'Aulne (10 May 172718 March 1781), commonly known as Turgot, was a French economist and statesman.
Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.
Auguste Émile Faguet (17 December 1847 – 7 June 1916) was a French author and literary critic.
Étienne Bonnot de Condillac (30 September 1714 – 3 August 1780) was a French philosopher and epistemologist, who studied in such areas as psychology and the philosophy of the mind.
Benjamin Franklin (April 17, 1790) was an American polymath and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.
Lucie-Simplice-Camille-Benoît Desmoulins (2 March 17605 April 1794) was a journalist and politician who played an important role in the French Revolution.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Catholic Church in France is part of the worldwide Catholic Church in communion with the Pope in Rome.
Cesare Bonesana-Beccaria, Marquis of Gualdrasco and Villareggio (15 March 173828 November 1794) was an Italian criminologist, jurist, philosopher, and politician, who is widely considered as the most talented jurist and one of the greatest thinkers of the Age of Enlightenment.
Charles Marie de La Condamine (28 January 1701 – 4 February 1774) was a French explorer, geographer, and mathematician.
Christianity Unveiled, or examination of the principles and effects of the Christian religion (Le christianisme devoile, ou examination of principes et des effets de la religion chrétienne) is a book that criticizes Christianity attributed to Baron d'Holbach, probably published in 1766.
Claude Adrien Helvétius (26 January 1715 – 26 December 1771) was a French philosopher, freemason and littérateur.
David Garrick (19 February 1717 – 20 January 1779) was an English actor, playwright, theatre manager and producer who influenced nearly all aspects of theatrical practice throughout the 18th century, and was a pupil and friend of Dr Samuel Johnson.
David Hume (born David Home; 7 May 1711 NS (26 April 1711 OS) – 25 August 1776) was a Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist, who is best known today for his highly influential system of philosophical empiricism, skepticism, and naturalism.
Deism (or; derived from Latin "deus" meaning "god") is a philosophical belief that posits that God exists and is ultimately responsible for the creation of the universe, but does not interfere directly with the created world.
A deity is a supernatural being considered divine or sacred.
Democracy (δημοκρατία dēmokraa thetía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting.
Denis Diderot (5 October 171331 July 1784) was a French philosopher, art critic, and writer, best known for serving as co-founder, chief editor, and contributor to the Encyclopédie along with Jean le Rond d'Alembert.
Determinism is the philosophical theory that all events, including moral choices, are completely determined by previously existing causes.
The Dictionnaire philosophique (Philosophical Dictionary) is an encyclopedic dictionary published by Voltaire in 1764.
Edesheim is a municipality in the Südliche Weinstraße district, in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.
Edward Gibbon FRS (8 May 173716 January 1794) was an English historian, writer and Member of Parliament.
Encyclopédie, ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers (English: Encyclopedia, or a Systematic Dictionary of the Sciences, Arts, and Crafts), better known as Encyclopédie, was a general encyclopedia published in France between 1751 and 1772, with later supplements, revised editions, and translations.
An encyclopedia or encyclopaedia is a reference work or compendium providing summaries of information from either all branches of knowledge or from a particular field or discipline.
Enlightened self-interest is a philosophy in ethics which states that persons who act to further the interests of others (or the interests of the group or groups to which they belong), ultimately serve their own self-interest.
Ferdinando Galiani (2 December 1728, Chieti, Kingdom of Naples – 30 October 1787, Naples, Kingdom of Naples) was an Italian economist, a leading Italian figure of the Enlightenment.
Frederick II (Friedrich; 24 January 171217 August 1786) was King of Prussia from 1740 until 1786, the longest reign of any Hohenzollern king.
The Directory or Directorate was a five-member committee which governed France from 1795, when it replaced the Committee of Public Safety.
French materialism is the name given to a handful of French 18th-century philosophers during the Age of Enlightenment, many of them clustered around the salon of Baron d'Holbach.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
Friedrich Melchior, Baron von Grimm (26 December 172319 December 1807) was a German-born French-language journalist, art critic, diplomat and contributor to the Encyclopédie ou Dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers.
Georges Jacques Danton (26 October 1759 – 5 April 1794) was a leading figure in the early stages of the French Revolution, in particular as the first president of the Committee of Public Safety.
A given name (also known as a first name, forename or Christian name) is a part of a person's personal name.
Guillaume Thomas Raynal (12 April 1713 – 6 March 1796) was a French writer and man of letters during the Age of Enlightenment.
Haussmann's renovation of Paris was a vast public works program commissioned by Emperor Napoléon III and directed by his prefect of the Seine, Georges-Eugène Haussmann, between 1853 and 1870.
Heeze Castle (Kasteel Heeze) is situated in the Netherlands, south of Eindhoven.
Henry St John, 1st Viscount Bolingbroke (16 September 1678 – 12 December 1751) was an English politician, government official and political philosopher.
Historical materialism is the methodological approach of Marxist historiography that focuses on human societies and their development over time, claiming that they follow a number of observable tendencies.
Horatio Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford (24 September 1717 – 2 March 1797), also known as Horace Walpole, was an English art historian, man of letters, antiquarian and Whig politician.
The House of Bourbon is a European royal house of French origin, a branch of the Capetian dynasty.
Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.
Jacques-André Naigeon (July 15, 1738, Paris – 28 February 1810, Paris) was a French artist, atheist philosopher, editor and man of letters best known for his contributions to the Encyclopédie and for reworking Baron d'Holbach's and Diderot's manuscripts.
Jean François de Saint-Lambert (26 December 1716 – 9 February 1803) was a French poet, philosopher and military officer.
Jean-Baptiste le Rond d'Alembert (16 November 1717 – 29 October 1783) was a French mathematician, mechanician, physicist, philosopher, and music theorist.
Jean-Baptiste de Mirabaud (1675, Paris – 24 June 1760, Paris) was a French writer and translator.
Jean-François Marmontel (11 July 1723 – 31 December 1799) was a French historian and writer, a member of the Encyclopédistes movement.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (28 June 1712 – 2 July 1778) was a Genevan philosopher, writer and composer.
Jean-Paul Marat (24 May 1743 – 13 July 1793) was a French political theorist, physician, and scientist who became best known for his role as a radical journalist and politician during the French Revolution.
John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".
John Wilkes (17 October 1725 – 26 December 1797) was an English radical, journalist, and politician.
Joseph Priestley FRS (– 6 February 1804) was an 18th-century English Separatist theologian, natural philosopher, chemist, innovative grammarian, multi-subject educator, and liberal political theorist who published over 150 works.
Julie, or the New Heloise (Julie, ou la nouvelle Héloïse) is an epistolary novel by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, published in 1761 by Marc-Michel Rey in Amsterdam.
Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.
Laissez-faire (from) is an economic system in which transactions between private parties are free from government intervention such as regulation, privileges, tariffs and subsidies.
Landau, or Landau in der Pfalz, is an autonomous (kreisfrei) town surrounded by the Südliche Weinstraße ("Southern Wine Route") district of southern Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.
Laurence Sterne (24 November 1713 – 18 March 1768) was an Irish novelist and an Anglican clergyman.
Leiden University (abbreviated as LEI; Universiteit Leiden), founded in the city of Leiden, is the oldest university in the Netherlands.
Atheism is, in a broad sense, the lack of belief in the existence of deities.
The Louvre, or the Louvre Museum, is the world's largest art museum and a historic monument in Paris, France.
Marc-Michel Rey (5 May 1720 – 8 June 1780) was an influential publisher in the United Provinces, who published many of the works of the French philosophes, including Jean-Jacques Rousseau.
Marie Jean Antoine Nicolas de Caritat, Marquis of Condorcet (17 September 1743 – 29 March 1794), known as Nicolas de Condorcet, was a French philosopher, mathematician, and early political scientist whose Condorcet method in voting tally selects the candidate who would beat each of the other candidates in a run-off election.
Materialism is a form of philosophical monism which holds that matter is the fundamental substance in nature, and that all things, including mental aspects and consciousness, are results of material interactions.
Michel Onfray (born 1 January 1959) is a contemporary French writer and philosopher who promotes hedonism, atheism, and anarchism.
Morality (from) is the differentiation of intentions, decisions and actions between those that are distinguished as proper and those that are improper.
Nancy (Nanzig) is the capital of the north-eastern French department of Meurthe-et-Moselle, and formerly the capital of the Duchy of Lorraine, and then the French province of the same name.
Natural philosophy or philosophy of nature (from Latin philosophia naturalis) was the philosophical study of nature and the physical universe that was dominant before the development of modern science.
Nicolas-Sylvestre Bergier (31 December 1718 – 9 April 1790) was a French Catholic theologian.
Ochlocracy (ὀχλοκρατία, okhlokratía; ochlocratia) or mob rule is the rule of government by mob or a mass of people, or, the intimidation of legitimate authorities.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
The Palatinate (die Pfalz, Pfälzer dialect: Palz), historically also Rhenish Palatinate (Rheinpfalz), is a region in southwestern Germany.
The Paris Commune (La Commune de Paris) was a radical socialist and revolutionary government that ruled Paris from 18 March to 28 May 1871.
Percy Bysshe Shelley (4 August 17928 July 1822) was one of the major English Romantic poets, and is regarded by some as among the finest lyric and philosophical poets in the English language, and one of the most influential.
A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy, which involves rational inquiry into areas that are outside either theology or science.
Pierre Bayle (18 November 1647 – 28 December 1706) was a French philosopher and writer best known for his seminal work the Historical and Critical Dictionary, published beginning in 1697.
A prince-bishop is a bishop who is also the civil ruler of some secular principality and sovereignty.
Project Gutenberg (PG) is a volunteer effort to digitize and archive cultural works, to "encourage the creation and distribution of eBooks".
Religious texts (also known as scripture, or scriptures, from the Latin scriptura, meaning "writing") are texts which religious traditions consider to be central to their practice or beliefs.
In political science, a revolution (Latin: revolutio, "a turn around") is a fundamental and relatively sudden change in political power and political organization which occurs when the population revolt against the government, typically due to perceived oppression (political, social, economic).
Rhineland-Palatinate (Rheinland-Pfalz) is one of the 16 states (Bundesländer) of the Federal Republic of Germany.
The Diocese of Speyer (lat. Dioecesis Spirensis) is a diocese of the Catholic Church in Germany.
The Church of Saint-Roch (Église Saint-Roch) is a late Baroque 126 meter-long church in Paris, dedicated to Saint Roch.
A salon is a gathering of people under the roof of an inspiring host.
Simon & Schuster, Inc., a subsidiary of CBS Corporation, is an American publishing company founded in New York City in 1924 by Richard Simon and Max Schuster.
Sucy-en-Brie is a commune in the southeastern suburbs of Paris, France.
A tax collector or a taxman is a person who collects unpaid taxes from other people or corporations.
Marie-Thérèse Levasseur (21 September 1721 - 17 July 1801; also known as Thérèse Le Vasseur and Thérèse Lavasseur) was the domestic partner of Genevan philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau.
The Friends of Voltaire, written by Evelyn Beatrice Hall under the pseudonym S. G. Tallentyre, was published in 1906.
The System of Nature or, the Laws of the Moral and Physical World (Système de la Nature ou Des Loix du Monde Physique et du Monde Moral) is a work of philosophy by Paul-Henri Thiry, Baron d'Holbach (1723–1789).
Thomas Hobbes (5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679), in some older texts Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury, was an English philosopher who is considered one of the founders of modern political philosophy.
Val-de-Marne is a French department, named after the Marne River, located in the Île-de-France region.
François-Marie Arouet (21 November 1694 – 30 May 1778), known by his nom de plume Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit, his attacks on Christianity as a whole, especially the established Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of speech and separation of church and state.
William Godwin (3 March 1756 – 7 April 1836) was an English journalist, political philosopher and novelist.
Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from grapes fermented without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, water, or other nutrients.
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