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Basal ganglia

Index Basal ganglia

The basal ganglia (or basal nuclei) is a group of subcortical nuclei, of varied origin, in the brains of vertebrates including humans, which are situated at the base of the forebrain. [1]

154 relations: Acetylcholine, Action selection, Addiction, Adenosine A1 receptor, Adenosine A2A receptor, Alexander Cools, Amphetamine, Amygdala, Anatomical terms of location, Anatomy, Ansa lenticularis, Anterior cingulate cortex, Antipsychotic, Anxiety disorder, Athetosis, Athymhormic syndrome, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Axon, Basal ganglia disease, Bird, Blepharospasm, Brain, Brainstem, Bruxism, Calretinin, Carbon monoxide, Cat, Caudate nucleus, Cécile Vogt-Mugnier, Central nervous system, Centromedian nucleus, Cerebral cortex, Cerebral palsy, Cerebrum, Cholecystokinin, Chorea, Cingulate cortex, Cocaine, Cognition, Diencephalon, Direct pathway, Dopamine, Dopamine receptor D1, Dopamine receptor D2, Dopaminergic, Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, Dynorphin, Dystonia, Embryo, Emotion, ..., Enkephalin, Entorhinal cortex, Executive functions, Eye movement, Fahr's syndrome, Félix Vicq-d'Azyr, Forebrain, Foreign accent syndrome, GABAergic, Ganglion, Ganglionic eminence, Gaseous signaling molecules, Globus pallidus, Glutamate (neurotransmitter), Glutamatergic, Glutamic acid, Grey matter, Habit, Hemiballismus, Hindbrain, Hippocampus, Human, Huntington's disease, Hyperkinetic disorder, Hypokinesia, Indirect pathway, Insular cortex, Internal capsule, Karl Friedrich Burdach, Kernicterus, Learning, Lentiform nucleus, Lesch–Nyhan syndrome, Limbic system, Mahlon DeLong, Major depressive disorder, Medial dorsal nucleus, Medium spiny neuron, Mesolimbic pathway, Metencephalon, Midbrain, Motor control, Movement disorders, Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1, Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M4, Myelencephalon, Nathaniel A. Buchwald, Neural tube, Neurokinin A, Neurokinin B, Neuropeptide Y, Neurotensin, Neurotransmitter, Nicotine, Nitric oxide, Nucleus (neuroanatomy), Nucleus accumbens, Obsessive–compulsive disorder, Olfactory tubercle, Orbitofrontal cortex, Oskar Vogt, PANDAS, Parkinson's disease, Pars compacta, Pars reticulata, Parvalbumin, Pedunculopontine nucleus, Peripheral nervous system, Phenethylamine, Prefrontal cortex, Primary motor cortex, Primate basal ganglia, Putamen, Reinforcement, Retinotopy, Rodent, Samuel Alexander Kinnier Wilson, Samuel Thomas von Sömmerring, Sauropsida, Schizophrenia, Scholarpedia, Somatostatin, Spasmodic dysphonia, Striatopallidal fibres, Striatum, Stuttering, Substance P, Substantia nigra, Subthalamic nucleus, Superior colliculus, Supplementary motor area, Sydenham's chorea, Tardive dyskinesia, Terminologia Anatomica, Thalamus, Thomas Willis, Tourette syndrome, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Ventral pallidum, Ventral tegmental area, Vertebrate, Vesicle (embryology), Wilson's disease, Working memory. Expand index (104 more) »

Acetylcholine

Acetylcholine (ACh) is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a neurotransmitter—a chemical message released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells.

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Action selection

Action selection is a way of characterizing the most basic problem of intelligent systems: what to do next.

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Addiction

Addiction is a brain disorder characterized by compulsive engagement in rewarding stimuli despite adverse consequences.

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Adenosine A1 receptor

The adenosine A1 receptor is one member of the adenosine receptor group of G protein-coupled receptors with adenosine as endogenous ligand.

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Adenosine A2A receptor

The adenosine A2A receptor, also known as ADORA2A, is an adenosine receptor, and also denotes the human gene encoding it.

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Alexander Cools

Alexander ("Lex") Rudolf Cools (1941 in The Hague – 7 September 2013 in Nijmegen) was a Dutch behavioral pharmacologist.

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Amphetamine

Amphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity.

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Amygdala

The amygdala (plural: amygdalae; also corpus amygdaloideum; Latin from Greek, ἀμυγδαλή, amygdalē, 'Almond', 'tonsil') is one of two almond-shaped groups of nuclei located deep and medially within the temporal lobes of the brain in complex vertebrates, including humans.

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Anatomical terms of location

Standard anatomical terms of location deal unambiguously with the anatomy of animals, including humans.

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Anatomy

Anatomy (Greek anatomē, “dissection”) is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts.

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Ansa lenticularis

The ansa lenticularis (ansa lentiformis in older texts) is a part of the brain, making up the superior layer of the substantia innominata.

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Anterior cingulate cortex

The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is the frontal part of the cingulate cortex that resembles a "collar" surrounding the frontal part of the corpus callosum.

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Antipsychotic

Antipsychotics, also known as neuroleptics or major tranquilizers, are a class of medication primarily used to manage psychosis (including delusions, hallucinations, paranoia or disordered thought), principally in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

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Anxiety disorder

Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by significant feelings of anxiety and fear.

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Athetosis

Athetosis is a symptom characterized by slow, involuntary, convoluted, writhing movements of the fingers, hands, toes, and feet and in some cases, arms, legs, neck and tongue.

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Athymhormic syndrome

Athymhormic syndrome (from the θυμός, which means mood or affect, and ὁρμή, which means impulse, drive, or appetite), or psychic akinesia, is a rare psychopathological and neurological syndrome characterized by extreme passivity, apathy, blunted affect, and a profound generalized loss of self-motivation and conscious thought.

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Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder of the neurodevelopmental type.

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Axon

An axon (from Greek ἄξων áxōn, axis) or nerve fiber, is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that typically conducts electrical impulses known as action potentials, away from the nerve cell body.

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Basal ganglia disease

Basal ganglia disease is a group of physical dysfunctions that occur when the group of nuclei in the brain known as the basal ganglia fail to properly suppress unwanted movements or to properly prime upper motor neuron circuits to initiate motor function.

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Bird

Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.

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Blepharospasm

Blepharospasm is any abnormal contraction or twitch of the eyelid.

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Brain

The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.

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Brainstem

The brainstem (or brain stem) is the posterior part of the brain, adjoining and structurally continuous with the spinal cord.

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Bruxism

Bruxism is excessive teeth grinding or jaw clenching.

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Calretinin

Calretinin also known as 29 kDa calbindin is a calcium-binding protein involved in calcium signaling.

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Carbon monoxide

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.

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Cat

The domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus or Felis catus) is a small, typically furry, carnivorous mammal.

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Caudate nucleus

The caudate nucleus is one of the structures that make up the dorsal striatum, which is a component of the basal ganglia.

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Cécile Vogt-Mugnier

Cécile Vogt-Mugnier (27 March 1875 – 4 May 1962) was a French neurologist from Haute-Savoie.

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Central nervous system

The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.

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Centromedian nucleus

In the anatomy of the brain, the centromedian nucleus, also known as the centrum medianum, (CM or Cm-Pf) is a part of the intralaminar nucleus (ILN) of the thalamus.

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Cerebral cortex

The cerebral cortex is the largest region of the cerebrum in the mammalian brain and plays a key role in memory, attention, perception, cognition, awareness, thought, language, and consciousness.

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Cerebral palsy

Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of permanent movement disorders that appear in early childhood.

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Cerebrum

The cerebrum is a large part of the brain containing the cerebral cortex (of the two cerebral hemispheres), as well as several subcortical structures, including the hippocampus, basal ganglia, and olfactory bulb.

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Cholecystokinin

Cholecystokinin (CCK or CCK-PZ; from Greek chole, "bile"; cysto, "sac"; kinin, "move"; hence, move the bile-sac (gallbladder)) is a peptide hormone of the gastrointestinal system responsible for stimulating the digestion of fat and protein.

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Chorea

Chorea (or choreia, occasionally) is an abnormal involuntary movement disorder, one of a group of neurological disorders called dyskinesias.

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Cingulate cortex

The cingulate cortex is a part of the brain situated in the medial aspect of the cerebral cortex.

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Cocaine

Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug.

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Cognition

Cognition is "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses".

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Diencephalon

The diencephalon is a division of the forebrain (embryonic prosencephalon), and is situated between the telencephalon and the midbrain (embryonic mesencephalon).

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Direct pathway

The direct pathway, sometimes known as the direct pathway of movement, is a neural pathway within the central nervous system (CNS) through the basal ganglia which facilitates the initiation and execution of voluntary movement.

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Dopamine

Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.

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Dopamine receptor D1

Dopamine receptor D1, also known as DRD1, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DRD1 gene.

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Dopamine receptor D2

Dopamine receptor D2, also known as D2R, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the DRD2 gene.

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Dopaminergic

Dopaminergic means "related to dopamine" (literally, "working on dopamine"), dopamine being a common neurotransmitter.

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Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex

The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC or DL-PFC) is an area in the prefrontal cortex of the brain of humans and non-human primates.

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Dynorphin

Dynorphins (Dyn) are a class of opioid peptides that arise from the precursor protein prodynorphin.

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Dystonia

Dystonia is a neurological movement disorder syndrome in which sustained or repetitive muscle contractions result in twisting and repetitive movements or abnormal fixed postures.

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Embryo

An embryo is an early stage of development of a multicellular diploid eukaryotic organism.

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Emotion

Emotion is any conscious experience characterized by intense mental activity and a certain degree of pleasure or displeasure.

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Enkephalin

An enkephalin (occasionally spelled encephalin) is a pentapeptide involved in regulating nociception in the body.

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Entorhinal cortex

The entorhinal cortex (EC) (ento.

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Executive functions

Executive functions (collectively referred to as executive function and cognitive control) are a set of cognitive processes that are necessary for the cognitive control of behavior: selecting and successfully monitoring behaviors that facilitate the attainment of chosen goals.

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Eye movement

Eye movement includes the voluntary or involuntary movement of the eyes, helping in acquiring, fixating and tracking visual stimuli.

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Fahr's syndrome

Idiopathic basal ganglia calcification, also known as Fahr disease, is a rare, genetically dominant, inherited neurological disorder characterized by abnormal deposits of calcium in areas of the brain that control movement.

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Félix Vicq-d'Azyr

Félix Vicq d'Azyr (23 April 1748 – 20 June 1794) was a French physician and anatomist, the originator of comparative anatomy and discoverer of the theory of homology in biology.

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Forebrain

In the anatomy of the brain of vertebrates, the forebrain or prosencephalon is the rostral-most (forward-most) portion of the brain.

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Foreign accent syndrome

Foreign accent syndrome is a rare medical condition in which patients develop speech patterns that are perceived as a foreign accent that is different from their native accent, without having acquired it in the perceived accent's place of origin.

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GABAergic

GABAergic means "pertaining to or affecting the neurotransmitter GABA".

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Ganglion

A ganglion is a nerve cell cluster or a group of nerve cell bodies located in the autonomic nervous system and sensory system.

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Ganglionic eminence

In neuroanatomy and neuroembryology, a ganglionic eminence (GE) is a transitory brain structure that guides cell and axon migration.

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Gaseous signaling molecules

Gaseous signaling molecules are gaseous molecules that are either synthesised internally (endogenously) in the organism, tissue or cell or are received by the organism, tissue or cell from outside (say, from the atmosphere or hydrosphere, as in the case of oxygen) and that are used to transmit chemical signals which induce certain physiological or biochemical changes in the organism, tissue or cell.

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Globus pallidus

The globus pallidus (Latin for "pale globe") also known as paleostriatum or dorsal pallidum, is a subcortical structure of the brain.

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Glutamate (neurotransmitter)

In neuroscience, glutamate refers to the anion of glutamic acid in its role as a neurotransmitter: a chemical that nerve cells use to send signals to other cells.

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Glutamatergic

Glutamatergic means "related to glutamate".

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Glutamic acid

Glutamic acid (symbol Glu or E) is an α-amino acid with formula.

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Grey matter

Grey matter (or gray matter) is a major component of the central nervous system, consisting of neuronal cell bodies, neuropil (dendrites and myelinated as well as unmyelinated axons), glial cells (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes), synapses, and capillaries.

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Habit

A habit (or wont) is a routine of behavior that is repeated regularly and tends to occur subconsciously.

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Hemiballismus

Ballismus or ballism (called hemiballismus or hemiballism in its unilateral form) is a very rare movement disorder.

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Hindbrain

The hindbrain or rhombencephalon is a developmental categorization of portions of the central nervous system in vertebrates.

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Hippocampus

The hippocampus (named after its resemblance to the seahorse, from the Greek ἱππόκαμπος, "seahorse" from ἵππος hippos, "horse" and κάμπος kampos, "sea monster") is a major component of the brains of humans and other vertebrates.

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Human

Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.

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Huntington's disease

Huntington's disease (HD), also known as Huntington's chorea, is an inherited disorder that results in death of brain cells.

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Hyperkinetic disorder

Hyperkinetic disorder is an outdated term for a psychiatric neurodevelopmental condition emerging in early childhood.

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Hypokinesia

Hypokinesia refers to decreased bodily movement.

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Indirect pathway

The indirect pathway sometimes known as the indirect pathway of movement is a neuronal circuit through the basal ganglia and several associated nuclei within the central nervous system (CNS) which helps to prevent unwanted muscle contractions from competing with voluntary movements.

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Insular cortex

In each hemisphere of the mammalian brain the insular cortex (also insula and insular lobe) is a portion of the cerebral cortex folded deep within the lateral sulcus (the fissure separating the temporal lobe from the parietal and frontal lobes).

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Internal capsule

The internal capsule is a white matter structure situated in the inferomedial part of each cerebral hemisphere of the brain.

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Karl Friedrich Burdach

Karl Friedrich Burdach (12 June 1776 – 16 July 1847) was a German physiologist.

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Kernicterus

Kernicterus is a bilirubin-induced brain dysfunction.

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Learning

Learning is the process of acquiring new or modifying existing knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences.

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Lentiform nucleus

The lentiform nucleus or lenticular nucleus comprises the putamen and the globus pallidus within the basal ganglia.

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Lesch–Nyhan syndrome

Lesch–Nyhan syndrome (LNS), also known as juvenile gout, is a rare inherited disorder caused by a deficiency of the enzyme hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT), produced by mutations in the HPRT gene located on the X chromosome.

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Limbic system

The limbic system is a set of brain structures located on both sides of the thalamus, immediately beneath the cerebrum.

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Mahlon DeLong

Mahlon R. DeLong is an American neurologist and professor at the Medical School of Emory University.

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Major depressive disorder

Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.

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Medial dorsal nucleus

The medial dorsal nucleus (or dorsomedial nucleus of thalamus) is a large nucleus in the thalamus.

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Medium spiny neuron

Medium spiny neurons (MSNs), also known as spiny projection neurons, are a special type of GABAergic inhibitory cell representing 95% of neurons within the human striatum, a basal ganglia structure.

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Mesolimbic pathway

The mesolimbic pathway, sometimes referred to as the reward pathway, is a dopaminergic pathway in the brain.

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Metencephalon

The metencephalon is the embryonic part of the hindbrain that differentiates into the pons and the cerebellum.

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Midbrain

The midbrain or mesencephalon (from Greek mesos 'middle', and enkephalos 'brain') is a portion of the central nervous system associated with vision, hearing, motor control, sleep/wake, arousal (alertness), and temperature regulation.

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Motor control

Motor control is the systematic regulation of movement in organisms that possess a nervous system.

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Movement disorders

Movement disorders are clinical syndromes with either an excess of movement or a paucity of voluntary and involuntary movements, unrelated to weakness or spasticity.

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Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1

The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1, also known as the cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 1, is a muscarinic receptor that in humans is encoded by the CHRM1 gene.

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Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M4

The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M4, also known as the cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 4 (CHRM4), is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the CHRM4 gene.

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Myelencephalon

The myelencephalon or afterbrain is the most posterior region of the embryonic hindbrain, from which the medulla oblongata develops.

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Nathaniel A. Buchwald

Nathaniel A. Buchwald (July 19, 1924 – July 14, 2006) was an American neuroscientist, educator and administrator, who was Professor of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences and Neurobiology at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA).

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Neural tube

In the developing chordate (including vertebrates), the neural tube is the embryonic precursor to the central nervous system, which is made up of the brain and spinal cord.

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Neurokinin A

Neurokinin A, formerly known as Substance K, is a neurologically active peptide translated from the pre-protachykinin gene.

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Neurokinin B

Neurokinin B (NKB) belongs in the family of tachykinin peptides.

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Neuropeptide Y

Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a 36 amino-acid neuropeptide that is involved in various physiological and homeostatic processes in both the central and peripheral nervous systems.

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Neurotensin

Neurotensin is a 13 amino acid neuropeptide that is implicated in the regulation of luteinizing hormone and prolactin release and has significant interaction with the dopaminergic system.

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Neurotransmitter

Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.

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Nicotine

Nicotine is a potent parasympathomimetic stimulant and an alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants.

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Nitric oxide

Nitric oxide (nitrogen oxide or nitrogen monoxide) is a colorless gas with the formula NO.

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Nucleus (neuroanatomy)

In neuroanatomy, a nucleus (plural form: nuclei) is a cluster of neurons in the central nervous system, located deep within the cerebral hemispheres and brainstem.

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Nucleus accumbens

The nucleus accumbens (NAc or NAcc), also known as the accumbens nucleus, or formerly as the nucleus accumbens septi (Latin for nucleus adjacent to the septum) is a region in the basal forebrain rostral to the preoptic area of the hypothalamus.

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Obsessive–compulsive disorder

Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a mental disorder where people feel the need to check things repeatedly, perform certain routines repeatedly (called "rituals"), or have certain thoughts repeatedly (called "obsessions").

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Olfactory tubercle

The olfactory tubercle (OT), also known as the tuberculum olfactorium, is a multi-sensory processing center that is contained within the olfactory cortex and ventral striatum and plays a role in reward cognition.

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Orbitofrontal cortex

The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is a prefrontal cortex region in the frontal lobes in the brain which is involved in the cognitive processing of decision-making.

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Oskar Vogt

Oskar Vogt (6 April 1870, Husum – 30 July 1959, Freiburg im Breisgau) was a German physician and neurologist.

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PANDAS

Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS) is a hypothesis that there exists a subset of children with rapid onset of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) or tic disorders and these symptoms are caused by group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal (GABHS) infections.

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Parkinson's disease

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.

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Pars compacta

The pars compacta is a portion of the substantia nigra, located in the midbrain.

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Pars reticulata

The pars reticulata is a portion of the substantia nigra.

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Parvalbumin

Parvalbumin is a calcium-binding albumin protein with low molecular weight (typically 9-11 kDa).

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Pedunculopontine nucleus

The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) (or pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus, PPTN or PPTg) is a collection of neurons located in the upper pons in the brainstem.

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Peripheral nervous system

The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is one of the two components of the nervous system, the other part is the central nervous system (CNS).

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Phenethylamine

Phenethylamine (PEA) is an organic compound, natural monoamine alkaloid, and trace amine which acts as a central nervous system stimulant in humans.

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Prefrontal cortex

In mammalian brain anatomy, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is the cerebral cortex which covers the front part of the frontal lobe.

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Primary motor cortex

The primary motor cortex (Brodmann area 4) is a brain region that in humans is located in the dorsal portion of the frontal lobe.

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Primate basal ganglia

The basal ganglia form a major brain system in all species of vertebrates, but in primates (including humans) there are special features that justify a separate consideration.

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Putamen

The putamen is a round structure located at the base of the forebrain (telencephalon).

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Reinforcement

In behavioral psychology, reinforcement is a consequence that will strengthen an organism's future behavior whenever that behavior is preceded by a specific antecedent stimulus.

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Retinotopy

Retinotopy (from Greek τόπος, place) is the mapping of visual input from the retina to neurons, particularly those neurons within the visual stream.

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Rodent

Rodents (from Latin rodere, "to gnaw") are mammals of the order Rodentia, which are characterized by a single pair of continuously growing incisors in each of the upper and lower jaws.

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Samuel Alexander Kinnier Wilson

Samuel Alexander Kinnier Wilson (December 6, 1878 – May 12, 1937) was an American-born British neurologist.

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Samuel Thomas von Sömmerring

Samuel Thomas von Sömmerring (28 January 1755 – 2 March 1830) was a German physician, anatomist, anthropologist, paleontologist and inventor.

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Sauropsida

Sauropsida ("lizard faces") is a group of amniotes that includes all existing birds and other reptiles as well as their fossil ancestors and other extinct relatives.

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Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to understand reality.

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Scholarpedia

Scholarpedia is an English-language online wiki-based encyclopedia with features commonly associated with open-access online academic journals, which aims to have quality content.

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Somatostatin

Somatostatin, also known as growth hormone-inhibiting hormone (GHIH) or by several other names, is a peptide hormone that regulates the endocrine system and affects neurotransmission and cell proliferation via interaction with G protein-coupled somatostatin receptors and inhibition of the release of numerous secondary hormones.

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Spasmodic dysphonia

Spasmodic dysphonia, also known as laryngeal dystonia, is a disorder in which the muscles that generate a person's voice go into periods of spasm.

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Striatopallidal fibres

The striatopallidal fibres, also Wilson's pencils, pencil fibres of Wilson, and pencils of Wilson, are prominent myelinated fibres that connect the striatum to the globus pallidus.

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Striatum

The striatum, or corpus striatum (also called the neostriatum and the striate nucleus) is a nucleus (a cluster of neurons) in the subcortical basal ganglia of the forebrain.

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Stuttering

Stuttering, also known as stammering, is a speech disorder in which the flow of speech is disrupted by involuntary repetitions and prolongations of sounds, syllables, words or phrases as well as involuntary silent pauses or blocks in which the person who stutters is unable to produce sounds. The term stuttering is most commonly associated with involuntary sound repetition, but it also encompasses the abnormal hesitation or pausing before speech, referred to by people who stutter as blocks, and the prolongation of certain sounds, usually vowels or semivowels. According to Watkins et al., stuttering is a disorder of "selection, initiation, and execution of motor sequences necessary for fluent speech production." For many people who stutter, repetition is the primary problem. The term "stuttering" covers a wide range of severity, encompassing barely perceptible impediments that are largely cosmetic to severe symptoms that effectively prevent oral communication. In the world, approximately four times as many men as women stutter, encompassing 70 million people worldwide, or about 1% of the world's population. The impact of stuttering on a person's functioning and emotional state can be severe. This may include fears of having to enunciate specific vowels or consonants, fears of being caught stuttering in social situations, self-imposed isolation, anxiety, stress, shame, being a possible target of bullying having to use word substitution and rearrange words in a sentence to hide stuttering, or a feeling of "loss of control" during speech. Stuttering is sometimes popularly seen as a symptom of anxiety, but there is actually no direct correlation in that direction (though as mentioned the inverse can be true, as social anxiety may actually develop in individuals as a result of their stuttering). Stuttering is generally not a problem with the physical production of speech sounds or putting thoughts into words. Acute nervousness and stress do not cause stuttering, but they can trigger stuttering in people who have the speech disorder, and living with a stigmatized disability can result in anxiety and high allostatic stress load (chronic nervousness and stress) that reduce the amount of acute stress necessary to trigger stuttering in any given person who stutters, exacerbating the problem in the manner of a positive feedback system; the name 'stuttered speech syndrome' has been proposed for this condition. Neither acute nor chronic stress, however, itself creates any predisposition to stuttering. The disorder is also variable, which means that in certain situations, such as talking on the telephone or in a large group, the stuttering might be more severe or less, depending on whether or not the stutterer is self-conscious about their stuttering. Stutterers often find that their stuttering fluctuates and that they have "good" days, "bad" days and "stutter-free" days. The times in which their stuttering fluctuates can be random. Although the exact etiology, or cause, of stuttering is unknown, both genetics and neurophysiology are thought to contribute. There are many treatments and speech therapy techniques available that may help decrease speech disfluency in some people who stutter to the point where an untrained ear cannot identify a problem; however, there is essentially no cure for the disorder at present. The severity of the person's stuttering would correspond to the amount of speech therapy needed to decrease disfluency. For severe stuttering, long-term therapy and hard work is required to decrease disfluency.

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Substance P

Substance P (SP) is an undecapeptide (a peptide composed of a chain of 11 amino acid residues) member of the tachykinin neuropeptide family. It is a neuropeptide, acting as a neurotransmitter and as a neuromodulator. Substance P and its closely related neurokinin A (NKA) are produced from a polyprotein precursor after differential splicing of the preprotachykinin A gene. The deduced amino acid sequence of substance P is as follows.

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Substantia nigra

The substantia nigra (SN) is a basal ganglia structure located in the midbrain that plays an important role in reward and movement.

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Subthalamic nucleus

The subthalamic nucleus is a small lens-shaped nucleus in the brain where it is, from a functional point of view, part of the basal ganglia system.

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Superior colliculus

The superior colliculus (Latin, upper hill) is a paired structure of the mammalian midbrain.

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Supplementary motor area

The supplementary motor area (SMA) is a part of the primate cerebral cortex that contributes to the control of movement.

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Sydenham's chorea

Sydenham's chorea (SC) or chorea minor (historically and traditionally referred to as St Vitus' dance) is a disorder characterized by rapid, uncoordinated jerking movements primarily affecting the face, hands and feet.

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Tardive dyskinesia

Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a disorder that results in involuntary, repetitive body movements.

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Terminologia Anatomica

Terminologia Anatomica (TA) is the international standard on human anatomic terminology.

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Thalamus

The thalamus (from Greek θάλαμος, "chamber") is the large mass of gray matter in the dorsal part of the diencephalon of the brain with several functions such as relaying of sensory signals, including motor signals, to the cerebral cortex, and the regulation of consciousness, sleep, and alertness.

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Thomas Willis

Thomas Willis (27 January 1621 – 11 November 1675) was an English doctor who played an important part in the history of anatomy, neurology and psychiatry.

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Tourette syndrome

Tourette syndrome (TS or simply Tourette's) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder with onset in childhood, characterized by multiple motor tics and at least one vocal (phonic) tic.

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Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences

Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USU) is a health science university of the U.S. federal government.

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Ventral pallidum

The ventral pallidum (VP) is a structure within the basal ganglia of the brain.

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Ventral tegmental area

The ventral tegmental area (VTA) (tegmentum is Latin for covering), also known as the ventral tegmental area of Tsai, or simply ventral tegmentum, is a group of neurons located close to the midline on the floor of the midbrain.

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Vertebrate

Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).

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Vesicle (embryology)

In vertebrate organisms, brain vesicles are transient, bulge-like features of the early neural tube during embryonic brain development.

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Wilson's disease

Wilson's disease is a genetic disorder in which copper builds up in the body.

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Working memory

Working memory is a cognitive system with a limited capacity that is responsible for temporarily holding information available for processing.

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Redirects here:

Accumbens-caudate complex, Accumbens–caudate complex, Basal Ganglia, Basal ganglia circuits, Basal ganglia system, Basal ganglion, Basal nuclei, Basal nucleus.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basal_ganglia

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