263 relations: Abiogenesis, Actinolite, Alberto Fortis, Alkali, Alkali basalt, Aluminium oxide, Amphibole, Ancient Greek, Andesine, Andesite, Apatite, Aphanite, Apollo program, Archean, Ardèche, Armenia, Asthenosphere, Atlantic Ocean, Augite, Austria, Azores, České Středohoří, Back-arc basin, Bacteria, Baden-Württemberg, Basalt fan structure, Basalt fiber, Bavaria, Bühren, Boninite, Breccia, British Columbia, Bucium, Alba, Buffer zone, Calcite, Calcium, Calcium carbonate, Calcium oxide, Cameroon, Canada, Canary Islands, Carbon dioxide, Carbon sequestration, Celldömölk, Chemical element, Chilcotin Group, Chlorite group, Chondrite, Cinder, Cinder cone, ..., Clementine (spacecraft), Cobblestone, Columbia Plateau, Columbia River, Columbia River Basalt Group, Columnar jointing, Compatibility (geochemistry), Copper, Crater counting, Cristobalite, Crust (geology), Crystal, Czech Republic, De re metallica, Deccan Traps, Diabase, Doupov Mountains, Egyptian language, Emeishan Traps, Epidote, Europium anomaly, Extrusive rock, Faroe Islands, Feldspar, Feldspathoid, Flood basalt, France, Gabbro, Geology of the Moon, Georgius Agricola, Germany, Giant's Causeway, Gold, Granularity, Greenstone belt, Greywacke, Hadean, Hafnium, Hawaii, Hegau, Helium, Hematite, Hesse, Hungary, Hydrothermal circulation, Hydrothermal vent, Iceland, Igneous rock, Igneous textures, Ilmenite, Incompatible element, India, International Union of Geological Sciences, Intrusive rock, Io (moon), Ion, Iran, Iron, Iron oxide, Iron(II) oxide, Island country, Isotope, Italy, Jeju Island, Joint (geology), Jupiter, Karoo, Klöch, Komatiite, La Gomera, Labradorite, Lanthanide, Large igneous province, Late Latin, Lava, Lava lake, Lava tube, Lōʻihi Seamount, Lead, Lesotho, Leucite, Liquidus, Littoral cone, Luna programme, Lunar mare, Lunar meteorite, Lusatian Mountains, Maar, Mafic, Magma, Magnesium, Magnesium oxide, Magnetism, Magnetite, Mantle (geology), Mantle plume, Mars, Martian meteorite, Massif Central, Matrix (geology), Mauna Loa, Mauritius, Mercury (planet), Metamorphic rock, Metamorphism, Meteorite, Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Mid-ocean ridge, Mineral, Mineral hydration, Mineral wool, Moon, Mount Tarawera, Namibia, Natural History (Pliny), Natural satellite, Neodymium, Nepheline, Noble gas, Normative mineralogy, Ocean, Ocean island basalt, Oceanic crust, Odenwald, Olivine, Ore, Ore Mountains, Oregon, Osmium, Oxide, Paleomagnetism, Paraná and Etendeka traps, Parkstein, Penghu, Peridotite, Phanerite, Phenocryst, Phlogopite, Pigeonite, Plagioclase, Plate tectonics, Pliny the Elder, Porphyritic, Porto Santo Island, Potassium oxide, Precambrian, Prekmurje, Proterozoic, Putorana Plateau, Pyroclastic rock, Pyroxene, Pyroxenite, QAPF diagram, Quartz, Rare-earth element, Réunion, Redox, Rhön Mountains, Rock microstructure, Romania, Russia, Scania, Scoria, Seabed, Shock metamorphism, Siberian Traps, Sideromelane, Siebengebirge, Silicon dioxide, Slovenia, Sodalite, Sodium, Sodium oxide, Soil acidification, Solidus (chemistry), Spilite, Staffa, Statue, Stolpen, Strontium, Styria, Subaerial, Subglacial eruption, Surtsey, Swabian Jura, TAS classification, Terrestrial planet, The New York Times, Thermal insulation, Tholeiitic magma series, Titanium, Titanium dioxide, Touchstone (assaying tool), Tridymite, Tuff, Ultramafic rock, Ulvöspinel, United Kingdom, Venus, Vesicular texture, Vietnam, Vogelsberg, Volcanic ash, Volcanic Eifel, Volcanic gas, Volcanic glass, Volcanic rock, Volcano, Volcanogenic massive sulfide ore deposit, Washington (state), Westerwald, Zeolite, 4 Vesta. Expand index (213 more) » « Shrink index
Abiogenesis, or informally the origin of life,Compare: Also occasionally called biopoiesis.
Actinolite is an amphibole silicate mineral with the chemical formula.
Alberto Fortis (1741–1803), was a Venetian writer, naturalist and cartographer.
In chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: al-qaly “ashes of the saltwort”) is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal chemical element.
Alkali basalt or alkali olivine basalt is a fine-grained, dark-coloured, volcanic rock characterized by phenocrysts of olivine, titanium-rich augite, plagioclase feldspar and iron oxides.
Aluminium oxide (British English) or aluminum oxide (American English) is a chemical compound of aluminium and oxygen with the chemical formula 23.
Amphibole is an important group of generally dark-colored, inosilicate minerals, forming prism or needlelike crystals, composed of double chain tetrahedra, linked at the vertices and generally containing ions of iron and/or magnesium in their structures.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Andesine is a silicate mineral, a member of the plagioclase feldspar solid solution series.
Andesite is an extrusive igneous, volcanic rock, of intermediate composition, with aphanitic to porphyritic texture.
Apatite is a group of phosphate minerals, usually referring to hydroxylapatite, fluorapatite and chlorapatite, with high concentrations of OH−, F− and Cl− ions, respectively, in the crystal.
Aphanite, or aphanitic as an adjective (from the Greek αφανης, "invisible"), is a name given to certain igneous rocks that are so fine-grained that their component mineral crystals are not detectable by the unaided eye (as opposed to phaneritic igneous rocks, where the minerals are visible to the unaided eye).
The Apollo program, also known as Project Apollo, was the third United States human spaceflight program carried out by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which accomplished landing the first humans on the Moon from 1969 to 1972.
The Archean Eon (also spelled Archaean or Archæan) is one of the four geologic eons of Earth history, occurring (4 to 2.5 billion years ago).
Ardèche (Occitan and Arpitan: Ardecha) is a département in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region of south-central France.
Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
The asthenosphere (from Greek ἀσθενής asthenḗs 'weak' + "sphere") is the highly viscous, mechanically weak and ductilely deforming region of the upper mantle of the Earth.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
Augite is a common rock-forming pyroxene mineral with formula (Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe,Al,Ti)(Si,Al)2O6.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
The Azores (or; Açores), officially the Autonomous Region of the Azores (Região Autónoma dos Açores), is one of the two autonomous regions of Portugal.
The České středohoří, Central Bohemian Uplands or Central Bohemian Highlands is a mountain range located in northern Bohemia, the Czech Republic.
Back-arc basins are geologic basins, submarine features associated with island arcs and subduction zones.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Baden-Württemberg is a state in southwest Germany, east of the Rhine, which forms the border with France.
A basalt fan structure is a basalt formation composed of columnar jointed basalt columns that have slumped into a fan shape.
Basalt fiber is a material made from extremely fine fibers of basalt, which is composed of the minerals plagioclase, pyroxene, and olivine.
Bavaria (Bavarian and Bayern), officially the Free State of Bavaria (Freistaat Bayern), is a landlocked federal state of Germany, occupying its southeastern corner.
Bühren (Bahren) is a municipality in the district of Göttingen, in Lower Saxony, Germany.
Boninite is a mafic extrusive rock high in both magnesium and silica, thought to be usually formed in fore-arc environments, typically during the early stages of subduction.
Breccia is a rock composed of broken fragments of minerals or rock cemented together by a fine-grained matrix that can be similar to or different from the composition of the fragments.
British Columbia (BC; Colombie-Britannique) is the westernmost province of Canada, located between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains.
Bucium (Baumdorf; Bucsony) is a commune located in Alba County, Romania.
A buffer zone is generally a zonal area that lies between two or more other areas (often, but not necessarily, countries), but depending on the type of buffer zone, the reason for it may be to segregate regions or to conjoin them.
Calcite is a carbonate mineral and the most stable polymorph of calcium carbonate (CaCO3).
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3.
Calcium oxide (CaO), commonly known as quicklime or burnt lime, is a widely used chemical compound.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
The Canary Islands (Islas Canarias) is a Spanish archipelago and autonomous community of Spain located in the Atlantic Ocean, west of Morocco at the closest point.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carbon sequestration is the process involved in carbon capture and the long-term storage of atmospheric carbon dioxide or other forms of carbon to mitigate or defer global warming.
Celldömölk (Kleinmariazell) is the fifth largest town in Vas County, Hungary.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
The Chilcotin Group, also called the Chilcotin Plateau Basalts, is a large area of basaltic lava that forms a volcanic plateau running parallel with the Garibaldi Volcanic Belt in south-central British Columbia, Canada.
The chlorites are a group of phyllosilicate minerals.
Chondrites are stony (non-metallic) meteorites that have not been modified due to melting or differentiation of the parent body.
A cinder is a pyroclastic material.
A cinder cone or scoria cone is a steep conical hill of loose pyroclastic fragments, such as either volcanic clinkers, cinders, volcanic ash, or scoria that has been built around a volcanic vent.
Clementine (officially called the Deep Space Program Science Experiment (DSPSE)) was a joint space project between the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO, previously the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization, or SDIO) and NASA.
Cobblestone is a natural building material based on cobble-sized stones, and is used for pavement roads, streets, and buildings.
The Columbia Plateau or Columbia Basin is a geographic region located almost entirely in Eastern Washington and north-central Oregon—with the eastern edge spilling over into North Idaho The area is characterized by its mostly semi-arid climate (Bsk under the Köppen classification)—with some areas falling under the desert (BWk) and mediterranean (Csa and Csb) classifications—resulting in a shrub-steppe environment.
The Columbia River is the largest river in the Pacific Northwest region of North America.
The Columbia River Basalt Group is a large igneous province that lies across parts of the Western United States.
Columnar jointing is a geological structure where sets of intersecting closely spaced fractures, referred to as joints, result in the formation of a regular array of polygonal prisms, or columns.
In geochemistry, compatibility is a measure of how readily a particular trace element substitutes for a major element within a mineral.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
Crater counting is a method for estimating the age of a planet's surface.
The mineral cristobalite is a high-temperature polymorph of silica, meaning that it has the same chemical formula as quartz, SiO2, but a distinct crystal structure.
In geology, the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite.
A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.
The Czech Republic (Česká republika), also known by its short-form name Czechia (Česko), is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.
De re metallica (Latin for On the Nature of Metals) is a book cataloguing the state of the art of mining, refining, and smelting metals, published a year posthumously in 1556 due to a delay in preparing woodcuts for the text.
Deccan Traps are a large igneous province located on the Deccan Plateau of west-central India (17°–24°N, 73°–74°E) and are one of the largest volcanic features on Earth.
Diabase or dolerite or microgabbro is a mafic, holocrystalline, subvolcanic rock equivalent to volcanic basalt or plutonic gabbro.
Doupov Mountains (Doupovské hory, Duppauer Gebirge) is a cenozoic volcanic mountain range with the typical structure of stratovolcano.
The Egyptian language was spoken in ancient Egypt and was a branch of the Afro-Asiatic languages.
The Emeishan Traps constitute a flood basalt volcanic province, or large igneous province, in south-western China, centred in Sichuan province.
Epidote is a calcium aluminium iron sorosilicate mineral.
The Europium anomaly is the phenomenon whereby the europium (Eu) concentration in a mineral is either enriched or depleted relative to some standard, commonly a chondrite or mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB).
Extrusive rock refers to the mode of igneous volcanic rock formation in which hot magma from inside the Earth flows out (extrudes) onto the surface as lava or explodes violently into the atmosphere to fall back as pyroclastics or tuff.
The Faroe Islands (Føroyar; Færøerne), sometimes called the Faeroe Islands, is an archipelago between the Norwegian Sea and the North Atlantic, about halfway between Norway and Iceland, north-northwest of Scotland.
Feldspars (KAlSi3O8 – NaAlSi3O8 – CaAl2Si2O8) are a group of rock-forming tectosilicate minerals that make up about 41% of the Earth's continental crust by weight.
The feldspathoids are a group of tectosilicate minerals which resemble feldspars but have a different structure and much lower silica content.
A flood basalt is the result of a giant volcanic eruption or series of eruptions that covers large stretches of land or the ocean floor with basalt lava.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Gabbro refers to a large group of dark, often phaneritic (coarse-grained), mafic intrusive igneous rocks chemically equivalent to basalt, being its coarse-grained analogue.
The geology of the Moon (sometimes called selenology, although the latter term can refer more generally to "lunar science") is quite different from that of Earth.
Georgius Agricola (24 March 1494 – 21 November 1555) was a German mineralogist and metallurgist.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
The Giant's Causeway is an area of about 40,000 interlocking basalt columns, the result of an ancient volcanic fissure eruption.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
Granularity (also called graininess), the condition of existing in grains or granules, refers to the extent to which a material or system is composed of distinguishable pieces or grains.
Greenstone belts are zones of variably metamorphosed mafic to ultramafic volcanic sequences with associated sedimentary rocks that occur within Archaean and Proterozoic cratons between granite and gneiss bodies.
Greywacke or Graywacke (German grauwacke, signifying a grey, earthy rock) is a variety of sandstone generally characterized by its hardness, dark color, and poorly sorted angular grains of quartz, feldspar, and small rock fragments or lithic fragments set in a compact, clay-fine matrix.
The Hadean is a geologic eon of the Earth predating the Archean.
Hafnium is a chemical element with symbol Hf and atomic number 72.
Hawaii (Hawaii) is the 50th and most recent state to have joined the United States, having received statehood on August 21, 1959.
The Hegau is an extinct volcanic landscape in southern Germany extending around the industrial city of Singen (Hohentwiel), between Lake Constance in the east, the Rhine River in the south, the Danube River in the north and the Randen—as the southwestern mountains of the Swabian Jura are called—in the west.
Helium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.
Hematite, also spelled as haematite, is the mineral form of iron(III) oxide (Fe2O3), one of several iron oxides.
Hesse or Hessia (Hessen, Hessian dialect: Hesse), officially the State of Hesse (German: Land Hessen) is a federal state (''Land'') of the Federal Republic of Germany, with just over six million inhabitants.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
Hydrothermal circulation in its most general sense is the circulation of hot water (Ancient Greek ὕδωρ, water,Liddell, H.G. & Scott, R. (1940). A Greek-English Lexicon. revised and augmented throughout by Sir Henry Stuart Jones. with the assistance of. Roderick McKenzie. Oxford: Clarendon Press. and θέρμη, heat). Hydrothermal circulation occurs most often in the vicinity of sources of heat within the Earth's crust.
A hydrothermal vent is a fissure in a planet's surface from which geothermally heated water issues.
Iceland is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of and an area of, making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe.
Igneous rock (derived from the Latin word ignis meaning fire), or magmatic rock, is one of the three main rock types, the others being sedimentary and metamorphic.
Igneous textures include the rock textures occurring in igneous rocks.
Ilmenite, also known as Manaccanite, is a titanium-iron oxide mineral with the idealized formula.
In petrology and geochemistry, an incompatible element is one that is unsuitable in size and/or charge to the cation sites of the minerals of which it is included.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) is an international non-governmental organization devoted to international cooperation in the field of geology.
Intrusive rock (also called plutonic rock) is formed when magma crystallizes and solidifies underground to form intrusions, for example plutons, batholiths, dikes, sills, laccoliths, and volcanic necks.
Io (Jupiter I) is the innermost of the four Galilean moons of the planet Jupiter.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Iron oxides are chemical compounds composed of iron and oxygen.
Iron(II) oxide or ferrous oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula FeO.
An island country is a country whose primary territory consists of one or more islands or parts of islands.
Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Jeju Island (Hangul: 제주도, Jejudo; previously Cheju-do) is the largest island off the coast of the Korean Peninsula, and the main island of Jeju Province of South Korea.
A rock in Abisko fractured along existing joints possibly by mechanical frost weathering A joint is a break (fracture) of natural origin in the continuity of either a layer or body of rock that lacks any visible or measurable movement parallel to the surface (plane) of the fracture.
Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System.
The Karoo (from a Khoikhoi word, possibly garo "desert") is a semidesert natural region of South Africa.
Klöch (Klek) is a municipality in the district of Südoststeiermark in the Austrian state of Styria.
Komatiite is a type of ultramafic mantle-derived volcanic rock.
La Gomera is one of Spain's Canary Islands, located in the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Africa.
Labradorite ((Ca, Na)(Al, Si)4O8), a feldspar mineral, is an intermediate to calcic member of the plagioclase series.
The lanthanide or lanthanoid series of chemical elements comprises the 15 metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers 57 through 71, from lanthanum through lutetium.
In geology, a large igneous province (LIP) is an extremely large accumulation of igneous rocks, including plutonic rocks (intrusive) or volcanic rock formations (extrusive), arising when hot magma extrudes from inside the Earth and flows out.
Late Latin is the scholarly name for the written Latin of Late Antiquity.
Lava is molten rock generated by geothermal energy and expelled through fractures in planetary crust or in an eruption, usually at temperatures from.
Lava lakes are large volumes of molten lava, usually basaltic, contained in a volcanic vent, crater, or broad depression.
A lava tube is a natural conduit formed by flowing lava which moves beneath the hardened surface of a lava flow.
Lōihi Seamount (also known as Lōʻihi) is an active submarine volcano about off the southeast coast of the island of Hawaii.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
Lesotho officially the Kingdom of Lesotho ('Muso oa Lesotho), is an enclaved country in southern Africa.
Leucite is a rock-forming mineral composed of potassium and aluminium tectosilicate K. Crystals have the form of cubic icositetrahedra but, as first observed by Sir David Brewster in 1821, they are not optically isotropic, and are therefore pseudo-cubic.
The liquidus temperature, TL or Tliq specifies the temperature above which a material is completely liquid, and the maximum temperature at which crystals can co-exist with the melt in thermodynamic equilibrium.
Littoral cones are a form of volcanic cone.
The Luna programme (from the Russian word Луна "Luna" meaning "Lunar" or "Moon"), occasionally called Lunik or Lunnik by western media, was a series of robotic spacecraft missions sent to the Moon by the Soviet Union between 1959 and 1976.
The lunar maria (singular: mare) are large, dark, basaltic plains on Earth's Moon, formed by ancient volcanic eruptions.
A lunar meteorite is a meteorite that is known to have originated on the Moon.
The Lusatian Mountains (Lužické hory; Lausitzer Gebirge; Góry Łużyckie) are a mountain range of the Western Sudetes on the southeastern border of Germany with the Czech Republic.
A maar is a broad, low-relief volcanic crater caused by a phreatomagmatic eruption (an explosion which occurs when groundwater comes into contact with hot lava or magma).
Mafic is an adjective describing a silicate mineral or igneous rock that is rich in magnesium and iron, and is thus a portmanteau of magnesium and '''f'''err'''ic'''.
Magma (from Ancient Greek μάγμα (mágma) meaning "thick unguent") is a mixture of molten or semi-molten rock, volatiles and solids that is found beneath the surface of the Earth, and is expected to exist on other terrestrial planets and some natural satellites.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
Magnesium oxide (MgO), or magnesia, is a white hygroscopic solid mineral that occurs naturally as periclase and is a source of magnesium (see also oxide).
Magnetism is a class of physical phenomena that are mediated by magnetic fields.
Magnetite is a rock mineral and one of the main iron ores, with the chemical formula Fe3O4.
The mantle is a layer inside a terrestrial planet and some other rocky planetary bodies.
A mantle plume is an upwelling of abnormally hot rock within the Earth's mantle, first proposed by J. Tuzo Wilson in 1963.
Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury.
A Martian meteorite is a rock that formed on the planet Mars and was then ejected from Mars by the impact of an asteroid or comet, and finally landed on the Earth.
The Massif Central (Massís Central) is a highland region in the middle of southern France, consisting of mountains and plateaus.
The matrix or groundmass of rock is the finer-grained mass of material wherein larger grains, crystals or clasts are embedded.
Mauna Loa (or; Hawaiian:; Long Mountain) is one of five volcanoes that form the Island of Hawaii in the U.S. state of Hawaiʻi in the Pacific Ocean.
Mauritius (or; Maurice), officially the Republic of Mauritius (République de Maurice), is an island nation in the Indian Ocean about off the southeast coast of the African continent.
Mercury is the smallest and innermost planet in the Solar System.
Metamorphic rocks arise from the transformation of existing rock types, in a process called metamorphism, which means "change in form".
Metamorphism is the change of minerals or geologic texture (distinct arrangement of minerals) in pre-existing rocks (protoliths), without the protolith melting into liquid magma (a solid-state change).
A meteorite is a solid piece of debris from an object, such as a comet, asteroid, or meteoroid, that originates in outer space and survives its passage through the atmosphere to reach the surface of a planet or moon.
The Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) is a mid-ocean ridge, a divergent tectonic plate or constructive plate boundary located along the floor of the Atlantic Ocean, and part of the longest mountain range in the world.
A mid-ocean ridge (MOR) is an underwater mountain system formed by plate tectonics.
A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.
Mineral hydration is an inorganic chemical reaction where water is added to the crystal structure of a mineral, usually creating a new mineral, usually called a hydrate.
Mineral wool is a general name for fiber materials that are formed by spinning or drawing molten minerals (or "synthetic minerals" such as slag and ceramics).
The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.
Mount Tarawera is the volcano responsible for one of New Zealand's largest historic eruptions.
Namibia, officially the Republic of Namibia (German:; Republiek van Namibië), is a country in southern Africa whose western border is the Atlantic Ocean.
The Natural History (Naturalis Historia) is a book about the whole of the natural world in Latin by Pliny the Elder, a Roman author and naval commander who died in 79 AD.
A natural satellite or moon is, in the most common usage, an astronomical body that orbits a planet or minor planet (or sometimes another small Solar System body).
Neodymium is a chemical element with symbol Nd and atomic number 60.
Not to be confused with Nephrite. Nepheline, also called nephelite (from Greek: νεφέλη, "cloud"), is a feldspathoid: a silica-undersaturated aluminosilicate, Na3KAl4Si4O16, that occurs in intrusive and volcanic rocks with low silica, and in their associated pegmatites.
The noble gases (historically also the inert gases) make up a group of chemical elements with similar properties; under standard conditions, they are all odorless, colorless, monatomic gases with very low chemical reactivity.
Normative mineralogy is a calculation of the composition of a rock sample that estimates the idealised mineralogy of a rock according to the principles of geochemistry.
An ocean (the sea of classical antiquity) is a body of saline water that composes much of a planet's hydrosphere.
Ocean island basalts (OIB) are basaltic rocks found on many volcanic islands away from tectonic plate boundaries, typically associated with hot spots.
Oceanic crust is the uppermost layer of the oceanic portion of a tectonic plate.
The is a low mountain range in the German states of Hesse, Bavaria and Baden-Württemberg.
The mineral olivine is a magnesium iron silicate with the formula (Mg2+, Fe2+)2SiO4.
An ore is an occurrence of rock or sediment that contains sufficient minerals with economically important elements, typically metals, that can be economically extracted from the deposit.
The Ore Mountains or Ore Mountain Range (Erzgebirge; Krušné hory; both literally "ore mountains") in Central Europe have formed a natural border between Saxony and Bohemia for around 800 years, from the 12th to the 20th centuries.
Oregon is a state in the Pacific Northwest region on the West Coast of the United States.
Osmium (from Greek ὀσμή osme, "smell") is a chemical element with symbol Os and atomic number 76.
An oxide is a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one other element in its chemical formula.
This term is also sometimes used for natural remanent magnetization. Paleomagnetism (or palaeomagnetism in the United Kingdom) is the study of the record of the Earth's magnetic field in rocks, sediment, or archeological materials.
The Paraná-Etendeka traps (or Paraná and Etendeka Plateau; or Paraná and Etendeka Province) comprise a large igneous province that includes both the main Paraná traps (in Paraná Basin, a South American geological basin) as well as the smaller severed portions of the flood basalts at the Etendeka traps (in northwest Namibia and southwest Angola).
Parkstein is a district in the municipality of Neustadt an der Waldnaab in Bavaria in Germany.
The Penghu or Pescadores Islands are an archipelago of 90 islands and islets in the Taiwan Strait.
Peridotite is a dense, coarse-grained igneous rock consisting mostly of the minerals olivine and pyroxene.
A phanerite is an igneous rock whose microstructure is made up of crystals large enough to be distinguished with the unaided eye.
1 euro coin (diameter 2.3 cm) for scale. A phenocryst is an early forming, relatively large and usually conspicuous crystal distinctly larger than the grains of the rock groundmass of an igneous rock.
Phlogopite is a yellow, greenish, or reddish-brown member of the mica family of phyllosilicates.
Pigeonite is a mineral in the clinopyroxene subgroup of the pyroxene group.
Plagioclase is a series of tectosilicate (framework silicate) minerals within the feldspar group.
Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago.
Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.
Porphyritic is an adjective used in geology, specifically for igneous rocks, for a rock that has a distinct difference in the size of the crystals, with at least one group of crystals obviously larger than another group.
Porto Santo Island is a Portuguese island northeast of Madeira Island in the North Atlantic Ocean; it is the northernmost and easternmost island of the archipelago of Madeira, located in the Atlantic Ocean west of Europe and Africa.
Potassium oxide (2O) is an ionic compound of potassium and oxygen.
The Precambrian (or Pre-Cambrian, sometimes abbreviated pЄ, or Cryptozoic) is the earliest part of Earth's history, set before the current Phanerozoic Eon.
Prekmurje (dialectically: Prèkmürsko or Prèkmüre; Muravidék) is a geographically, linguistically, culturally and ethnically defined region settled by Slovenes and a Hungarian minority, lying between the Mur River in Slovenia and the Rába Valley (the watershed of the Rába) (Porabje) in the most western part of Hungary.
The Proterozoic is a geological eon representing the time just before the proliferation of complex life on Earth.
The Putorana Plateau or the Putorana Mountains is a high-lying basalt plateau, a mountainous area at the northwestern edge of the Central Siberian Plateau, to the south from Taymyr Peninsula.
Pyroclastic rocks or pyroclastics (derived from the πῦρ, meaning fire; and κλαστός, meaning broken) are clastic rocks composed solely or primarily of volcanic materials.
The pyroxenes (commonly abbreviated to Px) are a group of important rock-forming inosilicate minerals found in many igneous and metamorphic rocks.
Pyroxenite is an ultramafic igneous rock consisting essentially of minerals of the pyroxene group, such as augite, diopside, hypersthene, bronzite or enstatite.
A QAPF diagram is a double ternary diagram which is used to classify igneous rocks based on mineralogic composition.
Quartz is a mineral composed of silicon and oxygen atoms in a continuous framework of SiO4 silicon–oxygen tetrahedra, with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, giving an overall chemical formula of SiO2.
A rare-earth element (REE) or rare-earth metal (REM), as defined by IUPAC, is one of a set of seventeen chemical elements in the periodic table, specifically the fifteen lanthanides, as well as scandium and yttrium.
Réunion (La Réunion,; previously Île Bourbon) is an island and region of France in the Indian Ocean, east of Madagascar and southwest of Mauritius.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
The Rhön Mountains (German: Die Rhön) are a group of low mountains (or Mittelgebirge) in central Germany, located around the border area where the states of Hesse, Bavaria and Thuringia come together.
Rock microstructure includes the texture of a rock and the small scale rock structures.
Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Scania, also known as Skåne, is the southernmost province (landskap) of Sweden.
Scoria is a highly vesicular, dark colored volcanic rock that may or may not contain crystals (phenocrysts).
The seabed (also known as the seafloor, sea floor, or ocean floor) is the bottom of the ocean.
Shock metamorphism or impact metamorphism describes the effects of shock-wave related deformation and heating during impact events.
The Siberian Traps (Сибирские траппы, Sibirskiye trappy) is a large region of volcanic rock, known as a large igneous province, in Siberia, Russia.
Sideromelane is a vitreous basaltic volcanic glass, usually occurring in palagonite tuff, for which it is characteristic.
The Siebengebirge, occasionally Sieben Mountains, are a hill range of the German Central Uplands on the east bank of the Middle Rhine, southeast of Bonn.
Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.
Slovenia (Slovenija), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene:, abbr.: RS), is a country in southern Central Europe, located at the crossroads of main European cultural and trade routes.
Sodalite is a rich royal blue tectosilicate mineral widely used as an ornamental gemstone.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
Sodium oxide is a chemical compound with the formula Na2O.
Soil acidification is the buildup of hydrogen cations, also called protons, reducing the soil pH.
In chemistry, materials science, and physics, the solidus is the locus of temperatures (a curve on a phase diagram) below which a given substance is completely solid (crystallized).
Spilite (from σπιλάς) is a fine-grained igneous rock, resulting particularly from alteration of oceanic basalt.
Staffa (Stafa) from the Old Norse for stave or pillar island, is an island of the Inner Hebrides in Argyll and Bute, Scotland.
A statue is a sculpture, representing one or more people or animals (including abstract concepts allegorically represented as people or animals), free-standing (as opposed to a relief) and normally full-length (as opposed to a bust) and at least close to life-size, or larger.
Stolpen is a town in the district of Sächsische Schweiz-Osterzgebirge, in Saxony, Germany.
Strontium is the chemical element with symbol Sr and atomic number 38.
Styria (Steiermark,, Štajerska, Stájerország, Štýrsko) is a state or Bundesland, located in the southeast of Austria.
In natural science, subaerial (literally "under the air"), has been used since 1833, in the Merriam-Webster dictionary.
Subglacial eruptions, those of ice-covered volcanoes, result in the interaction of magma with ice and snow, leading to meltwater formation, jökulhlaups, and lahars.
Surtsey ("Surtr's island" in Icelandic) is a volcanic island located in the Vestmannaeyjar archipelago off the southern coast of Iceland.
The Swabian Jura (more rarely), sometimes also named Swabian Alps in English, is a mountain range in Baden-Württemberg, Germany, extending from southwest to northeast and in width.
The TAS classification can be used to assign names to many common types of volcanic rocks based upon the relationships between the combined alkali content and the silica content.
A terrestrial planet, telluric planet, or rocky planet is a planet that is composed primarily of silicate rocks or metals.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
Thermal insulation is the reduction of heat transfer (i.e. the transfer of thermal energy between objects of differing temperature) between objects in thermal contact or in range of radiative influence.
The tholeiitic magma series, named after the German municipality of Tholey, is one of two main magma series in igneous rocks, the other being the calc-alkaline series.
Titanium is a chemical element with symbol Ti and atomic number 22.
Titanium dioxide, also known as titanium(IV) oxide or titania, is the naturally occurring oxide of titanium, chemical formula.
Touchstone set A touchstone is a small tablet of dark stone such as fieldstone, slate, or lydite, used for assaying precious metal alloys.
Tridymite is a high-temperature polymorph of silica and usually occurs as minute tabular white or colorless pseudo-hexagonal crystals, or scales, in cavities in felsic volcanic rocks.
Tuff (from the Italian tufo) is a type of rock made of volcanic ash ejected from a vent during a volcanic eruption.
Ultramafic (also referred to as ultrabasic rocks, although the terms are not wholly equivalent) are igneous and meta-igneous rocks with a very low silica content (less than 45%), generally >18% MgO, high FeO, low potassium, and are composed of usually greater than 90% mafic minerals (dark colored, high magnesium and iron content).
Ulvöspinel or ulvite is an iron titanium oxide mineral with formula: Fe2TiO4 or TiFe2+2O4.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days.
Vesicular texture is a volcanic rock texture characterized by a rock being pitted with many cavities (known as vesicles) at its surface and inside.
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
The is a large volcanic mountain range in the German Central Uplands in the state of Hesse, separated from the Rhön Mountains by the Fulda river valley.
Volcanic ash consists of fragments of pulverized rock, minerals and volcanic glass, created during volcanic eruptions and measuring less than 2 mm (0.079 inches) in diameter.
The Volcanic Eifel or Vulkan Eifel (Vulkaneifel) is a region in the Eifel Mountains in Germany, that is defined to a large extent by its volcanic geological history.
Volcanic gases are gases given off by active (or, at times, by dormant) volcanoes.
Volcanic glass is the amorphous (uncrystallized) product of rapidly cooling magma.
Volcanic rock (often shortened to volcanics in scientific contexts) is a rock formed from magma erupted from a volcano.
A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.
Volcanogenic massive sulfide ore deposits, also known as VMS ore deposits, are a type of metal sulfide ore deposit, mainly copper-zinc which are associated with and created by volcanic-associated hydrothermal events in submarine environments.
Washington, officially the State of Washington, is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States.
The Westerwald (literally 'Western Forest') is a low mountain range on the right bank of the river Rhine in the German federal states of Rhineland-Palatinate, Hesse and North Rhine-Westphalia.
Zeolites are microporous, aluminosilicate minerals commonly used as commercial adsorbents and catalysts.
Vesta, minor-planet designation 4 Vesta, is one of the largest objects in the asteroid belt, with a mean diameter of.
Basalt column, Basalt lava, Basalt weathering, Basaltic, Basalts, Columnar basalt, Grey basalt, High and low titanium basalts, High-Ti basalt, Kharodi basalt, Liquid basalt, Pillow Basalts, Pillow basalt, Pillow basalts, Сolumnar basalt.