78 relations: Acridine, Adenine, Algae, Amino acid, Aromatic hydrocarbon, Ångström, Base pair, Biomass (ecology), Biosphere, Carbon, Carcinogen, Centimorgan, Chromosome, Complementarity (molecular biology), Computer data storage, Cytosine, D5SICS, Directionality (molecular biology), DNA, DNA polymerase, DNA repair, DNA replication, DNaM, EMBOSS, Enol, Escherichia coli, ETH Zurich, Ethidium bromide, Extremophile, Frameshift mutation, GC-content, Gene, Genetic code, Genome, Guanine, Human genome, Hydrogen bond, Intercalation (biochemistry), Isostere, KB, List of Y-DNA single-nucleotide polymorphisms, Messenger RNA, Molecular biology, Molecular recognition, Nature (journal), Non-canonical base pairing, Nucleic acid sequence, Nucleic acid structure, Nucleic acid thermodynamics, Nucleobase, ..., Nucleoside triphosphate, Nucleotide, Picometre, Plasmid, Ploidy, Point mutation, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, Polymerase chain reaction, Primer (molecular biology), Protein, Purine, Pyrimidine, RNA, RNA polymerase, Scripps Research Institute, Steven A. Benner, TATA box, Telomere, Thermus thermophilus, Thymine, Tonne, Transcription (biology), Transfection, Transfer RNA, Unified atomic mass unit, Uracil, Wobble base pair, 5-Bromouracil. Expand index (28 more) » « Shrink index
Acridine is an organic compound and a nitrogen heterocycle with the formula C13H9N.
Adenine (A, Ade) is a nucleobase (a purine derivative).
Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
An aromatic hydrocarbon or arene (or sometimes aryl hydrocarbon) is a hydrocarbon with sigma bonds and delocalized pi electrons between carbon atoms forming a circle.
The ångström or angstrom is a unit of length equal to (one ten-billionth of a metre) or 0.1 nanometre.
A base pair (bp) is a unit consisting of two nucleobases bound to each other by hydrogen bonds.
Biomass is the mass of living biological organisms in a given area or ecosystem at a given time.
The biosphere (from Greek βίος bíos "life" and σφαῖρα sphaira "sphere") also known as the ecosphere (from Greek οἶκος oîkos "environment" and σφαῖρα), is the worldwide sum of all ecosystems.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that promotes carcinogenesis, the formation of cancer.
In genetics, a centimorgan (abbreviated cM) or map unit (m.u.) is a unit for measuring genetic linkage.
A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.
In molecular biology, complementarity describes a relationship between two structures each following the lock-and-key principle.
Computer data storage, often called storage or memory, is a technology consisting of computer components and recording media that are used to retain digital data.
Cytosine (C) is one of the four main bases found in DNA and RNA, along with adenine, guanine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).
d5SICS is an artificial nucleoside containing 6-methylisoquinoline-1-thione-2-yl group instead of a base.
Directionality, in molecular biology and biochemistry, is the end-to-end chemical orientation of a single strand of nucleic acid.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
DNA polymerases are enzymes that synthesize DNA molecules from deoxyribonucleotides, the building blocks of DNA.
DNA repair is a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecules that encode its genome.
In molecular biology, DNA replication is the biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA from one original DNA molecule.
dNaM is an artificial nucleoside containing a 3-methoxy-2-naphthyl group instead of a base.
EMBOSS is a free open source software analysis package developed for the needs of the molecular biology and bioinformatics user community.
Enols, or more formally, alkenols, are a type of reactive structure or intermediate in organic chemistry that is represented as an alkene (olefin) with a hydroxyl group attached to one end of the alkene double bond.
Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).
ETH Zurich (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich; Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich) is a science, technology, engineering and mathematics STEM university in the city of Zürich, Switzerland.
Ethidium bromide is an intercalating agent commonly used as a fluorescent tag (nucleic acid stain) in molecular biology laboratories for techniques such as agarose gel electrophoresis.
An extremophile (from Latin extremus meaning "extreme" and Greek philiā (φιλία) meaning "love") is an organism that thrives in physically or geochemically extreme conditions that are detrimental to most life on Earth.
A frameshift mutation (also called a framing error or a reading frame shift) is a genetic mutation caused by indels (insertions or deletions) of a number of nucleotides in a DNA sequence that is not divisible by three.
In molecular biology and genetics, GC-content (or guanine-cytosine content) is the percentage of nitrogenous bases on a DNA or RNA molecule that are either guanine or cytosine (from a possibility of four different ones, also including adenine and thymine in DNA and adenine and uracil in RNA).
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
The genetic code is the set of rules used by living cells to translate information encoded within genetic material (DNA or mRNA sequences) into proteins.
In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.
Guanine (or G, Gua) is one of the four main nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA, the others being adenine, cytosine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).
The human genome is the complete set of nucleic acid sequences for humans, encoded as DNA within the 23 chromosome pairs in cell nuclei and in a small DNA molecule found within individual mitochondria.
A hydrogen bond is a partially electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen (H) which is bound to a more electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), or fluorine (F), and another adjacent atom bearing a lone pair of electrons.
In biochemistry, intercalation is the insertion of molecules between the planar bases of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).
Classical Isosteres are molecules or ions with the similar shape and often electronic properties.
KB, kB or kb may stand for.
Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they specify the amino acid sequence of the protein products of gene expression.
Molecular biology is a branch of biology which concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions.
The term molecular recognition refers to the specific interaction between two or more molecules through noncovalent bonding such as hydrogen bonding, metal coordination, hydrophobic forces, van der Waals forces, π-π interactions, halogen bonding, electrostatic and/or electromagnetic effects.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
A non-canonical base pairing is an interaction between two bases of a nucleic acid other than the standard base pairings, which are adenine–thymine in DNA, adenine–uracil in RNA, and cytosine–guanine in both.
A nucleic acid sequence is a succession of letters that indicate the order of nucleotides forming alleles within a DNA (using GACT) or RNA (GACU) molecule.
Nucleic acid structure refers to the structure of nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA.
Nucleic acid thermodynamics is the study of how temperature affects the nucleic acid structure of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA).
Nucleobases, also known as nitrogenous bases or often simply bases, are nitrogen-containing biological compounds that form nucleosides, which in turn are components of nucleotides, with all of these monomers constituting the basic building blocks of nucleic acids.
A nucleoside triphosphate is a molecule containing a nitrogenous base bound to a 5-carbon sugar (either ribose or deoxyribose), with three phosphate groups bound to the sugar.
Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth.
The picometre (international spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: pm) or picometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to, or one trillionth of a metre, which is the SI base unit of length.
A plasmid is a small DNA molecule within a cell that is physically separated from a chromosomal DNA and can replicate independently.
Ploidy is the number of complete sets of chromosomes in a cell, and hence the number of possible alleles for autosomal and pseudoautosomal genes.
A point mutation is a genetic mutation where a single nucleotide base is changed, inserted or deleted from a sequence of DNA or RNA.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, also polyaromatic hydrocarbons or polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons) are hydrocarbons—organic compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen—that are composed of multiple aromatic rings (organic rings in which the electrons are delocalized).
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique used in molecular biology to amplify a single copy or a few copies of a segment of DNA across several orders of magnitude, generating thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence.
A primer is a short strand of RNA or DNA (generally about 18-22 bases) that serves as a starting point for DNA synthesis.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
A purine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound that consists of a pyrimidine ring fused to an imidazole ring.
Pyrimidine is an aromatic heterocyclic organic compound similar to pyridine.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.
RNA polymerase (ribonucleic acid polymerase), both abbreviated RNAP or RNApol, official name DNA-directed RNA polymerase, is a member of a family of enzymes that are essential to life: they are found in all organisms (-species) and many viruses.
The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) is a nonprofit American medical research facility that focuses on research and education in the biomedical sciences.
Steven Albert Benner (born October 23, 1954) has been a professor at Harvard University, ETH Zurich, and the University of Florida where he was the V.T. & Louise Jackson Distinguished Professor of Chemistry.
In molecular biology, the TATA box (also called the Goldberg-Hogness box) is a sequence of DNA found in the core promoter region of genes in archaea and eukaryotes.
A telomere is a region of repetitive nucleotide sequences at each end of a chromosome, which protects the end of the chromosome from deterioration or from fusion with neighboring chromosomes.
Thermus thermophilus is a Gram negative eubacterium used in a range of biotechnological applications, including as a model organism for genetic manipulation, structural genomics, and systems biology.
---> Thymine (T, Thy) is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of DNA that are represented by the letters G–C–A–T.
The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.
Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.
Transfection is the process of deliberately introducing naked or purified nucleic acids into eukaryotic cells.
A transfer RNA (abbreviated tRNA and formerly referred to as sRNA, for soluble RNA) is an adaptor molecule composed of RNA, typically 76 to 90 nucleotides in length, that serves as the physical link between the mRNA and the amino acid sequence of proteins.
The unified atomic mass unit or dalton (symbol: u, or Da) is a standard unit of mass that quantifies mass on an atomic or molecular scale (atomic mass).
Uracil (U) is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of RNA that are represented by the letters A, G, C and U. The others are adenine (A), cytosine (C), and guanine (G).
A wobble base pair is a pairing between two nucleotides in RNA molecules that does not follow Watson-Crick base pair rules.
5-Bromouracil (5-BrU, 5BrUra, or br5Ura) is a brominated derivative of uracil that acts as an antimetabolite or base analog, substituting for thymine in DNA, and can induce DNA mutation in the same way as 2-aminopurine.
Artificial DNA, Base pairing, Base pairs, Base-pair, Base-pairing, Basepair, Double strand, Double stranded, Double-strand, Double-stranded, Gigabase, Kilo base pair, Kilo-base pair, Kilobase, Kilobase pair, Mega base pairs, Megabase, Megabases, Nucleotide pair, Single strand, Single stranded, Single strands, Single-stranded, UBPs, Unnatural base pair, Unnatural base pairs, Watson-Crick base pair, Watson-Crick base pairing, Watson-Crick pair, Watson-Crick pairing, Watson-Crick pairs, Watson-crick base pairing.