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ABC News is the news division of the American Broadcasting Company (ABC), owned by the Disney Media Networks division of The Walt Disney Company.
ABC-CLIO, LLC is a publishing company for academic reference works and periodicals primarily on topics such as history and social sciences for educational and public library settings.
Abdelaziz Bouteflika, GColIH (عبد العزيز بوتفليقة ‘Abd al-‘Azīz Būtaflīqa; born 2 March 1937) is an Algerian politician who has been the fifth President of Algeria since 1999.
Abdul Halim Khaddam (عبد الحليم خدام; born 15 September 1932) is a Syrian politician who was Vice President of Syria from 1984 to 2005.
Abdullah Al-Ahmar (عبدالله الأحمر) (born 6 June 1936) is a Syrian politician and prominent member of the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party.
Abu Ghadiya (أبو غادية), born Badran Turki Hishan al-Mazidi (بدران تركي هيشان المزيدي) sometime between 1977-1979 in Mosul, was a Sunni militant active with al-Qaeda in Iraq (AQI).
Ahmed Hussein al-Shar’a (أحمد حسين الشرع), known by the nom de guerre Abu Mohammad al-Julani (أبو محمد الجولاني), is the commander-in-chief of the Syrian militant group Tahrir al-Sham; he was also the emir of its predecessor organisation al-Nusra Front, the Syrian branch of al-Qaeda.
Abu Sayyaf is the nom de guerre of a senior leader of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) who was described as overseeing gas and oil operations.
Acton is an area of west London, England, within the London Borough of Ealing.
Adel Safar (Arabic: عادل سفر, born 1953) is a Syrian politician and academic, who served as Prime Minister of Syria from 14 April 2011 to 23 June 2012.
The African National Congress (ANC) is the Republic of South Africa's governing political party.
Agence France-Presse (AFP) is an international news agency headquartered in Paris, France.
Harakat Ahrar al-Sham al-Islamiyya (lit), commonly referred to as Ahrar al-Sham, is a coalition of multiple Islamist and Salafist units that coalesced into a single brigade and later a division in order to fight against the Syrian Government led by Bashar al-Assad during the Syrian Civil War.
Al Arabiya (العربية, transliterated: or; meaning "The Arabic One" or "The Arab One") is a Saudi-owned pan-Arab television news channel broadcast in Modern Standard Arabic.
Al Jazeera (translit,, literally "The Island", though referring to the Arabian Peninsula in context), also known as JSC (Jazeera Satellite Channel), is a state-funded broadcaster in Doha, Qatar, owned by the Al Jazeera Media Network.
Al Jazeera America (AJAM) was an American basic cable and satellite news television channel owned by the Al Jazeera Media Network.
Al-Ahram Weekly is an English-language weekly broadsheet printed by the Al-Ahram Publishing House in Cairo, Egypt.
Al-Hayat (الحياة meaning "The life") is one of the leading daily pan-Arab newspapers, with a circulation estimated over 200,000.
Al-Nusra Front or Jabhat al-Nusra (جبهة النصرة.), known as Jabhat Fateh al-Sham (جبهة فتح الشام, transliteration: Jabhat Fataḥ al-Šām) after July 2016, and also described as al-Qaeda in Syria or al-Qaeda in the Levant, was a Salafist jihadist organization fighting against Syrian government forces in the Syrian Civil War.
Al-Qaeda (القاعدة,, translation: "The Base", "The Foundation" or "The Fundament" and alternatively spelled al-Qaida, al-Qæda and sometimes al-Qa'ida) is a militant Sunni Islamist multi-national organization founded in 1988.
The Alawis, also rendered as Alawites (علوية Alawiyyah/Alawīyah), are a syncretic sect of the Twelver branch of Shia Islam, primarily centered in Syria.
Aleppo (ﺣﻠﺐ / ALA-LC) is a city in Syria, serving as the capital of the Aleppo Governorate, the most-populous Syrian governorate.
Aleppo Governorate (محافظة حلب / ALA-LC: Muḥāfaẓat Ḥalab /) is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces) of Syria.
Aleksandr Grigoryevich Lukashenko (translit,; ɐlʲɪˈksandr ɡrʲɪˈɡorʲjɪvʲɪtɕ ɫʊkɐˈʂɛnkə; born 30 August 1954) is a Belarusian politician serving as President of Belarus since the office was created on 20 July 1994.
Ali Farzat or Ali Ferzat (علي فرزات; born 22 June 1951) is a Syrian political cartoonist.
Ali Mamlouk (علي مملوك) (born 19 February 1946) is a special security adviser to Syrian president Bashar al-Assad and is one of his trusted men.
Alois Brunner (8 April 1912 – 2001 or 2010) was an Austrian Schutzstaffel (SS) officer who worked as Adolf Eichmann's assistant.
Amnesty (from the Greek ἀμνηστία amnestia, "forgetfulness, passing over") is defined as: "A pardon extended by the government to a group or class of people, usually for a political offense; the act of a sovereign power officially forgiving certain classes of people who are subject to trial but have not yet been convicted." It includes more than pardon, inasmuch as it obliterates all legal remembrance of the offense.
Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a London-based non-governmental organization focused on human rights.
An ancestral home is the place of origin of one's extended family, or the home owned and preserved by the same family for several generations.
Anisa (or Aniseh) Makhlouf (1930 – 6 February 2016), onpcsb.ro; accessed 9 July 2017.
Anonymous is a decentralized international hacktivist group that is widely known for its various DDOS cyber attacks against several governments, government institutions & government agencies, corporations, and the Church of Scientology.
Anti-imperialism in political science and international relations is a term used in a variety of contexts, usually by nationalist movements who want to secede from a larger polity (usually in the form of an empire, but also in a multi-ethnic sovereign state) or as a specific theory opposed to capitalism in Marxist–Leninist discourse, derived from Vladimir Lenin's work Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism.
The Arab League (الجامعة العربية), formally the League of Arab States (جامعة الدول العربية), is a regional organization of Arab states in and around North Africa, the Horn of Africa and Arabia.
The Arab Socialist Bath Party – Syria Region (حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي – قطر سوريا Hizb Al-Ba'ath Al-Arabi Al-Ishtiraki – Qutr Suriya), officially the Syrian Regional Branch (Syria being a "region" of the Arab nation in Ba'ath ideology), is a neo-Ba'athist organisation founded on 7 April 1947 by Michel Aflaq, Salah al-Din al-Bitar and followers of Zaki al-Arsuzi.
The Arab Spring (الربيع العربي ar-Rabīʻ al-ʻArabī), also referred to as Arab Revolutions (الثورات العربية aṯ-'awrāt al-ʻarabiyyah), was a revolutionary wave of both violent and non-violent demonstrations, protests, riots, coups, foreign interventions, and civil wars in North Africa and the Middle East that began on 18 December 2010 in Tunisia with the Tunisian Revolution.
The Arabic Wikipedia () is the Arabic language version of Wikipedia.
The Army of Conquest (جيش الفتح) or Jaish al-Fatah, abbreviated JaF, was a joint command center of Sunni Islamist Syrian rebel factions participating in the Syrian Civil War.
Asma al-Assad (أسماء الأسد, Levantine pronunciation:;, أسماء فواز الأخرس:; born 11 August 1975) is the First Lady of Syria.
On 14 February 2005 Rafic Hariri, the former Prime Minister of Lebanon, was killed along with 21 others in an explosion in Beirut.
Assyrian people (ܐܫܘܪܝܐ), or Syriacs (see terms for Syriac Christians), are an ethnic group indigenous to the Middle East.
Attack (Атака) is a Bulgarian nationalist party, founded by Volen Siderov in 2005, who was at the time presenter of the homonymous TV Show "Attack" on SKAT TV.
Aymenn Jawad Al-Tamimi (born 1992/1993) is a British specialist on the Syrian Civil War, Iraqi Civil War and the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant.
Émile Jamil Lahoud (اميل جميل لحود) (born 12 January 1936) is a Lebanese politician who was President of Lebanon from 1998 to 2007.
Česká televize (abbreviation: ČT, Czech Television) is the public television broadcaster in the Czech Republic, broadcasting six channels.
The Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party (meaning "resurrection" or "renaissance"; حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي Hizb Al-Ba'ath Al-'Arabī Al-Ishtirākī), also referred to as the pro-Syrian Ba'ath movement, is a neo-Ba'athist political party with branches across the Arab world.
A ballistic missile follows a ballistic trajectory to deliver one or more warheads on a predetermined target.
Ban Ki-moon (born 13 June 1944) is a South Korean politician and diplomat who was the eighth Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 2007 to December 2016.
Barack Hussein Obama II (born August 4, 1961) is an American politician who served as the 44th President of the United States from January 20, 2009, to January 20, 2017.
A barrel bomb is an improvised unguided bomb, sometimes described as a flying IED (improvised explosive device).
Bassel al-Assad (Arabic: باسل الأسد Bāssel al Assad; 23 March 1962 – 21 January 1994) was a Syrian engineer, colonel, and politician who was the eldest son of President of Syria Hafez al-Assad and the older brother of (later) President Bashar al-Assad.
The Battle of Al-Tabqa airbase refers to a series of clashes between the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) and the Syrian Arab Army in August 2014, during the Syrian Civil War.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Beirut (بيروت, Beyrouth) is the capital and largest city of Lebanon.
Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.
Bell Pottinger Private (legally BPP Communications Ltd.; informally Bell Pottinger) was a British multinational public relations, reputation management and marketing company headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
Bloomberg L.P. is a privately held financial, software, data, and media company headquartered in Midtown Manhattan, New York City.
A bounty (from Latin bonitās, goodness) is a payment or reward often offered by a group as an incentive for the accomplishment of a task by someone usually not associated with the group.
Brasília is the federal capital of Brazil and seat of government of the Federal District.
The British National Party (BNP) is a far-right and fascist political party in the United Kingdom.
The Brookings Institution is a century-old American research group on Think Tank Row in Washington, D.C. It conducts research and education in the social sciences, primarily in economics, metropolitan policy, governance, foreign policy, and global economy and development.
Brown Lloyd James is a public relations firm with offices in New York, Washington, D.C., London, and Doha.
Bushra al-Assad (بشرى الأسد) (born 24 October 1960) is the first child and only daughter of Hafez al-Assad, who was the president of Syria from 1971 to 2000.
Caracas, officially Santiago de León de Caracas, is the capital and centre of the Greater Caracas Area, and the largest city of Venezuela.
The Carnegie Middle East Center (CMEC) is a think tank and research center dealing with public policy in the Middle East.
Carter-Ruck is a British law firm founded by Peter Carter-Ruck.
CasaPound Italy (CasaPound Italia, CPI; "House of Pound") is a fascist political party in Italy born as a political movement arising from the squatting of a state-owned building in the neighbourhood of Esquilino in Rome on 26 December 2003.
CBC News is the division of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation responsible for the news gathering and production of news programs on the corporation's English-language operations, namely CBC Television, CBC Radio, CBC News Network, and CBC.ca.
CBS News is the news division of American television and radio service CBS.
The Cedar Revolution (Arabic: ثورة الأرز - thawrat al-arz) or Independence Intifada (Arabic: انتفاضة الاستقلال - intifāḍat al-istiqlāl) was a chain of demonstrations in Lebanon (especially in the capital Beirut) triggered by the assassination of former Lebanese Prime Minister, Rafik Hariri.
Charles McArthur Ghankay Taylor (born 28 January 1948) is a former Liberian politician who served as the 22nd President of Liberia from 2 August 1997 until his resignation on 11 August 2003.
Charles Peete Rose Jr. (born January 5, 1942) is an American television journalist and former talk show host.
Charlie Rose is an American television interview show, with Charlie Rose as executive producer, executive editor, and host.
Christopher Henry Smith (born March 4, 1953) is the U.S. Representative for, serving since 1981.
The Christian Broadcasting Network (CBN) is an American Christian-oriented religious television network and production company.
Christians in Syria make up approximately 10% of the population.
Civil and political rights are a class of rights that protect individuals' freedom from infringement by governments, social organizations, and private individuals.
The civil uprising phase of the Syrian Civil War, or as it was sometimes called by the media the Syrian Revolution of Dignity was an early stage of protests – with subsequent violent reaction by the Syrian Arab Republic authorities – lasting from March to 28 July 2011.
A collar is an ornate chain, often made of gold and enamel, and set with precious stones, which is worn about the neck as a symbol of membership in various chivalric orders.
A commander-in-chief, also sometimes called supreme commander, or chief commander, is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces.
The Constitution of the Syrian Arab Republic was adopted on 13 March 1973 and amended on 26 February 2012.
The Corrective Movement (الحركة التصحيحية), also referred to as the Corrective Revolution, was a political movement in Syria, initiated by a coup d'état, led by General Hafez al-Assad on 13 November 1970.
The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR), founded in 1921, is a United States nonprofit think tank specializing in U.S. foreign policy and international affairs.
Crimes against humanity are certain acts that are deliberately committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack or individual attack directed against any civilian or an identifiable part of a civilian population.
The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.
Damascus (دمشق, Syrian) is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic; it is also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the battle for the city.
Damascus Governorate (مُحافظة دمشق) is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces) of Syria.
The Damascus Spring (ربيع دمشق) was a period of intense political and social debate in Syria which started after the death of President Hafiz al-Asad in June 2000 and continued to some degree until autumn 2001, when most of the activities associated with it were suppressed by the government.
The University of Damascus (جامعة دمشق, Jāmi‘atu Dimashq) is the largest and oldest university in Syria, located in the capital Damascus and has campuses in other Syrian cities.
José Daniel Ortega Saavedra (born November 11, 1945) is a Nicaraguan politician serving as President of Nicaragua since 2007; previously he was leader of Nicaragua from 1979 to 1990, first as Coordinator of the Junta of National Reconstruction (1979–1985) and then as President (1985–1990).
David Ernest Duke (born July 1, 1950) is an American white supremacist and white nationalist politician, antisemitic conspiracy theorist, Holocaust denier, convicted felon, and former Grand Wizard of the Ku Klux Klan.
David Howell Petraeus (born November 7, 1952) is a retired United States Army general and public official.
Deir ez-Zor Governorate (مُحافظة دير الزور / ALA-LC: Muḥāfaẓat Dayr az-Zawr) is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces) of Syria.
The Democratic Union Party or PYD (Partiya Yekîtiya Demokrat; translit; translit) is a Kurdish democratic confederalist political party established on 20 September 2003 in northern Syria.
Der Spiegel (lit. "The Mirror") is a German weekly news magazine published in Hamburg.
Donald Rabindranauth Ramotar (born 22 October 1950) is a Guyanese politician who was President of Guyana from 2011 to 2015.
Donald John Trump (born June 14, 1946) is the 45th and current President of the United States, in office since January 20, 2017.
On 7 April 2018, a chemical attack in the Syrian city of Douma reportedly killed at least 70 people.
The Druze (درزي or, plural دروز; דרוזי plural דרוזים) are an Arabic-speaking esoteric ethnoreligious group originating in Western Asia who self-identify as unitarians (Al-Muwaḥḥidūn/Muwahhidun).
Druze people in Syria refers to an ethnoreligious group consisting of adherents to the Druze faith, originating from the Near East who self-identify as "Unitarians" or "the People of Monotheism" (الموحدين al-Muwaḥḥidīn).
A dynastic order, monarchical order, or house order, is an order under royal patronage, bestowed by the head of a currently or formerly sovereign royal family as legitimate fons honorum.
Economic liberalization (or economic liberalisation) is the lessening of government regulations and restrictions in an economy in exchange for greater participation by private entities; the doctrine is associated with classical liberalism.
Ehud Olmert (אֶהוּד אוֹלְמֶרְט,; born 30 September 1945) is an Israeli politician and lawyer.
Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil is a book by political theorist Hannah Arendt, originally published in 1963.
The European Council on Foreign Relations (ECFR) is a pan-European think tank with offices in seven European capitals.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Executive Order 13769, titled Protecting the Nation from Foreign Terrorist Entry into the United States, often referred to as the Muslim ban, BBC or the travel ban, was an executive order issued by United States President Donald Trump.
Fahd Jassem al-Freij (فهد جاسم الفريج) (born 17 January 1950) is the former Minister of Defense of Syria, taking office on 18 July 2012.
Faisal Mekdad (فيصل المقداد; Born 1954) is the Syrian Deputy-Foreign Minister and former Permanent Envoy to the United Nations.
Falange Auténtica (Authentic Phalanx, FA) is a Falangist political party in Spain.
Falange Española de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional-Sindicalista (Spanish for "Spanish Phalanx of the Councils of the National-Syndicalist Offensive"; FE de las JONS for short), or simply called the Falange, was a fascist and national syndicalist political party founded in 1934 in the Spain Republic as merger of the Falange Española (founded in October 1933) and the Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional-Sindicalista (founded in October 1931).
Far-right politics are politics further on the right of the left-right spectrum than the standard political right, particularly in terms of more extreme nationalist, and nativist ideologies, as well as authoritarian tendencies.
Farouk al-Sharaa (فاروق الشرع; born 10 December 1938) is a Syrian politician and diplomat.
Fataḥ (فتح), formerly the Palestinian National Liberation Movement, is a Palestinian nationalist political party and the largest faction of the confederated multi-party Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) and the second-largest party in the Palestinian Legislative Council (PLC).
The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), formerly the Bureau of Investigation (BOI), is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United States, and its principal federal law enforcement agency.
Philip Michel Frans "Filip" Dewinter (born 11 September 1962) is a Belgian politician.
The Financial Times (FT) is a Japanese-owned (since 2015), English-language international daily newspaper headquartered in London, with a special emphasis on business and economic news.
Fitna (or, pl.; فتنة, فتن: "temptation, trial; sedition, civil strife"Wehr (1976), p. 696.) is an Arabic word with extensive connotations of trial, affliction, or distress.
Foreign Affairs is an American magazine of international relations and U.S. foreign policy published by the Council on Foreign Relations, a nonprofit, nonpartisan, membership organization and think tank specializing in U.S. foreign policy and international affairs.
Foreign Policy is an American news publication, founded in 1970 and focused on global affairs, current events, and domestic and international policy.
François Gérard Georges Nicolas Hollande (born 12 August 1954) is a French politician who served as President of France and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra from 2012 to 2017.
The Free Syrian Army (al-Jaysh as-Sūrī al-Ḥurr; abbreviated FSA) is a loose faction in the Syrian Civil War founded on 29 July 2011 by officers of the Syrian Armed Forces who said their goal was to bring down the government of Bashar al-Assad.
The Freedom Party of Austria (Freiheitliche Partei Österreichs, FPÖ) is a right-wing populist and national-conservative political party in Austria.
The General Intelligence Directorate (إدارة المخابرات العامة, Idarat al-Mukhabarat al-Amma) is the most important civil intelligence service of Syria and plays an important role in quelling internal dissent.
George Galloway (born 16 August 1954) is a British politician, broadcaster and writer.
George William Casey Jr. (born July 22, 1948) is a retired four-star general who served as the 36th Chief of Staff of the U.S. Army from April 10, 2007, to April 10, 2011.
Georgiy Shchokin (ukr.: Гео́ргій Васи́льович Що́кін) (born May 27, 1954, in Zaporizhzhya is a Ukrainian (of Russian ethnicity) businessman, sociologist, psychologist and a politician. He is also the founder and owner of MAUP (a controversial private college, noted for its close ties with David Duke and other Holocaust deniers).
Getty Images, Inc. is an American stock photo agency, with headquarters in Seattle, Washington, United States.
Ghazi Kanaan (1942 – 12 October 2005) (غازي كنعان; transliterations vary), also known as Abu Yo'roub, was Syria's Interior Minister from 2004 to 2005, and long-time head of Syria's security apparatus in Lebanon.
The Golan Heights (هضبة الجولان or مرتفعات الجولان, רמת הגולן), or simply the Golan, is a region in the Levant, spanning about.
The Popular Association – Golden Dawn (Λαϊκός Σύνδεσμος – Χρυσή Αυγή, Laïkós Sýndesmos – Chrysí Avgí), usually known simply as Golden Dawn (Χρυσή Αυγή, Chrysí Avgí), is an ultranationalist, far-right political party in Greece.
Grand Cross is the highest class in many orders, and manifested in its insignia.
ABC-CLIO/Greenwood is an educational and academic publisher (middle school through university level) which is today part of ABC-CLIO.
Haaretz (הארץ) (lit. "The Land ", originally Ḥadashot Ha'aretz – חדשות הארץ, – "News of the Land ") is an Israeli newspaper.
Hadash (lit), an acronym for HaHazit HaDemokratit LeShalom uLeShivion (lit); al-Jabhah ad-Dimuqrāṭiyyah lis-Salām wa'l-Musāwah) is a radical left-wing political coalition in Israel formed by the Israeli Communist Party and other leftist groups. It currently has five members, as part of the Joint List, in the 120-seat Knesset.
Hafez al-Assad (حافظ الأسد,; 6 October 1930 – 10 June 2000) was a Syrian politician and field marshal of the Syrian Armed Forces who served as President of Syria from 1971 to 2000.
Hafez Makhlouf (حافظ مخلوف‎; born 2 April 1971) is a Syrian former intelligence officer who was head of the internal branch of the General Security Directorate, Syria's civilian intelligence agency.
Hamas (Arabic: حماس Ḥamās, an acronym of حركة المقاومة الاسلامية Ḥarakat al-Muqāwamah al-ʾIslāmiyyah Islamic Resistance Movement) is a Palestinian Sunni-Islamist fundamentalist organization.
Johanna "Hannah" Arendt (14 October 1906 – 4 December 1975) was a German-born American philosopher and political theorist.
An heir apparent is a person who is first in a line of succession and cannot be displaced from inheriting by the birth of another person.
Hezbollah (pronounced; حزب الله, literally "Party of Allah" or "Party of God")—also transliterated Hizbullah, Hizballah, etc.
High commissioner is the title of various high-ranking, special executive positions held by a commission of appointment.
Hilal al-Hilal (هلال هلال; born 1966) is a Syrian politician who is the current Assistant Regional Secretary of the Syrian Regional Branch of the Ba'ath Party, and was the Party Secretary of the Branch Command of Aleppo in 2011.
Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton (born October 26, 1947) is an American politician and diplomat who served as the First Lady of the United States from 1993 to 2001, U.S. Senator from New York from 2001 to 2009, 67th United States Secretary of State from 2009 to 2013, and the Democratic Party's nominee for President of the United States in the 2016 election.
Syrian Jews derive their origin from two groups: those who inhabited Syria from early times and the Sephardim who fled to Syria after the expulsion of the Jews from Spain (1492 AD).
Homs (حمص / ALA-LC: Ḥimṣ), previously known as Emesa or Emisa (Greek: Ἔμεσα Emesa), is a city in western Syria and the capital of the Homs Governorate.
Homs Military Academy is a military educational and training institution located in Homs, Syria.
An honorary degree, in Latin a degree honoris causa ("for the sake of the honor") or ad honorem ("to the honor"), is an academic degree for which a university (or other degree-awarding institution) has waived the usual requirements, such as matriculation, residence, a dissertation and the passing of comprehensive examinations.
Muhammad Hosni El Sayed Mubarak (محمد حسني السيد مبارك,,; born 4 May 1928) is a former Egyptian military and political leader who served as the fourth President of Egypt from 1981 to 2011.
The House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies is a cadet branch of the Spanish royal family which ruled parts of southern Italy for more than a century in the 18th and 19th centuries.
HuffPost (formerly The Huffington Post and sometimes abbreviated HuffPo) is a liberal American news and opinion website and blog that has both localized and international editions.
Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights.
I.B. Tauris (usually typeset as I.B.Tauris) was an independent publishing house with offices in London and New York City.
General Igor Dmitrievich Sergun (p, 28 March 1957 – 3 January 2016) was the Director of GRU, the Main Intelligence Directorate of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation from 26 December 2011 to 3 January 2016.
Imad Mohammad Deeb Khamis (عماد محمد ديب خميس) (born 1 August 1961) is a Syrian politician who has been Prime Minister of Syria since 2016.
Imad Fayez Mughniyeh (عماد فايز مغنية; 7 December 1962 – 12 February 2008), alias al-Hajj Radwan (الحاج رضوان), was a senior member of Lebanon's Islamic Jihad Organization and number two in Hezbollah's leadership.
Instagram is a photo and video-sharing social networking service owned by Facebook, Inc. It was created by Kevin Systrom and Mike Krieger, and launched in October 2010 exclusively on iOS.
The Institute for the Study of War (ISW) is a United States–based think tank founded in 2007 by Kimberly Kagan.
Intellectual disability (ID), also known as general learning disability, and mental retardation (MR), is a generalized neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by significantly impaired intellectual and adaptive functioning.
Interfax Ltd. (Интерфакс) is a privately-held independent major news agency in Russia (along with state-operated TASS and RIA Novosti) and information services company headquartered in Moscow.
The International Business Times is an American online news publication that publishes seven national editions and four languages.
The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is a humanitarian institution based in Geneva, Switzerland, and a three-time Nobel Prize Laureate.
The International Criminal Court (ICC or ICCt) is an intergovernmental organization and international tribunal that sits in The Hague in the Netherlands.
The International Crisis Group (ICG; also simply known as the Crisis Group) is a transnational non-profit, non-governmental organization founded in 1995 that carries out field research on violent conflict and advances policies to prevent, mitigate or resolve conflict.
An Internet café, also known as a cybercafé, is a place which provides Internet access to the public, usually for a fee.
Internet censorship in Syria is extensive.
Interregional Academy of Personnel Management (Міжрегіональна Академія управління персоналом (МАУП), translit.: Mizhrehional'na Akademiya upravlinnya personalom, English acronym: MAUP, also IAPM or IRAPM) is a private higher education institution in Ukraine.
The Iraq WarThe conflict is also known as the War in Iraq, the Occupation of Iraq, the Second Gulf War, and Gulf War II.
The Islamic Jihad Movement in Palestine (حركة الجهاد الإسلامي في فلسطين, Harakat al-Jihād al-Islāmi fi Filastīn) known in the West as simply Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ), is a Palestinian Islamist terrorist organization formed in 1981 whose objective is the destruction of the State of Israel and the establishment of a sovereign, Islamic Palestinian state.
The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria or Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS), Islamic State (IS) and by its Arabic language acronym Daesh (داعش dāʿish), is a Salafi jihadist terrorist organisation and former unrecognised proto-state that follows a fundamentalist, Salafi/Wahhabi doctrine of Sunni Islam.
Ismāʿīlism (الإسماعيلية al-Ismāʿīliyya; اسماعیلیان; اسماعيلي; Esmāʿīliyān) is a branch of Shia Islam.
The Israeli Air Force (IAF; זְרוֹעַ הָאֲוִיר וְהֶחָלָל, Zroa HaAvir VeHahalal, "Air and Space Arm", commonly known as, Kheil HaAvir, "Air Corps") operates as the aerial warfare branch of the Israel Defense Forces.
Izzat Ibrahim al-Douri (عزة إبراهيم الدوري ‘Izzat Ibrāhīm ad-Dūrī; born 1 July 1942) is a former Iraqi statesman and military commander.
John M. Keane (born February 1, 1943) is a retired American four-star general and former Vice Chief of Staff of the United States Army, and a defense analyst currently serving as chairman of the board for the Institute for the Study of War.
Jacob Gedleyihlekisa Zuma (born 12 April 1942) is a South African politician who served as the fourth President of South Africa from the 2009 general election until his resignation on 14 February 2018.
Jane's Defence Weekly (abbreviated as JDW) is a weekly magazine reporting on military and corporate affairs, edited by Peter Felstead.
Jeremy Francis John Bowen (born 6 February 1960) is a Welsh journalist and television presenter.
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
In Judaism, "chosenness" is the belief that the Jews, via descent from the ancient Israelites, are the chosen people, i.e. chosen to be in a covenant with God.
Jobbik, the Movement for a Better Hungary (Jobbik Magyarországért Mozgalom), commonly known as Jobbik, is a Hungarian political party with radical and nationalist roots.
John Forbes Kerry (born December 11, 1943) is an American politician who served as the 68th United States Secretary of State from 2013 to 2017.
The Roman province of Judea (יהודה, Standard Tiberian; يهودا; Ἰουδαία; Iūdaea), sometimes spelled in its original Latin forms of Iudæa or Iudaea to distinguish it from the geographical region of Judea, incorporated the regions of Judea, Samaria and Idumea, and extended over parts of the former regions of the Hasmonean and Herodian kingdoms of Judea.
The Khan Shaykhun chemical attack took place on 4 April 2017 on the town of Khan Shaykhun in the Idlib Governorate of Syria.
A knight is a person granted an honorary title of knighthood by a monarch, bishop or other political leader for service to the monarch or a Christian Church, especially in a military capacity.
Latakia Governorate (مُحافظة اللاذقية / ALA-LC: Muḥāfaẓat al-Lādhiqīyah) is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces) of Syria.
Laurent Fabius (born 20 August 1946) is a French Socialist politician who served as Prime Minister of France from 17 July 1984 to 20 March 1986.
Levantine Arabic (الـلَّـهْـجَـةُ الـشَّـامِـيَّـة,, Levantine Arabic: il-lahže š-šāmiyye) is a broad dialect of Arabic and the vernacular Arabic of the eastern coastal strip of the Levantine Sea, that is Shaam.
A number of armed groups have involved themselves in the ongoing Syrian Civil War.
This article lists the Presidents of Syria since 1920.
This is a list of Prime Ministers of Lebanon (officially titled President of the Council of Ministers) since the creation of the office in 1926.
The London School of Economics (officially The London School of Economics and Political Science, often referred to as LSE) is a public research university located in London, England and a constituent college of the federal University of London.
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper which has been published in Los Angeles, California since 1881.
Maher al-Assad (ماهر الأسد, born 8 December 1967) is a Syrian general and commander of the Republican Guard and the army's elite Fourth Armored Division, which together with Syria's secret police form the core of the country's security forces.
Mahmoud Abbas (مَحْمُود عَبَّاس,; born 15 November 1935), also known by the kunya Abu Mazen (أَبُو مَازِن), is the President of the State of Palestine and Palestinian National Authority. He has been the Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) since 11 November 2004, and Palestinian president since 15 January 2005 (Palestinian National Authority since 15 January 2005, and State of Palestine since 8 May 2005). Abbas is a member of the Fatah party and was elected Chairman of Fatah in 2009. Abbas was elected on 9 January 2005 to serve as President of the Palestinian National Authority until 15 January 2009, but extended his term until the next election in 2010, citing the PLO constitution, and on December 16, 2009 was voted into office indefinitely by the PLO Central Council. As a result, Fatah's main rival, Hamas, initially announced that it would not recognize the extension or view Abbas as the rightful president. The Jerusalem Post (9 January 2009) Yet, Abbas is internationally recognized and Hamas and Fatah conducted numerous negotiations in the following years, leading to an agreement in April 2014 over a Unity Government, which lasted until October 2016, and therefore to the recognition of his office by Hamas. Abbas was also chosen as the President of the State of Palestine by the Palestine Liberation Organization's Central Council on 23 November 2008, a position he had held unofficially since 8 May 2005. Abbas served as the first Prime Minister of the Palestinian Authority from March to September 2003. Before being named prime minister, Abbas led the PLO Negotiations Affairs Department.
Main Intelligence Directorate (p), abbreviated GRU (p), is the foreign military intelligence agency of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation (formerly the Soviet Army General Staff of the Soviet Union).
Malcolm Wrightson Nance (born September 20, 1961) is an American author and media commentator on terrorism, intelligence, insurgency and torture.
The March 14 Alliance (taḥāluf 14 adhār), named after the date of the Cedar Revolution, is a coalition of political parties and independents in Lebanon formed in 2005 that are united by their anti-Syrian regime stance and their opposition to the March 8 Alliance.
Sir Mark Justin Lyall Grant, (born 29 May 1956) is a former senior British diplomat who was previously the United Kingdom's National Security Adviser and Permanent Representative of the United Kingdom to the United Nations.
Mezzeh prison is a now-defunct Syrian prison overlooking the capital, Damascus.
Michel Fuad Samaha (born 9 September 1948) is a former minister of information and minister of tourism in Lebanon, and a longtime politician and intelligence operative.
The Middle East Media Research Institute (MEMRI) is a nonprofit press monitoring and analysis organization with headquarters in Washington, D.C. MEMRI publishes and distributes free English language translations of Arabic, Persian, Urdu, Pashto, and Turkish media reports.
Middle East Quarterly (MEQ) is a quarterly journal, a publication of the think tank Middle East Forum (MEF) founded by Daniel Pipes in 1994.
The MIT Press is a university press affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States).
Mohammad Jihad al-Laham (محمد جهاد اللحام, born 13 January 1954) is a Syrian politician who has been the Speaker of the People's Council of Syria from 2012 to 2016.
Mohammed Saeed Bekheitan is the Assistant Secretary of the Syrian Regional Command of the Ba'ath Party.
Dr Mowaffak Baqer al-Rubaie (alternative transliterations Muwaffaq al-Rubaie and Muwaffaq al-Rubay'i) (Arabic: موفق الربيعي) is a distinguished Iraqi politician and active civil rights campaigner.
MSNBC is an American news cable and satellite television network that provides news coverage and political commentary from NBC News on current events.
Muhammad Mustafa Mero (محمد مصطفى ميرو) (born 1941) is a former Prime Minister of Syria who was in office from 7 March 2000 to 10 September 2003.
Muhammad Naji al-Otari (محمد ناجي عطري also Etri, Itri and Otri) (born 1944) is a Syrian politician who was Prime Minister of Syria from 2003 to 2011.
The Multi-National Force – Iraq (MNF–I), often referred to as the coalition forces, was a military command during the 2003 invasion of Iraq and much of the ensuing Iraq War, led by the United States of America (Operation Iraqi Freedom), United Kingdom (Operation TELIC), Australia, Spain and Poland, responsible for conducting and handling military operations.
Mushir (مشير) is an Arab word meaning "counsellor" or "advisor".
The Society of the Muslim Brothers (جماعة الإخوان المسلمين), better known as the Muslim Brotherhood (الإخوان المسلمون), is a transnational Sunni Islamist organization founded in Egypt by Islamic scholar and schoolteacher Hassan al-Banna in 1928.
Nadim Shehadi (born 11 February 1956) is the current director of The Fares Center for Eastern Mediterranean Studies at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University and an Associate Fellow at Chatham House where he is also the acting head of the Middle East program.
Najah Al-Attar (نجاح العطار; born 10 January 1933) is the Vice President of Syria, in office since 2006.
The National Coalition for Syrian Revolution and Opposition Forces (الائتلاف الوطني لقوى الثورة والمعارضة السورية), commonly named the Syrian National Coalition (الائتلاف الوطني السوري), is a coalition of opposition groups in the Syrian Civil War that was founded in Doha, Qatar, in November 2012.
The National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) is a far-right and ultranationalist political party in Germany.
National Geographic (formerly the National Geographic Magazine and branded also as NAT GEO or) is the official magazine of the National Geographic Society.
The National Liberation Front (جبهة التحرير الوطني Jabhatu l-Taḥrīru l-Waṭanī; Front de libération nationale, FLN) is a socialist political party in Algeria.
The National Order of the Cedar (وسام الأرز الوطني Wisām al-Arz al-Waṭaniy Ordre National du Cèdre) is the highest state order of Lebanon, established on 31 December 1936.
The National Progressive Front (al-Jabha al-Waṭaniyyah at-Taqaddumiyyah, NPF) is a political alliance of parties in Syria that supports the socialist and Arab nationalist orientation of the government and accepts the "leading role in society" of the Arab Socialist Ba’ath Party, the largest party in the NPF.
The National Rally (Rassemblement national, RN), formerly known as the National Front (Front national,; FN) until 2018, is a right-wing populist and nationalist political party in France.
The National Renovator Party (Partido Nacional Renovador,, PNR) is a Portuguese ultranationalist political party.
National Rebirth of Poland (Narodowe Odrodzenie Polski), abbreviated to NOP, is an ultranationalist and national-revolutionary (or Third Position) political party in Poland registered by the District Court in Warsaw and National Electoral Commission.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Neo-Nazism consists of post-World War II militant social or political movements seeking to revive and implement the ideology of Nazism.
New Force (Forza Nuova, FN) is an Italian far-right political party.
New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the Northeastern United States.
Nicaragua, officially the Republic of Nicaragua, is the largest country in the Central American isthmus, bordered by Honduras to the north, the Caribbean to the east, Costa Rica to the south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
Nicholas John Griffin (born 1 March 1959) is a British politician who represented North West England as a Member of the European Parliament (MEP) from 2009 to 2014.
Nicolás Maduro Moros (born 23 November 1962) is a Venezuelan politician who has served as the 63rd President of Venezuela since 2013 and previously served under President Hugo Chávez as Minister of Foreign Affairs from 2006 to 2013 and as Vice President of Venezuela from 2012 to 2013.
Nimrata "Nikki" Haley (née Randhawa, born January 20, 1972) is an American politician who is currently the 29th United States Ambassador to the United Nations.
Nouri Kamil Mohammed Hasan al-Maliki (نوري كامل محمد حسن المالكي.; born 20 June 1950), also known as Jawad al-Maliki (جواد المالكي) or Abu Esraa (أبو إسراء), is an Iraqi politician who was Prime Minister of Iraq from 2006 to 2014.
The November 2015 Paris attacks were a series of coordinated terrorist attacks that occurred on Friday, 13 November 2015 in Paris, France and the city's northern suburb, Saint-Denis.
NOW News (sometimes abbreviated NOW) is a Beirut-based Lebanese news website focused on the Middle East founded in late 2012 and published in both English and Arabic by M Publishing SAL.
Occupy Wall Street (OWS) was a protest movement that began on September 17, 2011, in Zuccotti Park, located in New York City's Wall Street financial district, receiving global attention and spawning a surge in the movement against economic inequality worldwide.
Omar Ibrahim Ghalawanji (عمر ابراهيم غلاونجي,; born 1954) is a Syrian politician who was the caretaker Prime Minister of Syria in August 2012, following the defection of Riyad Farid Hijab.
openDemocracy is a United Kingdom-based political website.
Operation Outside the Box (מבצע מחוץ לקופסה, Mivtza Michutz La'Kufsa) was an Israeli airstrike on a suspected nuclear reactor, Associated Press Latest Update: 04.28.11, 18:10 referred to as the Al Kibar site (also referred to in IAEA documents as Dair Alzour), in the Deir ez-Zor region of Syria, which occurred just after midnight (local time) on 6 September 2007.
Ophthalmology is a branch of medicine and surgery (both methods are used) that deals with the anatomy, physiology and diseases of the eyeball and orbit.
The Order of the Islamic Republic (نشان جمهوری اسلامی, Nešān-e Jomhuri-ye Eslāmi-ye) is Iran's state decoration of honour, established 1990, awarded by President of Iran to foreign nationals.
The Order of Merit of the Italian Republic (Ordine al merito della Repubblica Italiana) was founded as the senior order of knighthood by the second President of the Italian Republic, Luigi Einaudi in 1951.
The Order of Prince Yaroslav the Wise (Орден князя Ярослава Мудрого) is an award of Ukraine.
The Order of the Liberator was the highest distinction of Venezuela and was appointed for services to the country, outstanding merit and benefits made to the community.
The National Order of the Southern Cross (Ordem Nacional do Cruzeiro do Sul) is a Brazilian order of chivalry founded by Emperor Pedro I on 1 December 1822.
The Order of the White Rose of Finland (Suomen Valkoisen Ruusun ritarikunta; Finlands Vita Ros’ orden) is one of three official orders in Finland, along with the Order of the Cross of Liberty, and the Order of the Lion of Finland.
The orders, decorations and medals of Finland form a rather complicated system through which the Finnish government shows its respect to persons who have distinguished themselves on some walk of life.
Usama ibn Mohammed ibn Awad ibn Ladin (أسامة بن محمد بن عوض بن لادن), often anglicized as Osama bin Laden (March 10, 1957 – May 2, 2011), was a founder of, the organization responsible for the September 11 attacks in the United States and many other mass-casualty attacks worldwide.
The Palmyra offensive of May 2015 was a military operation launched during the Syrian Civil War by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) on May 13–26, 2015, in an attempt to capture the government-held Tadmur District of the Homs Governorate, including the administrative centre of Tadmur, known in English as Palmyra.
The Paris Agreement (Accord de Paris) is an agreement within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) dealing with greenhouse gas emissions mitigation, adaptation, and finance starting in the year 2020.
The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster and television program distributor.
The People's Council (مجلس الشعب, Majlis al-Sha'ab; Assemblée du peuple) is Syria's legislative authority.
The People's Progressive Party (PPP) is a left-wing political party in Guyana.
The permanent members of the United Nations Security Council (also known as the Permanent Five, Big Five, or P5) are the five states which the UN Charter of 1945 grants a permanent seat on the UN Security Council.
The permanent representative of the United Kingdom to the United Nations is the United Kingdom's foremost diplomatic representative to the United Nations, and in charge of the United Kingdom Mission to the United Nations (UKMIS).
In diplomacy, a persona non grata (Latin: "person not appreciated", plural: personae non gratae) is a foreign person whose entering or remaining in a particular country is prohibited by that country's government.
Peter R. Neumann (born 4 December 1974) is a German journalist and academic who frequently appears on radio and television as an expert on terrorism and political violence.
The political system of Qatar is either an absolute monarchy or a constitutional monarchy, with the Emir of Qatar as head of state and head of government.
Pope John Paul II (Ioannes Paulus II; Giovanni Paolo II; Jan Paweł II; born Karol Józef Wojtyła;; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) served as Pope and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 1978 to 2005.
The Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) (Arabic: الجبهة الشعبية لتحرير فلسطين, al-Jabhah al-Sha`biyyah li-Taḥrīr Filasṭīn) is a secular Palestinian Marxist–Leninist and revolutionary socialist organization founded in 1967 by George Habash.
The presidency of George W. Bush began at noon EST on January 20, 2001, when George W. Bush was inaugurated as 43rd President of the United States, and ended on January 20, 2009.
The President of Algeria is the head of state and chief executive of Algeria, as well as the commander-in-chief of the Algerian People's National Armed Forces.
The President of the Co-operative Republic of Guyana is the head of state and the head of government of Guyana, as well as the commander-in-chief of the armed forces of the Republic, according to the Constitution of Guyana.
The President of the Lebanese Republic is the head of state of Lebanon.
The President of the Republic of South Africa is the head of state and head of government under the Constitution of South Africa.
The President of Syria is the head of state of the Syrian Arab Republic.
The President of the Republic is a title used for heads of state and/or heads of government in countries having republican form of government.
The President of the State of Palestine is the head of the State of Palestine.
The President of Venezuela (Presidente de Venezuela), officially known as the President of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (Presidente de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela) is the head of state and head of government in Venezuela's presidential system.
Prince Carlo of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, Duke of Castro (born 24 February 1963) is a claimant to the headship of the House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies.
Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing the spread of information between an individual or an organization (such as a business, government agency, or a nonprofit organization) and the public.
Qantara.de (قنطرة qanṭarah, meaning "bridge") is an Internet portal in German, English, and Arabic, designed to promote intercultural dialogue between the Western and Islamic worlds.
Qardaha (قرداحة / ALA-LC: Qardāḥah) (Cardaha) is a village in northwestern Syria, in the mountains overlooking the coastal town of Latakia.
Quilliam is a London-based left-of-centre think tank that focuses on counter-extremism, specifically against Islamism, which it argues represents a desire to impose a given interpretation of Islam on society.
Rafic Baha El Deen Al Hariri (رفيق بهاء الدين الحريري; 1 November 1944 – 14 February 2005) was a Lebanese business tycoon and the Prime Minister of Lebanon from 1992 to 1998 and again from 2000 until his resignation on.
Raqqa Governorate (Muḥāfaẓat ar-Raqqah) is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces) of Syria.
A refugee, generally speaking, is a displaced person who has been forced to cross national boundaries and who cannot return home safely (for more detail see legal definition).
Regime change is the replacement of one government regime with another.
The Regional Command of the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party – Syria Region, officially the Regional Command of the Syrian Regional Branch of the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party, is the ruling organ of the Ba'ath Party organization in Syria.
Religion in Syria is made of range of faiths and sects.
Reporters Without Borders (RWB), or Reporters Sans Frontières (RSF), is an international non-profit, non-governmental organization that promotes and defends freedom of information and freedom of the press.
The Syrian Republican Guard (الحرس الجمهوري al-Ḥaras al-Jamhūriyy), also known as the Presidential Guard, is an elite 25,000 man mechanized division.
Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
The Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council was established after the military coup in 1968, and was the ultimate decision making body in Iraq before the 2003 American-led invasion.
RIA Novosti (РИА Новости), sometimes RIA (РИА) for short, was Russia's international news agency until 2013 and continues to be the name of a state-operated domestic Russian-language news agency.
Rifaat Ali al-Assad (رفعت علي الأسد; born 22 August 1937) is the younger brother of the former President of Syria, Hafez Assad and Jamil Assad, and the uncle of the incumbent President Bashar al-Assad.
Riyad Farid Hijab (رياض فريد حجاب; born 1966) is a Syrian politician.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
The Royal Order of Francis I (properly 'The Royal Order of Francis I of the Two Sicilies' Reale Ordine di Francesco I) is an extinct order of merit of the former kingdom of the Two Sicilies.
The Armed Forces of the Russian Federation (r) are the military service of the Russian Federation, established after the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
The Russian military intervention in the Syrian Civil War began in September 2015, after an official request by the Syrian government for military aid against rebel and jihadist groups.
Rustum Ghazaleh (رستم غزالة) also transl.
Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (Arabic: صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي; 28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was President of Iraq from 16 July 1979 until 9 April 2003.
Saddam Hussein and al-Qaeda link allegations were made by the U.S. government officials who claimed that a highly secretive relationship existed between Iraqi President Saddam Hussein and the radical Islamist militant organization Al-Qaeda between 1992 and 2003, specifically through a series of meetings reportedly involving the Iraqi Intelligence Service (IIS).
Salafi jihadism or jihadist-Salafism is a transnational religious-political ideology based on a belief in "physical" jihadism and the Salafi movement of returning to what adherents believe to be true Sunni Islam.
Salim Idris (سلیم ادریس Salīm Idrīs) (born 1957) is the former Chief of Staff of the Supreme Military Council (SMC) of the Free Syrian Army, which is the main Syrian armed opposition group.
The Sandinista National Liberation Front (Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional, FSLN) is a democratic socialist political party in Nicaragua.
Second Chechen War (Втора́я чече́нская война́), also known as the Second Chechen Сampaign (Втора́я чече́нская кампа́ния), was an armed conflict on the territory of Chechnya and the border regions of the North Caucasus between the Russian Federation and the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria, also with militants of various Islamist groups, fought from August 1999 to April 2009.
The term secret police (or political police)Ilan Berman & J. Michael Waller, "Introduction: The Centrality of the Secret Police" in Dismantling Tyranny: Transitioning Beyond Totalitarian Regimes (Rowman & Littlefield, 2006), p. xv.
The Secretary-General of the United Nations (UNSG or just SG) is the head of the United Nations Secretariat, one of the six principal organs of the United Nations.
The Syrian Civil War is an intensely sectarian conflict.
The September 11, 2001 attacks (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001.
The Serbian Radical Party (Српска радикална странка, CPC / Srpska radikalna stranka, SRS) is a Serbian nationalist political party in Serbia.
Sergey Viktorovich Lavrov (Серге́й Ви́кторович Лавро́в,; born 21 March 1950) is a Russian diplomat and politician; he is currently the Foreign Minister of Russia, in office since 2004.
Shabiha (North Levantine Arabic: شبيحة,; also romanized Shabeeha or Shabbiha; loosely translated "spirits", "ghosts", "shadows", or "apparitions") are mostly Alawite groups of armed militia in support of the Ba'ath Party government of Syria, led by the Al-Assad family.
The Simon Wiesenthal Center (often abbreviated SWC), with headquarters in Los Angeles, California, United States, was established in 1977 and named for Nazi hunter Simon Wiesenthal.
Sinjar, also known as Shingal (Şengal/Şingal/Şingar/شنگار/ شنگال., Ancient: Singara) is a town in Shingal District, Nineveh Province, Iraq near Mount Shingal.
Slobodan Milošević (Слободан Милошевић; 20 August 1941 – 11 March 2006) was a Yugoslav and Serbian politician and the President of Serbia (originally the Socialist Republic of Serbia, a constituent republic within the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia) from 1989 to 1997 and President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia from 1997 to 2000.
Social media are computer-mediated technologies that facilitate the creation and sharing of information, ideas, career interests and other forms of expression via virtual communities and networks.
The Special Tribunal for Lebanon (STL), also referred to as the Lebanon Tribunal or the Hariri Tribunal, is a tribunal of international character applying Lebanese criminal law to carry out the investigation and prosecution of those responsible for the 14 February 2005 assassination of Rafic Hariri, the former Lebanese prime minister, and the deaths of 21 others, as well as those responsible for connected attacks.
The Stanford University Press (SUP) is the publishing house of Stanford University.
Stephen J. Rapp (born January 26, 1949) is an American lawyer and the former United States Ambassador-at-Large for War Crimes Issues in the Office of Global Criminal Justice.
Strasserism (Strasserismus or Straßerismus) is a strand of Nazism that calls for a more radical, mass-action and worker-based form of Nazism—hostile to Jews not from a racial, ethnic, cultural or religious perspective, but from an anti-capitalist basis—to achieve a national rebirth.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
Supreme Council of the Syrian Revolution (SCSR) (المجلس الأعلى للثورة السورية) is a Syrian opposition group supporting the overthrow of the Bashir al-Assad government in Syria during the Syrian civil war.
The Syriac Security Office (Mawtbo d'Sutoro Suryoyo, سوتورو), commonly known as the Sutoro or the Sutoro Police, is an ethnic Assyrian, Syriac-Christian police force in Jazira Canton of the Democratic Federation of Northern Syria in Syria, where it works in concert with the general Asayish police force of the canton with the mission to police ethnic Assyrian areas and neighbourhoods.
Syracuse University Press, founded in 1943, is a university press that is part of Syracuse University.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
The Syria Accountability and Lebanese Sovereignty Restoration Act (SALSRA) is a bill of the United States Congress passed into law on December 12, 2003.
The Syriac Military Council (translit, MFS for short; المجلس العسكري السرياني السوري) is an Assyrian/Syriac military organisation in Syria.
The Syrian Air Force, officially the Syrian Arab Air Force (القوات الجوية العربية السورية, Al Quwwat al-Jawwiyah al Arabiya as-Souriya), is the air force branch of the Syrian Armed Forces.
The Syrian Arab News Agency (SANA) (الوكالة العربية السورية للأنباء) is a news agency in Syria.
The Syrian Arab Armed Forces (القوات المسلحة العربية السورية, Forces armées syriennes) are the military forces of the Syrian Arab Republic.
The Syrian Army, officially the Syrian Arab Army (SAA) (al-Jayš al-ʿArabī as-Sūrī), is the land force branch of the Syrian Armed Forces.
The Syrian Civil War (الحرب الأهلية السورية, Al-ḥarb al-ʼahliyyah as-sūriyyah) is an ongoing multi-sided armed conflict in Syria fought primarily between the Ba'athist Syrian Arab Republic led by President Bashar al-Assad, along with its allies, and various forces opposing both the government and each other in varying combinations.
The Syrian Computer Society is an organization in Syria.
A constitutional referendum was held in Syria on 26 February 2012.
The Syrian occupation of Lebanon (الاحتلال السوري للبنان, Occupation syrienne du Liban) began in 1976, during the Lebanese Civil War, and ended in 2005 following the assassination of former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafic Hariri.
The Syrian opposition (المعارضة السورية) is an umbrella term for the political structure represented by the Syrian National Coalition and associated anti-government Syrian groups with certain territorial control in the form of a proto-state as an alternative Syrian government, claiming to be the legitimate Syrian Arab Republic and also sometimes known just as the Republic of Syria.
A parliamentary election to the Syrian People's Council was held in Syria on 7 May 2012, following the approval of a new constitution of Syria, in a referendum on 26 February 2012.
Presidential elections were held in Syria on 10 July 2000, following the death of President Hafez al-Assad.
A referendum to confirm the presidential candidate Bashar al-Assad was held in Syria on 27 May 2007, after the People's Council of Syria unanimously The Washington Post, 29 May 2007 voted to propose the incumbent for a second term on 10 May 2007.
Presidential elections were held in Syria on 3 June 2014.
The Syrian Social Nationalist Party (SSNP) (الحزب السوري القومي الاجتماعي, transliterated: Al-Ḥizb Al-Sūrī Al-Qawmī Al-'Ijtimā'ī, often referred to in French as Parti populaire syrien or Parti social nationaliste syrien), is a nationalist political party operating in Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Iraq and Palestine.
Tartus (طرطوس / ALA-LC: Ṭarṭūs; also transliterated Tartous) is a city on the Mediterranean coast of Syria.
Tehran (تهران) is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province.
The Atlantic is an American magazine and multi-platform publisher, founded in 1857 as The Atlantic Monthly in Boston, Massachusetts.
The Christian Science Monitor (CSM) is a nonprofit news organization that publishes daily articles in electronic format as well as a weekly print edition.
The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.
The Fares Center for Eastern Mediterranean Studies is an interdisciplinary education and research organization founded in 2001, devoted to the regional study of the Eastern Mediterranean within greater Middle East.
The Forward (Forverts), formerly known as The Jewish Daily Forward, is an American magazine published monthly in New York City for a Jewish-American audience.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Hindu is an Indian daily newspaper, headquartered at Chennai.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Terrorists of Iraq: Inside the Strategy and Tactics of the Iraq Insurgency 2003–2014 is a non-fiction book about the Iraqi insurgency, written by U.S. Navy retired cryptology analyst Malcolm Nance.
The Times is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England.
The Times of Israel is an Israeli-based online newspaper launched in 2012.
The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
Third Way (Troisième voie) is a French Third Position organization founded in 1985 by a merger of the small neo-fascist Mouvement nationaliste révolutionnaire, which gathered former members of François Duprat's Revolutionary Nationalist Groups, with dissidents from the Party of New Forces.
A tribunal, generally, is any person or institution with authority to judge, adjudicate on, or determine claims or disputes—whether or not it is called a tribunal in its title.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.
The United Nations Security Council "veto power" refers to the power of the permanent members of the United Nations Security Council (China, France, Russia, United Kingdom, and United States) to veto any "substantive" resolution.
United Press International (UPI) is an international news agency whose newswires, photo, news film, and audio services provided news material to thousands of newspapers, magazines, radio and television stations for most of the 20th century.
The United Socialist Party of Venezuela (Partido Socialista Unido de Venezuela, PSUV) is a socialist political party in Venezuela which resulted from the fusion of some of the political and social forces that support the Bolivarian Revolution led by the late President Hugo Chávez.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Ambassador to the United Nations is the leader of the U.S. delegation, the U.S. Mission to the United Nations.
The United States Ambassador-at-Large for War Crimes Issues is the head of the Office of Global Criminal Justice in the United States Department of State.
The United States Central Command (USCENTCOM or CENTCOM) is a theater-level Unified Combatant Command of the U.S. Department of Defense.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
The Department of the Treasury (USDT) is an executive department and the treasury of the United States federal government.
The United States diplomatic cables leak, widely known as Cablegate, began on Sunday, 28 November 2010 when WikiLeaks—a non-profit organization that publishes submissions from anonymous whistleblowers—began releasing classified cables that had been sent to the U.S. State Department by 274 of its consulates, embassies, and diplomatic missions around the world.
The United States Government Publishing Office (GPO) (formerly the Government Printing Office) is an agency of the legislative branch of the United States federal government.
The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (USHMM) is the United States' official memorial to the Holocaust.
The United States House Committee on Foreign Affairs of the United States House of Representatives, also known as the House Foreign Affairs Committee, is a standing committee of the United States House of Representatives, which has jurisdiction over bills and investigations related to the foreign affairs of the United States.
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
The University Press of Kentucky (UPK) is the scholarly publisher for the Commonwealth of Kentucky, and was organized in 1969 as successor to the University of Kentucky Press.
A veil is an article of clothing or hanging cloth that is intended to cover some part of the head or face, or an object of some significance.
Vlaams Belang (VB; Dutch for "Flemish Interest") is a right-wing populist and Flemish nationalist political party in the Flemish Region and Brussels of Belgium.
Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (a; born 7 October 1952) is a Russian statesman and former intelligence officer serving as President of Russia since 2012, previously holding the position from 2000 until 2008.
Vogue is a fashion and lifestyle magazine covering many topics including fashion, beauty, culture, living, and runway.
Voice of America (VOA) is a U.S. government-funded international radio broadcast source that serves as the United States federal government's official institution for non-military, external broadcasting.
Wael Nader Al-Halqi (وائل نادر الحلقي, born 1964) is a Syrian politician who was Prime Minister of Syria from 2012 to 2016.
Walid Bey Jumblatt (وليد بيك جنبلاط; born 7 August 1949) is a veteran Lebanese politician, the leader of Lebanon's Druze and the current leader of the Progressive Socialist Party.
A war crime is an act that constitutes a serious violation of the laws of war that gives rise to individual criminal responsibility.
A war economy is the set of contingencies undertaken by a modern state to mobilize its economy for war production.
Western Eye Hospital (WEH) is an ophthalmology hospital in west London.
The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.
The Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars (or Wilson Center), located in Washington, D.C., is a United States Presidential Memorial that was established as part of the Smithsonian Institution by an act of Congress in 1968.
Yale University Press is a university press associated with Yale University.
Ynetnews is the online English-language Israeli news website of Yedioth Ahronoth, Israel’s most-read newspaper, and the Hebrew news portal, Ynet.
Muhammad Zuhair Masharqa (1938 – 23 April 2007) (زهير مشارقة) was a Syrian politician who served as Vice President of Syria from 1984 to 2006.
The Hama massacre (مجزرة حماة) occurred in 2 February 1982, when the Syrian Arab Army and the Defense Companies, under the orders of the country's president Hafez al-Assad, besieged the town of Hama for 27 days in order to quell an uprising by the Muslim Brotherhood against al-Assad's government.
The 2003 invasion of Iraq was the first stage of the Iraq War (also called Operation Iraqi Freedom).
The 2006 Lebanon War, also called the 2006 Israel–Hezbollah War and known in Lebanon as the July War (حرب تموز, Ḥarb Tammūz) and in Israel as the Second Lebanon War (מלחמת לבנון השנייה, Milhemet Levanon HaShniya), was a 34-day military conflict in Lebanon, Northern Israel and the Golan Heights.
The 2008 Abu Kamal raid was an attack carried out by helicopter-borne CIA paramilitary officers from Special Activities Division and United States Special Operations Command, Joint Special Operations Command inside Syrian territory on October 26, 2008.
The 2013 Latakia offensive, (called The Descendants of Aisha, Mother of the Believers by Salafist jihadists, and the Operation Liberation of the Coast by the Free Syrian Army and its supporters) was a campaign during the Syrian civil war launched by Salafist jihadist groups andrebel forces in the Latakia Governorate.
In the morning of 7 April 2017, the United States launched 59 Tomahawk cruise missiles from the Mediterranean Sea into Syria, aimed at Shayrat Airbase controlled by the Syrian government.
On 14 April 2018, beginning at 04:00 Syrian time (UTC+3), the United States, France, and the United Kingdom carried out a series of military strikes involving aircraft and ship-based missiles against multiple government sites in Syria.
Assadist, Bachar Al-Assad, Bashar Al Assad, Bashar Al-Asad, Bashar Al-Assad, Bashar AlAssad, Bashar Asad, Bashar Assad, Bashar El Assad, Bashar El assad, Bashar El-Assaad, Bashar Hafez al-Assad, Bashar al Assad, Bashar al- Assad, Bashar al-Asad, Bashar al-assad, Bashar alAssad, Bashar el Assad, Bashar el assad, Bashar el-Assad, Bashar-al Assad, Bashar-el-Assad, Basher al-Assad, Bashir Al-Assad, Bashir al Assad, Bashir al-Assad, Bashshar al-Asad, Bassar al-Asad, Baššār al-Asad, Baššār al-ʾAsad, Baššār Ḥāfiẓ al-ʾAsad, Dr. Bashar el Assad, President Assad (junior), President Bashar al-Assad, Pro-Assadist, بشار حافظ الأسد.