162 relations: Adolf Hitler, Adolf Hitler's rise to power, Affirmative action, Allies of World War II, Annexation, Baden-Württemberg, Balanced budget amendment, Basic Treaty, 1972, Bavaria, Berlin, Bizone, Bonn, Brandenburg, Bremen (state), Bremen clause, Bundesrat of Germany, Bundesrechnungshof, Bundestag, Bundeswehr, Cabinet of Germany, Capital punishment in Germany, Chancellor of Germany (1949–present), Chiemsee, Christian Democratic Union of Germany, Cognate, Constituent assembly, Constitution, Constitution of East Germany, Constitution of Italy, Constitution of Japan, Constitution of the German Empire, Constitutional economics, Constitutionalism, Constructive vote of no confidence, Denazification, Detention (imprisonment), Deutsche Bundesbahn, Deutsche Bundespost, Dignity, Dutch annexation of German territory after World War II, East Germany, Eastern Bloc, Elisabeth Selbert, Enabling act, Enabling Act of 1933, Entrenched clause, Eternity clause, European Economic Community, Ex post facto law, Executive (government), ..., Führerprinzip, Federal Administrative Court (Germany), Federal Constitutional Court, Federal Court of Justice, Federal Fiscal Court, Federal Labour Court, Federal Patent Court (Germany), Federal Social Court, Federalism, Former eastern territories of Germany, Frankfurt Constitution, Frankfurt Documents, Geneva Conventions, Gerhard Schröder, German Emergency Acts, German federal election, 2005, German military law, German Reich, German reunification, Germans, Germany, Habeas corpus, Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907, Hamburg, Head of government, Hellmuth Heye, Helmut Kohl, Herrenchiemsee convention, Herreninsel, Hesse, History of Germany, History of Germany since 1990, Horst Köhler, International law, Irredentism, Judicial independence, Judiciary, JurisPedia, Karl Arnold, Koblenz, Landtag of Bavaria, Legislature, List of German defence ministers, London Six-Power Conference, Lower Saxony, Luftsicherheitsgesetz, Manchester University Press, Military reserve force, Minister-president, Motion of no confidence, Museum Koenig, Nazi Germany, Non bis in idem, North Rhine-Westphalia, Ombudsman, Ostpolitik, Parlamentarischer Rat, Parliamentary system, People's Court (Germany), Politics of Germany, Potsdam Agreement, President of Germany, President of Germany (1919–1945), Presumption of innocence, Proportional representation, Puppet state, Rainer Barzel, Rechtsstaat, Referendum, Reichstag (Weimar Republic), Reichstag Fire Decree, Reichswehr, Republicanism, Reserve power, Rhineland-Palatinate, Right of revolution, Right to a fair trial, Rule according to higher law, Saar Statute referendum, 1955, Saar Treaty, Schleswig-Holstein, Self-determination, Separation of powers, Social Democratic Party of Germany, Social responsibility, Socialist Unity Party of Germany, Sonderweg, South Baden, Stasi, State within a state, States of Germany, Streitbare Demokratie, Supreme Court of the United States, Time (magazine), Treaty of Zgorzelec, Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany, University of Texas at Austin, Verfassungsbeschwerde, Vizeadmiral, Volkskammer, Württemberg-Baden, Württemberg-Hohenzollern, Wehrmacht, Weimar Constitution, Weimar Republic, West Berlin, West Germany, Western Bloc, Wikisource, Willy Brandt, Women's rights, World War II. Expand index (112 more) » « Shrink index
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
Adolf Hitler's rise to power began in Germany in September 1919 when Hitler joined the political party known as the Deutsche Arbeiterpartei – DAP (German Workers' Party).
Affirmative action, also known as reservation in India and Nepal, positive action in the UK, and employment equity (in a narrower context) in Canada and South Africa, is the policy of protecting members of groups that are known to have previously suffered from discrimination.
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
Annexation (Latin ad, to, and nexus, joining) is the administrative action and concept in international law relating to the forcible transition of one state's territory by another state.
Baden-Württemberg is a state in southwest Germany, east of the Rhine, which forms the border with France.
A balanced budget amendment is a constitutional rule requiring that a state cannot spend more than its income.
The Basic Treaty (Grundlagenvertrag) is the shorthand name for the Treaty concerning the basis of relations between the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic (Vertrag über die Grundlagen der Beziehungen zwischen der Bundesrepublik Deutschland und der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik).
Bavaria (Bavarian and Bayern), officially the Free State of Bavaria (Freistaat Bayern), is a landlocked federal state of Germany, occupying its southeastern corner.
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.
The Bizone or Bizonia was the combination of the American and the British occupation zones on 1 January 1947 during the occupation of Germany after World War II.
The Federal City of Bonn is a city on the banks of the Rhine in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia, with a population of over 300,000.
Brandenburg (Brannenborg, Lower Sorbian: Bramborska, Braniborsko) is one of the sixteen federated states of Germany.
The Free Hanseatic City of Bremen (Freie Hansestadt Bremen) is the smallest and least populous of Germany's 16 states.
The Bremen clause (Bremer Klausel) is Article 141 of the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany, which states: The sentence there cited says: It limits the range of application of the constitutional (Basic Law) rule over religious education, making it possible to have other types of instruction in some areas of Germany.
The German Bundesrat (literally "Federal Council") is a legislative body that represents the sixteen Länder (federated states) of Germany at the national level.
The Bundesrechnungshof (Federal Court of Auditors; also Federal Audit Office) is the supreme federal authority for federal audit matters in Germany.
The Bundestag ("Federal Diet") is the German federal parliament.
The Bundeswehr (Federal Defence) is the unified armed forces of Germany and their civil administration and procurement authorities.
The Cabinet of Germany (Bundeskabinett or Bundesregierung) is the chief executive body of the Federal Republic of Germany.
Capital punishment is prohibited in Germany by constitution.
The Federal Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (in German called Bundeskanzler(in), meaning "Federal Chancellor", or in) for short) is, under the German 1949 Constitution, the head of government of Germany.
Chiemsee is a freshwater lake in Bavaria, Germany, near Rosenheim.
The Christian Democratic Union of Germany (Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands, CDU) is a Christian democratic and liberal-conservative political party in Germany.
In linguistics, cognates are words that have a common etymological origin.
A constituent assembly or constitutional assembly is a body or assembly of popularly elected representatives composed for the purpose of drafting or adopting a document called the constitution.
A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed.
The German Democratic Republic (East Germany) was founded in 1949 and was absorbed into the Federal Republic of Germany on 3 October 1990.
The Constitution of the Italian Republic (Costituzione della Repubblica Italiana) was enacted by the Constituent Assembly on 22 December 1947, with 453 votes in favour and 62 against.
The is the fundamental law of Japan.
The Constitution of the German Empire (Verfassung des Deutschen Reiches) was the basic law of the German Empire of 1871-1918, from 16 April 1871, coming into effect on 4 May 1871.
Constitutional economics is a research program in economics and constitutionalism that has been described as explaining the choice "of alternative sets of legal-institutional-constitutional rules that constrain the choices and activities of economic and political agents".
Constitutionalism is "a complex of ideas, attitudes, and patterns of behavior elaborating the principle that the authority of government derives from and is limited by a body of fundamental law".
The constructive vote of no confidence (in German: konstruktives Misstrauensvotum, in Spanish: moción de censura constructiva) is a variation on the motion of no confidence that allows a parliament to withdraw confidence from a head of government only if there is a positive majority for a prospective successor.
Denazification (Entnazifizierung) was an Allied initiative to rid German and Austrian society, culture, press, economy, judiciary, and politics of any remnants of the National Socialist ideology (Nazism).
Detention is the process whereby a state or private citizen lawfully holds a person by removing his or her freedom or liberty at that time.
The Deutsche Bundesbahn or DB (German Federal Railway) was formed as the state railway of the newly established Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) on 7 September 1949 as a successor of the Deutsche Reichsbahn-Gesellschaft (DRG).
The Deutsche Bundespost (German federal post office) was a German state-run postal service and telecommunications business founded in 1947.
Dignity is the right of a person to be valued and respected for their own sake, and to be treated ethically.
At the end of World War II, plans were made in the Netherlands to annex German territory as compensation for the damages caused by the war.
East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR), existed from 1949 to 1990 and covers the period when the eastern portion of Germany existed as a state that was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period.
The Eastern Bloc was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.
Elisabeth Selbert (22 September 1896 – 9 June 1986) was a German politician and lawyer.
An enabling act is a piece of legislation by which a legislative body grants an entity which depends on it (for authorization or legitimacy) the power to take certain actions.
The Enabling Act (German: Ermächtigungsgesetz) was a 1933 Weimar Constitution amendment that gave the German Cabinet—in effect, Chancellor Adolf Hitler—the power to enact laws without the involvement of the Reichstag.
An entrenched clause or entrenchment clause of a basic law or constitution is a provision that makes certain amendments either more difficult or impossible to pass, making such amendments inadmissible.
An eternity clause in the constitution or basic law of a country is a clause intended to ensure that the law or constitution cannot be changed by amendment.
The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration among its member states.
An ex post facto law (corrupted from) is a law that retroactively changes the legal consequences (or status) of actions that were committed, or relationships that existed, before the enactment of the law.
The executive is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state.
The Führerprinzip (German for "leader principle") prescribed the fundamental basis of political authority in the governmental structures of the Third Reich.
The Federal Administrative Court (Bundesverwaltungsgericht) is one of the five federal supreme courts of Germany.
The Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht; abbreviated: BVerfG) is the supreme constitutional court for the Federal Republic of Germany, established by the constitution or Basic Law of Germany.
The Federal Court of Justice (Bundesgerichtshof, BGH) in Karlsruhe is the highest court in the system of ordinary jurisdiction (ordentliche Gerichtsbarkeit) in Germany.
The Federal Fiscal Court (Bundesfinanzhof) is one of five federal supreme courts of Germany, established according to Article 95 of the Basic Law.
The Federal Labour Court (Bundesarbeitsgericht) is the court of the last resort for cases of labour law in Germany, both for individual labour law (mostly concerning contracts of employment) and collective labour law (e.g. cases concerning strikes and collective bargaining).
The Federal Patent Court (Bundespatentgericht, abbreviation: BPatG) is a German federal court competent for particular legal matters, such as patent and trademark cases.
The Federal Social Court (Bundessozialgericht) is the German federal court of appeals for social security cases, mainly cases concerning the public health insurance, long-term care insurance, pension insurance and occupational accident insurance schemes.
Federalism is the mixed or compound mode of government, combining a general government (the central or 'federal' government) with regional governments (provincial, state, cantonal, territorial or other sub-unit governments) in a single political system.
The former eastern territories of Germany (Ehemalige deutsche Ostgebiete) are those provinces or regions east of the current eastern border of Germany (the Oder–Neisse line) which were lost by Germany after World War I and then World War II.
The Frankfurt Constitution (Frankfurter Reichsverfassung, FRV) or Constitution of St.
Members of the Frankfurt conference Frankfurt Documents were a series of documents which were an important step on the way to the founding of the Federal Republic of Germany.
Original document as PDF in single pages, 1864 The Geneva Conventions comprise four treaties, and three additional protocols, that establish the standards of international law for humanitarian treatment in war.
Gerhard Fritz Kurt Schröder (born 7 April 1944) is a German politician, and served as Chancellor of Germany from 1998 to 2005, during which his most important political project was the Agenda 2010.
The German Emergency Acts (Notstandsgesetze) were passed on 30 May 1968 at the time of the First Grand Coalition between the Social Democratic Party of Germany and the Christian Democratic Union of Germany.
Federal elections were held in Germany on 18 September 2005 to elect the members of the 16th Bundestag.
German military law has a long history.
Deutsches Reich was the official name for the German nation state from 1871 to 1945 in the German language.
The German reunification (Deutsche Wiedervereinigung) was the process in 1990 in which the German Democratic Republic (GDR, colloquially East Germany; German: Deutsche Demokratische Republik/DDR) became part of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, colloquially West Germany; German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland/BRD) to form the reunited nation of Germany, and when Berlin reunited into a single city, as provided by its then Grundgesetz (constitution) Article 23.
Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Habeas corpus (Medieval Latin meaning literally "that you have the body") is a recourse in law through which a person can report an unlawful detention or imprisonment to a court and request that the court order the custodian of the person, usually a prison official, to bring the prisoner to court, to determine whether the detention is lawful.
The Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907 are a series of international treaties and declarations negotiated at two international peace conferences at The Hague in the Netherlands.
Hamburg (locally), Hamborg, officially the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, Friee un Hansestadt Hamborg),Constitution of Hamburg), is the second-largest city of Germany as well as one of the country's 16 constituent states, with a population of roughly 1.8 million people. The city lies at the core of the Hamburg Metropolitan Region which spreads across four German federal states and is home to more than five million people. The official name reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League, a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire, a city-state and one of the 16 states of Germany. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, it was a fully sovereign state. Prior to the constitutional changes in 1919 it formed a civic republic headed constitutionally by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten. The city has repeatedly been beset by disasters such as the Great Fire of Hamburg, exceptional coastal flooding and military conflicts including World War II bombing raids. Historians remark that the city has managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe. Situated on the river Elbe, Hamburg is home to Europe's second-largest port and a broad corporate base. In media, the major regional broadcasting firm NDR, the printing and publishing firm italic and the newspapers italic and italic are based in the city. Hamburg remains an important financial center, the seat of Germany's oldest stock exchange and the world's oldest merchant bank, Berenberg Bank. Media, commercial, logistical, and industrial firms with significant locations in the city include multinationals Airbus, italic, italic, italic, and Unilever. The city is a forum for and has specialists in world economics and international law with such consular and diplomatic missions as the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, the EU-LAC Foundation, and the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning. In recent years, the city has played host to multipartite international political conferences and summits such as Europe and China and the G20. Former German Chancellor italic, who governed Germany for eight years, and Angela Merkel, German chancellor since 2005, come from Hamburg. The city is a major international and domestic tourist destination. It ranked 18th in the world for livability in 2016. The Speicherstadt and Kontorhausviertel were declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 2015. Hamburg is a major European science, research, and education hub, with several universities and institutions. Among its most notable cultural venues are the italic and italic concert halls. It gave birth to movements like Hamburger Schule and paved the way for bands including The Beatles. Hamburg is also known for several theatres and a variety of musical shows. St. Pauli's italic is among the best-known European entertainment districts.
A head of government (or chief of government) is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, (commonly referred to as countries, nations or nation-states) who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments.
Hellmuth Guido Alexander Heye (9 August 1895 – 10 November 1970) was a German admiral in World War II and politician in post-war Germany.
Helmut Josef Michael Kohl (3 April 1930 – 16 June 2017) was a German statesman who served as Chancellor of Germany from 1982 to 1998 (of West Germany 1982–1990 and of the reunited Germany 1990–1998) and as the chairman of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU) from 1973 to 1998.
The Constitutional Convention at Herrenchiemsee (Verfassungskonvent auf Herrenchiemsee) was a meeting of constitutional experts nominated by the minister-presidents of the Western States of Germany, held in August 1948 at former Herrenchiemsee Abbey in Bavaria.
Herreninsel (old name: Herrenwörth) is a 238 hectare island in Bavaria's largest lake, Chiemsee.
Hesse or Hessia (Hessen, Hessian dialect: Hesse), officially the State of Hesse (German: Land Hessen) is a federal state (''Land'') of the Federal Republic of Germany, with just over six million inhabitants.
The concept of Germany as a distinct region in central Europe can be traced to Roman commander Julius Caesar, who referred to the unconquered area east of the Rhine as Germania, thus distinguishing it from Gaul (France), which he had conquered.
The history of Germany since 1990 spans the period following the Reunification of Germany, when West Germany and East Germany were reunited after being divided during the Cold War.
Horst Köhler (born 22 February 1943) is a German politician of the Christian Democratic Union, and served as President of Germany from 2004 to 2010.
International law is the set of rules generally regarded and accepted as binding in relations between states and between nations.
Irredentism is any political or popular movement that seeks to reclaim and reoccupy a land that the movement's members consider to be a "lost" (or "unredeemed") territory from their nation's past.
Judicial independence is the concept that the judiciary needs to be kept away from the other branches of government.
The judiciary (also known as the judicial system or court system) is the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in the name of the state.
JurisPedia is a wiki encyclopedia of academic law in many languages,(13 April 2011).
Karl Arnold (21 March 1901 – 29 June 1958) was a German politician.
Koblenz (Coblence), spelled Coblenz before 1926, is a German city situated on both banks of the Rhine where it is joined by the Moselle.
The Landtag of Bavaria (State Diet of Bavaria) is the unicameral legislature of the state of Bavaria in Germany.
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.
The Federal Minister of Defence (Bundesminister der Verteidigung) is the head of the Federal Ministry of Defence and a member of the Federal Cabinet.
The London Six-Power Conference in 1948 was held between the three Western occupation forces in Germany after the World War II (United States, Britain and France) and the Benelux countries.
Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen, Neddersassen) is a German state (Land) situated in northwestern Germany.
The Luftsicherheitsgesetz (German for Aviation Security Act) is a German law created in response to the September 11, 2001 attacks which came into force on 2005-01-15.
Manchester University Press is the university press of the University of Manchester, England and a publisher of academic books and journals.
A military reserve force is a military organisation composed of citizens of a country who combine a military role or career with a civilian career.
A minister-president or minister president is the head of government in a number of European countries or subnational governments with a parliamentary or semi-presidential system of government where he or she presides over the council of ministers.
A motion of no confidence (alternatively vote of no confidence, no-confidence motion, or (unsuccessful) confidence motion) is a statement or vote which states that a person(s) in a position of responsibility (government, managerial, etc.) is no longer deemed fit to hold that position, perhaps because they are inadequate in some respect, are failing to carry out obligations, or are making decisions that other members feel are detrimental.
The Alexander Koenig Research Museum (German: Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig, abbreviated ZFMK) is a natural history museum and zoological research institution in Bonn, Germany.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Non bis in idem, which translates literally from Latin as "not twice in the same ", is a legal doctrine to the effect that no legal action can be instituted twice for the same cause of action.
North Rhine-Westphalia (Nordrhein-Westfalen,, commonly shortened to NRW) is the most populous state of Germany, with a population of approximately 18 million, and the fourth largest by area.
An ombudsman, ombud, or public advocate is an official who is charged with representing the interests of the public by investigating and addressing complaints of maladministration or a violation of rights.
Neue Ostpolitik (German for "new eastern policy"), or Ostpolitik for short, was the normalization of relations between the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, or West Germany) and Eastern Europe, particularly the German Democratic Republic (GDR, or East Germany) beginning in 1969.
The Parlamentarischer Rat (German for "Parliamentary Council") was the West German constituent assembly in Bonn that drafted and adopted the constitution of West Germany, the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany, promulgated on 23 May 1949.
A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.
The People's Court (Volksgerichtshof) was a Sondergericht ("special court") of Nazi Germany, set up outside the operations of the constitutional frame of law.
Germany is a democratic, federal parliamentary republic, and federal legislative power is vested in the Bundestag (the parliament of Germany) and the Bundesrat (the representative body of the Länder, Germany's regional states).
The Potsdam Agreement (Potsdamer Abkommen) was the August 1945 agreement between three of the Allies of World War II, the United Kingdom, the United States, and the Soviet Union.
The President of Germany, officially the Federal President of the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundespräsident der Bundesrepublik Deutschland),The official title within Germany is Bundespräsident, with der Bundesrepublik Deutschland being added in international correspondence; the official English title is President of the Federal Republic of Germany is the head of state of Germany.
The Reichspräsident was the German head of state under the Weimar constitution, which was officially in force from 1919 to 1945.
The presumption of innocence is the principle that one is considered innocent unless proven guilty.
Proportional representation (PR) characterizes electoral systems by which divisions into an electorate are reflected proportionately into the elected body.
A puppet state is a state that is supposedly independent but is in fact dependent upon an outside power.
Rainer Candidus Barzel (20 June 1924 – 26 August 2006) was a German politician of the CDU.
Rechtsstaat is a doctrine in continental European legal thinking, originating in German jurisprudence.
A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is invited to vote on a particular proposal.
The Reichstag (English: Diet of the Realm) was the Lower house of the Weimar Republic's Legislature from 1919, with the creation of the Weimar constitution, to 1933, with the Reichstag fire.
The Reichstag Fire Decree (Reichstagsbrandverordnung) is the common name of the Decree of the Reich President for the Protection of People and State (Verordnung des Reichspräsidenten zum Schutz von Volk und Staat) issued by German President Paul von Hindenburg on the advice of Chancellor Adolf Hitler on 28 February 1933 in immediate response to the Reichstag fire.
The Reichswehr (English: Realm Defence) formed the military organisation of Germany from 1919 until 1935, when it was united with the new Wehrmacht (Defence Force).
Republicanism is an ideology centered on citizenship in a state organized as a republic under which the people hold popular sovereignty.
In a parliamentary or semi-presidential system of government, a reserve power is a power that may be exercised by the head of state without the approval of another branch of the government.
Rhineland-Palatinate (Rheinland-Pfalz) is one of the 16 states (Bundesländer) of the Federal Republic of Germany.
In political philosophy, the right of revolution (or right of rebellion) is the right or duty of the people of a nation to overthrow a government that acts against their common interests and/or threatens the safety of the people without cause.
A trial which is observed by trial judge or by jury without being partial is a fair trial.
The rule according to a higher law means that no law may be enforced by the government unless it conforms with certain universal principles (written or unwritten) of fairness, morality, and justice.
A referendum on the Saar statute was held in the Saar Protectorate on 23 October 1955.
The Saar Treaty, or Treaty of Luxembourg (German: Vertrag von Luxemburg, French: accords de Luxembourg) is an agreement between West Germany and France concerning the return of the Saar Protectorate to West Germany.
Schleswig-Holstein is the northernmost of the 16 states of Germany, comprising most of the historical duchy of Holstein and the southern part of the former Duchy of Schleswig.
The right of people to self-determination is a cardinal principle in modern international law (commonly regarded as a jus cogens rule), binding, as such, on the United Nations as authoritative interpretation of the Charter's norms.
The separation of powers is a model for the governance of a state.
The Social Democratic Party of Germany (Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, SPD) is a social-democratic political party in Germany.
Social responsibility is an ethical framework and suggests that an entity, be it an organization or individual, has an obligation to act for the benefit of society at large.
The Socialist Unity Party of Germany (Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands, SED), established in April 1946, was the governing Marxist–Leninist political party of the German Democratic Republic from the country's foundation in October 1949 until it was dissolved after the Peaceful Revolution in 1989.
Sonderweg ("special path") identifies the theory in German historiography that considers the German-speaking lands or the country Germany itself to have followed a course from aristocracy to democracy unlike any other in Europe.
South Baden (Südbaden), formed in December 1945 from the southern half of the former Republic of Baden, was a subdivision of the French occupation zone of post-World War II Germany.
The Ministry for State Security (Ministerium für Staatssicherheit, MfS) or State Security Service (Staatssicherheitsdienst, SSD), commonly known as the Stasi, was the official state security service of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany).
A state within a state or a deep state is a political situation in a country when an internal organ ("deep state"), such as the armed forces or public authorities (intelligence agencies, police, secret police, administrative agencies, and branches of government bureaucracy), does not respond to the civilian political leadership.
Germany is a federal republic consisting of sixteen states (Land, plural Länder; informally and very commonly Bundesland, plural Bundesländer).
The wehrhafte, or streitbare Demokratie ("well fortified" or "battlesome democracy") is a term for German politics that implies that the government (Bundesregierung), the parliament (Bundestag and Bundesrat) and the judiciary are given extensive powers and duties to defend the freiheitlich-demokratische Grundordnung ("liberal democratic order") against those who want to abolish it.
The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS) is the highest federal court of the United States.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
The Treaty of Zgorzelec (Full title The Agreement Concerning the Demarcation of the Established and the Existing Polish-German State Frontier, also known as the Treaty of Görlitz and Treaty of Zgorzelic) between the Republic of Poland and East Germany (GDR) was signed on 6 July 1950 in Polish Zgorzelec, since 1945 the eastern part of the divided city of Görlitz.
The Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany (Vertrag über die abschließende Regelung in Bezug auf Deutschland), or the Two Plus Four Agreement (Zwei-plus-Vier-Vertrag; short: German Treaty), was negotiated in 1990 between the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic (the eponymous Two), and the Four Powers which occupied Germany at the end of World War II in Europe: the French Republic, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the United States of America.
The University of Texas at Austin (UT, UT Austin, or Texas) is a public research university and the flagship institution of the University of Texas System.
The constitutional complaint (Verfassungsbeschwerde) is a remedy found in Germany for protection of constitutional rights.
Vizeadmiral, short VAdm in lists VADM, (en: Vice admiral) is a senior naval flag officer rank in the German Navy.
The People's Chamber (German: Volkskammer) was the unicameral legislature of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany).
Württemberg-Baden was a state of the Federal Republic of Germany.
Württemberg-Hohenzollern (Wurtemberg-Hohenzollern) was a West German state created in 1945 as part of the French post-World War II occupation zone.
The Wehrmacht (lit. "defence force")From wehren, "to defend" and Macht., "power, force".
The Constitution of the German Reich (Die Verfassung des Deutschen Reichs), usually known as the Weimar Constitution (Weimarer Verfassung) was the constitution that governed Germany during the Weimar Republic era (1919–1933).
The Weimar Republic (Weimarer Republik) is an unofficial, historical designation for the German state during the years 1919 to 1933.
West Berlin (Berlin (West) or colloquially West-Berlin) was a political enclave which comprised the western part of Berlin during the years of the Cold War.
West Germany is the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG; Bundesrepublik Deutschland, BRD) in the period between its creation on 23 May 1949 and German reunification on 3 October 1990.
The Western Bloc during the Cold War refers to the countries allied with the United States and NATO against the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact.
Wikisource is an online digital library of free content textual sources on a wiki, operated by the Wikimedia Foundation.
Willy Brandt (born Herbert Ernst Karl Frahm; 18 December 1913 – 8 October 1992) was a German statesman who was leader of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) from 1964 to 1987 and served as Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) from 1969 to 1974.
Women's rights are the rights and entitlements claimed for women and girls worldwide, and formed the basis for the women's rights movement in the nineteenth century and feminist movement during the 20th century.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Basic Law (Germany), Basic Law of Germany, Basic Law of the Federal Republic of Germany, Basic law (Germany), Basic law for the federal republic of germany, Constitution of Germany, Constitution of the Federal Republic of Germany, German Basic Law, German Constitution, German basic law, German constitution, Germany's Basic Law, Germany's constitution, Germany’s Basic Law, Grundgesetz, Grundgesetz for the Federal Republic of Germany, Grundgesetz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland, Parliamentary Council of 1948, West German constitution.