77 relations: Alanine aminopeptidase, Allergy, Anaphylaxis, Antibody, Asthma, Base (chemistry), Basopenia, Basophilia, Blood, CCR3 (gene), CD117, CD14, CD164, CD19, CD23, CD24, CD3 (immunology), CD44, CD63, CD69, CD80, CD90, Cell nucleus, Chondroitin, Classical compound, Contrast agent, Cytokine, Cytoplasm, Degranulation, Diamine oxidase, Dye, Elastase, Eosinophil, FCER1, Flow cytometry, Food intolerance, Granulocyte, Haematopoiesis, Helminths, Heparin, Histamine, Histamine intolerance, Histamine N-methyltransferase, Hives, ICAM-1, IL2RB, Immune system, Immunoglobulin E, Inflammation, Integrin, ..., Integrin alpha 2, Integrin alpha M, Integrin alpha X, Interleukin 4, Interleukin-3 receptor, LAMP1, Leukemia, Leukotriene, Leukotriene D4, Lipid, Lymphoma, Lysophospholipase, Mast cell, Microscope, Paul Ehrlich, Pollen, Protease, Protein, Proteoglycan, PTPRC, Serotonin, Staining, T cell, T-cell receptor, Tick, TLR4, White blood cell. Expand index (27 more) » « Shrink index
Membrane alanyl aminopeptidase also known as alanyl aminopeptidase (AAP) or aminopeptidase N (AP-N) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ANPEP gene.
Allergies, also known as allergic diseases, are a number of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system to typically harmless substances in the environment.
Anaphylaxis is a serious allergic reaction that is rapid in onset and may cause death.
An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.
Asthma is a common long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs.
In chemistry, bases are substances that, in aqueous solution, release hydroxide (OH−) ions, are slippery to the touch, can taste bitter if an alkali, change the color of indicators (e.g., turn red litmus paper blue), react with acids to form salts, promote certain chemical reactions (base catalysis), accept protons from any proton donor, and/or contain completely or partially displaceable OH− ions.
Basopenia (or basocytopenia) is a form of agranulocytosis associated with a deficiency of basophils.
Basophilia is a condition derived from Basophils.
Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.
C-C chemokine receptor type 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCR3 gene.
Mast/stem cell growth factor receptor (SCFR), also known as proto-oncogene c-Kit or tyrosine-protein kinase Kit or CD117, is a receptor tyrosine kinase protein that in humans is encoded by the KIT gene.
CD14 (cluster of differentiation 14) is a human gene.
Sialomucin core protein 24 also known as endolyn or CD164 (cluster of differentiation 164) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD164 gene.
B-lymphocyte antigen CD19, also known as CD19 molecule ('''C'''luster of '''D'''ifferentiation 19), B-Lymphocyte Surface Antigen B4, T-Cell Surface Antigen Leu-12 and CVID3 is a transmembrane protein that in humans is encoded by the gene CD19.
CD23, also known as Fc epsilon RII, or FcεRII, is the "low-affinity" receptor for IgE, an antibody isotype involved in allergy and resistance to parasites, and is important in regulation of IgE levels.
Signal transducer CD24 also known as cluster of differentiation 24 or heat stable antigen CD24 (HSA) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD24 gene.
In immunology, the CD3 (cluster of differentiation 3) T cell co-receptor helps to activate both the cytotoxic T cell (CD8+ naive T cells) and also T helper cells (CD4+ naive T cells).
The CD44 antigen is a cell-surface glycoprotein involved in cell–cell interactions, cell adhesion and migration.
CD63 antigen is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD63 gene.
CD69 (Cluster of Differentiation 69) is a human transmembrane C-Type lectin protein encoded by the gene.
Cluster of differentiation 80 (also CD80 and B7-1) is a protein found on dendritic cells, activated B cells and monocytes that provides a costimulatory signal necessary for T cell activation and survival.
Thy-1 or CD90 (Cluster of Differentiation 90) is a 25–37 kDa heavily N-glycosylated, glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored conserved cell surface protein with a single V-like immunoglobulin domain, originally discovered as a thymocyte antigen.
In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
Chondroitin is a chondrin derivative.
Classical compounds and neoclassical compounds are compound words composed from combining forms (which act as affixes or stems) derived from classical Latin or ancient Greek roots.
A contrast agent (or contrast medium) is a substance used to increase the contrast of structures or fluids within the body in medical imaging.
Cytokines are a broad and loose category of small proteins (~5–20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling.
In cell biology, the cytoplasm is the material within a living cell, excluding the cell nucleus.
Degranulation is a cellular process that releases antimicrobial cytotoxic or other molecules from secretory vesicles called granules found inside some cells.
Diamine oxidase (DAO), also known as histaminase, is an enzyme involved in the metabolism, oxidation, and inactivation of histamine and other polyamines such as putrescine or spermidine in animals.
A dye is a colored substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied.
In molecular biology, elastase is an enzyme from the class of proteases (peptidases) that break down proteins.
Eosinophils sometimes called eosinophiles or, less commonly, acidophils, are a variety of white blood cells and one of the immune system components responsible for combating multicellular parasites and certain infections in vertebrates. Along with mast cells and basophils, they also control mechanisms associated with allergy and asthma. They are granulocytes that develop during hematopoiesis in the bone marrow before migrating into blood, after which they are terminally differentiated and do not multiply. These cells are eosinophilic or "acid-loving" due to their large acidophilic cytoplasmic granules, which show their affinity for acids by their affinity to coal tar dyes: Normally transparent, it is this affinity that causes them to appear brick-red after staining with eosin, a red dye, using the Romanowsky method. The staining is concentrated in small granules within the cellular cytoplasm, which contain many chemical mediators, such as eosinophil peroxidase, ribonuclease (RNase), deoxyribonucleases (DNase), lipase, plasminogen, and major basic protein. These mediators are released by a process called degranulation following activation of the eosinophil, and are toxic to both parasite and host tissues. In normal individuals, eosinophils make up about 1–3% of white blood cells, and are about 12–17 micrometres in size with bilobed nuclei. While they are released into the bloodstream as neutrophils are, eosinophils reside in tissue They are found in the medulla and the junction between the cortex and medulla of the thymus, and, in the lower gastrointestinal tract, ovary, uterus, spleen, and lymph nodes, but not in the lung, skin, esophagus, or some other internal organs under normal conditions. The presence of eosinophils in these latter organs is associated with disease. For instance, patients with eosinophilic asthma have high levels of eosinophils that lead to inflammation and tissue damage, making it more difficult for patients to breathe. Eosinophils persist in the circulation for 8–12 hours, and can survive in tissue for an additional 8–12 days in the absence of stimulation. Pioneering work in the 1980s elucidated that eosinophils were unique granulocytes, having the capacity to survive for extended periods of time after their maturation as demonstrated by ex-vivo culture experiments.
The high-affinity IgE receptor, also known as FcεRI, or Fc epsilon RI, is the high-affinity receptor for the Fc region of immunoglobulin E (IgE), an antibody isotype involved in the allergy disorder and parasites immunity.
In biotechnology, flow cytometry is a laser- or impedance-based, biophysical technology employed in cell counting, cell sorting, biomarker detection and protein engineering, by suspending cells in a stream of fluid and passing them through an electronic detection apparatus.
Food intolerance is a detrimental reaction, often delayed, to a food, beverage, food additive, or compound found in foods that produces symptoms in one or more body organs and systems, but generally refers to reactions other than food allergy.
Granulocytes are a category of white blood cells characterized by the presence of granules in their cytoplasm.
Haematopoiesis (from Greek αἷμα, "blood" and ποιεῖν "to make"; also hematopoiesis in American English; sometimes also haemopoiesis or hemopoiesis) is the formation of blood cellular components.
Helminths, also commonly known as parasitic worms, are large multicellular parasites, which can generally be seen with the naked eye when they are mature.
Heparin, also known as unfractionated heparin (UFH), is medication which is used as an anticoagulant (blood thinner).
Histamine is an organic nitrogenous compound involved in local immune responses, as well as regulating physiological function in the gut and acting as a neurotransmitter for the brain, spinal cord, and uterus.
Histamine intolerance, sometimes called histaminosis, is an over-accumulation of histamine in the human body.
Histamine N-methyltransferase (HMT, HNMT) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the HNMT gene.
Hives, also known as urticaria, is a kind of skin rash with red, raised, itchy bumps.
ICAM-1 (Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1) also known as CD54 (Cluster of Differentiation 54) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ICAM1 gene.
Interleukin-2 receptor subunit beta is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL2RB gene.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a type of antibody (or immunoglobulin (Ig) "isotype") that has only been found in mammals.
Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.
Integrins are transmembrane receptors that facilitate cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion.
Integrin alpha-2 or CD49b (cluster of differentiation 49b) is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CD49b gene.
Integrin alpha M (ITGAM) is one protein subunit that forms the heterodimeric integrin alpha-M beta-2 (αMβ2) molecule, also known as macrophage-1 antigen (Mac-1) or complement receptor 3 (CR3).
CD11c, also known as Integrin, alpha X (complement component 3 receptor 4 subunit) (ITGAX), is a gene that encodes for CD11c.
The interleukin 4 (IL4, IL-4) is a cytokine that induces differentiation of naive helper T cells (Th0 cells) to Th2 cells.
The interleukin-3 receptor (also known as CD123 antigen) is a molecule found on cells which helps transmit the signal of interleukin-3, a soluble cytokine important in the immune system.
Lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP-1) also known as lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein 1 and CD107a (Cluster of Differentiation 107a), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LAMP1 gene.
Leukemia, also spelled leukaemia, is a group of cancers that usually begin in the bone marrow and result in high numbers of abnormal white blood cells.
Leukotrienes are a family of eicosanoid inflammatory mediators produced in leukocytes by the oxidation of arachidonic acid (AA) and the essential fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) by the enzyme arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase.
Leukotriene D4 (LTD4) is one of the leukotrienes.
In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.
Lymphoma is a group of blood cancers that develop from lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell).
In enzymology, a lysophospholipase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are 2-lysophosphatidylcholine and H2O, whereas its two products are glycerophosphocholine and carboxylate.
A mast cell (also known as a mastocyte or a labrocyte) is a type of white blood cell.
A microscope (from the μικρός, mikrós, "small" and σκοπεῖν, skopeîn, "to look" or "see") is an instrument used to see objects that are too small to be seen by the naked eye.
Paul Ehrlich (14 March 1854 – 20 August 1915) was a German Jewish physician and scientist who worked in the fields of hematology, immunology, and antimicrobial chemotherapy.
Pollen is a fine to coarse powdery substance comprising pollen grains which are male microgametophytes of seed plants, which produce male gametes (sperm cells).
A protease (also called a peptidase or proteinase) is an enzyme that performs proteolysis: protein catabolism by hydrolysis of peptide bonds.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Proteoglycans are proteins that are heavily glycosylated.
Protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, C also known as PTPRC is an enzyme that, in humans, is encoded by the PTPRC gene.
Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.
Staining is an auxiliary technique used in microscopy to enhance contrast in the microscopic image.
A T cell, or T lymphocyte, is a type of lymphocyte (a subtype of white blood cell) that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity.
The T-cell receptor, or TCR, is a molecule found on the surface of T cells, or T lymphocytes, that is responsible for recognizing fragments of antigen as peptides bound to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules.
Ticks are small arachnids, part of the order Parasitiformes.
Toll-like receptor 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TLR4 gene.
White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.