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Basque language

Index Basque language

Basque (euskara) is a language spoken in the Basque country and Navarre. Linguistically, Basque is unrelated to the other languages of Europe and, as a language isolate, to any other known living language. The Basques are indigenous to, and primarily inhabit, the Basque Country, a region that straddles the westernmost Pyrenees in adjacent parts of northern Spain and southwestern France. The Basque language is spoken by 28.4% of Basques in all territories (751,500). Of these, 93.2% (700,300) are in the Spanish area of the Basque Country and the remaining 6.8% (51,200) are in the French portion. Native speakers live in a contiguous area that includes parts of four Spanish provinces and the three "ancient provinces" in France. Gipuzkoa, most of Biscay, a few municipalities of Álava, and the northern area of Navarre formed the core of the remaining Basque-speaking area before measures were introduced in the 1980s to strengthen the language. By contrast, most of Álava, the western part of Biscay and central and southern areas of Navarre are predominantly populated by native speakers of Spanish, either because Basque was replaced by Spanish over the centuries, in some areas (most of Álava and central Navarre), or because it was possibly never spoken there, in other areas (Enkarterri and southeastern Navarre). Under Restorationist and Francoist Spain, public use of Basque was frowned upon, often regarded as a sign of separatism; this applied especially to those regions that did not support Franco's uprising (such as Biscay or Gipuzkoa). However, in those Basque-speaking regions that supported the uprising (such as Navarre or Álava) the Basque language was more than merely tolerated. Overall, in the 1960s and later, the trend reversed and education and publishing in Basque began to flourish. As a part of this process, a standardised form of the Basque language, called Euskara Batua, was developed by the Euskaltzaindia in the late 1960s. Besides its standardised version, the five historic Basque dialects are Biscayan, Gipuzkoan, and Upper Navarrese in Spain, and Navarrese–Lapurdian and Souletin in France. They take their names from the historic Basque provinces, but the dialect boundaries are not congruent with province boundaries. Euskara Batua was created so that Basque language could be used—and easily understood by all Basque speakers—in formal situations (education, mass media, literature), and this is its main use today. In both Spain and France, the use of Basque for education varies from region to region and from school to school. A language isolate, Basque is believed to be one of the few surviving pre-Indo-European languages in Europe, and the only one in Western Europe. The origin of the Basques and of their languages is not conclusively known, though the most accepted current theory is that early forms of Basque developed prior to the arrival of Indo-European languages in the area, including the Romance languages that geographically surround the Basque-speaking region. Basque has adopted a good deal of its vocabulary from the Romance languages, and Basque speakers have in turn lent their own words to Romance speakers. The Basque alphabet uses the Latin script. [1]

222 relations: Absolutive case, Affricate consonant, Alan R. King, Algonquian peoples, Algonquian–Basque pidgin, Allocutive agreement, Alveolar consonant, Anglet, Antipassive voice, Apical consonant, Aquitanian language, Aragonese language, Asturians, Asturias, Auxiliary verb, Álava, Baby talk, Back vowel, Basque alphabet, Basque Country (autonomous community), Basque Country (greater region), Basque dialects, Basque diaspora, Basque nationalism, Basque–Icelandic pidgin, Basques, Bayonne, Béarn, Bern, Biarritz, Biscay, Biscayan dialect, Brittonic languages, Cahiers de l'Institut de Linguistique de Louvain, Catalan language, Catalonia, Caucasus, Celtic languages, Central vowel, Chechen language, Close front rounded vowel, Close vowel, Cognate, Common Era, Comparative method, Complutense University of Madrid, Constitution of Spain, Creole language, Dené–Caucasian languages, Dental consonant, ..., Diccionario crítico etimológico de la lengua castellana, Digraph (orthography), Dogon languages, Eastern Navarrese dialect, Enkarterri, Epenthesis, Ergative case, Ergative–absolutive language, Erromintxela language, Ethnonym, Euskaltzaindia, Fala dos arxiñas, Fall of the Western Roman Empire, Flap consonant, Focus (linguistics), Fraction (mathematics), France, Francoist Spain, Franks, French Basque Country, French language, Fricative consonant, Front vowel, Fuero, Gacería, Gallia Aquitania, Garonne, Gascon language, Gascony, Geographica, Georgian language, Gipuzkoa, Gipuzkoan dialect, Glottal consonant, Grammatical aspect, Gulf of Saint Lawrence, Hispania, Huesca, Hungarian language, Iberian language, Iberian Peninsula, Iberian Romance languages, Ikurriña, Indo-European languages, Intransitive verb, Italic languages, Italo-Celtic, J. P. Mallory, Joan Coromines, John Bengtson, John T. Koch, José Ignacio Hualde, Joseba Sarrionandia, Joxe Azurmendi, Kalderash, Kartvelian languages, Kingdom of Iberia, Koldo Mitxelena, Koldo Zuazo, La Rioja (Spain), Labial consonant, Labourd, Laminal consonant, Language isolate, Language shift, Languages of France, Languages of Spain, Languages of the Caucasus, Larry Trask, Late antiquity, Late Basquisation, Lateral consonant, Latin, Latin script, Ligurian language (ancient), List of Basques, List of Latin-script digraphs, Loanword, Louis Lucien Bonaparte, Maltese language, Merritt Ruhlen, Mid vowel, Miguel de Unamuno, Mixed language, Mordvinic languages, Mother Tongue (journal), Nasal consonant, Nasal vowel, Navarre, Navarro-Aragonese, Navarro-Lapurdian dialect, Nomad, Northeast Caucasian languages, Object (grammar), Occitan language, Ojacastro, Old Castile, Old Spanish language, Open vowel, Origin of the Basques, Orthography, Palatal consonant, Palatal lateral approximant, Passive speaker (language), Phoneme, Pidgin, Pierre Lafitte Ithurralde, Pitch-accent language, Plural, Polypersonal agreement, Postalveolar consonant, Pre-Indo-European languages, Prehistoric Europe, Prosody (linguistics), Prothesis (linguistics), Proto-Basque language, Province of Segovia, Pseudoscientific language comparison, Pyrenees, Reconquista, Recursion, Restoration (Spain), Rhotic consonant, Ribera d'Ebre, Roman Republic, Romance languages, Romani language, Romani people, Sabino Arana, Sardinia, Serif, Solidus (coin), Soule, Souletin dialect, Southern Basque Country, Spain, Spanish Braille, Spanish language, Standard Basque, Stop consonant, Strabo, Strait of Belle Isle, Stratum (linguistics), Subject–object–verb, Subject–verb–object, Syntagma (linguistics), Tartessian language, T–V distinction, Theo Vennemann, Topic and comment, Toponymy, Transitive verb, Trill consonant, Unclassified language, University of Nevada Press, Upper Navarrese dialect, Val d'Aran, Vascones, Vasconic languages, Vasconic substratum theory, Velar consonant, Vigesimal, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Voice (phonetics), Voiceless alveolar fricative, Voicelessness, Whaling, Xíriga, Yuri Zytsar, 13th century, 14th century, 19th century. Expand index (172 more) »

Absolutive case

The absolutive case (abbreviated) is the unmarked grammatical case of a core argument of a verb (generally other than the nominative) that is used as the citation form of a noun.

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Affricate consonant

An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).

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Alan R. King

Alan Roy King (born 24 October 1954) is a British linguist notable for his work on Basque and Nawat.

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Algonquian peoples

The Algonquian are one of the most populous and widespread North American native language groups.

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Algonquian–Basque pidgin

The Algonquian–Basque pidgin was a pidgin spoken by the Basque whalers and various Algonquian peoples.

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Allocutive agreement

In linguistics, allocutive agreement (abbreviated or) refers to a morphological feature in which the gender of an addressee is marked overtly in an utterance using fully grammaticalized markersTrask, L. The History of Basque Routledge: 1997 even if the addressee is not referred to in the utterance.

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Alveolar consonant

Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.

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Anglet (Angelu) is a French commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of southwestern France.

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Antipassive voice

The antipassive voice (abbreviated or) is a type of grammatical voice that either does not include the object or includes the object in an oblique case.

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Apical consonant

An apical consonant is a phone (speech sound) produced by obstructing the air passage with the tip of the tongue.

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Aquitanian language

The Aquitanian language was spoken on both sides of the western Pyrenees in ancient Aquitaine (approximately between the Pyrenees and the Garonne, in the region later known as Gascony) and in the areas south of the Pyrenees in the valleys of the Basque Country before the Roman conquest.

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Aragonese language

Aragonese (aragonés in Aragonese) is a Romance language spoken in several dialects by 10,000 to 30,000 people in the Pyrenees valleys of Aragon, Spain, primarily in the comarcas of Somontano de Barbastro, Jacetania, Alto Gállego, Sobrarbe, and Ribagorza/Ribagorça.

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Asturians (asturianos) are the native ethnic group of the autonomous community of Principality of Asturias, in Spain, as well as smaller communities in the Spanish provinces of León, Zamora and Cantabria.

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Asturias (Asturies; Asturias), officially the Principality of Asturias (Principado de Asturias; Principáu d'Asturies), is an autonomous community in north-west Spain.

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Auxiliary verb

An auxiliary verb (abbreviated) is a verb that adds functional or grammatical meaning to the clause in which it appears, such as to express tense, aspect, modality, voice, emphasis, etc.

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Álava (in Spanish) or Araba (in Basque, dialectal), officially Araba/Álava, is a province of Spain and a historical territory of the Basque Country, heir of the ancient Lordship of Álava, former medieval Catholic bishopric and now Latin titular see.

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Baby talk

Baby talk is a type of speech associated with an older person speaking to a child.

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Back vowel

A back vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in spoken languages.

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Basque alphabet

The Basque alphabet is a Latin alphabet used to write the Basque language.

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Basque Country (autonomous community)

The Basque Country (Euskadi; País Vasco; Pays Basque), officially the Basque Autonomous Community (Euskal Autonomia Erkidegoa, EAE; Comunidad Autónoma Vasca, CAV) is an autonomous community in northern Spain.

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Basque Country (greater region)

The Basque Country (Euskal Herria; Pays basque; Vasconia, País Vasco) is the name given to the home of the Basque people.

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Basque dialects

Basque dialects are linguistic varieties of the Basque language which differ in pronunciation, vocabulary and grammar from each other and from Standard Basque.

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Basque diaspora

The Basque diaspora is the name given to describe people of Basque origin living outside their traditional homeland on the borders between Spain and France.

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Basque nationalism

Basque nationalism (eusko abertzaletasuna) is a form of nationalism that asserts that Basques, an ethnic group indigenous to the western Pyrenees, are a nation, and promotes the political unity of the Basques.

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Basque–Icelandic pidgin

The Basque–Icelandic pidgin was a pidgin spoken in Iceland in the 17th century.

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No description.

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Bayonne (Gascon: Baiona; Baiona; Bayona) is a city and commune and one of the two sub-prefectures of the department of Pyrénées-Atlantiques, in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of south-western France.

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Béarn (Gascon: Bearn or Biarn; Bearno or Biarno) is one of the traditional provinces of France, located in the Pyrenees mountains and in the plain at their feet, in southwest France.

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Bern or Berne (Bern, Bärn, Berne, Berna, Berna) is the de facto capital of Switzerland, referred to by the Swiss as their (e.g. in German) Bundesstadt, or "federal city".

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Biarritz (Biarritz or Miarritze; Gascon Biàrritz) is a city on the Bay of Biscay, on the Atlantic coast in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the French Basque Country in Southwestern France.

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Biscay (Bizkaia; Vizcaya) is a province of Spain located just south of the Bay of Biscay.

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Biscayan dialect

Biscayan, sometimes Bizkaian (Bizkaiera, Vizcaino) is a dialect of the Basque language spoken mainly in Biscay, one of the provinces of the Basque Country of Spain.

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Brittonic languages

The Brittonic, Brythonic or British Celtic languages (ieithoedd Brythonaidd/Prydeinig; yethow brythonek/predennek; yezhoù predenek) form one of the two branches of the Insular Celtic language family; the other is Goidelic.

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Cahiers de l'Institut de Linguistique de Louvain

The Cahiers de l'Institut de Linguistique de Louvain is a peer-reviewed French-language journal of linguistics.

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Catalan language

Catalan (autonym: català) is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain.

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Catalonia (Catalunya, Catalonha, Cataluña) is an autonomous community in Spain on the northeastern extremity of the Iberian Peninsula, designated as a nationality by its Statute of Autonomy.

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The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.

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Celtic languages

The Celtic languages are a group of related languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or "Common Celtic"; a branch of the greater Indo-European language family.

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Central vowel

A central vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.

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Chechen language

Chechen (нохчийн мотт / noxçiyn mott / نَاخچیین موٓتت / ნახჩიე მუოთთ, Nokhchiin mott) is a Northeast Caucasian language spoken by more than 1.4 million people, mostly in the Chechen Republic and by members of the Chechen diaspora throughout Russia, Jordan, Central Asia (mainly Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan), and Georgia.

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Close front rounded vowel

The close front rounded vowel, or high front rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages.

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Close vowel

A close vowel, also known as a high vowel (in American terminology), is any in a class of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.

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In linguistics, cognates are words that have a common etymological origin.

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Common Era

Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.

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Comparative method

In linguistics, the comparative method is a technique for studying the development of languages by performing a feature-by-feature comparison of two or more languages with common descent from a shared ancestor, in order to extrapolate back to infer the properties of that ancestor.

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Complutense University of Madrid

The Complutense University of Madrid (Universidad Complutense de Madrid or Universidad de Madrid, Universitas Complutensis) is a public research university located in Madrid, and one of the oldest universities in the world.

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Constitution of Spain

The Spanish Constitution (Constitución Española; Espainiako Konstituzioa; Constitució Espanyola; Constitución Española; Constitucion espanhòla) is the democratic law that is supreme in the Kingdom of Spain.

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Creole language

A creole language, or simply creole, is a stable natural language developed from a mixture of different languages at a fairly sudden point in time: often, a pidgin transitioned into a full, native language.

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Dené–Caucasian languages

Dené–Caucasian is a proposed broad language family that includes the Sino-Tibetan, North Caucasian, Na-Dené, Yeniseian, Vasconic (including Basque), and Burushaski language families.

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Dental consonant

A dental consonant is a consonant articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth, such as,,, and in some languages.

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Diccionario crítico etimológico de la lengua castellana


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Digraph (orthography)

A digraph or digram (from the δίς dís, "double" and γράφω gráphō, "to write") is a pair of characters used in the orthography of a language to write either a single phoneme (distinct sound), or a sequence of phonemes that does not correspond to the normal values of the two characters combined.

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Dogon languages

The Dogon languages are a small, close-knit language family spoken by the Dogon people of Mali, which is generally believed to belong to the larger Niger–Congo family.

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Eastern Navarrese dialect

Eastern Navarrese (Ekialdeko nafar euskalkia in Basque) is an extinct Basque dialect spoken in Navarre, Spain.

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Enkarterri (Spanish: Las Encartaciones) is a comarca of the province of Biscay, in the Basque Country, Spain.

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In phonology, epenthesis (Greek) means the addition of one or more sounds to a word, especially to the interior of a word (at the beginning prothesis and at the end paragoge are commonly used).

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Ergative case

The ergative case (abbreviated) is the grammatical case that identifies the noun as a subject of a transitive verb in ergative–absolutive languages.

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Ergative–absolutive language

Ergative–absolutive languages, or ergative languages are languages that share a certain distinctive pattern relating to the subjects (technically, arguments) of verbs.

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Erromintxela language

Erromintxela is the distinctive language of a group of Romani living in the Basque Country, who also go by the name Erromintxela.

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An ethnonym (from the ἔθνος, éthnos, "nation" and ὄνομα, ónoma, "name") is a name applied to a given ethnic group.

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Euskaltzaindia (literally, "group of keepers of the Basque language"; often translated Royal Academy of the Basque Language) is the official academic language regulatory institution which watches over the Basque language.

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Fala dos arxiñas

Fala dos arginhas is the name of an argot employed by stonecutters in Galicia, Spain, particularly in the area of Pontevedra, based on the Galician language.

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Fall of the Western Roman Empire

The Fall of the Western Roman Empire (also called Fall of the Roman Empire or Fall of Rome) was the process of decline in the Western Roman Empire in which it failed to enforce its rule, and its vast territory was divided into several successor polities.

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Flap consonant

In phonetics, a flap or tap is a type of consonantal sound, which is produced with a single contraction of the muscles so that one articulator (such as the tongue) is thrown against another.

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Focus (linguistics)

Focus (abbreviated) is a grammatical category that determines which part of the sentence contributes new, non-derivable, or contrastive information.

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Fraction (mathematics)

A fraction (from Latin fractus, "broken") represents a part of a whole or, more generally, any number of equal parts.

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France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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Francoist Spain

Francoist Spain (España franquista) or the Franco regime (Régimen de Franco), formally known as the Spanish State (Estado Español), is the period of Spanish history between 1939, when Francisco Franco took control of Spain after the Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War establishing a dictatorship, and 1975, when Franco died and Prince Juan Carlos was crowned King of Spain.

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The Franks (Franci or gens Francorum) were a collection of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine in the 3rd century AD, on the edge of the Roman Empire.

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French Basque Country

The French Basque Country, or Northern Basque Country (Iparralde (i.e. 'the Northern Region'), Pays basque français, País Vasco francés) is a region lying on the west of the French department of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques.

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French language

French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.

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Fricative consonant

Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.

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Front vowel

A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the highest point of the tongue is positioned relatively in front in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant.

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Fuero, Fur, Foro or Foru is a Spanish legal term and concept.

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Gacería is the name of a slang or argot employed by the trilleros (or makers of the trillo, or threshing-board, as well as threshing-sledge) and the briqueros (or makers of brica: metathesis of Spanish word criba sieve) in the village of Cantalejo, in the Spanish province of Segovia.

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Gallia Aquitania

Gallia Aquitania, also known as Aquitaine or Aquitaine Gaul, was a province of the Roman Empire.

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The Garonne (Garonne,; in Occitan, Catalan, and Spanish: Garona; Garumna or Garunna) is a river in southwest France and northern Spain, with a length of.

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Gascon language

Gascon is a dialect of Occitan.

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Gascony (Gascogne; Gascon: Gasconha; Gaskoinia) is an area of southwest France that was part of the "Province of Guyenne and Gascony" prior to the French Revolution.

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The Geographica (Ancient Greek: Γεωγραφικά Geōgraphiká), or Geography, is an encyclopedia of geographical knowledge, consisting of 17 'books', written in Greek by Strabo, an educated citizen of the Roman Empire of Greek descent.

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Georgian language

Georgian (ქართული ენა, translit.) is a Kartvelian language spoken by Georgians.

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Gipuzkoa (in Guipúzcoa) is a province of Spain and a historical territory of the autonomous community of the Basque Country.

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Gipuzkoan dialect

Gipuzkoan (Gipuzkera in Basque, Guipuzcoano in Spanish) is a dialect of the Basque language spoken mainly in the province of Gipuzkoa in Basque Country but also in a small part of Navarre.

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Glottal consonant

Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.

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Grammatical aspect

Aspect is a grammatical category that expresses how an action, event, or state, denoted by a verb, extends over time.

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Gulf of Saint Lawrence

The Gulf of Saint Lawrence (French: Golfe du Saint-Laurent) is the outlet of the North American Great Lakes via the Saint Lawrence River into the Atlantic Ocean.

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Hispania was the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula.

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Huesca (Uesca) is a city in north-eastern Spain, within the autonomous community of Aragon.

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Hungarian language

Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine, central and western Romania (Transylvania and Partium), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia due to the effects of the Treaty of Trianon, which resulted in many ethnic Hungarians being displaced from their homes and communities in the former territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America (particularly the United States). Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family branch, its closest relatives being Mansi and Khanty.

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Iberian language

The Iberian language was the language of an indigenous pre-Migration Period people identified by Greek and Roman sources who lived in the eastern and southeastern regions of the Iberian Peninsula.

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Iberian Peninsula

The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.

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Iberian Romance languages

The Iberian Romance, Ibero-Romance or simply Iberian languages is an areal grouping of Romance languages that developed on the Iberian Peninsula, an area consisting primarily of Spain, Portugal, Gibraltar and Andorra, and in southern France which are today more commonly separated into West Iberian and Occitano-Romance language groups.

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The ikurrina flag (in Basque)Euskaltzaindia:, retrieved 2010-10-04.

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Indo-European languages

The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.

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Intransitive verb

In grammar, an intransitive verb does not allow a direct object.

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Italic languages

The Italic languages are a subfamily of the Indo-European language family, originally spoken by Italic peoples.

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In historical linguistics, Italo-Celtic is a grouping of the Italic and Celtic branches of the Indo-European language family on the basis of features shared by these two branches and no others.

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J. P. Mallory

James Patrick Mallory (born 1945) is an Irish-American archaeologist and Indo-Europeanist.

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Joan Coromines

Joan Coromines i Vigneaux (also frequently spelled Joan Corominas;Diccionario crítico etimológico castellano e hispánico, by Joan Corominas and José A. Pascual, Editorial Gredos, 1989, Madrid,. Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain 1905 – Pineda de Mar, Catalonia, Spain, 1997) was a linguist who made important contributions to the study of Catalan, Spanish, and other Romance languages.

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John Bengtson

John D. Bengtson (born 1948) is an American historical and anthropological linguist.

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John T. Koch

John T. Koch is an American academic, historian and linguist who specializes in Celtic studies, especially prehistory and the early Middle Ages.

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José Ignacio Hualde

José Ignacio Hualde is a linguist from Navarre, specialised in Basque linguistics and in Spanish synchronic and diachronic phonology, professor of Linguistics and Latin American and Caribbean Studies in the Department of Spanish, Italian and Portuguese, and in the Department of Linguistics, at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign.

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Joseba Sarrionandia

Joseba Sarrionandia Uribelarrea (Iurreta, Biscay, April 13, 1958 –) is a Basque writer who has published a large number of books of poetry and short stories, as well as novels.

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Joxe Azurmendi

Joxe Azurmendi Otaegi (born 19 March 1941) is a Basque writer, philosopher, essayist and poet.

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The Kalderash are a subgroup of the Romani people.

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Kartvelian languages

The Kartvelian languages (ქართველური ენები, Kartveluri enebi, also known as Iberian and formerly South CaucasianBoeder (2002), p. 3) are a language family indigenous to the Caucasus and spoken primarily in Georgia, with large groups of native speakers in Russia, Iran, the United States, the European Union, Israel, and northeastern parts of Turkey.

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Kingdom of Iberia

In Greco-Roman geography, Iberia (Ancient Greek: Ἰβηρία; Hiberia) was an exonym (foreign name) for the Georgian kingdom of Kartli (ქართლი), known after its core province, which during Classical Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages was a significant monarchy in the Caucasus, either as an independent state or as a dependent of larger empires, notably the Sassanid and Roman empires.

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Koldo Mitxelena

Koldo Mitxelena Elissalt (also known as Luis Michelena; 1915, Errenteria, Gipuzkoa – 11 October 1987, San Sebastián) was an eminent Basque linguist.

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Koldo Zuazo

Koldo Zuazo (Eibar, Gipuzkoa, 1956) is a Basque linguist, professor at the University of the Basque Country and specialist in Basque language dialectology and sociolinguistics.

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La Rioja (Spain)

La Rioja is an autonomous community and a province in Spain, located in the north of the Iberian Peninsula.

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Labial consonant

Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator.

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Labourd (Lapurdi in Basque; Lapurdum in Latin; Labord in Gascon) is a former French province and part of the present-day Pyrénées Atlantiques département.

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Laminal consonant

A laminal consonant is a phone produced by obstructing the air passage with the blade of the tongue, the flat top front surface just behind the tip of the tongue on the top.

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Language isolate

A language isolate, in the absolute sense, is a natural language with no demonstrable genealogical (or "genetic") relationship with other languages, one that has not been demonstrated to descend from an ancestor common with any other language.

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Language shift

Language shift, also known as language transfer or language replacement or language assimilation, is the process whereby a community of speakers of a language shifts to speaking a completely different language, usually over an extended period of time.

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Languages of France

Of the languages of France, the national language, French, is the only official language according to the second article of the French Constitution, and its standardized variant is by far the most widely spoken.

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Languages of Spain

The languages of Spain (lenguas de España), or Spanish languages (lenguas españolas), are the languages spoken or once spoken in Spain.

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Languages of the Caucasus

The Caucasian languages are a large and extremely varied array of languages spoken by more than ten million people in and around the Caucasus Mountains, which lie between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea.

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Larry Trask

Robert Lawrence "Larry" Trask (November 10, 1944 – March 27, 2004) was an American–British professor of linguistics at the University of Sussex, and an authority on the Basque language and field of historical linguistics.

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Late antiquity

Late antiquity is a periodization used by historians to describe the time of transition from classical antiquity to the Middle Ages in mainland Europe, the Mediterranean world, and the Near East.

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Late Basquisation

Late Basquisation is the minority hypothesis that dates the arrival of the first Basque-speakers in north-eastern Iberia from Aquitaine to the 5th or 6th century AD.

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Lateral consonant

A lateral is an l-like consonant in which the airstream proceeds along the sides of the tongue, but it is blocked by the tongue from going through the middle of the mouth.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Latin script

Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.

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Ligurian language (ancient)

The Ligurian language was spoken in pre-Roman times and into the Roman era by an ancient people of north-western Italy and south-eastern France known as the Ligures.

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List of Basques

This is a list of notable Basque people.

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List of Latin-script digraphs

This is a list of digraphs used in various Latin alphabets.

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A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.

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Louis Lucien Bonaparte

Louis Lucien Bonaparte (4 January 1813 – 3 November 1891) was the third son of Napoleon's second surviving brother, Lucien Bonaparte.

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Maltese language

Maltese (Malti) is the national language of Malta and a co-official language of the country alongside English, while also serving as an official language of the European Union, the only Semitic language so distinguished.

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Merritt Ruhlen

Merritt Ruhlen (born 1944) is an American linguist who has worked on the classification of languages and what this reveals about the origin and evolution of modern humans.

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Mid vowel

A mid vowel (or a true-mid vowel) is any in a class of vowel sounds used in some spoken languages.

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Miguel de Unamuno

Miguel de Unamuno y Jugo (29 September 1864 – 31 December 1936) was a Spanish Basque essayist, novelist, poet, playwright, philosopher, professor of Greek and Classics, and later rector at the University of Salamanca.

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Mixed language

Although every language is mixed to some extent, by virtue of containing loanwords, it is a matter of controversy whether a term mixed language can meaningfully distinguish the contact phenomena of certain languages (such as those listed below) from the type of contact and borrowing seen in all languages.

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Mordvinic languages

The Mordvinic languages, alternatively Mordvin languages, or Mordvinian languages (Мордовские языки, Mordovskiye yazyki, the official Russian term for the language pair), are a subgroup of the Uralic languages, comprising the closely related Erzya language and Moksha language (both spoken in Mordovia).

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Mother Tongue (journal)

Mother Tongue is an annual academic journal published by the Association for the Study of Language in Prehistory (ASLIP) that has been published since 1995.

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Nasal consonant

In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.

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Nasal vowel

A nasal vowel is a vowel that is produced with a lowering of the velum so that air escapes both through the nose as well as the mouth, such as the French vowel.

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Navarre (Navarra, Nafarroa; Navarra), officially the Chartered Community of Navarre (Spanish: Comunidad Foral de Navarra; Basque: Nafarroako Foru Komunitatea), is an autonomous community and province in northern Spain, bordering the Basque Autonomous Community, La Rioja, and Aragon in Spain and Nouvelle-Aquitaine in France.

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Navarro-Aragonese is a Romance language once spoken in a large part of the Ebro River basin, south of the middle Pyrenees, although it is only currently spoken in a small portion of its original territory.

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Navarro-Lapurdian dialect

Navarro-Labourdin or Navarro-Lapurdian is a Basque dialect spoken in the Lower Navarre and Labourd (Lapurdi) former provinces of the French Basque Country (in the Pyrénées Atlantiques département).

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A nomad (νομάς, nomas, plural tribe) is a member of a community of people who live in different locations, moving from one place to another in search of grasslands for their animals.

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Northeast Caucasian languages

The Northeast Caucasian languages, or Nakh-Daghestanian languages, are a language family spoken in the Russian republics of Dagestan, Chechnya and Ingushetia and in northern Azerbaijan as well as in diaspora populations in Western Europe, Turkey and the Middle East.

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Object (grammar)

Traditional grammar defines the object in a sentence as the entity that is acted upon by the subject.

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Occitan language

Occitan, also known as lenga d'òc (langue d'oc) by its native speakers, is a Romance language.

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Ojacastro is a village in the province and autonomous community of La Rioja, Spain.

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Old Castile

Old Castile (Castilla la Vieja) is a historic region of Spain, which included territory that later corresponded to the provinces of Santander (now Cantabria), Burgos, Logroño (now La Rioja), Soria, Segovia, Ávila, Valladolid and Palencia.

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Old Spanish language

Old Spanish, also known as Old Castilian (castellano antiguo; romance castellano) or Medieval Spanish (español medieval), originally a colloquial Latin spoken in the provinces of the Roman Empire that provided the root for the early form of the Spanish language that was spoken on the Iberian Peninsula from the 10th century until roughly the beginning of the 15th century, before a consonantal readjustment gave rise to the evolution of modern Spanish.

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Open vowel

An open vowel is a vowel sound in which the tongue is positioned as far as possible from the roof of the mouth.

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Origin of the Basques

The origin of the Basques and the Basque language is a controversial topic that has given rise to numerous hypotheses.

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An orthography is a set of conventions for writing a language.

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Palatal consonant

Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).

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Palatal lateral approximant

The palatal lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.

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Passive speaker (language)

A passive speaker (also referred to as a receptive bilingual or passive bilingual) is a category of speaker who has had enough exposure to a language in childhood to have a native-like comprehension of it, but has little or no active command of it.

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A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.

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A pidgin, or pidgin language, is a grammatically simplified means of communication that develops between two or more groups that do not have a language in common: typically, its vocabulary and grammar are limited and often drawn from several languages.

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Pierre Lafitte Ithurralde

Pierre Lafitte Ithurralde (21 May 1901 – 23 February 1985) was a French Basque priest and author.

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Pitch-accent language

A pitch-accent language is a language that has word-accents—that is, where one syllable in a word or morpheme is more prominent than the others, but the accentuated syllable is indicated by a particular pitch contour (linguistic tones) rather than by stress.

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The plural (sometimes abbreviated), in many languages, is one of the values of the grammatical category of number.

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Polypersonal agreement

In linguistics, polypersonal agreement or polypersonalism is the agreement of a verb with more than one of its arguments (usually up to four).

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Postalveolar consonant

Postalveolar consonants (sometimes spelled post-alveolar) are consonants articulated with the tongue near or touching the back of the alveolar ridge, farther back in the mouth than the alveolar consonants, which are at the ridge itself but not as far back as the hard palate, the place of articulation for palatal consonants.

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Pre-Indo-European languages

Pre-Indo-European languages are any of several ancient languages, not necessarily related to one another, that existed in prehistoric Europe and South Asia before the arrival of speakers of Indo-European languages.

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Prehistoric Europe

Prehistoric Europe is the designation for the period of human presence in Europe before the start of recorded history, beginning in the Lower Paleolithic.

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Prosody (linguistics)

In linguistics, prosody is concerned with those elements of speech that are not individual phonetic segments (vowels and consonants) but are properties of syllables and larger units of speech.

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Prothesis (linguistics)

In linguistics, prothesis (from post-classical Latin based on πρόθεσις próthesis 'placing before'), or less commonly prosthesis (from Ancient Greek πρόσθεσις prósthesis 'addition') is the addition of a sound or syllable at the beginning of a word without changing the word's meaning or the rest of its structure.

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Proto-Basque language

Proto-Basque (Aitzineuskara; protoeuskera, protovasco; proto-basque) is a reconstructed predecessor of the Basque language, before the Roman conquests in the Western Pyrenees.

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Province of Segovia

Segovia is a province of central/northern Spain, in the southern part of the autonomous community of Castile and León.

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Pseudoscientific language comparison

Pseudoscientific language comparison is a form of pseudo-scholarship that has the objective of establishing historical associations between languages by naive postulations of similarities between them.

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The Pyrenees (Pirineos, Pyrénées, Pirineus, Pirineus, Pirenèus, Pirinioak) is a range of mountains in southwest Europe that forms a natural border between Spain and France.

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The Reconquista (Spanish and Portuguese for the "reconquest") is a name used to describe the period in the history of the Iberian Peninsula of about 780 years between the Umayyad conquest of Hispania in 711 and the fall of the Nasrid kingdom of Granada to the expanding Christian kingdoms in 1492.

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Recursion occurs when a thing is defined in terms of itself or of its type.

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Restoration (Spain)

The Restoration (Restauración), or Bourbon Restoration (Restauración borbónica), is the name given to the period that began on 29 December 1874 — after a coup d'état by Martínez-Campos ended the First Spanish Republic and restored the monarchy under Alfonso XII — and ended on 14 April 1931 with the proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic.

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Rhotic consonant

In phonetics, rhotic consonants, or "R-like" sounds, are liquid consonants that are traditionally represented orthographically by symbols derived from the Greek letter rho, including r in the Latin script and p in the Cyrillic script.

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Ribera d'Ebre

Ribera d'Ebre is a comarca (county) in Catalonia, Spain.

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Roman Republic

The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.

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Romance languages

The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.

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Romani language

Romani (also Romany; romani čhib) is any of several languages of the Romani people belonging to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language family.

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Romani people

The Romani (also spelled Romany), or Roma, are a traditionally itinerant ethnic group, living mostly in Europe and the Americas and originating from the northern Indian subcontinent, from the Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab and Sindh regions of modern-day India and Pakistan.

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Sabino Arana

Sabino Policarpo Arana Goiri, self-styled as Arana ta Goiri'taŕ Sabin (26 January 1865 – 25 November 1903), was a Spanish writer.

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| conventional_long_name.

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In typography, a serif is a small line attached to the end of a stroke in a letter or symbol.

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Solidus (coin)

The solidus (Latin for "solid"; solidi), nomisma (νόμισμα, nómisma, "coin"), or bezant was originally a relatively pure gold coin issued in the Late Roman Empire.

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Soule (Basque: Zuberoa; Zuberoan Basque: Xiberoa or Xiberua; Gascon: Sola) is a former viscounty and French province and part of the present day Pyrénées-Atlantiques département.

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Souletin dialect

Souletin or Zuberoan (Zuberera) is the Basque dialect spoken in Soule, France.

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Southern Basque Country

The Southern Basque Country (Hegoalde, Hego Euskal Herria; Hegoalde, País Vasco y Navarra, País Vasco peninsular) is a term used to refer to the Basque territories within Spain as a unified whole.

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Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.

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Spanish Braille

Spanish Braille is the braille alphabet of Spanish and Galician.

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Spanish language

Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.

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Standard Basque

Standard Basque (euskara batua or simply batua) is a standardised version of the Basque language, developed by the Basque Language Academy in the late 1960s, which nowadays is the most widely and commonly spoken Basque-language version throughout the Basque Country.

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Stop consonant

In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.

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Strabo (Στράβων Strábōn; 64 or 63 BC AD 24) was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.

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Strait of Belle Isle

The Strait of Belle Isle (Détroit de Belle Isle) is a waterway in eastern Canada that separates the Labrador Peninsula from the island of Newfoundland, in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador.

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Stratum (linguistics)

In linguistics, a stratum (Latin for "layer") or strate is a language that influences, or is influenced by another through contact.

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In linguistic typology, a subject–object–verb (SOV) language is one in which the subject, object, and verb of a sentence always or usually appear in that order.

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In linguistic typology, subject–verb–object (SVO) is a sentence structure where the subject comes first, the verb second, and the object third.

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Syntagma (linguistics)

In linguistics, a syntagma is an elementary constituent segment within a text.

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Tartessian language

The Tartessian language is the extinct Paleohispanic language of inscriptions in the Southwestern script found in the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula: mainly in the south of Portugal (Algarve and southern Alentejo), and the southwest of Spain (south of Extremadura and western Andalusia).

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T–V distinction

In sociolinguistics, a T–V distinction (from the Latin pronouns tu and vos) is a contrast, within one language, between various forms of addressing one's conversation partner or partners that are specialized for varying levels of politeness, social distance, courtesy, familiarity, age or insult toward the addressee.

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Theo Vennemann

Theo Vennemann genannt Nierfeld (born 27 May 1937 in Oberhausen-Sterkrade) is a German historical linguist known for his controversial theories of a "Vasconic" and an "Atlantic" stratum in European languages, published since the 1990s.

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Topic and comment

In linguistics, the topic, or theme, of a sentence is what is being talked about, and the comment (rheme or focus) is what is being said about the topic.

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Toponymy is the study of place names (toponyms), their origins, meanings, use, and typology.

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Transitive verb

A transitive verb is a verb that requires one or more objects.

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Trill consonant

In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the active articulator and passive articulator.

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Unclassified language

An unclassified language is a language whose genetic affiliation has not been established, most often due to a lack of data.

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University of Nevada Press

University of Nevada Press is a university press that is run by the Nevada System of Higher Education (NSHE).

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Upper Navarrese dialect

Upper Navarrese (sometimes called High Navarrese) is a dialect of the Basque language spoken in the Navarre (Basque: Nafarroa or Nafarroa Garaia) community of Spain, as established by linguist Louis Lucien Bonaparte in his famous 1869 map.

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Val d'Aran

Aran (previously officially called Val d'Aran) is an administrative entity in Catalonia, Spain, consisting of the Aran Valley, in area, in the Pyrenees mountains, in the northwestern part of the province of Lleida.

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The Vascones (singular Vasco, in the Spanish-language Auñamendi Encyclopedia. from Latin gens Vasconum) were a pre-Roman tribe who, on the arrival of the Romans in the 1st century, inhabited a territory that spanned between the upper course of the Ebro river and the southern basin of the western Pyrenees, a region that coincides with present-day Navarre, western Aragon and northeastern La Rioja, in the Iberian Peninsula.

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Vasconic languages

The Vasconic languages (from Latin vasco "Basque") are a putative family of languages that includes Basque and the extinct Aquitanian language.

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Vasconic substratum theory

The Vasconic substratum theory is a proposal that several western European languages contain remnants of an old language family of Vasconic languages, of which Basque is the only surviving member.

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Velar consonant

Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).

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The vigesimal or base 20 numeral system is based on twenty (in the same way in which the decimal numeral system is based on ten).

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Vitoria-Gasteiz is the seat of government and the capital city of the Basque Autonomous Community and of the province of Araba/Álava in northern Spain.

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Voice (phonetics)

Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).

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Voiceless alveolar fricative

A voiceless alveolar fricative is a type of fricative consonant pronounced with the tip or blade of the tongue against the alveolar ridge (gum line) just behind the teeth.

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In linguistics, voicelessness is the property of sounds being pronounced without the larynx vibrating.

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Whaling is the hunting of whales for scientific research and their usable products like meat, oil and blubber.

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Xíriga is an occupation-related cant on Asturian developed by the tejeros of Llanes and Ribadesella in Asturias.

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Yuri Zytsar

Yuri Vladimirovich Zytsar (also Zitsar, in Russian: Юрий Владимирович Зыцарь; 1928 – 2009) was a Russian-Georgian linguist, specialist in the Basque language.

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13th century

As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was the century which lasted from January 1, 1201 through December 31, 1300 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Common Era.

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14th century

As a means of recording the passage of time, the 14th century was the century lasting from January 1, 1301, to December 31, 1400.

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19th century

The 19th century was a century that began on January 1, 1801, and ended on December 31, 1900.

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Basque (language), Basque Language, Basque languages, Basque millers' number system, Basque phonology, Euskara, Euskarra, Euskera, ISO 639:eu, ISO 639:euq, ISO 639:eus, Mascuence, Phonology of Basque, Useful Basque phrases, Useful basque phrases, Vascuence.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basque_language

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