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Aberri Eguna ("Fatherland Day") is a holiday coinciding with Easter Sunday which has its roots in the Basque nationalist movement.
The ABO blood group system is used to denote the presence of one, both, or neither of the A and B antigens on erythrocytes.
Agnosticism is the view that the existence of God, of the divine or the supernatural is unknown or unknowable.
Aguereberry Point is a promontory and tourist viewpoint in the Panamint Range, within Death Valley National Park in Inyo County, eastern California.
Aizkolaritza is the Basque name for a type of wood-chopping competition.
Akelarre is the Basque term meaning Witches' Sabbath (the place where witches hold their meetings).
Anboto (1331 m) is a limestone mountain of the Western Basque Country, the highest peak of the Urkiola range and not far from the Urkiola mountain pass between Durango and Vitoria-Gasteiz.
An ancestor is a parent or (recursively) the parent of an antecedent (i.e., a grandparent, great-grandparent, great-great-grandparent, and so forth).
The Ancien Régime (French for "old regime") was the political and social system of the Kingdom of France from the Late Middle Ages (circa 15th century) until 1789, when hereditary monarchy and the feudal system of French nobility were abolished by the.
Anoeta is a multi-purpose stadium in San Sebastián, Basque Autonomous Community, Spain that was inaugurated in 1993.
Antigua Guatemala, commonly referred to as just Antigua or la Antigua, is a city in the central highlands of Guatemala famous for its well-preserved Spanish Baroque-influenced architecture as well as a number of ruins of colonial churches.
The Department of Antioquia is one of the 32 departments of Colombia, located in the central northwestern part of Colombia with a narrow section that borders the Caribbean Sea.
The Aquitanians (Latin: Aquitani) were a people living in what is now southern Aquitaine and southwestern Midi-Pyrénées, France, called Gallia Aquitania by the Romans in the region between the Pyrenees, the Atlantic ocean, and the Garonne, present-day southwestern France.
The Aquitanian language was spoken on both sides of the western Pyrenees in ancient Aquitaine (approximately between the Pyrenees and the Garonne, in the region later known as Gascony) and in the areas south of the Pyrenees in the valleys of the Basque Country before the Roman conquest.
Arizona (Hoozdo Hahoodzo; Alĭ ṣonak) is a U.S. state in the southwestern region of the United States.
An arrondissement is a level of administrative division in France.
The Atapuerca Mountains (Sierra de Atapuerca) is a karstic hill formation near the village of Atapuerca in Castile and León, northern Spain.
Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.
Athletic Club, also commonly known as Athletic Bilbao (Bilboko Athletic Kluba / Athletic de Bilbao), is a professional football club, based in Bilbao, Basque Country, Spain.
Since 1912, Spain-based association football club Athletic Bilbao have had an unwritten rule whereby the club will only sign players who were born in the Basque Country, or who learned their football skills at a Basque club.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
In Spain, an autonomous community (comunidad autónoma, autonomia erkidegoa, comunitat autònoma, comunidade autónoma, comunautat autonòma) is a first-level political and administrative division, created in accordance with the Spanish constitution of 1978, with the aim of guaranteeing limited autonomy of the nationalities and regions that make up Spain.
An autosome is a chromosome that is not an allosome (a sex chromosome).
Aviron Bayonnais (Baionako Arrauna) is a French rugby union club from Bayonne (Baiona, in Basque) in Pyrénées-Atlantiques which, for the 2016-17 season, competed in the top tier of the French league system, in the Top 14 competition.
Álava (in Spanish) or Araba (in Basque, dialectal), officially Araba/Álava, is a province of Spain and a historical territory of the Basque Country, heir of the ancient Lordship of Álava, former medieval Catholic bishopric and now Latin titular see.
Bakersfield is a city in and the county seat of Kern County, California, United States.
The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.
Bambuco is a traditional music genre originated from Colombia.
In Basque mythology, Basajaun ("Lord of the Woods", plural: basajaunak) is a huge, hairy hominid dwelling in the woods.
A baserri (Spanish: caserío vasco; French: maison basque) is a traditional half-timbered or stone-built type of housebarn farmhouse found in the Basque Country in Northern Spain and Southwestern France.
Basque Americans (euskal estatubatuarrak, Inmigración vasca en Estados Unidos, Basco-Américains) are Americans of Basque descent.
Basque Canadians are Canadian citizens of Basque descent, or Basque people who were born in the Basque Country and reside in Canada.
Many Basques arrived in Chile in the 16th,17th,18th,19th and early 20th century from their homeland in northern Spain (see Basque Provinces) and parts of southwestern France, as conquistadors, soldiers, sailors, merchants, priests and labourers.
The Basque Country (Euskadi; País Vasco; Pays Basque), officially the Basque Autonomous Community (Euskal Autonomia Erkidegoa, EAE; Comunidad Autónoma Vasca, CAV) is an autonomous community in northern Spain.
The Basque Country (Euskal Herria; Pays basque; Vasconia, País Vasco) is the name given to the home of the Basque people.
Basque cuisine refers to the cuisine of the Basque Country and includes meats and fish grilled over hot coals, marmitako and lamb stews, cod, Tolosa bean dishes, paprikas from Lekeitio, pintxos (Basque tapas), Idiazabal sheep's cheese, txakoli sparkling wine, and Basque cider.
Education in the Basque Autonomous Community is entirely free from the age of 3, and compulsory between 6 and 16 years.
Basque (euskara) is a language spoken in the Basque country and Navarre. Linguistically, Basque is unrelated to the other languages of Europe and, as a language isolate, to any other known living language. The Basques are indigenous to, and primarily inhabit, the Basque Country, a region that straddles the westernmost Pyrenees in adjacent parts of northern Spain and southwestern France. The Basque language is spoken by 28.4% of Basques in all territories (751,500). Of these, 93.2% (700,300) are in the Spanish area of the Basque Country and the remaining 6.8% (51,200) are in the French portion. Native speakers live in a contiguous area that includes parts of four Spanish provinces and the three "ancient provinces" in France. Gipuzkoa, most of Biscay, a few municipalities of Álava, and the northern area of Navarre formed the core of the remaining Basque-speaking area before measures were introduced in the 1980s to strengthen the language. By contrast, most of Álava, the western part of Biscay and central and southern areas of Navarre are predominantly populated by native speakers of Spanish, either because Basque was replaced by Spanish over the centuries, in some areas (most of Álava and central Navarre), or because it was possibly never spoken there, in other areas (Enkarterri and southeastern Navarre). Under Restorationist and Francoist Spain, public use of Basque was frowned upon, often regarded as a sign of separatism; this applied especially to those regions that did not support Franco's uprising (such as Biscay or Gipuzkoa). However, in those Basque-speaking regions that supported the uprising (such as Navarre or Álava) the Basque language was more than merely tolerated. Overall, in the 1960s and later, the trend reversed and education and publishing in Basque began to flourish. As a part of this process, a standardised form of the Basque language, called Euskara Batua, was developed by the Euskaltzaindia in the late 1960s. Besides its standardised version, the five historic Basque dialects are Biscayan, Gipuzkoan, and Upper Navarrese in Spain, and Navarrese–Lapurdian and Souletin in France. They take their names from the historic Basque provinces, but the dialect boundaries are not congruent with province boundaries. Euskara Batua was created so that Basque language could be used—and easily understood by all Basque speakers—in formal situations (education, mass media, literature), and this is its main use today. In both Spain and France, the use of Basque for education varies from region to region and from school to school. A language isolate, Basque is believed to be one of the few surviving pre-Indo-European languages in Europe, and the only one in Western Europe. The origin of the Basques and of their languages is not conclusively known, though the most accepted current theory is that early forms of Basque developed prior to the arrival of Indo-European languages in the area, including the Romance languages that geographically surround the Basque-speaking region. Basque has adopted a good deal of its vocabulary from the Romance languages, and Basque speakers have in turn lent their own words to Romance speakers. The Basque alphabet uses the Latin script.
Basque nationalism (eusko abertzaletasuna) is a form of nationalism that asserts that Basques, an ethnic group indigenous to the western Pyrenees, are a nation, and promotes the political unity of the Basques.
The Basque Parliament (Basque: Eusko Legebiltzarra, Spanish: Parlamento Vasco) is the legislative body of the Basque Autonomous Community of Spain and the elected assembly to which the Basque Government is responsible.
Basque surnames refer to surnames with a Basque-language origin or a long, identifiable tradition in the Basque Country.
The Basque witch trials of the 17th century represent the only serious attempt at rooting out witchcraft ever undertaken by the Spanish Inquisition, which was generally skeptical of such allegations.
The Battle of the Alamo (February 23 – March 6, 1836) was a pivotal event in the Texas Revolution.
The Bay of Biscay (Golfe de Gascogne, Golfo de Vizcaya, Pleg-mor Gwaskogn, Bizkaiko Golkoa) is a gulf of the northeast Atlantic Ocean located south of the Celtic Sea.
Bayonne (Gascon: Baiona; Baiona; Bayona) is a city and commune and one of the two sub-prefectures of the department of Pyrénées-Atlantiques, in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of south-western France.
Béarn (Gascon: Bearn or Biarn; Bearno or Biarno) is one of the traditional provinces of France, located in the Pyrenees mountains and in the plain at their feet, in southwest France.
In historical linguistics, betacism is a sound change in which (the voiced bilabial plosive, as in bane) and (the voiced labiodental fricative, as in vane) are confused.
Biarritz Olympique Pays Basque, usually known simply as Biarritz, is a French professional rugby union team based in the Basque city of Biarritz, New Aquitaine which competes in the Rugby Pro D2, the second division of French rugby.
In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips.
Bilbao (Bilbo) is a city in northern Spain, the largest city in the province of Biscay and in the Basque Country as a whole.
Biscay (Bizkaia; Vizcaya) is a province of Spain located just south of the Bay of Biscay.
Biscayne Bay (Bahía Vizcaína in Spanish) is a lagoon that is approximately long and up to wide located on the Atlantic coast of South Florida, United States.
Boise is the capital and most populous city of the U.S. state of Idaho, and is the county seat of Ada County.
Club Atlético Osasuna (Athletic Club Osasuna), or simply Osasuna, is a Spanish football team based in Pamplona, Navarre.
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.
Californio (historical and regional Spanish for "Californian") is a Spanish term with widely varying interpretations.
Santa Rosalía de Camargo, originally called Santa Rosalia, and now known as "Camargo City", is a city in the eastern part of the Mexican state of Chihuahua.
The cantons of France are territorial subdivisions of the French Republic's arrondissements and departments.
The Carlist Wars were a series of civil wars that took place in Spain during the 19th century.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Cattle—colloquially cows—are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates.
Chihuahua, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Chihuahua (Estado Libre y Soberano de Chihuahua), is one of the 32 states of Mexico.
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
Chino is a city in San Bernardino County, California, United States.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Christianization (or Christianisation) is the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire groups at once.
Chthonic (from translit, "in, under, or beneath the earth", from χθών italic "earth") literally means "subterranean", but the word in English describes deities or spirits of the underworld, especially in Ancient Greek religion.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
Coahuila, formally Coahuila de Zaragoza, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Coahuila de Zaragoza (Estado Libre y Soberano de Coahuila de Zaragoza), is one of the 31 states which, along with Mexico City, compose the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
The Colombian coffee Region (Eje Cafetero), also known as the Coffee Triangle (Triángulo del Café) is a part of the Colombian Paisa region in the rural area of Colombia.
Colorado is a state of the United States encompassing most of the southern Rocky Mountains as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the western edge of the Great Plains.
Conquistadors (from Spanish or Portuguese conquistadores "conquerors") is a term used to refer to the soldiers and explorers of the Spanish Empire or the Portuguese Empire in a general sense.
The Spanish Constitution (Constitución Española; Espainiako Konstituzioa; Constitució Espanyola; Constitución Española; Constitucion espanhòla) is the democratic law that is supreme in the Kingdom of Spain.
The County of Aragon or County of Jaca was a small Frankish marcher county in the central Pyrenean valley of the Aragon river, comprising Ansó, Echo, and Canfranc and centered on the small town of Jaca (Iacca in Latin and Chaca in Aragonese), an area now part of Spain.
The County of Pallars or Pallás (Comtat de Pallars,; Comitatus Pallariensis) was a de facto independent petty state, nominally within the Carolingian Empire and then West Francia during the ninth and tenth centuries, perhaps one of the Catalan counties, originally part of the Marca Hispanica in the ninth century.
A coven usually refers to a gathering of witches.
A cowboy is an animal herder who tends cattle on ranches in North America, traditionally on horseback, and often performs a multitude of other ranch-related tasks.
Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies.
A department is an administrative or political subdivision in many countries.
Colombia is a unitary republic made up of thirty-two departments (Spanish: departamentos, sing. departamento) and a Capital District (Distrito Capital).
In the administrative divisions of France, the department (département) is one of the three levels of government below the national level ("territorial collectivities"), between the administrative regions and the commune.
Deportivo Alavés, S.A.D.; (Sporting Alavés), usually abbreviated to Alavés, is a Spanish football club based in Vitoria-Gasteiz, Álava, in the autonomous community of the Basque Country.
Diego María de Gardoqui y Arriquibar (born November 12, 1735, Bilbao, Spain – d. 1798, Madrid, Spain) was a Spanish politician and diplomat.
The word diocese is derived from the Greek term διοίκησις meaning "administration".
DNA sequencing is the process of determining the precise order of nucleotides within a DNA molecule.
A dolmen is a type of single-chamber megalithic tomb, usually consisting of two or more vertical megaliths supporting a large flat horizontal capstone or "table".
The Duchy of Gascony or Duchy of Vasconia (Baskoniako dukerria; ducat de Gasconha; duché de Gascogne, duché de Vasconie) was a duchy in present southwestern France and northeastern Spain, part corresponding to the modern region of Gascony after 824.
Durango, officially Free and Sovereign State of Durango (Estado Libre y Soberano de Durango) (Tepehuan: Korian) (Nahuatl: Tepēhuahcān), is a Mexican state.
The Ebro in English (also in Spanish, Aragonese and Basque: 'Ebre') is one of the most important rivers on the Iberian Peninsula.
An economy (from Greek οίκος – "household" and νέμoμαι – "manage") is an area of the production, distribution, or trade, and consumption of goods and services by different agents.
Euskal Irrati Telebista (EiTB, Basque Radio-television) is the Basque Autonomous Community's public broadcast service.
An elizate, (anteiglesia) is an early form of local government in the Basque Country which was particularly common in Biscay but also existed in the other provinces.
Elko (Shoshoni: Natakkoa, "Rocks Piled on One Another") is the largest city and county seat of Elko County, Nevada, United States.
The end of Basque home rule or foruak/fors in France was an event putting an end to the secular Basque native institutional and legal system during the French revolutionary period (1790-1795).
The end of Basque home rule or fueros in Spain was a process coming to a head in the period extending from the First Carlist War (1833-1840) to the aftermath of the Third Carlist War (1876-1878).
ETA, an acronym for Euskadi Ta Askatasuna ("Basque Homeland and Liberty"), was an armed leftist Basque nationalist and separatist organization in the Basque Country (in northern Spain and southwestern France).
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.
The Indigenous peoples of Europe are the focus of European ethnology, the field of anthropology related to the various indigenous groups that reside in the nations of Europe.
European early modern humans (EEMH) in the context of the Upper Paleolithic in Europe refers to the early presence of anatomically modern humans in Europe.
The European Rugby Champions Cup (known as the Heineken Champions Cup for sponsorship reasons) is an annual rugby union tournament organised by European Professional Club Rugby (EPCR).
Euskaltel–Euskadi was a professional road bicycle racing team from Spain, Europe.
The Euskobarómetro ("Basque-barometer") is a sociological statistical survey in the Basque Country (País Vasco), an autonomous community of Spain.
Ferdinand Magellan (or; Fernão de Magalhães,; Fernando de Magallanes,; c. 1480 – 27 April 1521) was a Portuguese explorer who organised the Spanish expedition to the East Indies from 1519 to 1522, resulting in the first circumnavigation of the Earth, completed by Juan Sebastián Elcano.
Fermín de Francisco Lasuén de Arasqueta (Vitoria (Spain), June 7, 1736 – Mission de San Carlos (California), June 26, 1803) was a Basque Franciscan missionary to Alta California president of the Franciscan missions there, and founder of nine of the twenty-one Spanish missions in California.
A festival is an event ordinarily celebrated by a community and centering on some characteristic aspect of that community and its religion or cultures.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
The France national rugby union team competes annually against England, Ireland, Italy, Scotland and Wales in the Six Nations Championship.
Francis Xavier, S.J. (born Francisco de Jasso y Azpilicueta, in Latin Franciscus Xaverius, Basque: Frantzisko Xabierkoa, Spanish: Francisco Javier; 7 April 15063 December 1552), was a Navarrese Basque Roman Catholic missionary, born in Javier (Xavier in Navarro-Aragonese or Xabier in Basque), Kingdom of Navarre (present day Spain), and a co-founder of the Society of Jesus.
The Franciscans are a group of related mendicant religious orders within the Catholic Church, founded in 1209 by Saint Francis of Assisi.
Francisco Franco Bahamonde (4 December 1892 – 20 November 1975) was a Spanish general who ruled over Spain as a military dictator from 1939, after the Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War, until his death in 1975.
The Franco-Cantabrian region (also Franco-Cantabric region) is a term applied in archaeology and history to refer to an area that stretches from Asturias, in northern Spain, to Aquitaine and Provence in southern France.
Francoist Spain (España franquista) or the Franco regime (Régimen de Franco), formally known as the Spanish State (Estado Español), is the period of Spanish history between 1939, when Francisco Franco took control of Spain after the Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War establishing a dictatorship, and 1975, when Franco died and Prince Juan Carlos was crowned King of Spain.
The Franks (Franci or gens Francorum) were a collection of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine in the 3rd century AD, on the edge of the Roman Empire.
The French Basque Country, or Northern Basque Country (Iparralde (i.e. 'the Northern Region'), Pays basque français, País Vasco francés) is a region lying on the west of the French department of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
The French (Français) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation who are identified with the country of France.
French Republics refer to a succession of republics after the proclamation of the French Revolution and the abolition of the monarchy in France in 1792.
Fresno (Spanish for "ash tree") is a city in California, United States, and the county seat of Fresno County.
Fuero, Fur, Foro or Foru is a Spanish legal term and concept.
The Garonne (Garonne,; in Occitan, Catalan, and Spanish: Garona; Garumna or Garunna) is a river in southwest France and northern Spain, with a length of.
Gascon is a dialect of Occitan.
Gascony (Gascogne; Gascon: Gasconha; Gaskoinia) is an area of southwest France that was part of the "Province of Guyenne and Gascony" prior to the French Revolution.
Gastronomy is the study of the relationship between food and culture, the art of preparing and serving rich or delicate and appetizing food, the cooking styles of particular regions, and the science of good eating.
The genetic history of Europe since the Upper Paleolithic is inseparable from that of wider Western Eurasia.
In linguistics, genetic relationship is the usual term for the relationship which exists between languages that are members of the same language family.
Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.
The Geographica (Ancient Greek: Γεωγραφικά Geōgraphiká), or Geography, is an encyclopedia of geographical knowledge, consisting of 17 'books', written in Greek by Strabo, an educated citizen of the Roman Empire of Greek descent.
Giants (from Latin and Ancient Greek: "gigas", cognate giga-) are beings of human appearance, but prodigious size and strength common in the mythology and legends of many different cultures.
Gipuzkoa (in Guipúzcoa) is a province of Spain and a historical territory of the autonomous community of the Basque Country.
In monotheistic thought, God is conceived of as the Supreme Being and the principal object of faith.
Gorbea or Gorbeia is a mountain and massif, the highest in Biscay and Alava (Basque Country, Spain), with a height of 1,481 m AMSL.
Guadalajara is the capital and largest city of the Mexican state of Jalisco, and the seat of the municipality of Guadalajara.
Guatemala, officially the Republic of Guatemala (República de Guatemala), is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west, the Pacific Ocean to the southwest, Belize to the northeast, the Caribbean to the east, Honduras to the east and El Salvador to the southeast.
Guatemala City (Ciudad de Guatemala), locally known as Guatemala or Guate, officially Nueva Guatemala de la Asunción (New Guatemala of the Assumption), is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Guatemala, and the most populous in Central America.
Herbert George Wells.
Haplogroup R1b (R-M343), also known as Hg1 and Eu18, is a human Y-chromosome haplogroup.
Harri-jasotze refers to a popular rural sport in the Basque Country in which stones of various shapes and sizes must be lifted off the ground and onto the shoulder.
Henry IV (Henri IV, read as Henri-Quatre; 13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), also known by the epithet Good King Henry, was King of Navarre (as Henry III) from 1572 to 1610 and King of France from 1589 to 1610.
Homo sapiens is the systematic name used in taxonomy (also known as binomial nomenclature) for the only extant human species.
Huguenots (Les huguenots) are an ethnoreligious group of French Protestants who follow the Reformed tradition.
The Iberians (Hibērī, from Ίβηρες, Iberes) were a set of peoples that Greek and Roman sources (among others, Hecataeus of Miletus, Avienus, Herodotus and Strabo) identified with that name in the eastern and southern coasts of the Iberian peninsula, at least from the 6th century BC.
The idi probak (Basque for "oxen tests", also called idi demak (oxen wagers)) are the most popular form of Basque dragging games.
Saint Ignatius of Loyola (Ignazio Loiolakoa, Ignacio de Loyola; – 31 July 1556) was a Spanish Basque priest and theologian, who founded the religious order called the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) and became its first Superior General.
Imanol Harinordoquy (born 20 February 1980) is a French-Basque rugby union player who typically plays as a number 8 for Stade Toulousain at club level in the Top 14 and for France internationally.
An imp is a mythological being similar to a fairy or goblin, frequently described in folklore and superstition.
In situ (often not italicized in English) is a Latin phrase that translates literally to "on site" or "in position".
Independence is a condition of a nation, country, or state in which its residents and population, or some portion thereof, exercise self-government, and usually sovereignty, over the territory.
Indigenous peoples, also known as first peoples, aboriginal peoples or native peoples, are ethnic groups who are the pre-colonial original inhabitants of a given region, in contrast to groups that have settled, occupied or colonized the area more recently.
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
Infante Carlos of Spain (29 March 178810 March 1855) was an Infante of Spain and the second surviving son of King Charles IV of Spain and of his wife, Maria Luisa of Parma.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
Jai alai (Basque) is a sport involving a ball bounced off a walled space by accelerating it to high speeds with a hand-held device (cesta).
Jalapa is a department of Guatemala, in the south east-of the republic.
Jalisco, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Jalisco (Estado Libre y Soberano de Jalisco), is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
Jeanne d'Albret (Basque: Joana Albretekoa; Occitan: Joana de Labrit; 16 November 1528 – 9 June 1572), also known as Jeanne III, was the queen regnant of Navarre from 1555 to 1572.
The jentil (or Jentilak with the Basque plural), are a race of giants in the Basque mythology.
Joanes Leizarraga (1506–1601) was a 16th-century Basque priest.
Juan Sebastián Elcano (sometimes misspelled del Cano; c.14864 August 1526) was a Spanish explorer of Basque origin who completed the first circumnavigation of the Earth.
Judaizers is a term for Christians who decide to adopt Jewish customs and practices such as, primarily, the Law of Moses.
Saint Junípero Serra y Ferrer, O.F.M., (Juníper Serra i Ferrer) (November 24, 1713August 28, 1784) was a Roman Catholic Spanish priest and friar of the Franciscan Order who founded a mission in Baja California and the first nine of 21 Spanish missions in California from San Diego to San Francisco, in what was then Alta California in the Province of Las Californias, New Spain.
The Juntas Generales (Batzar Nagusiak in Basque) are representative assemblies in the Southern Basque Country that go back to the 14th century.
The Kingdom of Aragon (Reino d'Aragón, Regne d'Aragó, Regnum Aragonum, Reino de Aragón) was a medieval and early modern kingdom on the Iberian Peninsula, corresponding to the modern-day autonomous community of Aragon, in Spain.
The Kingdom of Castile (Reino de Castilla, Regnum Castellae) was a large and powerful state on the Iberian Peninsula during the Middle Ages.
The Kingdom of Navarre (Nafarroako Erresuma, Reino de Navarra, Royaume de Navarre, Regnum Navarrae), originally the Kingdom of Pamplona (Iruñeko Erresuma), was a Basque-based kingdom that occupied lands on either side of the western Pyrenees, alongside the Atlantic Ocean between present-day Spain and France.
Koldo Mitxelena Elissalt (also known as Luis Michelena; 1915, Errenteria, Gipuzkoa – 11 October 1987, San Sebastián) was an eminent Basque linguist.
The Primera División, commonly known as La Liga and as La Liga Santander for sponsorship reasons with Santander, is the men's top professional football division of the Spanish football league system.
Labourd (Lapurdi in Basque; Lapurdum in Latin; Labord in Gascon) is a former French province and part of the present-day Pyrénées Atlantiques département.
A language isolate, in the absolute sense, is a natural language with no demonstrable genealogical (or "genetic") relationship with other languages, one that has not been demonstrated to descend from an ancestor common with any other language.
In the Earth's climate history the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) was the last time period during the last glacial period when ice sheets were at their greatest extension.
Late Basquisation is the minority hypothesis that dates the arrival of the first Basque-speakers in north-eastern Iberia from Aquitaine to the 5th or 6th century AD.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Spanish, French and Portuguese are spoken; it is broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America.
Left-wing politics supports social equality and egalitarianism, often in opposition to social hierarchy.
This is a list of notable Basque people.
A locus (plural loci) in genetics is a fixed position on a chromosome, like the position of a gene or a marker (genetic marker).
Logroño is a city in northern Spain, on the Ebro River.
Lope de Aguirre (8 November 1510 – 27 October 1561) was a Basque Spanish conquistador who was active in South America.
Louisiana is a state in the southeastern region of the United States.
Lower Navarre (Nafarroa Beherea/Baxenabarre, Gascon/Bearnese: Navarra Baisha, Basse-Navarre, Baja Navarra) is a traditional region of the present-day French département of Pyrénées-Atlantiques.
Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza (born 25 January 1922) is an Italian-born population geneticist, who has been a professor (now emeritus) at Stanford University since 1970.
Macau, officially the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory on the western side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
Mairu (plural: mairuak), also called Maideak, Mairiak, Saindi Maidi (in Lower Navarre), Intxisu in the Bidasoa valley are creatures of Basque mythology.
A majority is the greater part, or more than half, of the total.
Mari, also called Mari Urraca, Anbotoko Mari ("the lady of Anboto"), and Murumendiko Dama ("lady of Murumendi") was a goddess—a lamia—of the Basques.
Marija Gimbutas (Marija Gimbutienė; January 23, 1921 – February 2, 1994) was a Lithuanian-American archaeologist and anthropologist known for her research into the Neolithic and Bronze Age cultures of "Old Europe" and for her Kurgan hypothesis, which located the Proto-Indo-European homeland in the Pontic Steppe.
Mark Kurlansky (December 7, 1948) is an American journalist and writer of general interest non-fiction.
Matriarchy is a social system in which females (most notably in mammals) hold the primary power positions in roles of political leadership, moral authority, social privilege and control of property at the specific exclusion of males - at least to a large degree.
Matrilineality is the tracing of descent through the female line.
Mauléon-Licharre or simply Mauléon is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in southwestern France.
Medellín, officially the Municipality of Medellín (Municipio de Medellín), is the second-largest city in Colombia and the capital of the department of Antioquia.
The Mediterranean race (also Mediterranid race) is one of the sub-races into which the Caucasian race was categorised by most anthropologists in the late 19th to mid-20th centuries.
In Old World archaeology, Mesolithic (Greek: μέσος, mesos "middle"; λίθος, lithos "stone") is the period between the Upper Paleolithic and the Neolithic.
Mexico City, or the City of Mexico (Ciudad de México,; abbreviated as CDMX), is the capital of Mexico and the most populous city in North America.
Saint Michel Garicoïts (15 April 1797 – 14 May 1863) was a French Basque Roman Catholic priest and the founder of the Congregation of the Sacred Heart of Jesus of Bétharram.
Miguel de Unamuno y Jugo (29 September 1864 – 31 December 1936) was a Spanish Basque essayist, novelist, poet, playwright, philosopher, professor of Greek and Classics, and later rector at the University of Salamanca.
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
Montana is a state in the Northwestern United States.
Monterrey is the capital and largest city of the northeastern state of Nuevo León, Mexico.
The term "Moors" refers primarily to the Muslim inhabitants of the Maghreb, the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, and Malta during the Middle Ages.
Moriscos (mouriscos,; meaning "Moorish") were former Muslims who converted or were coerced into converting to Christianity, after Spain finally outlawed the open practice of Islam by its sizeable Muslim population (termed mudéjar) in the early 16th century.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
A nation state (or nation-state), in the most specific sense, is a country where a distinct cultural or ethnic group (a "nation" or "people") inhabits a territory and have formed a state (often a sovereign state) that they predominantly govern.
Both the perceived nationhood of Spain, and the perceived distinctions between different parts of its territory are said to derive from historical, geographical, linguistic, economic, political and social factors.
In neuropsychology, linguistics, and the philosophy of language, a natural language or ordinary language is any language that has evolved naturally in humans through use and repetition without conscious planning or premeditation.
Navarre (Navarra, Nafarroa; Navarra), officially the Chartered Community of Navarre (Spanish: Comunidad Foral de Navarra; Basque: Nafarroako Foru Komunitatea), is an autonomous community and province in northern Spain, bordering the Basque Autonomous Community, La Rioja, and Aragon in Spain and Nouvelle-Aquitaine in France.
The Navarrese People's Union (Unión del Pueblo Navarro), abbreviated to UPN, is a regional conservative political party in Navarre, Spain.
The Near East is a geographical term that roughly encompasses Western Asia.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
The Neolithic Revolution, Neolithic Demographic Transition, Agricultural Revolution, or First Agricultural Revolution, was the wide-scale transition of many human cultures during the Neolithic period from a lifestyle of hunting and gathering to one of agriculture and settlement, making an increasingly larger population possible.
A neologism (from Greek νέο- néo-, "new" and λόγος lógos, "speech, utterance") is a relatively recent or isolated term, word, or phrase that may be in the process of entering common use, but that has not yet been fully accepted into mainstream language.
Nevada (see pronunciations) is a state in the Western, Mountain West, and Southwestern regions of the United States of America.
New Brunswick (Nouveau-Brunswick; Canadian French pronunciation) is one of three Maritime provinces on the east coast of Canada.
New Mexico (Nuevo México, Yootó Hahoodzo) is a state in the Southwestern Region of the United States of America.
The Viceroyalty of New Spain (Virreinato de la Nueva España) was an integral territorial entity of the Spanish Empire, established by Habsburg Spain during the Spanish colonization of the Americas.
Novempopulania (Latin for "country of the nine peoples") was one of the provinces created by Diocletian (Roman emperor from 284 to 305) out of Gallia Aquitania, being also called Aquitania Tertia.
Nueva Vizcaya (New Biscay, Bizkai Berria) was the first province in the north of New Spain to be explored and settled by the Spanish.
Nuevo León, or New Leon, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Nuevo León (Estado Libre y Soberano de Nuevo León), is one of the 31 states which, with Mexico City, compose the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
A nymph (νύμφη, nýmphē) in Greek and Latin mythology is a minor female nature deity typically associated with a particular location or landform.
Olentzero (sometimes Olentzaro or Olantzaro) is a character in Basque Christmas tradition.
Oregon is a state in the Pacific Northwest region on the West Coast of the United States.
A Paisa is someone from a region in the northwest of Colombia, including the part of the Andes in Colombia.
Pamplona (Pampelune) or Iruña (alternative spelling: Iruñea) is the historical capital city of Navarre, in Spain, and of the former Kingdom of Navarre.
Patrilineality, also known as the male line, the spear side or agnatic kinship, is a common kinship system in which an individual's family membership derives from and is recorded through his or her father's lineage.
PLOS (for Public Library of Science) is a nonprofit open access science, technology and medicine publisher, innovator and advocacy organization with a library of open access journals and other scientific literature under an open content license.
PLOS Biology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering all aspects of Biology.
Population genetics is a subfield of genetics that deals with genetic differences within and between populations, and is a part of evolutionary biology.
The Portuguese Inquisition (Portuguese: Inquisição Portuguesa) was formally established in Portugal in 1536 at the request of its king, John III.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, the most widely spoken language family in the world.
The Proto-Indo-Europeans were the prehistoric people of Eurasia who spoke Proto-Indo-European (PIE), the ancestor of the Indo-European languages according to linguistic reconstruction.
Puebla, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Puebla (Estado Libre y Soberano de Puebla) is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
Pyrénées-Atlantiques (Gascon: Pirenèus-Atlantics; Pirinio Atlantiarrak or Pirinio Atlantikoak) is a department in the region of Nouvelle-Aquitaine, in southwestern France.
The Pyrenees (Pirineos, Pyrénées, Pirineus, Pirineus, Pirenèus, Pirinioak) is a range of mountains in southwest Europe that forms a natural border between Spain and France.
Quebec (Québec)According to the Canadian government, Québec (with the acute accent) is the official name in French and Quebec (without the accent) is the province's official name in English; the name is.
Real Sociedad de Fútbol, S.A.D., more commonly referred to as Real Sociedad (Royal Society) or La Real, is a Spanish football club based in the city of San Sebastián, Basque Country, founded on 7 September 1909.
Reno is a city in the U.S. state of Nevada, located in the western part of the state, approximately from Lake Tahoe.
Reynosa is a border city in the northern part of Tamaulipas, Mexico.
The Rh blood group system is one of thirty-five known human blood group systems.
Ribagorza or Ribagorça (Ribagorce) is a comarca (county) in Aragon, Spain, situated in the north-east of the province of Huesca.
The Rio Grande (or; Río Bravo del Norte, or simply Río Bravo) is one of the principal rivers in the southwest United States and northern Mexico (the other being the Colorado River).
The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.
Rugby union, commonly known in most of the world as rugby, is a contact team sport which originated in England in the first half of the 19th century.
The Running of the Bulls (in Spanish: encierro, from the verb encerrar, "to corral, to enclose") is a practice that involves running in front of a small group of cattle, typically six, of the ''toro bravo'' breed that have been let loose on a course of a sectioned-off subset of a town's streets.
Sabino Policarpo Arana Goiri, self-styled as Arana ta Goiri'taŕ Sabin (26 January 1865 – 25 November 1903), was a Spanish writer.
Sacatepéquez is one of the 22 departments of Guatemala.
A sagardotegi (pronounced) is a type of cider house found in the Basque Country where Basque cider and traditional foods such as cod omelettes are served.
Saltillo is the capital of the northeastern Mexican state of Coahuila and the municipal seat of the municipality of the same name.
San Bernardino County, officially the County of San Bernardino, is a county located in the southern portion of the U.S. state of California.
The festival of San Fermín is a week-long, historically rooted celebration held annually in the city of Pamplona, Navarre, Spain.
The San Joaquin Valley is the area of the Central Valley of the U.S. state of California that lies south of the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta and is drained by the San Joaquin River.
San Martin Txiki ("Little Saint Martin") is the Trickster figure from Basque mythology.
San Sebastián or Donostia is a coastal city and municipality located in the Basque Autonomous Community, Spain.
Sancho Garcés III (994 – 18 October 1035), also known as Sancho the Great (Sancho el Mayor, Antso Gartzez Nagusia), was the King of Pamplona from 1004 until his death in 1035.
Santa Claus, also known as Saint Nicholas, Kris Kringle, Father Christmas, or simply Santa, is a legendary figure originating in Western Christian culture who is said to bring gifts to the homes of well-behaved ("good" or "nice") children on Christmas Eve (24 December) and the early morning hours of Christmas Day (25 December).
A scytheOxford English Dictionary, Oxford University Press, 1933: Scythe is an agricultural hand tool for mowing grass or reaping crops.
Sociedad Deportiva Eibar (in Eibar Kirol Elkartea) is a Spanish football club based in Eibar, Gipuzkoa, in the autonomous Basque Country.
The right of people to self-determination is a cardinal principle in modern international law (commonly regarded as a jus cogens rule), binding, as such, on the United Nations as authoritative interpretation of the Charter's norms.
Sephardi Jews, also known as Sephardic Jews or Sephardim (סְפָרַדִּים, Modern Hebrew: Sefaraddim, Tiberian: Səp̄āraddîm; also Ye'hude Sepharad, lit. "The Jews of Spain"), originally from Sepharad, Spain or the Iberian peninsula, are a Jewish ethnic division.
Sobrarbe is one of the comarcas of Aragon, Spain.
The Society of Jesus (SJ – from Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain.
A solar deity (also sun god or sun goddess) is a sky deity who represents the Sun, or an aspect of it, usually by its perceived power and strength.
Sorginak (root form: sorgin, absolutive case (singular): sorgina) are the assistants of the goddess Mari in Basque mythology.
Soule (Basque: Zuberoa; Zuberoan Basque: Xiberoa or Xiberua; Gascon: Sola) is a former viscounty and French province and part of the present day Pyrénées-Atlantiques département.
South Texas is a region of the U.S. state of Texas that lies roughly south of -- and sometimes including -- San Antonio.
The Southern Basque Country (Hegoalde, Hego Euskal Herria; Hegoalde, País Vasco y Navarra, País Vasco peninsular) is a term used to refer to the Basque territories within Spain as a unified whole.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Spaniards are a Latin European ethnic group and nation.
The Spanish Civil War (Guerra Civil Española),Also known as The Crusade (La Cruzada) among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War (Cuarta Guerra Carlista) among Carlists, and The Rebellion (La Rebelión) or Uprising (Sublevación) among Republicans.
Spanish conquest of the Iberian part of Navarre was commenced by Ferdinand II of Aragon and completed by Charles V in a series of military campaigns extending from 1512 to 1524, while the war lasted until 1528 in the Navarre to the north of the Pyrenees.
The Tribunal of the Holy Office of the Inquisition (Tribunal del Santo Oficio de la Inquisición), commonly known as the Spanish Inquisition (Inquisición española), was established in 1478 by Catholic Monarchs Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
The Spanish missions in California comprise a series of 21 religious outposts or missions established between 1769 and 1833 in today's U.S. State of California.
Stockton is a city in and the county seat of San Joaquin County in the Central Valley of the U.S. state of California.
The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric period during which stone was widely used to make implements with an edge, a point, or a percussion surface.
A stone circle is an alignment of standing stones arranged in a circle.
A Short Tandem Repeat (STR) analysis is one of the most useful methods in molecular biology which is used to compare specific loci on DNA from two or more samples.
Strabo (Στράβων Strábōn; 64 or 63 BC AD 24) was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.
In Basque mythology, Sugaar (also Sugar, Sugoi, Suarra, Maju) is the male half of a pre-Christian Basque deity associated with storms and thunder.
Superstition is a pejorative term for any belief or practice that is considered irrational: for example, if it arises from ignorance, a misunderstanding of science or causality, a positive belief in fate or magic, or fear of that which is unknown.
Tamaulipas, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Tamaulipas (Estado Libre y Soberano de Tamaulipas), is one of the 31 states which, with Mexico City, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
Tardets-Sorholus is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in south-western France.
The Tejano (Derived from "Tejas", the Hasinais indian name for "Texas", meaning "friends" or "allies") are residents of the state of Texas who are culturally descended from the original Spanish-speaking settlers of Texas and northern Mexico. They may be variously of Criollo Spanish or Mexican American origin. Historically, the Spanish term Tejano has been used to identify various groups of people. During the Spanish colonial era, the term was primarily applied to Spanish settlers of the region now known as the state of Texas (first it was part of New Spain and after 1821 it was part of Mexico). After settlers entered from the United States and gained the independence of the Republic of Texas, the term was applied to mostly Spanish-speaking Texans, Hispanicized Germans, and other Spanish-speaking residents. In practice, many members of traditionally Tejano communities often have varying degrees of fluency in Spanish with some having virtually no Spanish proficiency though still considered culturally part of the community. Since the early 20th century, Tejano has been more broadly used to identify a Texan Mexican American. It is also a term used to identify natives, as opposed to newcomers, in the areas settled. Latino people of Texas identify as Tejano if their families were living there before the area was controlled by Anglo Americans.
Texas (Texas or Tejas) is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population.
The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.
The Outline of History, subtitled either "The Whole Story of Man" or "Being a Plain History of Life and Mankind", is a work by H. G. Wells that first appeared in an illustrated version of 24 fortnightly installments beginning on 22 November 1919 and was published as a single volume in 1920.
The Top 14 is a professional rugby union club competition that is played in France created in 1892.
A toponymic surname is a surname derived from a place name.
The Tour of the Basque Country (Vuelta Ciclista al País Vasco, Euskal Herriko Itzulia) is an annual cycling stage race held in the Spanish Basque Country in April.
A trainera is a traditional boat of the Cantabrian sea coast at the southern end of the Bay of Biscay, propelled by oars, and formerly sailing.
In mythology, and in the study of folklore and religion, a trickster is a character in a story (god, goddess, spirit, man, woman, or anthropomorphisation), which exhibits a great degree of intellect or secret knowledge, and uses it to play tricks or otherwise disobey normal rules and conventional behaviour.
Txindoki or Larrunarri is an iconic mountain (1,346 m) located in the region of Goierri, Gipuzkoa, in the Basque Autonomous Community of Spain.
A Txoko is a typically Basque type of closed gastronomical society where people come together to cook, experiment with new ways of cooking, eat and socialize.
The Umayyad conquest of Hispania was the initial expansion of the Umayyad Caliphate over Hispania, largely extending from 711 to 788.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
The University of Nevada, Reno (also referred to as Nevada, the University of Nevada or UNR) is a public research university located in Reno, Nevada.
Union Sportive des Arlequins Perpignanais (Unió Esportiva Arlequins de Perpinyà), generally referred to as USA Perpignan, is a French rugby union club that plays in the city of Perpignan in Pyrénées-Orientales.
Utah is a state in the western United States.
Valencian pilota (pilota valenciana "Valencian ball") is a traditional handball sport played in the Valencian Community.
The Vascones (singular Vasco, in the Spanish-language Auñamendi Encyclopedia. from Latin gens Vasconum) were a pre-Roman tribe who, on the arrival of the Romans in the 1st century, inhabited a territory that spanned between the upper course of the Ebro river and the southern basin of the western Pyrenees, a region that coincides with present-day Navarre, western Aragon and northeastern La Rioja, in the Iberian Peninsula.
The Visigoths (Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, Wisi; Visigoti) were the western branches of the nomadic tribes of Germanic peoples referred to collectively as the Goths.
Vitoria-Gasteiz is the seat of government and the capital city of the Basque Autonomous Community and of the province of Araba/Álava in northern Spain.
The voiced labio-velar approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in certain spoken languages, including English.
The War of the Bands (Bando gerrak, Guerra de los Bandos) was a civil war, really an extended series of blood feuds, in the western Basque Country, Gascony, and Navarre in the Late Middle Ages.
Washington, officially the State of Washington, is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States.
West Texas is a loosely defined part of the U.S. state of Texas, generally encompassing the arid and semiarid lands west of a line drawn between the cities of Wichita Falls, Abilene, and Del Rio.
The wild man (also wildman, or "wildman of the woods") is a mythical figure that appears in the artwork and literature of medieval Europe, comparable to the satyr or faun type in classical mythology and to Silvanus, the Roman god of the woodlands.
Witchcraft or witchery broadly means the practice of and belief in magical skills and abilities exercised by solitary practitioners and groups.
Wyoming is a state in the mountain region of the western United States.
The Y chromosome is one of two sex chromosomes (allosomes) in mammals, including humans, and many other animals.
Zugarramurdi is a town and municipality located in the province and autonomous community of Navarre in northern Spain.