193 relations: 'Adud al-Dawla, Abaddon Books, Abbasid Caliphate, Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan, Abu Al-Khaseeb, Abu Musa al-Ash'ari, Adnanites, Afro-Iraqi, Al Başrah Oil Terminal, Al-Jahiz, Al-Mina'a (basketball club), Al-Mina'a SC, Ali, Anthony Zinni, Aqaba, Arab Club Basketball Championship, Arabic literature, Arabs, Aramaic language, As-Saffah, Assassins, Assyrian Church of the East, Badr Shakir al-Sayyab, Baghdad, Baghdad Vilayet, Bahri dynasty, Baku, Bani Malik (tribe), Bani Mansour, Banu Tamim, Barley, Basra Governorate, Basra International Airport, Basra prison incident, Basra reed warbler, Basra Sports City, Basra Vilayet, Battle of Basra (1914), Buscarello de Ghizolfi, Buyid dynasty, C Czarnikow Ltd v Koufos, Columbia University, Council of Representatives of Iraq, Date palm, Desert climate, Diya' al-Dawla, Du'a Kumayl, Dubai, Dulaim, Economic capital, ..., Ehsan Yarshater, Encyclopædia Iranica, English contract law, Ethylene, Federal government of Iraq, Federation of Oil Unions in Iraq, Future history, George Buchanan (engineer, born 1865), Guelphs and Ghibellines, Gulf War, H. G. Wells, High-density polyethylene, Hijri year, History of Islam, Houston, Hulagu Khan, Husayn ibn Ali, Ibn al-Haytham, Ibn Battuta, Ilkhanate, Imad ad-Din Zengi, Imam Ali Mosque (Basra), Iran, Iran–Iraq War, Iraq, Iraq War, Iraqi Airways, Iraqi Interim Government, Iraqi Police, Izz al-Dawla, Jalairid Sultanate, Jubur, Kara Koyunlu, Karbala, Karim Khan Zand, Köppen climate classification, Kenya, Khawarij, Khuzestan Province, Kufa, Kurds, Kuwait, List of cities in Iraq, List of countries by proven oil reserves, List of Iraqi Information Ministers, List of places in Iraq, Low-density polyethylene, Maize, Mandaeans, Mashrabiya, Mayor–council government, Mosul, Muawiyah I, Muhammad, Mukhtar al-Thaqafi, Multi-National Division (South-East) (Iraq), Muslim ibn Aqeel, Nineveh plains, Nishapur, Nitrogen, Nouri al-Maliki, Operation Ramadan, Ottoman Empire, Peace Companies, Pearl millet, Persian Empire, Petrochemical, Polymath, Polyvinyl chloride, Portugal, Precipitation, Prime Minister of Iraq, Prophets and messengers in Islam, Qahtanite, Qarmatians, Questia Online Library, Rabia of Basra, Rashid ad-Din Sinan, Rashidun, Republic of Genoa, Riyadh, Russia, Saddam Hussein, Samsam al-Dawla, Sasanian Empire, Saudi Arabia, Scott K. Andrews, Shah, Shammar, Shatt al-Arab, Shia Islam, Siege of Basra, Sinbad the Sailor, Sister city, South Oil Company, Special Air Service, Steven Vincent, Sufism, Sumer, Sunni Islam, Supreme Iraqi Criminal Tribunal, Tell (archaeology), Texas, The Christian Science Monitor, The Globe and Mail, The Shape of Things to Come, The Simpsons, The Simpsons (season 28), The Thief of Bagdad (1940 film), Tom Clancy's The Division, Trust but Clarify, Tughril, Ubayd Allah ibn Ziyad, Ubisoft, Umar, Umayyad Caliphate, Umm Qasr, Umm Qasr Port, United Nations Statistics Division, University of Basrah, Urea, Utbah ibn Ghazwan, Uthman, Vinyl chloride, Voltaire, War of the Cities, Wasit, Iraq, World government, World War I, World War II, Yazdegerd III, Yazid I, Yazid II, Zadig, Zand dynasty, Zanj, Zanj Rebellion, Ziyad ibn Abih, Zubaid, 2003 invasion of Iraq, 21 April 2004 Basra bombings, 22nd Arabian Gulf Cup, 7th Armoured Brigade (United Kingdom). Expand index (143 more) » « Shrink index
Fannā (Panāh) Khusraw (فنا خسرو), better known by his laqab of ʿAḍud al-Dawla (عضد الدولة, "Pillar of the Dynasty") (September 24, 936 – March 26, 983) was an emir of the Buyid dynasty, ruling from 949 to 983, and at his height of power ruling an empire stretching from Makran as far to Yemen and the shores of the Mediterranean Sea.
Abaddon Books is a British publishing imprint, founded in 2006.
The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan (عبد الملك ابن مروان ‘Abd al-Malik ibn Marwān, 646 – 8 October 705) was the 5th Umayyad caliph.
Abu Al-Khaseeb (sometimes spelled Abu Al-Khasib) is a town in Abu Al-Khaseeb District, Basra Governorate, southern Iraq.
Abu Musa Abd Allah ibn Qays al-Ash'ari, better known as Abu Musa al-Ash'ari (أبو موسى الأشعري) (d. ca. 662 or 672) was a companion of Muhammad and an important figure in early Islamic history.
According to Arab genealogical tradition, the Adnanites (عدنانيون) are "Arabized Arabs", descended from Ishmael through Adnan, distinguished from the "pure" Qahtanite Arabs of southern Arabia.
Afro-Iraqis are an ethnic group that is descended from people of Zanj heritage in Iraq.
Al Başrah Oil Terminal, commonly referred to as ABOT, is a strategically critical Iraqi offshore, deep sea crude oil marine loading terminal that lies approximately southeast of the Al-Faw Peninsula in the Persian Gulf.
al-Jāḥiẓ (الجاحظ) (full name Abū ʿUthman ʿAmr ibn Baḥr al-Kinānī al-Baṣrī أبو عثمان عمرو بن بحر الكناني البصري) (born 776, in Basra – December 868/January 869) was an Arab prose writer and author of works of literature, Mu'tazili theology, and politico-religious polemics.
Al-Mina'a (basketball club) is a basketball club, located in Al Maqal, Basra, Iraq that plays in the Iraq Basketball League.
Al-Mina'a Sport Club (lit) is an Iraqi multi-sport club based in Al-Maqal, Basra that participates in the Iraqi Premier League, the top-flight of Iraqi football.
Ali (ʿAlī) (15 September 601 – 29 January 661) was the cousin and the son-in-law of Muhammad, the last prophet of Islam.
Anthony Charles Zinni (born September 17, 1943) is a former United States Marine Corps general and a former Commander in Chief of the United States Central Command (CENTCOM).
Aqaba (العقبة) is the only coastal city in Jordan and the largest and most populous city on the Gulf of Aqaba.
The Arab Club Championship is an annual basketball tournament for Arab teams.
Arabic literature (الأدب العربي / ALA-LC: al-Adab al-‘Arabī) is the writing, both prose and poetry, produced by writers in the Arabic language.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
Aramaic (אַרָמָיָא Arāmāyā, ܐܪܡܝܐ, آرامية) is a language or group of languages belonging to the Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic language family.
Abu al-‘Abbās ‘Abdu'llāh ibn Muhammad al-Saffāḥ, or Abul `Abbas as-Saffaḥ (أبو العباس عبد الله بن محمد السفّاح) (b. 721/722 AD – d. 10 June 754) was the first caliph of the Abbasid caliphate, one of the longest and most important caliphates (Islamic dynasties) in Islamic history.
Order of Assassins or simply Assassins (أساسين asāsīn, حشاشین Hashâshīn) is the common name used to refer to an Islamic sect formally known as the Nizari Ismailis.
The Assyrian Church of the East (ܥܕܬܐ ܕܡܕܢܚܐ ܕܐܬܘܖ̈ܝܐ ʻĒdtā d-Madenḥā d-Ātorāyē), officially the Holy Apostolic Catholic Assyrian Church of the East (ʻEdtā Qaddīštā wa-Šlīḥāitā Qātolīqī d-Madenḥā d-Ātorāyē), is an Eastern Christian Church that follows the traditional christology and ecclesiology of the historical Church of the East.
Badr Shakir al Sayyab (بدر شاكر السياب) (Jaykur, near Basra December 24, 1926 – Kuwait 24 December 1964) was a leading Iraqi poet, well known throughout the Arab world and one of the most influential Arab poets of all time.
Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.
The Vilayet of Baghdad (Ottoman language:, Vilâyet-i Bagdad, Modern Turkish: Bağdat Vilâyeti, Arabic:ولاية بغداد) was a first-level administrative division (vilayet) of the Ottoman Empire in modern-day central Iraq.
The Bahri dynasty or Bahriyya Mamluks (translit) was a Mamluk dynasty of mostly Cuman-Kipchak Turkic origin that ruled the Egyptian Mamluk Sultanate from 1250 to 1382.
Baku (Bakı) is the capital and largest city of Azerbaijan, as well as the largest city on the Caspian Sea and of the Caucasus region, with a population of 2,374,000.
Bani Malik (بني مالك) or Banu Malik (بنو مالك) (The Sons of Malik) is one of the major Arab tribes of the Arabian Peninsula.
Bani Mansour is a rural sub-district in Ba'dan District, Ibb Governorate, Yemen.
The tribe of Banu Tamim (بـنـو تـمـيـم) or Bani Tamim (بـني تـمـيـم) is one of the main tribes of Arabia.
Barley (Hordeum vulgare), a member of the grass family, is a major cereal grain grown in temperate climates globally.
Basra Governorate (محافظة البصرة) (or Basra Province) is a governorate in southern Iraq, bordering Kuwait to the south and Iran to the east.
Basrah International Airport (مطار البصرة الدولي) is the second largest international airport in Iraq, and is located in the southern city of Basra.
The Basra prison incident was an event involving British troops in Basra, Iraq.
The Basra reed warbler (Acrocephalus griseldis) is a "warbler" of the genus Acrocephalus.
Basra Sports City (مدينة البصرة الرياضية) is a sports complex in Basra, Southern Iraq.
The Basra Vilayet (Ottoman language:, Vilâyet-i Basra) was a first-level administrative division (vilayet) of the Ottoman Empire.
The Battle of Basra was a battle of World War I which took place south of the city of Basra (modern-day Iraq) between British and Ottoman troops from November 11 to November 21, 1914.
Buscarello de Ghizolfi, or Buscarel of Gisolfe was a European who settled in Persia in the 13th century while it was part of the Mongol Ilkhanate.
The Buyid dynasty or the Buyids (آل بویه Āl-e Buye), also known as Buwaihids, Bowayhids, Buyahids, or Buyyids, was an Iranian Shia dynasty of Daylamite origin.
C Czarnikow Ltd v Koufos or The Heron II is an English contract law case, concerning remoteness of damage.
Columbia University (Columbia; officially Columbia University in the City of New York), established in 1754, is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City.
The Council of Representatives (Majlis an-Nuwwāb al-ʿIrāqiyy; ئهنجومهنی نوێنهرانی) is the unicameral legislature of the Republic of Iraq.
Phoenix dactylifera, commonly known as date or date palm, is a flowering plant species in the palm family, Arecaceae, cultivated for its edible sweet fruit.
The Desert climate (in the Köppen climate classification BWh and BWk, sometimes also BWn), also known as an arid climate, is a climate in which precipitation is too low to sustain any vegetation at all, or at most a very scanty shrub, and does not meet the criteria to be classified as a polar climate.
Abu Tahir Firuzshah (ابو طاهر فیروز شاه), better known by his laqab of Diya' al-Dawla, was the Buyid ruler of Basra during the 980s.
Dua Kumayl (دعاء كميل) (literally the Supplication of Kumayl) is a supplication famous among Shi'a for its perceived beauty and a traditional supplication in Shi'a Muslim spiritual practice.
Dubai (دبي) is the largest and most populous city in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).
Dulaim or Dulaimi or Al Duliam or Dulaym (الدليم) is an Arab royal tribe, with over seven million members.
In finance, mainly for financial services firms, economic capital is the amount of risk capital, assessed on a realistic basis, which a firm requires to cover the risks that it is running or collecting as a going concern, such as market risk, credit risk, legal risk, and operational risk.
Ehsan Yarshater (احسان يارشاطر, born April 3, 1920) is the founder and director of The Center for Iranian Studies, and Hagop Kevorkian Professor Emeritus of Iranian Studies at Columbia University.
Encyclopædia Iranica is a project whose goal is to create a comprehensive and authoritative English language encyclopedia about the history, culture, and civilization of Iranian peoples from prehistory to modern times.
English contract law is a body of law regulating contracts in England and Wales.
Ethylene (IUPAC name: ethene) is a hydrocarbon which has the formula or H2C.
The federal government of Iraq is defined under the current Constitution, approved in 2005, as an Islamic, democratic, federal parliamentary republic.
Founded in October 2005 from unions that had begun organizing after the invasion, the Federation of Oil Unions of Iraq is the largest independent union consortium in Iraq, with tens of thousands of members.
A future history is a postulated history of the future and is used by authors of science fiction and other speculative fiction to construct a common background for fiction.
Sir George Cunningham Buchanan (20 April 1865 – 14 April 1940) was a British civil engineer particularly associated with harbour works in Burma, Iraq and Bombay, during the early years of the 20th century.
The Guelphs and Ghibellines (guelfi e ghibellini) were factions supporting the Pope and the Holy Roman Emperor, respectively, in the Italian city-states of central and northern Italy.
The Gulf War (2 August 199028 February 1991), codenamed Operation Desert Shield (2 August 199017 January 1991) for operations leading to the buildup of troops and defense of Saudi Arabia and Operation Desert Storm (17 January 199128 February 1991) in its combat phase, was a war waged by coalition forces from 35 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.
Herbert George Wells.
High-density polyethylene (HDPE) or polyethylene high-density (PEHD) is a polyethylene thermoplastic made from petroleum.
The Hijri year (سَنة هِجْريّة) or era (التقويم الهجري at-taqwīm al-hijrī) is the era used in the Islamic lunar calendar, which begins its count from the Islamic New Year in 622 AD.
The history of Islam concerns the political, social,economic and cultural developments of the Islamic civilization.
Houston is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Texas and the fourth most populous city in the United States, with a census-estimated 2017 population of 2.312 million within a land area of.
Hulagu Khan, also known as Hülegü or Hulegu (ᠬᠦᠯᠡᠭᠦ|translit.
Al-Ḥusayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (الحسين ابن علي ابن أبي طالب; 10 October 625 – 10 October 680) (3 Sha'aban AH 4 (in the ancient (intercalated) Arabic calendar) – 10 Muharram AH 61) (his name is also transliterated as Husayn ibn 'Alī, Husain, Hussain and Hussein), was a grandson of the Islamic ''Nabi'' (نَـبِي, Prophet) Muhammad, and son of Ali ibn Abi Talib (the first Shia Imam and the fourth Rashid caliph of Sunni Islam), and Muhammad's daughter, Fatimah.
Hasan Ibn al-Haytham (Latinized Alhazen; full name أبو علي، الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم) was an Arab mathematician, astronomer, and physicist of the Islamic Golden Age.
Ibn Battuta (محمد ابن بطوطة; fully; Arabic: أبو عبد الله محمد بن عبد الله اللواتي الطنجي بن بطوطة) (February 25, 13041368 or 1369) was a Moroccan scholar who widely travelled the medieval world.
The Ilkhanate, also spelled Il-khanate (ایلخانان, Ilxānān; Хүлэгийн улс, Hu’legīn Uls), was established as a khanate that formed the southwestern sector of the Mongol Empire, ruled by the Mongol House of Hulagu.
Imad ad-Din Zengi (عماد الدین زنكي; – 14 September 1146), also romanized as Zangi, Zengui, Zenki, and Zanki, was a Oghuz Turkish atabeg who ruled Mosul, Aleppo, Hama, and Edessa.
The Imam Ali Mosque (جامع خطوة الإمام علي) or the Old Mosque of Basra (مسجد البصرة القديم) is the first mosque built in Basra, Iraq and among the oldest mosques in the history of Islam.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
The Iran–Iraq War was an armed conflict between Iran and Iraq, beginning on 22 September 1980, when Iraq invaded Iran, and ending on 20 August 1988, when Iran accepted the UN-brokered ceasefire.
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
The Iraq WarThe conflict is also known as the War in Iraq, the Occupation of Iraq, the Second Gulf War, and Gulf War II.
Iraqi Airways Company, operating as Iraqi Airways (الخطوط الجوية العراقية Al-Khuṭūṭ al-Jawwiyyah al-`Irāqiyyah), is the national carrier of Iraq, headquartered on the grounds of Baghdad International Airport in Baghdad.
The Iraqi Interim Government was created by the United States and its coalition allies as a caretaker government to govern Iraq until the drafting of the new constitution following the National Assembly election conducted on January 30, 2005.
The Iraqi Police (IP) is the uniformed police force responsible for the enforcement of civil law in Iraq.
Bakhtiyar (Persian: بختیار, died 978), better known by his laqab of ʿIzz al-Dawla (Arabic: عز الدولة،, "Glory of the Dynasty"), was the Buyid amir of Iraq (967–978).
The Jalairids were a Mongol Jalayir dynasty which ruled over Iraq and western Persia after the breakup of the Mongol khanate of Persia in the 1330s.
Jubur (جبور), also known as Jebour, Jibour, Jubour, Jabur, Jaburi, Jebouri, and Jabara, is the largest Arab tribe in Iraq that scattered throughout central and northern Iraq.
The Kara Koyunlu or Qara Qoyunlu, also called the Black Sheep Turkomans (قره قویونلو), were a Muslim Oghuz Turkic monarchy that ruled over the territory comprising present-day Azerbaijan, Armenia (1406), northwestern Iran, eastern Turkey, and northeastern Iraq from about 1374 to 1468.
Karbala (كَرْبَلَاء, Karbalā’, Persian: کربلاء) is a city in central Iraq, located about southwest of Baghdad, and a few miles east of Lake Milh.
Mohammad Karim Khan Zand (Mohammad Karīm Khān-e Zand), better known as Karim Khan Zand (کریم خان زند), was the founder of the Zand Dynasty and the Shah of Iran, ruling from 1751 to 1779.
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.
Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya, is a country in Africa with its capital and largest city in Nairobi.
The Khawarij (الخوارج, al-Khawārij, singular خارجي, khāriji), Kharijites, or the ash-Shurah (ash-Shurāh "the Exchangers") are members of a school of thought, that appeared in the first century of Islam during the First Fitna, the crisis of leadership after the death of Muhammad.
Khuzestan Province (استان خوزستان Ostān-e Khūzestān, محافظة خوزستان Muḥāfaẓa Khūzistān) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.
Kufa (الْكُوفَة) is a city in Iraq, about south of Baghdad, and northeast of Najaf.
The Kurds (rtl, Kurd) or the Kurdish people (rtl, Gelî kurd), are an ethnic group in the Middle East, mostly inhabiting a contiguous area spanning adjacent parts of southeastern Turkey (Northern Kurdistan), northwestern Iran (Eastern Kurdistan), northern Iraq (Southern Kurdistan), and northern Syria (Western Kurdistan).
Kuwait (الكويت, or), officially the State of Kuwait (دولة الكويت), is a country in Western Asia.
This article shows a list of cities in Iraq.
This is a list of countries by proven oil reserves.
This is a list of Iraqi Information Ministers during the presidency of Saddam Hussein.
This is a list of places in Iraq.
Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) is a thermoplastic made from the monomer ethylene.
Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago.
Mandaeans (aṣ-Ṣābi'a al-Mandā'iyūn) are an ethnoreligious group indigenous to the alluvial plain of southern Mesopotamia and are followers of Mandaeism, a Gnostic religion.
A mashrabiya (مشربية), also either shanshūl (شنشول) or rūshān (روشان), is a type of projecting oriel window enclosed with carved wood latticework located on the second story of a building or higher, often lined with stained glass.
The mayor–council government system is a system of organization of local government.
Mosul (الموصل, مووسڵ, Māwṣil) is a major city in northern Iraq. Located some north of Baghdad, Mosul stands on the west bank of the Tigris, opposite the ancient Assyrian city of Nineveh on the east bank. The metropolitan area has grown to encompass substantial areas on both the "Left Bank" (east side) and the "Right Bank" (west side), as the two banks are described by the locals compared to the flow direction of Tigris. At the start of the 21st century, Mosul and its surrounds had an ethnically and religiously diverse population; the majority of Mosul's population were Arabs, with Assyrians, Armenians, Turkmens, Kurds, Yazidis, Shabakis, Mandaeans, Kawliya, Circassians in addition to other, smaller ethnic minorities. In religious terms, mainstream Sunni Islam was the largest religion, but with a significant number of followers of the Salafi movement and Christianity (the latter followed by the Assyrians and Armenians), as well as Shia Islam, Sufism, Yazidism, Shabakism, Yarsanism and Mandaeism. Mosul's population grew rapidly around the turn of the millennium and by 2004 was estimated to be 1,846,500. In 2014, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant seized control of the city. The Iraqi government recaptured it in the 2016–2017 Battle of Mosul. Historically, important products of the area include Mosul marble and oil. The city of Mosul is home to the University of Mosul and its renowned Medical College, which together was one of the largest educational and research centers in Iraq and the Middle East. Mosul, together with the nearby Nineveh plains, is one of the historic centers for the Assyrians and their churches; the Assyrian Church of the East; its offshoot, the Chaldean Catholic Church; and the Syriac Orthodox Church, containing the tombs of several Old Testament prophets such as Jonah, some of which were destroyed by ISIL in July 2014.
Muawiyah I (Muʿāwiyah ibn Abī Sufyān; 602 – 26 April 680) established the Umayyad dynasty of the caliphate, and was the second caliph from the Umayyad clan, the first being Uthman ibn Affan.
MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.
al-Mukhtār ibn Abī ‘Ubaydah al-Thaqafī (المختار بن أبي عبيدة الثقفي) (also spelled Mukhtar bin Abu Ubaid), (born c. 622, al-Ṭaʾif, Arabia —died March 687, Kūfah, Iraq), was an early Islamic revolutionary based in Kufa, Iraq who led an abortive rebellion against the Umayyad Caliphs in vengeance for the death of Husayn ibn 'Ali at the Battle of Karbala.
Multi-National Division (South-East) (MND(SE)) was a British commanded military division responsible for security in the south east of Iraq from 2003 to 2009.
Muslim ibn Aqil Al-Hashimi (Arabic: مسلم بن عقيل الهاشمي) was the son of Aqeel ibn Abu Talib and a member of the clan of Bani Hashim, thus, he is a cousin of Husayn ibn Ali.
Nineveh Plains (Pqatā d'Ninwe, and Modern Daštā d'Ninwe; Sahl Naynawā; Deşta Neynewa) is a region in Iraq's Nineveh Governorate to the north and east of the city Mosul, from which it is also known as the Plain of Mosul.
Nishapur or Nishabur (نیشابور, also Romanized as Nīshāpūr, Nišâpur, Nişapur, Nīshābūr, Neyshābūr, and Neeshapoor, from Middle Persian: New-Shabuhr, meaning "New City of Shapur", "Fair Shapur", or "Perfect built of Shapur") is a city in Razavi Khorasan Province, capital of the Nishapur County and former capital of Province Khorasan, in northeastern Iran, situated in a fertile plain at the foot of the Binalud Mountains.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
Nouri Kamil Mohammed Hasan al-Maliki (نوري كامل محمد حسن المالكي.; born 20 June 1950), also known as Jawad al-Maliki (جواد المالكي) or Abu Esraa (أبو إسراء), is an Iraqi politician who was Prime Minister of Iraq from 2006 to 2014.
Operation Ramadan was an offensive in the Iran–Iraq War that consisted of three separate attacks that lasted for 6 weeks.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The Peace Companies (سرايا السلام, translit. Sarāyā al-Salām), frequently mistranslated as Peace Brigades in US media, are an Iraqi armed group linked to Iraq's Shia community.
Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) is the most widely grown type of millet.
The Persian Empire (شاهنشاهی ایران, translit., lit. 'Imperial Iran') refers to any of a series of imperial dynasties that were centred in Persia/Iran from the 6th-century-BC Achaemenid Empire era to the 20th century AD in the Qajar dynasty era.
Petrochemicals (also known as petroleum distillates) are chemical products derived from petroleum.
A polymath (πολυμαθής,, "having learned much,"The term was first recorded in written English in the early seventeenth century Latin: uomo universalis, "universal man") is a person whose expertise spans a significant number of different subject areas—such a person is known to draw on complex bodies of knowledge to solve specific problems.
Polyvinyl chloride, also known as polyvinyl or '''vinyl''', commonly abbreviated PVC, is the world's third-most widely produced synthetic plastic polymer, after polyethylene and polypropylene.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity.
The Prime Minister of Iraq is Iraq's head of government.
Prophets in Islam (الأنبياء في الإسلام) include "messengers" (rasul, pl. rusul), bringers of a divine revelation via an angel (Arabic: ملائكة, malāʾikah);Shaatri, A. I. (2007).
The terms Qahtanite and Qahtani (قَحْطَانِي; transliterated: Qahtani) refers to Arabs who originate from the southern region of the Arabian Peninsula, especially from Yemen.
The Qarmatians (قرامطة Qarāmita; also transliterated Carmathians, Qarmathians, Karmathians) were a syncretic branch of Sevener Ismaili Shia Islam that combined elements of Zoroastrianism.
Questia is an online commercial digital library of books and articles that has an academic orientation, with a particular emphasis on books and journal articles in the humanities and social sciences.
Rābiʿa al-ʿAdawiyya al-Qaysiyya (رابعة العدوية القيسية) (714/717/718 — 801 CE) was a Muslim saint and Sufi mystic.
Rashīd ad-Dīn Sinān (رشيد الدين سنان), also known as the Old Man of the Mountain (شيخ الجبل Shaykh al-Jabal, Vetulus de Montanis) and also referred to Rashid al-Din Sinan, (1132/1135–1193), was a missionary and a leader of the Syrian branch of the Nizari Ismaili state (the Assassins), and a figure in the history of the Crusades.
The Rashidun Caliphs (Rightly Guided Caliphs; الخلفاء الراشدون), often simply called, collectively, "the Rashidun", is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the 30-year reign of the first four caliphs (successors) following the death of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, namely: Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman ibn Affan, and Ali of the Rashidun Caliphate, the first caliphate.
The Republic of Genoa (Repúbrica de Zêna,; Res Publica Ianuensis; Repubblica di Genova) was an independent state from 1005 to 1797 in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast, incorporating Corsica from 1347 to 1768, and numerous other territories throughout the Mediterranean.
Riyadh (/rɨˈjɑːd/; الرياض ar-Riyāḍ Najdi pronunciation) is the capital and most populous city of Saudi Arabia.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (Arabic: صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي; 28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was President of Iraq from 16 July 1979 until 9 April 2003.
Abu Kalijar Marzuban, also known as Samsam al-Dawla (c. 963 – December 998) was the Buyid amir of Iraq (983–987), as well as Fars and Kerman (988 or 989 – 998).
The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
Scott Keegan Andrews (born 5 November 1971) is an English author of science fiction.
Shah (Šāh, pronounced, "king") is a title given to the emperors, kings, princes and lords of Iran (historically also known as Persia).
The tribe of Shammar (Arabic: شمّر Šammar) is a tribal Arab Qahtanite confederation, descended from the ancient tribe of Tayy.
Arvand Rud (اَروَندرود, Swift River) or Shatt al-Arab (شط العرب, River of the Arabs) is a river of some 200 km (120 mi) in length, formed by the confluence of the Euphrates and the Tigris in the town of al-Qurnah in the Basra Governorate of southern Iraq.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
The Siege of Basra, code-named Operation Karbala-5 (عملیات کربلای 5), was an offensive operation carried out by Iran in an effort to capture the Iraqi port city of Basra in early 1987.
Sinbad (or Sindbad) the Sailor (as-Sindibādu l-Baḥriyy) is a fictional mariner and the hero of a story-cycle of Middle Eastern origin.
Twin towns or sister cities are a form of legal or social agreement between towns, cities, counties, oblasts, prefectures, provinces, regions, states, and even countries in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.
Basra Oil Company (BOC) is a national Iraqi company responsible for the oil in the south of Iraq.
The Special Air Service (SAS) is a special forces unit of the British Army.
Steven Charles Vincent (December 31, 1955 – August 2, 2005) was an American author and journalist.
Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.
SumerThe name is from Akkadian Šumeru; Sumerian en-ĝir15, approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land".
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
The Iraqi High Tribunal (IHT), formerly the Iraqi Special Tribunal and sometimes referred to as the Supreme Iraqi Criminal Tribunal, is a body established under Iraqi national law to try Iraqi nationals or residents accused of genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes or other serious crimes committed between 1968 and 2003.
In archaeology, a tell, or tel (derived from تَل,, 'hill' or 'mound'), is an artificial mound formed from the accumulated refuse of people living on the same site for hundreds or thousands of years.
Texas (Texas or Tejas) is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population.
The Christian Science Monitor (CSM) is a nonprofit news organization that publishes daily articles in electronic format as well as a weekly print edition.
The Globe and Mail is a Canadian newspaper printed in five cities in western and central Canada.
The Shape of Things to Come is a work of science fiction by H. G. Wells, published in 1933, which speculates on future events from 1933 until the year 2106.
The Simpsons is an American animated sitcom created by Matt Groening for the Fox Broadcasting Company.
The twenty-eighth season of the animated television series The Simpsons began airing on Fox in the United States on September 25, 2016, and ended on May 21, 2017.
The Thief of Bagdad is a 1940 British Technicolor Arabian fantasy film, produced by Alexander Korda, directed by Michael Powell, Ludwig Berger, and Tim Whelan, with additional contributions by Korda's brothers Vincent and Zoltán and William Cameron Menzies.
Tom Clancy's The Division is an action role-playing video game developed by Massive Entertainment and published by Ubisoft, with assistance from Red Storm Entertainment and Ubisoft Annecy, for Microsoft Windows, PlayStation 4 and Xbox One.
"Trust but Clarify" is the fifth episode of the twenty-eighth season of the animated television series The Simpsons, and the 601st episode of the series overall.
Tughril Beg (full name: Rukn al-Dunya wa al-Din Abu Talib Muhammad Toghrul-Beg ibn Mikail) also spelled Toghrul I, Tugril, Toghril, Tugrul or Toghrïl Beg; (Tuğrul) (990 – September 4, 1063) was the Turkic founder of the Seljuk Empire, ruling from 1037 to 1063.
ʿUbayd Allāh ibn Ziyād (عبيد الله بن زياد; died August 686) was the Umayyad governor of Basra, Kufa and Khurasan during the reigns of caliphs Mu'awiya I and Yazid I, and the leading general of the Umayyad army under caliphs Marwan I and Abd al-Malik.
Ubisoft Entertainment SA (formerly Ubi Soft Entertainment SA) is a French video game publisher headquartered in Montreuil.
Umar, also spelled Omar (عمر بن الخطاب, "Umar, Son of Al-Khattab"; c. 584 CE 3 November 644 CE), was one of the most powerful and influential Muslim caliphs in history.
The Umayyad Caliphate (ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.
Umm Qasr (أم قصر, also transliterated as Um-qasir, Um-qasser), is a port city in southern Iraq.
Umm Qasr Port is Iraq's only deep water port, part of the city of Umm Qasr.
The United Nations Statistics Division (UNSD), formerly the United Nations Statistical Office, serves under the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA) as the central mechanism within the Secretariat of the United Nations to supply the statistical needs and coordinating activities of the global statistical system.
The University of Basrah (جامعة البصرة Jāmi'at Al Basrah) is situated in the city of Basra, Iraq.
Urea, also known as carbamide, is an organic compound with chemical formula CO(NH2)2.
Utbah ibn Ghazwan (عُتبة بن غَزْوان) (c.582-639) was a well-known companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Uthman ibn Affan (ʿUthmān ibn ʿAffān), also known in English by the Turkish and Persian rendering, Osman (579 – 17 June 656), was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and the third of the Rashidun, or "Rightly Guided Caliphs".
Vinyl chloride is an organochloride with the formula H2C.
François-Marie Arouet (21 November 1694 – 30 May 1778), known by his nom de plume Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit, his attacks on Christianity as a whole, especially the established Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of speech and separation of church and state.
The War of the Cities was five series of air raids, missile attacks and artillery shellings on major cities and urban areas initiated by Saddam Hussein's Iraqi Air Force, with the aim of disrupting the morale of Iran during the Iran–Iraq War.
Wasit (واسط) is a place in Wasit Governorate, south east of Kut in eastern Iraq.
World government or global government is the notion of a common political authority for all of humanity, yielding a global government and a single state that exercises authority over the entire Earth.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yazdegerd III or Yazdgerd III (literally meaning "made by God"; New Persian: یزدگرد; Izdegerdes in classical sources), was the thirty-eighth and last king of the Sasanian Empire of Iran from 632 to 651.
Yazīd ibn Mu‘āwiya (يزيد بن معاوية بن أبي سفيان.; 64711 November 683), commonly known as Yazid I, was the second caliph of the Umayyad caliphate (and the first one through inheritance).
Yazid bin Abd al-Malik or Yazid II (687 – 26 January 724) (يزيد بن عبد الملك) was an Umayyad Caliph who ruled from 720 until his death in 724.
Zadig ou la Destinée (Zadig, or The Book of Fate; 1747) is a novella and work of philosophical fiction by the Enlightenment writer Voltaire.
The Zand dynasty (سلسله زندیه) was an Iranian dynasty of Lak a branch of Lurs origin founded by Karim Khan Zand that initially ruled southern and central Iran in the 18th century.
Zanj (زَنْج, meaning "Blacks"Deutsche Morgenländische Gesellschaft, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft, Volume 131 (Kommissionsverlag F. Steiner, 1981), p. 130.) was a name used by medieval Muslim geographers to refer to both a certain portion of Southeast Africa (primarily the Swahili Coast), and to the area's Bantu inhabitants.
The Zanj Rebellion (ثورة الزنج) was a major uprising against the Abbasid Caliphate, which took place from 869 until 883.
Ziyad ibn Abih (زياد بن أبيه) (622 AD – 673 AD) was an Arab general and administrator from the clan of Umayyah.
Zubayd or Zubaid is a large Arab tribe that migrated to Iraq, before and after the Islamic conquest.
The 2003 invasion of Iraq was the first stage of the Iraq War (also called Operation Iraqi Freedom).
On April 21, 2004, a series of large car bomb explosions ripped through Basra, Iraq.
The 22nd Arabian Gulf Cup (كأس الخليج العربي.) was the 22nd edition of the biennial football competition, and took place between 13 and 26 November in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
The 7th Armoured Brigade was an armoured brigade formation of the British Army.