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Index Bastille

The Bastille was a fortress in Paris, known formally as the Bastille Saint-Antoine. [1]

182 relations: A Tale of Two Cities, Abutment, Académie française, Académie royale d'architecture, Affair of the Diamond Necklace, Alexandre Dumas, Andiron, André Morellet, Annales school, Anne Marie Louise d'Orléans, Duchess of Montpensier, Anne of Austria, Antoine de Sartine, Arc de Triomphe, Armagnac (party), Auguste Arnould, Auguste Maquet, Étienne Marcel, Bassin de l'Arsenal, Bastille (Paris Métro), Bastille Day, Bastion, Battle of Poitiers, Battle of the Faubourg St Antoine, Battlement, Bernard-René Jourdan de Launay, Bibliothèque nationale de France, Bicêtre Hospital, Bourbon Restoration, Broadside (printing), Calvinism, Canal Saint-Martin, Cardinal Richelieu, Carnavalet Museum, Castle, Catholic League (French), Cellamare conspiracy, Charenton (asylum), Charles d'Albert, duc de Luynes, Charles de Gontaut, duc de Biron, Charles Dickens, Charles IX of France, Charles V of France, Charles VI of France, Charles VII of France, Charles, Duke of Mayenne, Château de Pierrefonds, Château de Vincennes, Citizens: A Chronicle of the French Revolution, Colonnade, Conseiller d'État (France), ..., Convulsionnaires of Saint-Médard, Coulée verte René-Dumont, Counts and dukes of Guise, Critical theory, Day of the Barricades, Despotism, Deviance (sociology), Dome, Duchy of Burgundy, Duke of Mayenne, Dungeon, Edict of Fontainebleau, Elephant of the Bastille, Emmanuel-Félicité de Durfort de Duras, Estates General of 1789, Exposition Universelle (1889), Faubourg, Faubourg Saint-Antoine, For-l'Évêque, François de Bassompierre, François Leclerc du Tremblay, Francis I of France, Frantz Funck-Brentano, French First Republic, French livre, French Resistance, French Revolution, French Second Republic, French Third Republic, French Wars of Religion, Fronde, Gabriel Nicolas de la Reynie, Gardes Françaises, Gaston, Duke of Orléans, George Rudé, George Washington, Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette, Guillaume-Chrétien de Lamoignon de Malesherbes, Hanover, Hôtel de Ville, Paris, Henri de Guénégaud, Henri de La Tour d'Auvergne, Viscount of Turenne, Henry I, Duke of Guise, Henry II of France, Henry III of France, Henry IV of France, Henry V of England, Hippolyte Taine, Holy Roman Empire, Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau, Hundred Years' War, Isis, Jacques Godechot, Jacques Necker, James Douglas, 14th Earl of Morton, Jansenism, Jean Fouquet, Jean Henri Latude, Jean-François Marmontel, Jules Grévy, Jules-Édouard Alboize de Pujol, Julius Caesar, July Column, July Revolution, L'Isle-Jourdain, Gers, Laurent Angliviel de la Beaumelle, Le Marais, League of the Public Weal, Les Invalides, Les Misérables, Lettre de cachet, List of castles in France, List of French monarchs, List of mayors of Paris, Lorenzo de Tonti, Louis Auguste Le Tonnelier de Breteuil, Louis XI of France, Louis XIII of France, Louis XIV of France, Louis XV of France, Louis XVI of France, Louis, Grand Condé, Louvre Palace, Madame de Pompadour, Maison du Roi, Man in the Iron Mask, Marc-René de Voyer de Paulmy d'Argenson (1652–1721), Marguerite de Launay, baronne de Staal, Marquis de Sade, Martha Walker Freer, Mental disorder, Mount Vernon, Naples, Napoleon, National Assembly (French Revolution), National Guard (France), Nicolas Fouquet, Nunney Castle, Opéra Bastille, Palace of Versailles, Paris, Parlement, Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, Pierre Broussel, Pierre-François Palloy, Place de la Bastille, Pont de la Concorde (Paris), Porte Saint-Antoine, Porte Saint-Denis, Prefecture of Police, Protestantism, Quadrangular castle, Ransom of King John II of France, Régence, Saint Peter, Secretary of State of the Maison du Roi, Seine, Simon Schama, Simon-Nicholas Henri Linguet, Sociology, Storming of the Bastille, Suppressive fire, Tarascon, Tennis Court Oath, The d'Artagnan Romances, Thomas Beaufort, Duke of Exeter, Triumphal arch, Vendôme, Victor Hugo, Voltaire, World War II, World's fair. Expand index (132 more) »

A Tale of Two Cities

A Tale of Two Cities (1859) is a historical novel by Charles Dickens, set in London and Paris before and during the French Revolution.

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In engineering, abutment refers to the substructure at the ends of a bridge span or dam whereon the structure's superstructure rests or contacts.

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Académie française

The Académie française is the pre-eminent French council for matters pertaining to the French language.

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Académie royale d'architecture

The Académie Royale d'Architecture (Royal Academy of Architecture), founded in 1671, was a French learned society, which had a leading role in influencing architectural theory and education, not only in France, but throughout Europe and the Americas from the late 17th century to the mid-20th.

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Affair of the Diamond Necklace

The Affair of the Diamond Necklace was an incident in 1785 at the court of King Louis XVI of France involving his wife, Queen Marie Antoinette.

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Alexandre Dumas

Alexandre Dumas (born Dumas Davy de la Pailleterie; 24 July 1802 – 5 December 1870), also known as Alexandre Dumas, père ("father"), was a French writer.

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An andiron or firedog, fire-dog or fire dog is a bracket support, normally found in pairs, on which logs are laid for burning in an open fireplace, so that air may circulate under the firewood, allowing better burning and less smoke.

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André Morellet

André Morellet (7 March 172712 January 1819) was a French economist writer and contributor to the Encyclopédie ou Dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers.

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Annales school

The Annales school is a group of historians associated with a style of historiography developed by French historians in the 20th century to stress long-term social history.

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Anne Marie Louise d'Orléans, Duchess of Montpensier

Anne Marie Louise d'Orléans, Duchess of Montpensier, (–) known as La Grande Mademoiselle, was the eldest daughter of Gaston d'Orléans, and his first wife Marie de Bourbon, Duchess of Montpensier.

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Anne of Austria

Anne of Austria (22 September 1601 – 20 January 1666), a Spanish princess of the House of Habsburg, was queen of France as the wife of Louis XIII, and regent of France during the minority of her son, Louis XIV, from 1643 to 1651.

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Antoine de Sartine

Antoine Raymond Jean Gualbert Gabriel de Sartine, comte d'Alby (12 July 1729 – 7 September 1801) was a French statesman who served as Lieutenant General of Police of Paris (1759–1774) during the reign of Louis XV and as Secretary of State for the Navy (1774–1780) under King Louis XVI.

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Arc de Triomphe

The Arc de Triomphe de l'Étoile (Triumphal Arch of the Star) is one of the most famous monuments in Paris, standing at the western end of the Champs-Élysées at the center of Place Charles de Gaulle, formerly named Place de l'Étoile — the étoile or "star" of the juncture formed by its twelve radiating avenues.

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Armagnac (party)

The Armagnac Faction was prominent in French politics and warfare during the Hundred Years' War.

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Auguste Arnould

Auguste Jean François Arnould (29 April 1803 – 8 March 1854) was a French poet, playwright, historian, novelist and essayist of the first half of the 19th century.

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Auguste Maquet

Auguste Maquet (13 September 1813, Paris – 8 January 1888) was a French author, best known as the chief collaborator of French novelist Alexandre Dumas, père, co-writing such works as The Count of Monte Cristo and The Three Musketeers.

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Étienne Marcel

Étienne Marcel (between 1302 and 1310 – 31 July 1358) was provost of the merchants of Paris under King John II of France, called John the Good (Jean le Bon).

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Bassin de l'Arsenal

The Bassin de l'Arsenal (also known as the Port de l'Arsenal) is a boat basin in Paris.

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Bastille (Paris Métro)

Bastille is a station on lines 1, 5 and 8 of the Paris Métro.

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Bastille Day

Bastille Day is the common name given in English-speaking countries/lands to the French National Day, which is celebrated on the 14th of July each year.

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A bastion or bulwark is a structure projecting outward from the curtain wall of a fortification, most commonly angular in shape and positioned at the corners.

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Battle of Poitiers

The Battle of Poitiers was fought on 19 September 1356 in Nouaillé, near the city of Poitiers in Aquitaine, western France.

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Battle of the Faubourg St Antoine

The Battle of the Faubourg Saint Antoine occurred on 2 July 1652 during the Fronde rebellion in France.

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A battlement in defensive architecture, such as that of city walls or castles, comprises a parapet (i.e., a defensive low wall between chest-height and head-height), in which gaps or indentations, which are often rectangular, occur at intervals to allow for the launch of arrows or other projectiles from within the defences.

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Bernard-René Jourdan de Launay

Bernard René Jourdan, marquis de Launay (1740–1789) was the French governor of the Bastille, the son of a previous governor, and commander of its garrison when the prison-fortress in Paris was stormed on 14 July 1789 (see Storming of the Bastille).

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Bibliothèque nationale de France

The (BnF, English: National Library of France) is the national library of France, located in Paris.

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Bicêtre Hospital

The Bicêtre Hospital is located in Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, which is a commune in the southern suburbs of Paris, France.

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Bourbon Restoration

The Bourbon Restoration was the period of French history following the fall of Napoleon in 1814 until the July Revolution of 1830.

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Broadside (printing)

A broadside is a large sheet of paper printed on one side only.

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Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.

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Canal Saint-Martin

The Canal Saint-Martin is a 4.6 km (2.86 mi) long canal in Paris, connecting the Canal de l'Ourcq to the river Seine.

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Cardinal Richelieu

Cardinal Armand Jean du Plessis, 1st Duke of Richelieu and Fronsac (9 September 15854 December 1642), commonly referred to as Cardinal Richelieu (Cardinal de Richelieu), was a French clergyman, nobleman, and statesman.

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Carnavalet Museum

The Carnavalet Museum (French: Musée Carnavalet) in Paris is dedicated to the history of the city.

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A castle (from castellum) is a type of fortified structure built during the Middle Ages by predominantly the nobility or royalty and by military orders.

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Catholic League (French)

The Catholic League of France (Ligue catholique), sometimes referred to by contemporary (and modern) Catholics as the Holy League (La Sainte Ligue), was a major participant in the French Wars of Religion.

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Cellamare conspiracy

The Cellamare conspiracy of 1718 (Conspiration de Cellamare) was a conspiracy against the then Regent of France, Philippe d'Orléans (1674–1723).

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Charenton (asylum)

Charenton was a lunatic asylum, founded in 1645 by the Frères de la Charité or Brothers of Charity in Charenton-Saint-Maurice, now Saint-Maurice, Val-de-Marne, France.

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Charles d'Albert, duc de Luynes

Charles d'Albert, Duke of Luynes (5 August 1578 – Longueville, 15 December 1621) was French courtier and a favourite of Louis XIII, by whom he was made a Peer and Constable of France before dying at the height of his influence.

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Charles de Gontaut, duc de Biron

Charles de Gontaut, duc de Biron (156231 July 1602) was a French soldier whose military achievements were accompanied by plotting to dismember France and set himself up as ruler of an independent Burgundy.

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Charles Dickens

Charles John Huffam Dickens (7 February 1812 – 9 June 1870) was an English writer and social critic.

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Charles IX of France

Charles IX (27 June 1550 – 30 May 1574) was a French monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 1560 until his death from tuberculosis.

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Charles V of France

Charles V (21 January 1338 – 16 September 1380), called "the Wise" (le Sage; Sapiens), was a monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 1364 to his death.

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Charles VI of France

Charles VI (3 December 1368 – 21 October 1422), called the Beloved (le Bien-Aimé) and the Mad (le Fol or le Fou), was King of France for 42 years from 1380 to his death in 1422.

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Charles VII of France

Charles VII (22 February 1403 – 22 July 1461), called the Victorious (le Victorieux)Charles VII, King of France, Encyclopedia of the Hundred Years War, ed.

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Charles, Duke of Mayenne

Charles of Lorraine, Duke of Mayenne (26 March 1554 – 3 October 1611), or Charles de Guise, was a French nobleman of the house of Guise and a military leader of the Catholic League, which he headed during the French Wars of Religion, following the assassination of his brothers at Blois in 1588.

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Château de Pierrefonds

The Château de Pierrefonds is a castle situated in the commune of Pierrefonds in the Oise département (Picardy) of France.

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Château de Vincennes

The Château de Vincennes is a massive 14th and 17th century French royal fortress in the town of Vincennes, to the east of Paris, now a suburb of the metropolis.

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Citizens: A Chronicle of the French Revolution

Citizens: A Chronicle of the French Revolution is a book by the historian Simon Schama, published in 1989, the bicentenary of the French Revolution.

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In classical architecture, a colonnade is a long sequence of columns joined by their entablature, often free-standing, or part of a building.

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Conseiller d'État (France)

A French Councillor of State (French: conseiller d'État) is a high-level government official of administrative law in the Council of State of France.

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Convulsionnaires of Saint-Médard

Convulsionnaires of Saint-Médard was a group of 18th-century French religious pilgrims who exhibited convulsions and later constituted a religious sect and a political movement.

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Coulée verte René-Dumont

The Coulée verte René-Dumont or Promenade plantée (French for tree-lined walkway) or the Coulée verte (French for green course) is a 4.7 km (2.9 mi) elevated linear park built on top of obsolete railway infrastructure in the 12th arrondissement of Paris, France.

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Counts and dukes of Guise

Count of Guise and Duke of Guise were titles in the French nobility.

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Critical theory

Critical theory is a school of thought that stresses the reflective assessment and critique of society and culture by applying knowledge from the social sciences and the humanities.

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Day of the Barricades

In the French Wars of Religion, the Day of the Barricades (in Journée des barricades), 12 May 1588, was an outwardly spontaneous public uprising in staunchly Catholic Paris against the moderate, hesitant, temporizing policies of Henry III.

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Despotism (Δεσποτισμός, Despotismós) is a form of government in which a single entity rules with absolute power.

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Deviance (sociology)

In sociology, deviance describes an action or behavior that violates social norms, including a formally enacted rule (e.g., crime), as well as informal violations of social norms (e.g., rejecting folkways and mores).

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Interior view upward to the Byzantine domes and semi-domes of Hagia Sophia. See Commons file for annotations. A dome (from Latin: domus) is an architectural element that resembles the hollow upper half of a sphere.

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Duchy of Burgundy

The Duchy of Burgundy (Ducatus Burgundiae; Duché de Bourgogne) emerged in the 9th century as one of the successors of the ancient Kingdom of the Burgundians, which after its conquest in 532 had formed a constituent part of the Frankish Empire.

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Duke of Mayenne

Duke of Mayenne (duc de Mayenne) is a title created for a cadet branch of the House of Guise.

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A dungeon is a room or cell in which prisoners are held, especially underground.

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Edict of Fontainebleau

The Edict of Fontainebleau (22 October 1685) was an edict issued by Louis XIV of France, also known as the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes.

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Elephant of the Bastille

The Elephant of the Bastille was a monument in Paris which existed between 1813 and 1846.

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Emmanuel-Félicité de Durfort de Duras

Emmanuel-Félicité de Durfort, duc de Duras (19 September 1715 – 6 September 1789, Versailles) was a French politician, diplomat, peer, marshal and Freemason (belonging to the l'Olympique de la Parfaite Estime lodge).

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Estates General of 1789

The estates general was a general assembly representing the French estates of the realm: the clergy (First Estate), the nobility (Second Estate), and the commoners (Third Estate).

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Exposition Universelle (1889)

The Exposition Universelle of 1889 was a world's fair held in Paris, France, from 6 May to 31 October 1889.

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Faubourg is an ancient French term approximating "suburb" (now generally termed banlieue).

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Faubourg Saint-Antoine

The Faubourg Saint-Antoine was one of the traditional suburbs of Paris, France.

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The For-l’Évêque was a prison in Paris.

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François de Bassompierre

François de Bassompierre (12 April 157912 October 1646) was a French courtier.

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François Leclerc du Tremblay

François Leclerc du Tremblay (4 November 1577 – 17 December 1638), also known as Père Joseph, was a French Capuchin friar, confidant and agent of Cardinal Richelieu.

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Francis I of France

Francis I (François Ier) (12 September 1494 – 31 March 1547) was the first King of France from the Angoulême branch of the House of Valois, reigning from 1515 until his death.

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Frantz Funck-Brentano

Frantz Funck-Brentano (15 June 1862 – 13 June 1947) was a French historian and librarian.

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French First Republic

In the history of France, the First Republic (French: Première République), officially the French Republic (République française), was founded on 22 September 1792 during the French Revolution.

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French livre

The livre (pound) was the currency of Kingdom of France and its predecessor state of West Francia from 781 to 1794.

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French Resistance

The French Resistance (La Résistance) was the collection of French movements that fought against the Nazi German occupation of France and against the collaborationist Vichy régime during the Second World War.

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French Revolution

The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.

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French Second Republic

The French Second Republic was a short-lived republican government of France between the 1848 Revolution and the 1851 coup by Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte that initiated the Second Empire.

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French Third Republic

The French Third Republic (La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) was the system of government adopted in France from 1870 when the Second French Empire collapsed during the Franco-Prussian War until 1940 when France's defeat by Nazi Germany in World War II led to the formation of the Vichy government in France.

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French Wars of Religion

The French Wars of Religion refers to a prolonged period of war and popular unrest between Roman Catholics and Huguenots (Reformed/Calvinist Protestants) in the Kingdom of France between 1562 and 1598.

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The Fronde was a series of civil wars in France between 1648 and 1653, occurring in the midst of the Franco-Spanish War, which had begun in 1635.

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Gabriel Nicolas de la Reynie

Gabriel Nicolas de la Reynie (1625 – 14 June 1709) is considered to be the founder of the first modern police force.

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Gardes Françaises

The French Guards (Régiment des Gardes françaises) were an infantry regiment of the Military Household of the King of France (Maison militaire du roi de France) under the Ancien Régime.

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Gaston, Duke of Orléans

Gaston, Duke of Orléans (24 April 1608 – 2 February 1660), was the third son of King Henry IV of France and his wife Marie de' Medici.

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George Rudé

George Rudé (8 February 1910 – 8 January 1993) was a British Marxist historian, specializing in the French Revolution and "history from below", especially the importance of crowds in history.

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George Washington

George Washington (February 22, 1732 –, 1799), known as the "Father of His Country," was an American soldier and statesman who served from 1789 to 1797 as the first President of the United States.

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Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette

Marie-Joseph Paul Yves Roch Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette (6 September 1757 – 20 May 1834), in the United States often known simply as Lafayette, was a French aristocrat and military officer who fought in the American Revolutionary War.

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Guillaume-Chrétien de Lamoignon de Malesherbes

Guillaume-Chrétien de Lamoignon de Malesherbes (6 December 1721 – 23 April 1794), often referred to as Malesherbes or Lamoignon-Malesherbes, was a French statesman, minister, and afterwards counsel for the defence of Louis XVI.

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Hanover or Hannover (Hannover), on the River Leine, is the capital and largest city of the German state of Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen), and was once by personal union the family seat of the Hanoverian Kings of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, under their title as the dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg (later described as the Elector of Hanover).

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Hôtel de Ville, Paris

The Hôtel de Ville (City Hall) in Paris, France, is the building housing the city's local administration.

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Henri de Guénégaud

Henri du Plessis-Guénégaud, Lord of the Plessis-Belleville, Marquis de La Garnache (1610 – 16 March 1676) was a French scholar who was Secretary of State of the royal household, and Naval Minister.

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Henri de La Tour d'Auvergne, Viscount of Turenne

Henri de La Tour d'Auvergne, vicomte de Turenne, often called simply Turenne (11 September 161127 July 1675) was a French Marshal General and the most illustrious member of the La Tour d'Auvergne family.

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Henry I, Duke of Guise

Henry I, Prince of Joinville, Duke of Guise, Count of Eu (31 December 1550 – 23 December 1588), sometimes called Le Balafré (Scarface), was the eldest son of Francis, Duke of Guise, and Anna d'Este.

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Henry II of France

Henry II (Henri II; 31 March 1519 – 10 July 1559) was a monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 31 March 1547 until his death in 1559.

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Henry III of France

Henry III (19 September 1551 – 2 August 1589; born Alexandre Édouard de France, Henryk Walezy, Henrikas Valua) was King of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1573 to 1575 and King of France from 1574 until his death.

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Henry IV of France

Henry IV (Henri IV, read as Henri-Quatre; 13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), also known by the epithet Good King Henry, was King of Navarre (as Henry III) from 1572 to 1610 and King of France from 1589 to 1610.

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Henry V of England

Henry V (9 August 1386 – 31 August 1422) was King of England from 1413 until his death at the age of 36 in 1422.

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Hippolyte Taine

Hippolyte Adolphe Taine (21 April 1828 – 5 March 1893) was a French critic and historian.

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Holy Roman Empire

The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.

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Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau

Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, Count of Mirabeau (9 March 17492 April 1791) was a leader of the early stages of the French Revolution.

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Hundred Years' War

The Hundred Years' War was a series of conflicts waged from 1337 to 1453 by the House of Plantagenet, rulers of the Kingdom of England, against the House of Valois, over the right to rule the Kingdom of France.

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Isis was a major goddess in ancient Egyptian religion whose worship spread throughout the Greco-Roman world.

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Jacques Godechot

Jacques Léon Godechot (3 January 1907 – 24 August 1989) was a French historian of the French revolution, and a pioneer of Atlantic history.

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Jacques Necker

Jacques Necker (30 September 1732 – 9 April 1804) was a banker of Genevan origin who became a French statesman and finance minister for Louis XVI.

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James Douglas, 14th Earl of Morton

James Douglas, 14th Earl of Morton, KT, PRS (1702 – 12 October 1768) was a Scottish astronomer and representative peer who was President of the Philosophical Society of Edinburgh from its foundation in 1737 until his death.

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Jansenism was a Catholic theological movement, primarily in France, that emphasized original sin, human depravity, the necessity of divine grace, and predestination.

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Jean Fouquet

Jean (or Jehan) Fouquet (1420–1481) was a preeminent French painter of the 15th century, a master of both panel painting and manuscript illumination, and the apparent inventor of the portrait miniature.

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Jean Henri Latude

Jean Henri Latude (23 March 1725 – 1 January 1805), often called Danry or Masers de Latude, was a French writer famous for his lengthy confinement in the Bastille, at Vincennes, and for his repeated escapes from those prisons.

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Jean-François Marmontel

Jean-François Marmontel (11 July 1723 – 31 December 1799) was a French historian and writer, a member of the Encyclopédistes movement.

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Jules Grévy

François Paul Jules Grévy (15 August 1807 – 9 September 1891) was a President of the French Third Republic and one of the leaders of the Opportunist Republican faction.

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Jules-Édouard Alboize de Pujol

Jules-Édouard Alboize de Pujol (1805, Montpellier – 9 April 1854, Paris) was a French historian and playwright.

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Julius Caesar

Gaius Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.

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July Column

The July Column (French: Colonne de Juillet) is a monumental column in Paris commemorating the Revolution of 1830.

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July Revolution

The French Revolution of 1830, also known as the July Revolution (révolution de Juillet), Third French Revolution or Trois Glorieuses in French ("Three Glorious "), led to the overthrow of King Charles X, the French Bourbon monarch, and the ascent of his cousin Louis Philippe, Duke of Orléans, who himself, after 18 precarious years on the throne, would be overthrown in 1848.

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L'Isle-Jourdain, Gers

L'Isle-Jourdain (L'Isla de Baish) is a commune in the Gers department in southwestern France.

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Laurent Angliviel de la Beaumelle

Laurent Angliviel de la Beaumelle (28 January 1726 in Valleraugue – 17 November 1773 in Gard) was a French Protestant writer.

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Le Marais

Entrance of the Hôtel d'Albret Le Marais ("The Marsh") is a historic district in Paris, France.

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League of the Public Weal

The League of the Public Weal (French: La ligue du Bien public) was an alliance of feudal nobles organized in 1465 in defiance of the centralized authority of King Louis XI of France.

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Les Invalides

Les Invalides, commonly known as Hôtel national des Invalides (The National Residence of the Invalids), or also as Hôtel des Invalides, is a complex of buildings in the 7th arrondissement of Paris, France, containing museums and monuments, all relating to the military history of France, as well as a hospital and a retirement home for war veterans, the building's original purpose.

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Les Misérables

Les Misérables is a French historical novel by Victor Hugo, first published in 1862, that is considered one of the greatest novels of the 19th century.

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Lettre de cachet

Lettres de cachet (lit. "letters of the sign/signet") were letters signed by the king of France, countersigned by one of his ministers, and closed with the royal seal, or cachet.

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List of castles in France

This is a list of castles in France, arranged by Region and Department.

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List of French monarchs

The monarchs of the Kingdom of France and its predecessors (and successor monarchies) ruled from the establishment of the Kingdom of the Franks in 486 until the fall of the Second French Empire in 1870, with several interruptions.

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List of mayors of Paris

The Mayor of Paris (Maire de Paris) is the chief executive of Paris, the capital and largest city in the France.

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Lorenzo de Tonti

Lorenzo de Tonti (c. 1602 - c. 1684) was a governor of Gaeta, Italy and a Neapolitan banker.

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Louis Auguste Le Tonnelier de Breteuil

Louis Charles Auguste Le Tonnelier, Baron de Breteuil, Baron de Preuilly (7 March 1730 – 2 November 1807) was a French aristocrat, diplomat and statesman.

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Louis XI of France

Louis XI (3 July 1423 – 30 August 1483), called "Louis the Prudent" (le Prudent), was a monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 1461 to 1483.

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Louis XIII of France

Louis XIII (27 September 1601 – 14 May 1643) was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1610 to 1643 and King of Navarre (as Louis II) from 1610 to 1620, when the crown of Navarre was merged with the French crown.

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Louis XIV of France

Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 16381 September 1715), known as Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King (Roi Soleil), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who reigned as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715.

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Louis XV of France

Louis XV (15 February 1710 – 10 May 1774), known as Louis the Beloved, was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1 September 1715 until his death in 1774.

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Louis XVI of France

Louis XVI (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793), born Louis-Auguste, was the last King of France before the fall of the monarchy during the French Revolution.

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Louis, Grand Condé

Louis de Bourbon or Louis II, Prince of Condé (8 September 1621 – 11 December 1686) was a French general and the most famous representative of the Condé branch of the House of Bourbon.

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Louvre Palace

The Louvre Palace (Palais du Louvre) is a former royal palace located on the Right Bank of the Seine in Paris, between the Tuileries Gardens and the church of Saint-Germain l'Auxerrois.

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Madame de Pompadour

Jeanne Antoinette Poisson, Marquise de Pompadour (29 December 1721 – 15 April 1764), commonly known as Madame de Pompadour, was a member of the French court and was the official chief mistress of Louis XV from 1745 to 1751, and remained influential as court favourite until her death.

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Maison du Roi

The Maison du Roi ("The King's Household") was the name of the royal household of the King of France.

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Man in the Iron Mask

The Man in the Iron Mask (French: L'Homme au Masque de Fer; c. 1640 – 19 November 1703) is the name given to an unidentified prisoner who was arrested in 1669 or 1670 and subsequently held in a number of French prisons, including the Bastille and the Fortress of Pignerol (modern Pinerolo, Italy).

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Marc-René de Voyer de Paulmy d'Argenson (1652–1721)

Marc-René de Voyer, Marquis de Paulmy and marquis d’Argenson (4 November 16528 May 1721) was a French politician.

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Marguerite de Launay, baronne de Staal

Marguerite Jeanne Cordier de Launay, baronne de Staal (30 August 1684 – 15 June 1750) was a French author.

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Marquis de Sade

Donatien Alphonse François, Marquis de Sade (2 June 1740 – 2 December 1814), was a French nobleman, revolutionary politician, philosopher, and writer, famous for his libertine sexuality.

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Martha Walker Freer

Martha Walker Freer (1822–1888) was an English writer on French history.

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Mental disorder

A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning.

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Mount Vernon

Mount Vernon was the plantation house of George Washington, the first President of the United States, and his wife, Martha Dandridge Custis Washington.

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Naples (Napoli, Napule or; Neapolis; lit) is the regional capital of Campania and the third-largest municipality in Italy after Rome and Milan.

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Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.

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National Assembly (French Revolution)

During the French Revolution, the National Assembly (Assemblée nationale), which existed from 13 June 1789 to 9 July 1789, was a revolutionary assembly formed by the representatives of the Third Estate of the Estates-General; thereafter (until replaced by the Legislative Assembly on 30 Sept 1791) it was known as the National Constituent Assembly (Assemblée nationale constituante), though popularly the shorter form persisted.

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National Guard (France)

The National Guard (la Garde nationale) is a French gendarmerie that existed from 1789 to 1872, including a period of official dissolution from 1827 to 1830, re-founded in 2016.

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Nicolas Fouquet

Nicolas Fouquet, marquis de Belle-Île, vicomte de Melun et Vaux (27 January 1615 – 23 March 1680) was the Superintendent of Finances in France from 1653 until 1661 under King Louis XIV.

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Nunney Castle

Nunney Castle is a medieval castle at Nunney in the English county of Somerset.

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Opéra Bastille

The Opéra Bastille (French) (Bastille Opera House) is a modern opera house in Paris, France.

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Palace of Versailles

The Palace of Versailles (Château de Versailles;, or) was the principal residence of the Kings of France from Louis XIV in 1682 until the beginning of the French Revolution in 1789.

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Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.

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A parlement, in the Ancien Régime of France, was a provincial appellate court.

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Philippe II, Duke of Orléans

Philippe II, Duke of Orléans (Philippe Charles; 2 August 1674 – 2 December 1723), was a member of the royal family of France and served as Regent of the Kingdom from 1715 to 1723.

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Pierre Broussel

Pierre Broussel (ca. 1575-1654) was a councillor in the Parlement of Paris under Louis XIII and Louis XIV, and later its president.

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Pierre-François Palloy

Pierre-François Palloy (23 January 1755 – 1835), self-styled as Palloy Patriote (Palloy the Patriot) was an entrepreneurial building contractor remembered for the demolition of the Bastille.

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Place de la Bastille

The Place de la Bastille is a square in Paris where the Bastille prison stood until the storming of the Bastille and its subsequent physical destruction between 14 July 1789 and 14 July 1790 during the French Revolution.

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Pont de la Concorde (Paris)

The Pont de la Concorde is an arch bridge across the River Seine in Paris connecting the Quai des Tuileries at the Place de la Concorde (on the Right Bank) and the Quai d'Orsay (on the Left Bank).

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Porte Saint-Antoine

The porte Saint-Antoine was one of the gates of Paris.

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Porte Saint-Denis

The Porte Saint-Denis is a Parisian monument located in the 10th arrondissement, at the site of one of the gates of the Wall of Charles V, one of Paris' former city walls.

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Prefecture of Police

In France, a Prefecture of Police (Préfecture de police), headed by the Prefect of Police (Préfet de police), is an agency of the Government of France (and part of the French National Police) which provides the police force for one or some départements.

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Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.

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Quadrangular castle

A quadrangular castle or courtyard castle is a type of castle characterised by ranges of buildings which are integral with the curtain walls, enclosing a central ward or quadrangle, and typically with angle towers.

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Ransom of King John II of France

The ransom of King John II of France was an incident during the Hundred Years War between France and England.

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The Régence (Regency) was the period in French history between 1715 and 1723, when King Louis XV was a minor and the land was governed by Philippe d'Orléans, a nephew of Louis XIV of France, as prince regent.

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Saint Peter

Saint Peter (Syriac/Aramaic: ܫܸܡܥܘܿܢ ܟܹ݁ܐܦ݂ܵܐ, Shemayon Keppa; שמעון בר יונה; Petros; Petros; Petrus; r. AD 30; died between AD 64 and 68), also known as Simon Peter, Simeon, or Simon, according to the New Testament, was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ, leaders of the early Christian Great Church.

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Secretary of State of the Maison du Roi

The Secretary of State of the Maison du Roi (Secrétaire d'État à la Maison du Roi) was the secretary of state in France during the "Ancien Régime" and Bourbon Restoration in charge of the Département de la Maison du Roi.

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The Seine (La Seine) is a river and an important commercial waterway within the Paris Basin in the north of France.

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Simon Schama

Sir Simon Michael Schama, CBE, FRSL, FBA (born 13 February 1945) is an English historian specialising in art history, Dutch history, and French history.

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Simon-Nicholas Henri Linguet

Simon-Nicholas Henri Linguet (14 July 1736 – 27 June 1794) was French journalist and advocate known for his conservative politics who was executed during the French Revolution.

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Sociology is the scientific study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture.

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Storming of the Bastille

The Storming of the Bastille (Prise de la Bastille) occurred in Paris, France, on the afternoon of 14 July 1789.

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Suppressive fire

In military science, suppressive fire (commonly called covering fire) is "fire that degrades the performance of an enemy force below the level needed to fulfill its mission".

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Tarascon, sometimes referred to as Tarascon-sur-Rhône, is a commune situated at the extreme west of the Bouches-du-Rhône department of France in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region.

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Tennis Court Oath

On 20 June 1789, the members of the French Estates-General or the Third Estate, who had begun to call themselves the National Assembly, took the Tennis Court Oath (Serment du Jeu de Paume), vowing "not to separate, and to reassemble wherever circumstances require, until the constitution of the kingdom is established".

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The d'Artagnan Romances

The d'Artagnan Romances are a set of three novels by Alexandre Dumas (1802–1870), telling the story of the 17th-century musketeer d'Artagnan.

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Thomas Beaufort, Duke of Exeter

Thomas Beaufort, 1st Duke of Exeter, KG (c. 1377 – c. 31 December 1426) was an English military commander during the Hundred Years' War, and briefly Chancellor of England.

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Triumphal arch

A triumphal arch is a monumental structure in the shape of an archway with one or more arched passageways, often designed to span a road.

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Vendôme is a town in central France and is a subprefecture of the department of Loir-et-Cher.

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Victor Hugo

Victor Marie Hugo (26 February 1802 – 22 May 1885) was a French poet, novelist, and dramatist of the Romantic movement.

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François-Marie Arouet (21 November 1694 – 30 May 1778), known by his nom de plume Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit, his attacks on Christianity as a whole, especially the established Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of speech and separation of church and state.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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World's fair

A world's fair, world fair, world expo, universal exposition, or international exposition (sometimes expo or Expo for short) is a large international exhibition designed to showcase achievements of nations.

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Bastile, Bastilja, Bastilje, Bastilji, Bastille Prison, Bastille Saint-Antoine, The Bastille.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bastille

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