344 relations: Aestivation, Albacete, American Civil War, Animal echolocation, Animal migration, Ann W. Richards Congress Avenue Bridge, Anticoagulant, Apache, Apoptosis, Aposematism, Archonta, Arctiinae (moth), Austin, Texas, Aye-aye, Aztecs, Barotrauma, Basal metabolic rate, Bat, Bat (heraldry), Bat as food, Bat bug, Bat Conservation International, Bat detector, Bat-eared fox, Batman, Bats of the United States, Bee, Beetle, Bending, Bird, Bird of prey, Blood urea nitrogen, Blood vessel, Bone morphogenetic protein, Bone morphogenetic protein 2, Boreoeutheria, Brandt's bat, British hardened field defences of World War II, Brown long-eared bat, Bulldog bat, Caddisfly, Calcium, Capillary, Carl Linnaeus, Carnivora, Cattle, Cave gate, Cervical vertebrae, Cetacea, Cherokee, ..., Chitin, Chitinase, Christmas Island pipistrelle, Circulatory system, Collagen, Colugo, Common blossom bat, Common descent, Common vampire bat, Connective tissue, Coronavirus, Count Dracula, Crepuscular animal, Cricket, Current Biology, Decibel, Demon, Dermis, Digestive enzyme, Diurnal cycle, Doppler effect, Downregulation and upregulation, Drag (physics), Earth's magnetic field, Eastern tube-nosed bat, Eastern United States, Ebola virus, Echolocation jamming, EDGE species, Egyptian fruit bat, Elastic fiber, Electrolyte, Electrolyte imbalance, Embryo, Eocene, Epidermis, Etruscan shrew, Euarchontoglires, Eulipotyphla, Even-toed ungulate, Falcon, Ferae, Fertilizer, Ferungulata, Fission–fusion society, Flea, Flight, Flower, Fly, Flying primate hypothesis, Flying squirrel, Fraga, Free-tailed bat, Fresnel lens, Fringe-lipped bat, Frugivore, Fungus, Furipteridae, Genetics, Germanic languages, Ghost bat, Giant golden-crowned flying fox, Gibbon, Gleaning (birds), Gliding flight, Grasshopper, Greater bulldog bat, Greater horseshoe bat, Greater mouse-eared bat, Greater noctule bat, Greater sac-winged bat, Greater short-nosed fruit bat, Greater spear-nosed bat, Green River Formation, Ground speed, Guano, Gunpowder, Hair follicle, Hairless bat, Hairy-legged vampire bat, Hammer-headed bat, Hawk, Heart, Hematophagy, Henipavirus, Hero, Heterothermy, Hibernation, Hipposideridae, Histoplasmosis, Holocene, Homeothermy, Horseshoe bat, Human digestive system, Hummingbird, Icaronycteris, Insectivore, Jamaican fruit bat, Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, John Wiley & Sons, Journal of General Virology, Kenneth Oppel, Kidney, Kitti's hog-nosed bat, Larco Museum, Larynx, Latitude, Laurasiatheria, Leading edge, Leaf-nosed bat, Lek mating, Lesser bushbaby, Lesser mouse-eared bat, Liminal being, Little brown bat, Little yellow-shouldered bat, Long-tongued nectar bat, Louse, Lung, Macbeth, Magnetite, Magnetoreception, Malaysian Wildlife Law, Maltase, Maltose, Mammal, Maternity colony (bats), Mating plug, Matrilineality, Mayfly, Mechanical advantage, Megabat, Megadermatidae, Merkel cell, Mesopic vision, Metabolism, Mexican free-tailed bat, Microbat, Mid-Atlantic (United States), Middle English, Miniopterus, Mite, Monogamy in animals, Monophyly, Montchauvet, Yvelines, Mormoopidae, Mormoops, Morphology (biology), Mosquito, Moth, Mouse lemur, Mouse-tailed bat, Muscle, Muscogee, Mystacinidae, Mythology, Myzopoda, Natalidae, Native Americans in the United States, Natural reservoir, Nature (journal), Nectarivore, Neontology, Nerve, New England, New Scientist, Niter, Nitrifying bacteria, Nocturnality, Nose-leaf, Nycteribiidae, Odd-toed ungulate, Ogg, Onychonycteris, Order (biology), Owl, Pacific Rim, Palaeochiropteryx, Pallid bat, Palma de Mallorca, Pangolin, Paraphyly, Parasitism, Patagium, Pathogen, Peel (fruit), Pesticide, Photopic vision, Phylogenetic tree, Piscivore, Placentalia, Pollinator, Polygyny in animals, Popobawa, Predation, Primate, Promiscuity, Pseudogymnoascus destructans, Pteronotus, Pteropus, Pterosaur, Rabies, Radius (bone), Rate-of-living theory, Renal papilla, Respiratory system, Rodent, Rousettus, Sac-winged bat, Sarawak, Science (journal), Scientific American, Sclerotin, Scrotifera, Seed dispersal, Severe acute respiratory syndrome, Sexual dimorphism, Shear stress, Shunt (medical), Silver-haired bat, Silverwing (series), Sister group, Skeleton, Skin, Sloth, Small flying fox, Snake, Sodomy, Soul, Spectral bat, Sphincter, Spotted bat, Stall (fluid mechanics), Streblidae, Stress (mechanics), Stroke volume, Sucrase, Swarm behaviour, Sweat gland, Sympatry, Taphozous, Tempo, Termite, Thames & Hudson, Thermal conductivity, Thermoregulation, Three Witches, Thyropteridae, Tonga, Tongue, Tooth enamel, Torpor, Tragus (ear), Trailing edge, Treeshrew, Trickster, Tube-lipped nectar bat, Tymbal, Tympanal organ, Ultrasound, Ultraviolet, Ungulate, United States dollar, University of Florida, Urine, Uterine horns, Valencia, Vampire, Vampire bat, Varney the Vampire, Vein, Vesper bat, Vespertilio, Villain, Virginia big-eared bat, Visual acuity, Visual cortex, Vitamin C, Vortex, Vortex lift, Wasp, Wave interference, Western culture, White-nose syndrome, White-winged vampire bat, Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981, Wind turbine, Wing, Yangochiroptera, Yinpterochiroptera, Yuma myotis, Yunnan, Zapotec civilization, Zoonosis. Expand index (294 more) » « Shrink index
Aestivation or æstivation (from aestas, summer, but also spelled estivation in American English) is a state of animal dormancy, similar to hibernation, characterized by inactivity and a lowered metabolic rate, that is entered in response to high temperatures and arid conditions.
Albacete (translit) is a city and municipality in the Spanish autonomous community of Castilla–La Mancha, and capital of the province of Albacete.
The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.
Echolocation, also called bio sonar, is the biological sonar used by several kinds of animals.
Animal migration is the relatively long-distance movement of individual animals, usually on a seasonal basis.
The Ann W. Richards Congress Avenue Bridge (formerly known simply as the Congress Avenue Bridge) crosses over Lady Bird Lake in Austin, Texas.
Anticoagulants, commonly referred to as blood thinners, are chemical substances that prevent or reduce coagulation of blood, prolonging the clotting time.
The Apache are a group of culturally related Native American tribes in the Southwestern United States, which include the Chiricahua, Jicarilla, Lipan, Mescalero, Salinero, Plains and Western Apache.
Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.
Aposematism (from Greek ἀπό apo away, σῆμα sema sign) is a term coined by Edward Bagnall PoultonPoulton, 1890.
The Archonta are a group of mammals, considered a superorder in some classifications, which consists of the following orders.
The Arctiinae (formerly called the Arctiidae) are a large and diverse subfamily of moths, with around 11,000 species found all over the world, including 6,000 neotropical species.
Austin is the capital of the U.S. state of Texas and the seat of Travis County, with portions extending into Hays and Williamson counties.
The aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis) is a lemur, a strepsirrhine primate native to Madagascar that combines rodent-like teeth that perpetually grow and a special thin middle finger.
The Aztecs were a Mesoamerican culture that flourished in central Mexico in the post-classic period from 1300 to 1521.
Barotrauma is physical damage to body tissues caused by a difference in pressure between a gas space inside, or in contact with the body, and the surrounding gas or fluid.
Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the rate of energy expenditure per unit time by endothermic animals at rest.
Bats are mammals of the order Chiroptera; with their forelimbs adapted as wings, they are the only mammals naturally capable of true and sustained flight.
The bat as a heraldic symbol is primarily represented in the coats of arms of certain important towns of the former Crown of Aragon.
Bats are a food source for humans in the Pacific Rim and Asia.
Bat bugs are blood-sucking insect parasites that feed primarily on the blood of bats.
Bat Conservation International (BCI) is an international non-governmental organization working to conserve the world's bats and their habitats through conservation, education and research efforts.
A bat detector is a device used to detect the presence of bats by converting their echolocation ultrasound signals, as they are emitted by the bats, to audible frequencies, usually about 120 Hz to 15 kHz.
The bat-eared fox (Otocyon megalotis) is a species of fox found on the African savanna, named for its large ears,.
Batman is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics.
Most of the many bat species found in the United States are insectivorous except for three flower eating species that migrate from Mexico.
Bees are flying insects closely related to wasps and ants, known for their role in pollination and, in the case of the best-known bee species, the European honey bee, for producing honey and beeswax.
Beetles are a group of insects that form the order Coleoptera, in the superorder Endopterygota.
In applied mechanics, bending (also known as flexure) characterizes the behavior of a slender structural element subjected to an external load applied perpendicularly to a longitudinal axis of the element.
Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.
A bird of prey, predatory bird, or raptor is any of several species of bird that hunts and feeds on rodents and other animals.
Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) is a medical test that measures the amount of urea nitrogen found in blood.
The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system, and microcirculation, that transports blood throughout the human body.
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are a group of growth factors also known as cytokines and as metabologens.
Bone morphogenetic protein 2 or BMP-2 belongs to the TGF-β superfamily of proteins.
Boreoeutheria (synonymous with Boreotheria) (Greek: βόρειο "north" + ευ "good" + θεριό "beast") is a clade (magnorder) of placental mammals that is composed of the sister taxa Laurasiatheria (most hoofed mammals, most pawed carnivores, and several other groups) and Euarchontoglires (Supraprimates).
Brandt's bat (Myotis brandtii) is a species of vesper bat in the family Vespertilionidae.
British hardened field defences of World War II were small fortified structures constructed as a part of British anti-invasion preparations.
The brown long-eared bat or common long-eared bat (Plecotus auritus) is a small Eurasian bat.
The bat family Noctilionidae, commonly known as bulldog bats or fishing bats, is represented by two species, the greater and the lesser bulldog bats.
The caddisflies, or order Trichoptera, are a group of insects with aquatic larvae and terrestrial adults.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
A capillary is a small blood vessel from 5 to 10 micrometres (µm) in diameter, and having a wall one endothelial cell thick.
Carl Linnaeus (23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von LinnéBlunt (2004), p. 171.
Carnivora (from Latin carō (stem carn-) "flesh" and vorāre "to devour") is a diverse scrotiferan order that includes over 280 species of placental mammals.
Cattle—colloquially cows—are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates.
A cave gate is a manmade barricade typically placed at the entrance to a cave or just inside the entrance of a cave in an effort to impede or mitigate human access to a cave's interior.
In vertebrates, cervical vertebrae (singular: vertebra) are the vertebrae of the neck, immediately below the skull.
Cetacea are a widely distributed and diverse clade of aquatic mammals that today consists of the whales, dolphins, and porpoises.
The Cherokee (translit or translit) are one of the indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands.
Chitin (C8H13O5N)n, a long-chain polymer of ''N''-acetylglucosamine, is a derivative of glucose.
Chitinases (chitodextrinase, 1,4-beta-poly-N-acetylglucosaminidase, poly-beta-glucosaminidase, beta-1,4-poly-N-acetyl glucosamidinase, poly glycanohydrolase, (1->4)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucan glycanohydrolase) are hydrolytic enzymes that break down glycosidic bonds in chitin.
The Christmas Island pipistrelle (Pipistrellus murrayi) was a species of vesper bat found only on Christmas Island, Australia.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
Collagen is the main structural protein in the extracellular space in the various connective tissues in animal bodies.
Colugos are arboreal gliding mammals found in Southeast Asia.
The common blossom bat (Syconycteris australis) also known as the southern blossom bat or Queensland blossom bat, is a megabat in the family Pteropodidae.
Common descent describes how, in evolutionary biology, a group of organisms share a most recent common ancestor.
The common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) is a small, leaf-nosed bat native to the Americas.
Connective tissue (CT) is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue.
Coronaviruses are species of virus belonging to the subfamily Coronavirinae in the family Coronaviridae, in the order Nidovirales.
Count Dracula is the title character of Bram Stoker's 1897 gothic horror novel Dracula.
Crepuscular animals are those that are active primarily during twilight (that is, the periods of dawn and dusk).
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, at the centre of which is a rectangular pitch with a target at each end called the wicket (a set of three wooden stumps upon which two bails sit).
Current Biology is a scientific journal that covers all areas of biology, especially molecular biology, cell biology, genetics, neurobiology, ecology and evolutionary biology.
The decibel (symbol: dB) is a unit of measurement used to express the ratio of one value of a physical property to another on a logarithmic scale.
A demon (from Koine Greek δαιμόνιον daimónion) is a supernatural and often malevolent being prevalent in religion, occultism, literature, fiction, mythology and folklore.
The dermis or corium is a layer of skin between the epidermis (with which it makes up the cutis) and subcutaneous tissues, that primarily consists of dense irregular connective tissue and cushions the body from stress and strain.
Digestive enzymes are a group of enzymes that break down polymeric macromolecules into their smaller building blocks, in order to facilitate their absorption by the body.
A diurnal cycle is any pattern that recurs every 24 hours as a result of one full rotation of the Earth around its own axis.
The Doppler effect (or the Doppler shift) is the change in frequency or wavelength of a wave in relation to observer who is moving relative to the wave source.
In the biological context of organisms' production of gene products, downregulation is the process by which a cell decreases the quantity of a cellular component, such as RNA or protein, in response to an external stimulus.
In fluid dynamics, drag (sometimes called air resistance, a type of friction, or fluid resistance, another type of friction or fluid friction) is a force acting opposite to the relative motion of any object moving with respect to a surrounding fluid.
Earth's magnetic field, also known as the geomagnetic field, is the magnetic field that extends from the Earth's interior out into space, where it meets the solar wind, a stream of charged particles emanating from the Sun.
The eastern or Queensland tube-nosed bat (Nyctimene robinsoni) is a megabat in the family Pteropodidae that lives in north-eastern Australia.
The Eastern United States, commonly referred to as the American East or simply the East, is a region roughly coinciding with the boundaries of the United States established in the 1783 Treaty of Paris, which bounded the new country to the west along the Mississippi River.
Ebola virus (EBOV, formerly designated Zaire ebolavirus) is one of five known viruses within the genus Ebolavirus.
Echolocation (or sonar) systems of animals, like human radar systems, are susceptible to interference known as echolocation jamming or sonar jamming.
Evolutionarily Distinct and Globally Endangered (EDGE) species are animal species which have a high EDGE score, a metric combining endangered conservation status with distinctiveness of taxon.
The Egyptian fruit bat or Egyptian rousette (Rousettus aegyptiacus) is a species of Old World fruit bat.
Elastic fibers (or yellow fibers) are bundles of proteins (elastin) found in extracellular matrix of connective tissue and produced by fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells in arteries.
An electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water.
Electrolyte imbalance is an abnormality in the concentration of electrolytes in the body.
An embryo is an early stage of development of a multicellular diploid eukaryotic organism.
The Eocene Epoch, lasting from, is a major division of the geologic timescale and the second epoch of the Paleogene Period in the Cenozoic Era.
The epidermis is the outer layer of the three layers that make up the skin, the inner layers being the dermis and hypodermis.
The Etruscan shrew (Suncus etruscus), also known as the Etruscan pygmy shrew or the white-toothed pygmy shrew, is the smallest known mammal by mass, weighing only about on average.
Euarchontoglires (synonymous with Supraprimates) is a clade and a superorder of mammals, the living members of which belong to one of the five following groups: rodents, lagomorphs, treeshrews, colugos and primates.
Eulipotyphla ("truly fat and blind") is an order of mammals suggested by molecular methods of phylogenetic reconstruction, and includes the laurasiatherian members of the now-invalid polyphyletic order Lipotyphla, but not the afrotherian members (tenrecs and golden moles, now in their own order Afrosoricida).
The even-toed ungulates (Artiodactyla) are ungulates (hoofed animals) whose weight is borne equally by the third and fourth toes.
Falcons are birds of prey in the genus Falco, which includes about 40 species.
The Ferae are a clade of mammals, consisting of the orders Carnivora (over 260 species, around the globe) and Pholidota (eight species of pangolins in tropical Africa and Asia).
A fertilizer (American English) or fertiliser (British English; see spelling differences) is any material of natural or synthetic origin (other than liming materials) that is applied to soils or to plant tissues to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants.
Ferungulata or Fereuungulata is a clade of placental mammals that groups together various carnivorans and ungulates.
In ethology, a fission–fusion society is one in which the size and composition of the social group change as time passes and animals move throughout the environment; animals merge into a group (fusion)—e.g. sleeping in one place—or split (fission)—e.g. foraging in small groups during the day.
Fleas are small flightless insects that form the order Siphonaptera.
Flight is the process by which an object moves through an atmosphere (or beyond it, as in the case of spaceflight) without contact with the surface.
A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms).
True flies are insects of the order Diptera, the name being derived from the Greek δι- di- "two", and πτερόν pteron "wings".
In evolutionary biology, the flying primate hypothesis posits that megabats, a subgroup of Chiroptera (also known as flying foxes), form an evolutionary sister group of primates.
Flying squirrels (scientifically known as Pteromyini or Petauristini) are a tribe of 50 species of squirrels in the family Sciuridae.
Fraga is the major town of the comarca of Bajo Cinca (Baix Cinca) in the province of Huesca, Aragon, Spain.
The Molossidae, or free-tailed bats, are a family of bats within the order Chiroptera.
A Fresnel lens is a type of compact lens originally developed by French physicist Augustin-Jean Fresnel for lighthouses.
The fringe-lipped bat (Trachops cirrhosus) is a leaf-nosed bat from southern Mexico to Bolivia and southern Brazil.
A frugivore is a fruit eater.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
Furipteridae is one of the families of bats.
Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.
The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.
The ghost bat (Macroderma gigas), also known as the false vampire bat, is a bat native to Australia.
The giant golden-crowned flying fox (Acerodon jubatus), also known as the golden-capped fruit bat, is a rare megabat and one of the largest bats in the world.
Gibbons are apes in the family Hylobatidae.
Gleaning is a feeding strategy by birds in which they catch invertebrate prey, mainly arthropods, by plucking them from foliage or the ground, from crevices such as rock faces and under the eaves of houses, or even, as in the case of ticks and lice, from living animals.
Gliding flight is heavier-than-air flight without the use of thrust; the term volplaning also refers to this mode of flight in animals.
Grasshoppers are insects of the suborder Caelifera within the order Orthoptera, which includes crickets and their allies in the other suborder Ensifera.
The greater bulldog bat or fisherman bat (Noctilio leporinus) is a type of fishing bat native to Latin America (Spanish: Murciélago pescador).
The greater horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum) is a European bat of the genus Rhinolophus.
The greater mouse-eared bat (Myotis myotis) is a European species of bat in the family Vespertilionidae.
The greater noctule bat (Nyctalus lasiopterus) is a rare bat found in Europe, West Asia, and North Africa.
The greater sac-winged bat (Saccopteryx bilineata) is a bat of the family Emballonuridae native to Central and South America.
The greater short-nosed fruit bat (Cynopterus sphinx), or short-nosed Indian fruit bat, is a species of megabat in the family Pteropodidae.
The greater spear-nosed bat (Phyllostomus hastatus) is a bat species of the family Phyllostomidae from South and Central America.
The Green River Formation is an Eocene geologic formation that records the sedimentation in a group of intermountain lakes in three basins along the present-day Green River in Colorado, Wyoming, and Utah.
Ground speed is the horizontal speed of an aircraft relative to the ground.
Guano (from Quechua wanu via Spanish) is the accumulated excrement of seabirds and bats.
Gunpowder, also known as black powder to distinguish it from modern smokeless powder, is the earliest known chemical explosive.
The hair follicle is a dynamic organ found in mammalian skin.
The hairless bat (Cheiromeles torquatus), also called the naked bulldog batLeong, T. M., et al.
The hairy-legged vampire bat (Diphylla ecaudata) is one of three extant species of vampire bats.
The hammer-headed bat (Hypsignathus monstrosus), also known as the big-lipped bat, is a megabat widely distributed in equatorial Africa.
Hawks are a group of medium-sized diurnal birds of prey of the family Accipitridae.
The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.
Hematophagy (sometimes spelled haematophagy or hematophagia) is the practice by certain animals of feeding on blood (from the Greek words αἷμα haima "blood" and φάγειν phagein "to eat").
Henipavirus is a genus of RNA viruses in the family Paramyxoviridae, order Mononegavirales containing five established species.
A hero (masculine) or heroine (feminine) is a real person or a main character of a literary work who, in the face of danger, combats adversity through feats of ingenuity, bravery or strength; the original hero type of classical epics did such things for the sake of glory and honor.
Heterothermy or heterothermia (from Greek ἕτερος heteros "other" and θέρμη thermē "heat") is a physiological term for animals that exhibit characteristics of both poikilothermy and homeothermy.
Hibernation is a state of inactivity and metabolic depression in endotherms.
The Hipposideridae are a family of bats commonly known as the Old World leaf-nosed bats.
Histoplasmosis (also known as "Cave disease", "Darling's disease", "Ohio valley disease", "reticuloendotheliosis", "spelunker's lung" and "caver's disease") is a disease caused by the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum.
The Holocene is the current geological epoch.
Homeothermy or homothermy is thermoregulation that maintains a stable internal body temperature regardless of external influence.
Horseshoe bats make up the bat family Rhinolophidae.
The human digestive system consists of the gastrointestinal tract plus the accessory organs of digestion (the tongue, salivary glands, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder).
Hummingbirds are birds from the Americas that constitute the family Trochilidae.
Icaronycteris is an extinct genus of microchiropteran (echolocating) bat that lived in the early Eocene, approximately, making it the earliest known definitive bat.
robber fly eating a hoverfly An insectivore is a carnivorous plant or animal that eats insects.
The Jamaican, common or Mexican fruit bat (Artibeus jamaicensis) is a fruit eating bat native to Mexico, through Central America to northwestern South America, as well as the Greater and many of the Lesser Antilles.
Johann Friedrich Blumenbach (11 May 1752 – 22 January 1840) was a German physician, naturalist, physiologist, and anthropologist.
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.
The Journal of General Virology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal that covers research into viruses affecting animals, plants, insects, bacteria, and fungi, including their molecular biology, immunology, and interactions with the host.
Kenneth Oppel (born August 31, 1967) is a Canadian children's writer.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
Kitti's hog-nosed bat (Craseonycteris thonglongyai), also known as the bumblebee bat, is a vulnerable species of bat and the only extant member of the family Craseonycteridae.
The Museo Larco (English: Larco Museum) or Museo Arqueológico Rafael Larco Herrera is a privately owned museum of pre-Columbian art, located in the Pueblo Libre District of Lima, Peru.
The larynx, commonly called the voice box, is an organ in the top of the neck of tetrapods involved in breathing, producing sound, and protecting the trachea against food aspiration.
In geography, latitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north–south position of a point on the Earth's surface.
Laurasiatheria is a clade of placental mammals that originated on the northern supercontinent of Laurasia 99 million years ago.
The leading edge is the part of the wing that first contacts the air;Crane, Dale: Dictionary of Aeronautical Terms, third edition, page 305.
The New World leaf-nosed bats (Phyllostomidae) are found from southern North America to South America, specifically from Mexico to northern Argentina.
A lek, from the Swedish word for "play", is an aggregation of male animals gathered to engage in competitive displays, lekking, to entice visiting females which are surveying prospective partners for copulation.
Lesser bushbabies, or lesser galagos, are strepsirrhine primates of the genus Galago.
The lesser mouse-eared bat (Myotis blythii) is a species of bat in the family Vespertilionidae.
Liminal beings are those that cannot easily be placed into a single category of existence.
The little brown bat (sometimes called little brown myotis) (Myotis lucifugus) is a species of the genus Myotis (mouse-eared bats), one of the most common bats of North America.
The little yellow-shouldered bat, Sturnira lilium, is a bat species from South and Central America.
The long-tongued nectar bat (Macroglossus minimus), also known as the northern blossom bat, honey nectar bat, least blossom-bat, dagger-toothed long-nosed fruit bat, and lesser long-tongued fruit bat, is a species of megabat.
Louse (plural: lice) is the common name for members of the order Phthiraptera, which contains nearly 5,000 species of wingless insect.
The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.
Macbeth (full title The Tragedy of Macbeth) is a tragedy by William Shakespeare; it is thought to have been first performed in 1606.
Magnetite is a rock mineral and one of the main iron ores, with the chemical formula Fe3O4.
Magnetoreception (also magnetoception) is a sense which allows an organism to detect a magnetic field to perceive direction, altitude or location.
Malaysian Wildlife Law (Undang-Undang Hidupan Liar Malaysia) consists of the regulation, protection, conservation and management of wildlife in Malaysia.
Maltase (alpha-glucosidase, glucoinvertase, glucosidosucrase, maltase-glucoamylase, alpha-glucopyranosidase, glucosidoinvertase, alpha-D-glucosidase, alpha-glucoside hydrolase, alpha-1,4-glucosidase, alpha-D-glucoside glucohydrolase) is an enzyme located in on the brush border of the small intestine that breaks down the disaccharide maltose.
Maltose, also known as maltobiose or malt sugar, is a disaccharide formed from two units of glucose joined with an α(1→4) bond. In the isomer isomaltose, the two glucose molecules are joined with an α(1→6) bond. Maltose is the two-unit member of the amylose homologous series, the key structural motif of starch. When beta-amylase breaks down starch, it removes two glucose units at a time, producing maltose. An example of this reaction is found in germinating seeds, which is why it was named after malt. Unlike sucrose, it is a reducing sugar.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
A maternity colony refers to a temporary association of reproductive female bats for giving birth to, nursing, and weaning their pups.
A mating plug in a female Richardson's ground squirrel (''Spermophilus richardsonii'') A mating plug, also known as a copulation plug, sperm plug, vaginal plug, sement or sphragis (Latin, from Greek σφραγίδα 'sfragida' a seal), is gelatinous secretion used in the mating of some species.
Matrilineality is the tracing of descent through the female line.
Mayflies (also known as Canadian soldiers in the United States, and as shadflies or fishflies in Canada and the upper Midwestern U.S.; also up-winged flies in the United Kingdom) are aquatic insects belonging to the order Ephemeroptera.
Mechanical advantage is a measure of the force amplification achieved by using a tool, mechanical device or machine system.
Megabats constitute the suborder Megachiroptera, and its only family Pteropodidae of the order Chiroptera (bats).
Megadermatidae, or false vampire bats, are a family of bats found from central Africa, eastwards through southern Asia, and into Australia.
Merkel cells, also known as Merkel-Ranvier cells or tactile epithelial cells, are oval-shaped mechanoreceptors essential for light touch sensation and found in the skin of vertebrates.
Mesopic vision is a combination of photopic vision and scotopic vision in low but not quite dark lighting situations.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
The Mexican free-tailed bat or Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis) is a medium-sized bat that is native to the Americas, regarded as one of the most abundant mammals in North America.
The microbats constitute the suborder Microchiroptera within the order Chiroptera (bats).
The Mid-Atlantic, also called Middle Atlantic states or the Mid-Atlantic states, form a region of the United States generally located between New England and the South Atlantic States.
Middle English (ME) is collectively the varieties of the English language spoken after the Norman Conquest (1066) until the late 15th century; scholarly opinion varies but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies the period of 1150 to 1500.
Miniopterus (bent-winged bat, long winged bat) is the only genus of bats in the family Miniopteridae.
Mites are small arthropods belonging to the class Arachnida and the subclass Acari (also known as Acarina).
Monogamous pairing in animals refers to the natural history of mating systems in which species pair bond to raise offspring.
In cladistics, a monophyletic group, or clade, is a group of organisms that consists of all the descendants of a common ancestor.
Montchauvet is a commune in the Yvelines department in the Île-de-France region in north-central France.
The family Mormoopidae contains bats known generally as mustached bats, ghost-faced bats, and naked-backed bats.
Mormoops is a genus of bat in the family Mormoopidae.
Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.
Mosquitoes are small, midge-like flies that constitute the family Culicidae.
Moths comprise a group of insects related to butterflies, belonging to the order Lepidoptera.
The mouse lemurs are nocturnal lemurs of the genus Microcebus.
Mouse-tailed bats are a group of insectivorous bats of the family Rhinopomatidae with only three to six species, all contained in the single genus Rhinopoma.
Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.
The Muscogee, also known as the Mvskoke, Creek and the Muscogee Creek Confederacy, are a related group of Indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands.
Mystacinidae is a family of unusual bats, the New Zealand short-tailed bats.
Mythology refers variously to the collected myths of a group of people or to the study of such myths.
Myzopoda, which has two described species, is the only genus in the bat family Myzopodidae.
The family Natalidae, or funnel-eared bats, are found from Mexico to Brazil and the Caribbean islands.
Native Americans, also known as American Indians, Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States.
In infectious disease ecology and epidemiology, a natural reservoir, also known as a disease reservoir or a reservoir of infection, is the population of organisms or the specific environment in which an infectious pathogen naturally lives and reproduces, or upon which the pathogen primarily depends for its survival.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
In zoology, a nectarivore is an animal which derives its energy and nutrient requirements from a diet consisting mainly or exclusively of the sugar-rich nectar produced by flowering plants.
Neontology is a part of biology that, in contrast to paleontology, deals with living (or, more generally, recent) organisms.
A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of axons (nerve fibers, the long and slender projections of neurons) in the peripheral nervous system.
New England is a geographical region comprising six states of the northeastern United States: Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Connecticut.
New Scientist, first published on 22 November 1956, is a weekly, English-language magazine that covers all aspects of science and technology.
Niter, or nitre (chiefly British), is the mineral form of potassium nitrate, KNO3, also known as saltpeter or saltpetre.
Nitrifying bacteria are chemolithotrophic organisms that include species of the genera Nitrosomonas, Nitrosococcus, Nitrobacter and Nitrococcus.
Nocturnality is an animal behavior characterized by being active during the night and sleeping during the day.
A leaf nose is an often large, lance-shaped nose, found in bats of the Phyllostomidae, Hipposideridae, and Rhinolophidae families.
Nycteribiidae of the true fly superfamily Hippoboscoidea are known as "bat flies", together with their close relatives the Streblidae.
Members of the order Perissodactyla, also known as odd-toed ungulates, are mammals characterized by an odd number of toes and by hindgut fermentation with somewhat simple stomachs.
Ogg is a free, open container format maintained by the Xiph.Org Foundation.
Onychonycteris is the most primitive of the two oldest known monospecific genera of bat, having lived in the area that is current day Wyoming during the Eocene period, 52.5 million years ago.
In biological classification, the order (ordo) is.
Owls are birds from the order Strigiformes, which includes about 200 species of mostly solitary and nocturnal birds of prey typified by an upright stance, a large, broad head, binocular vision, binaural hearing, sharp talons, and feathers adapted for silent flight.
The Pacific Rim comprises the lands around the rim of the Pacific Ocean.
Palaeochiropteryx is an extinct genus of bat from the Middle Eocene of Europe.
The pallid bat (Antrozous pallidus) is a species of bat that ranges from western Canada to central Mexico.
Palma de Mallorca, frequently used name for the city of Palma, is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of the Balearic Islands in Spain.
Pangolins or scaly anteaters are mammals of the order Pholidota (from the Greek word φολῐ́ς, "horny scale").
In taxonomy, a group is paraphyletic if it consists of the group's last common ancestor and all descendants of that ancestor excluding a few—typically only one or two—monophyletic subgroups.
In evolutionary biology, parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, and is adapted structurally to this way of life.
The patagium (plural: patagia) is a membranous structure that assists an animal in gliding or flight.
In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a '''germ''' in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.
Peel, also known as rind or skin, is the outer protective layer of a fruit or vegetable which can be peeled off.
Pesticides are substances that are meant to control pests, including weeds.
Photopic vision is the vision of the eye under well-lit conditions (luminance level 10 to 108 cd/m2).
A phylogenetic tree or evolutionary tree is a branching diagram or "tree" showing the evolutionary relationships among various biological species or other entities—their phylogeny—based upon similarities and differences in their physical or genetic characteristics.
A piscivore is a carnivorous animal that eats primarily fish.
Placentalia ("Placentals") is one of the three extant subdivisions of the class of animals Mammalia; the other two are Monotremata and Marsupialia.
A pollinator is an animal that moves pollen from the male anther of a flower to the female stigma of a flower.
Polygyny (from Neo-Greek πολυγυνία from πολύ- poly- "many", and γυνή gyne "woman" or "wife") is a mating system in which one male lives and mates with multiple females, but each female only mates with a single male.
Popobawa, also Popo Bawa, is the name of an evil spirit, or shetani, which is believed by residents of Zanzibar to have first appeared on the Tanzanian island of Pemba.
Predation is a biological interaction where a predator (a hunting animal) kills and eats its prey (the organism that is attacked).
A primate is a mammal of the order Primates (Latin: "prime, first rank").
Promiscuity is the practice of having casual sex frequently with different partners or being indiscriminate in the choice of sexual partners.
Pseudogymnoascus destructans (formerly known as Geomyces destructans) is a psychrophilic (cold-loving) fungus that causes white-nose syndrome (WNS), a fatal disease that has devastated bat populations in parts of the United States and Canada.
Pteronotus is a genus of bats.
Bats of the genus Pteropus (suborder Yinpterochiroptera) are among the largest bats in the world.
Pterosaurs (from the Greek πτερόσαυρος,, meaning "winged lizard") were flying reptiles of the extinct clade or order Pterosauria.
Rabies is a viral disease that causes inflammation of the brain in humans and other mammals.
The radius or radial bone is one of the two large bones of the forearm, the other being the ulna.
The rate of living theory postulates that the faster an organism’s metabolism, the shorter its lifespan.
The renal papilla is the location where the renal pyramids in the medulla empty urine into the minor calyx in the kidney.
The respiratory system (also respiratory apparatus, ventilatory system) is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for gas exchange in animals and plants.
Rodents (from Latin rodere, "to gnaw") are mammals of the order Rodentia, which are characterized by a single pair of continuously growing incisors in each of the upper and lower jaws.
Rousettus is a genus of Old World fruit bats or megabats.
The 51 species of sac-winged or sheath-tailed bats constitute the family Emballonuridae, and can be found in tropical and subtropical regions all over the world.
Sarawak is a state of Malaysia.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine.
Sclerotin is a component of the cuticles of various Arthropoda, most familiarly insects.
Scrotifera is a clade of placental mammals that comprises the following orders and their common ancestors: Chiroptera, Carnivora, Pholidota, Perissodactyla and Cetartiodactyla, with the latter including the traditional orders Artiodactyla and Cetacea.
Seed dispersal is the movement or transport of seeds away from the parent plant.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a viral respiratory disease of zoonotic origin caused by the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV).
Sexual dimorphism is the condition where the two sexes of the same species exhibit different characteristics beyond the differences in their sexual organs.
A shear stress, often denoted by (Greek: tau), is the component of stress coplanar with a material cross section.
In medicine, a shunt is a hole or a small passage which moves, or allows movement of, fluid from one part of the body to another.
The silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans) is a solitary migratory species of vesper bat in the family Vespertilionidae and the only member of the genus Lasionycteris.
The Silverwing Book Series is a series of novels by Kenneth Oppel about the adventures of a young bat.
A sister group or sister taxon is a phylogenetic term denoting the closest relatives of another given unit in an evolutionary tree.
The skeleton is the body part that forms the supporting structure of an organism.
Skin is the soft outer tissue covering vertebrates.
Sloths are arboreal mammals noted for slowness of movement and for spending most of their lives hanging upside down in the trees of the tropical rainforests of South America and Central America.
The small flying fox, island flying fox or variable flying fox (Pteropus hypomelanus) is a species of flying fox in the family Pteropodidae.
Snakes are elongated, legless, carnivorous reptiles of the suborder Serpentes.
Sodomy is generally anal or oral sex between people or sexual activity between a person and a non-human animal (bestiality), but it may also mean any non-procreative sexual activity.
In many religious, philosophical, and mythological traditions, there is a belief in the incorporeal essence of a living being called the soul. Soul or psyche (Greek: "psychē", of "psychein", "to breathe") are the mental abilities of a living being: reason, character, feeling, consciousness, memory, perception, thinking, etc.
The genus Vampyrum contains only one species, the spectral bat (Vampyrum spectrum).
A sphincter is a circular muscle that normally maintains constriction of a natural body passage or orifice and which relaxes as required by normal physiological functioning.
The Spotted bat (Euderma maculatum), is a bat species from the family of vesper bats.
In fluid dynamics, a stall is a reduction in the lift coefficient generated by a foil as angle of attack increases.
The Streblidae are flies in the superfamily Hippoboscoidea, and together with their relatives the Nycteribiidae, are known as bat flies.
In continuum mechanics, stress is a physical quantity that expresses the internal forces that neighboring particles of a continuous material exert on each other, while strain is the measure of the deformation of the material.
In cardiovascular physiology, stroke volume (SV) is the volume of blood pumped from the left ventricle per beat.
Sucrase is a digestive enzyme secreted in the small intestine.
Swarm behaviour, or swarming, is a collective behaviour exhibited by entities, particularly animals, of similar size which aggregate together, perhaps milling about the same spot or perhaps moving en masse or migrating in some direction.
Sweat glands, also known as sudoriferous or sudoriparous glands,, are small tubular structures of the skin that produce sweat.
In biology, two species or populations are considered sympatric when they exist in the same geographic area and thus frequently encounter one another.
Taphozous is a genus of sac-winged bat - one commonly called a tomb bat - in the family Emballonuridae.
In musical terminology, tempo ("time" in Italian; plural: tempi) is the speed or pace of a given piece.
Termites are eusocial insects that are classified at the taxonomic rank of infraorder Isoptera, or as epifamily Termitoidae within the cockroach order Blattodea.
Thames & Hudson (also Thames and Hudson and sometimes T&H for brevity) is a publisher of illustrated books on art, architecture, design, and visual culture.
Thermal conductivity (often denoted k, λ, or κ) is the property of a material to conduct heat.
Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when the surrounding temperature is very different.
The Three Witches or Weird Sisters or Wayward Sisters are characters in William Shakespeare's play Macbeth (c. 1603–1607).
Disc-winged bats are a small group of bats of the family Thyropteridae.
Tonga (Tongan: Puleʻanga Fakatuʻi ʻo Tonga), officially the Kingdom of Tonga, is a Polynesian sovereign state and archipelago comprising 169 islands, of which 36 are inhabited.
The tongue is a muscular organ in the mouth of most vertebrates that manipulates food for mastication, and is used in the act of swallowing.
Tooth enamel is one of the four major tissues that make up the tooth in humans and many other animals, including some species of fish.
Torpor is a state of decreased physiological activity in an animal, usually by a reduced body temperature and metabolic rate.
The tragus is a small pointed eminence of the external ear, situated in front of the concha, and projecting backward over the meatus.
The trailing edge of an aerodynamic surface such as a wing is its rear edge, where the airflow separated by the leading edge rejoins.
The treeshrews (or tree shrews or banxrings) are small Euarchontoglire mammals native to the tropical forests of Southeast Asia.
In mythology, and in the study of folklore and religion, a trickster is a character in a story (god, goddess, spirit, man, woman, or anthropomorphisation), which exhibits a great degree of intellect or secret knowledge, and uses it to play tricks or otherwise disobey normal rules and conventional behaviour.
The tube-lipped nectar bat (Anoura fistulata) is a bat from Ecuador that was first described in 2005.
The tymbal (or timbal) is the corrugated exoskeletal structure used to produce sounds in insects.
A tympanal organ is a hearing organ in insects, consisting of a membrane (tympanum) stretched across a frame backed by an air sac and associated sensory neurons.
Ultrasound is sound waves with frequencies higher than the upper audible limit of human hearing.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
Ungulates (pronounced) are any members of a diverse group of primarily large mammals that includes odd-toed ungulates such as horses and rhinoceroses, and even-toed ungulates such as cattle, pigs, giraffes, camels, deer, and hippopotami.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
The University of Florida (commonly referred to as Florida or UF) is an American public land-grant, sea-grant, and space-grant research university on a campus in Gainesville, Florida.
Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.
The uterine horns are the points where the uterus and the fallopian tubes meet.
Valencia, officially València, on the east coast of Spain, is the capital of the autonomous community of Valencia and the third-largest city in Spain after Madrid and Barcelona, with around 800,000 inhabitants in the administrative centre.
A vampire is a being from folklore that subsists by feeding on the vital force (generally in the form of blood) of the living.
Vampire bats are bats whose food source is blood, a dietary trait called hematophagy.
Varney the Vampire; or, the Feast of Blood is a Victorian era serialized gothic horror story variously attributed to James Malcolm Rymer and Thomas Peckett Prest.
Veins are blood vessels that carry blood toward the heart.
Vesper bats (family Vespertilionidae), also known as evening bats or common bats, are the largest and most-studied family of bats.
Vespertilio is a genus of bats in the family Vespertilionidae.
A villain (also known as, "baddie", "bad guy", "evil guy", "heavy" or "black hat") is an "evil" character in a story, whether a historical narrative or, especially, a work of fiction.
The Virginia big-eared bat (Corynorhinus townsendii virginianus) is one of two endangered subspecies of the Townsend's big-eared bat.
Visual acuity (VA) commonly refers to the clarity of vision.
The visual cortex of the brain is a part of the cerebral cortex that processes visual information.
Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid and L-ascorbic acid, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.
In fluid dynamics, a vortex (plural vortices/vortexes) is a region in a fluid in which the flow revolves around an axis line, which may be straight or curved.
Vortex lift is a form of lift generated by delta wings operating at high angles of attack.
A wasp is any insect of the order Hymenoptera and suborder Apocrita that is neither a bee nor an ant.
In physics, interference is a phenomenon in which two waves superpose to form a resultant wave of greater, lower, or the same amplitude.
Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Occidental culture, the Western world, Western society, European civilization,is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems and specific artifacts and technologies that have some origin or association with Europe.
White-nose syndrome (WNS) is an emerging disease in North American bats which by 2012 was associated with at least 5–7 million bat deaths.
The white-winged vampire bat (Diaemus youngi), a species of vampire bat, is the only member of the genus Diaemus.
The Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 is an Act of Parliament in the United Kingdom implemented to comply with European Council Directive 2009/147/EC on the conservation of wild birds.
A wind turbine is a device that converts the wind's kinetic energy into electrical energy.
A wing is a type of fin that produces lift, while moving through air or some other fluid.
The Yangochiroptera, or Vespertilioniformes, is a proposed suborder of Chiroptera that includes most of the microbat families, except the Rhinopomatidae, Rhinolophidae, Hipposideridae and the Megadermatidae.
The Yinpterochiroptera, or Pteropodiformes, is a suborder of the Chiroptera, which includes taxa formerly known as megabats and five of the microbat families: Rhinopomatidae, Rhinolophidae, Hipposideridae, Craseonycteridae, and Megadermatidae.
The Yuma myotis (Myotis yumanensis) is a species of vesper bat native to western North America.
Yunnan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the far southwest of the country.
The Zapotec civilization was an indigenous pre-Columbian civilization that flourished in the Valley of Oaxaca in Mesoamerica.
Zoonoses are infectious diseases that can be transmitted between animals and humans.
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