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Bats are mammals of the order Chiroptera (from the Greek χείρ - cheir, "hand" and πτερόν - pteron, "wing") whose forelimbs form webbed wings, making them the only mammals naturally capable of true and sustained flight. [1]

323 relations: Aeolus Cave, Albacete, Alberta, American Civil War, Animal bite, Animal echolocation, Ann W. Richards Congress Avenue Bridge, Antrozoini, Apache, Aposematism, Appalachian Mountains, Arabs, Archaeonycteris, Archonta, Arctic rabies virus, Arctiinae (erebid moths), Artery, Association football, Audiogram, Austin, Texas, Australia, Aye-aye, Balearic Islands, Barcelona, Barotrauma, Bat, Bat (food), Bat bridge, Bat Conservation International, Bat Conservation Trust, Bat detector, Bat falcon, Bat hawk, Bat-eared fox, Batman, Bats of the United States, Big brown bat, Biome, Bird, Bird migration, Birth rate, Blood, British Columbia, British hardened field defences of World War II, Bulldog bat, Burgee, Canada, Carnivora, Catalonia, CBC Radio, ..., Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Central America, Cetacea, Cherokee, China, Claw, Clinical Infectious Diseases, Coat (animal), Colugo, Common descent, Common pipistrelle, Common vampire bat, Crown of Aragon, Cryptic bat rabies, Cryptid, Current Biology, Demon, Digit (anatomy), Dobwalls, Doppler effect, Dracula, Ear, Eastern pipistrelle, Eastern small-footed myotis, Eastern United States, Ebola virus, Echolocation jamming, EDGE species, Eocene, Etruscan shrew, Even-toed ungulate, Evolution, Eye, Fiji, Fijian monkey-faced bat, Fish, Fission–fusion society, Flea, Flesh, Flight, Flower, Flying primate hypothesis, Flying squirrel, Food, Forelimb, Fraga, France, Free-tailed bat, Fresnel lens, Frugivore, Fruit, Fungus, Furipteridae, Genetics, German language, Germanic languages, Ghost bat, Ghost-faced bat, Giant golden-crowned flying fox, Gibbon, Gliding flight, Gliding possum, Gnat, Grand Canyon National Park, Grandview Mine, Greater nectar bat, Greater noctule bat, Greek language, Green River Formation, Guano, Gunpowder, Hairless bat, Hairy-legged vampire bat, Halloween, Harvard University, Helicoverpa zea, Hematophagy, Henipavirus, Heraldry, Hero, Hibernation, Hipposideridae, Holocene, Horseshoe bat, Hunting, Icaronycteris, Indiana bat, Insect, Insectivora, Insectivore, Jaguar, James I of Aragon, Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, John Wiley & Sons, Journal of General Virology, Kaqchikel people, Kenneth Oppel, Kentucky, Kitti's hog-nosed bat, Kunstformen der Natur, Kwakwaka'wakw, Larco Museum, Late Cretaceous, Laurasiatheria, Lazzaro Spallanzani, Leaf-nosed bat, Lesser bushbaby, Levante UD, Lima, Liminal being, List of Latin phrases (E), Little brown bat, Louse, Lung, Macedonia (region), Malaysia, Malaysian Wildlife Law, Mammal, Mammals of Borneo, Mammoth Cave National Park, Manitoba, Maya civilization, Megabat, Megadermatidae, Merkel cell, Mesoamerica, Mexica, Mexican free-tailed bat, Microbat, Mid-Atlantic states, Moche culture, Montchauvet, Yvelines, Mormoopidae, Mormoops, Morphology (biology), Mosquito, Moth, Mouse lemur, Mouse-tailed bat, Muscogee, Myotis vivesi, Mystacinidae, Mythology, Myzopoda, Natalidae, Native Americans in the United States, Natural reservoir, Nature (journal), Necromantis, Nectar, Nest box, New England, New Scientist, Nocturnality, North America, Northern long-eared bat (myotis), Novel, Nycteridae, Nyctimene (genus), Oaxaca, Odd-toed ungulate, Ogg, Old wives' tale, Ontario, Onychonycteris, Order (biology), Organization for Bat Conservation, Owl, Palaeochiropteryx, Pallid bat, Palma, Majorca, Pangolin, Parasitism, Patagium, Pathogen, Peru, PLOS ONE, Poland, Pollen, Pollinator, Popobawa, Pre-Columbian era, Primate, Pseudogymnoascus destructans, Pteralopex, Pteropus, Public Health Reports, Quebec, Quirks & Quarks, Rabbit, Rabies, Raccoon, Rodent, Rousettus, Sac-winged bat, Saracen, Sarawak, Saskatchewan, Science (journal), Scientific American, Sclerotin, Scorpion, Seasonal breeder, Serotine bat, Severe acute respiratory syndrome, Silverwing (novel), Skeleton, Skin, Skunk, Sloth, Smoky bat, Sodomy, Solomon Islands, Soul, Soup, South America, Southeastern United States, Spain, Spectral bat, Spider, Swedish language, Tanzania, Taxonomy (biology), Templo Mayor, Tenochtitlan, Texas, Thames & Hudson, The Maritimes, Three Witches, Thyropteridae, Tonga, Tongue, Torpor, Townsend's big-eared bat, Treeshrew, Tribal chief, Trickster, Tube-lipped nectar bat, Tymbal, Tympanal organ, Ultrasound, Ultraviolet, United Kingdom, United States, United States Department of Agriculture, United States Forest Service, United States Geological Survey, United States Public Health Service, University of Florida, Valencia, Valencia CF, Vampire bat, Van Gelder's bat, Vein, Vertebrate, Vesper bat, Villain, Virginia big-eared bat, Visual acuity, Visual cortex, Vitamin C, Watership Down, Western culture, Western Europe, White-winged vampire bat, Wife, Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981, Wind turbine, Wing, Yangochiroptera, Yinpterochiroptera, Zapotec civilization, Zoonosis. Expand index (273 more) »

Aeolus Cave

Aeolus Bat Cave is a cave located up in the Taconic Mountains in East Dorset, Vermont, USA.

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Albacete is a city and municipality in southeastern Spain, by road southeast of Madrid, and is the capital of the province of Albacete in the autonomous community of Castile-La Mancha.

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Alberta is a western province of Canada.

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American Civil War

The American Civil War, widely known in the United States as simply the Civil War as well as other sectional names, was a civil war fought from 1861 to 1865 to determine the survival of the Union or independence for the Confederacy.

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Animal bite

An animal bite is a wound received from the teeth of an animal, including humans.

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Animal echolocation

Echolocation, also called bio sonar, is the biological sonar used by several kinds of animals.

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Ann W. Richards Congress Avenue Bridge

The Ann W. Richards Congress Avenue Bridge (formerly known simply as the Congress Avenue Bridge) crosses over Lady Bird Lake in Austin, Texas.

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Antrozoini is a tribe of bats in the subfamily Vespertilioninae of the family Vespertilionidae.

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Apache is the collective term for several culturally related groups of Native American tribes originally from the Southwestern United States.

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Aposematism (from Greek ἀπό apo away, σ̑ημα sema sign, coined by Edward Bagnall PoultonPoulton, 1890. Foldout "The Colours of Animals Classified According to Their Uses", after page 339.), perhaps most commonly known in the context of warning coloration, describes a family of antipredator adaptations where a warning signal is associated with the unprofitability of a prey item to potential predators.

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Appalachian Mountains

The Appalachian Mountains (or,There are at least eight possible pronunciations depending on three factors.

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Arabs (عرب, ʿarab) are a major panethnic group whose native language is Arabic, comprising the majority of the Arab world.

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Archaeonycteris was a primitive bat genus whose remains were found in Germany, France, England and India.

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The Archonta are a group of mammals, considered a superorder in some classifications, which consists of the following orders.

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Arctic rabies virus

Arctic rabies virus is a strain of rabies virus that circulates throughout the arctic regions of Alaska, Canada, Greenland, Iceland, Finland, Sweden, Norway, and Russia.

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Arctiinae (erebid moths)

The Arctiinae (formerly called the Arctiidae) are a large and diverse subfamily of moths, with around 11,000 species found all over the world, including 6,000 neotropical species.

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The anatomy of arteries can be separated into gross anatomy, at the macroscopic level, and microscopic anatomy, which must be studied with the aid of a microscope.

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Association football

Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.

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An audiogram is a graph that shows the audible threshold for standardized frequencies as measured by an audiometer.

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Austin, Texas

Austin is the capital of the US state of Texas and the seat of Travis County.

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Australia (colloquially), officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is an Oceanian country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands.

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The aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis) is a lemur, a strepsirrhine primate native to Madagascar that combines rodent-like teeth and a special thin middle finger.

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Balearic Islands

The Balearic Islands (Illes Balears; Islas Baleares) are an archipelago of Spain in the western Mediterranean Sea, near the eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula.

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Barcelona is the capital city of the autonomous community of Catalonia in Spain and Spain's second most populated city, with a population of 1.6 million within its administrative limits.

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Barotrauma is physical damage to body tissues caused by a difference in pressure between a gas space inside, or in contact with the body, and the surrounding fluid.

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Bats are mammals of the order Chiroptera (from the Greek χείρ - cheir, "hand" and πτερόν - pteron, "wing") whose forelimbs form webbed wings, making them the only mammals naturally capable of true and sustained flight.

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Bat (food)

Bats, also known as chicken of the cave, are a food source for humans in the Pacific Rim and Asia.

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Bat bridge

A bat bridge is a structure of varying construction crossing a new or altered road to aid the navigation of bats following the destruction of a hedgerow, and to cause the bats to cross the roadway at a sufficient height to avoid traffic.

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Bat Conservation International

Bat Conservation International (BCI) is an international non-governmental organization working to conserve the world’s bats and their habitats through conservation, education and research efforts.

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Bat Conservation Trust

The Bat Conservation Trust (BCT) is a registered British charity (England and Wales charity number 1012361, Scotland SC040116) dedicated to the conservation of bats and their habitats in the UK.

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Bat detector

A bat detector is a device used to detect the presence of bats by converting their echolocation ultrasound signals, as they are emitted by the bats, to audible frequencies, usually about 300 Hz to 5 kHz.

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Bat falcon

The bat falcon (Falco rufigularis) is a falcon that is a resident breeder in tropical Mexico, Central and South America and Trinidad.

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Bat hawk

The bat hawk (Macheiramphus alcinus) is a raptor found in sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia to New Guinea.

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Bat-eared fox

The bat-eared fox (Otocyon megalotis) is a species of fox found on the African savanna, named for its large ears,.

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Batman is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics.

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Bats of the United States

Most of the many bat species found in the United States are insectivorous except for three flower eating species that migrate from Mexico.

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Big brown bat

The big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus) is native to North America, Central America, the Caribbean, and extreme northern South America.

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A biome is a community of plants and animals.

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Birds (class Aves) are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, a beak with no teeth, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a lightweight but strong skeleton.

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Bird migration

Bird migration is the regular seasonal movement, often north and south along a flyway, between breeding and wintering grounds.

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Birth rate

The birth rate (technically, births/population rate) is the total number of live births per 1,000 of a population in a year.

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Blood is a bodily fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.

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British Columbia

British Columbia, also commonly referred to by its initials BC, is a province located on the west coast of Canada.

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British hardened field defences of World War II

British hardened field defences of World War II were small fortified structures constructed as a part of British anti-invasion preparations.

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Bulldog bat

The bat family Noctilionidae, commonly known as bulldog bats or fisherman bats, is represented by two species, the greater and the lesser bulldog bats.

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The word "burgee" has two meanings.

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Canada is a country, consisting of ten provinces and three territories, in the northern part of the continent of North America.

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Carnivora (or; from Latin carō (stem carn-) "flesh", + vorāre "to devour") is a diverse order that includes over 280 species of placental mammals.

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Catalonia (Catalunya; Catalonha; Cataluña) is an autonomous community of Spain and designated a "historical nationality" by its Statute of Autonomy.

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CBC Radio

CBC Radio is the English-language radio operations of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation.

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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.

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Central America

Central America (América Central, Centroamérica or América del Centro) is the southernmost, isthmian portion of the North American continent, which connects with South America on the southeast.

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Cetacea is a widely distributed and diverse infraorder of fully aquatic marine mammals.

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The Cherokee (Cherokee Ani-Yunwiya (ᎠᏂᏴᏫᏯ) are a Native American tribe indigenous to the Southeastern United States (principally Georgia, Tennessee, North Carolina and South Carolina). They speak Cherokee, an Iroquoian language. In the 19th century, historians and ethnographers recorded their oral tradition that told of the tribe having migrated south in ancient times from the Great Lakes region, where other Iroquoian-speaking peoples were. By the 19th century, European settlers in the United States called the Cherokee one of the "Five Civilized Tribes", because they had adopted numerous cultural and technological practices of the European American settlers. The Cherokee were one of the first, if not the first, major non-European ethnic group to become U.S. citizens. Article 8 in the 1817 treaty with the Cherokee stated Cherokees may wish to become citizens of the United States. Note: Article 8 in the 1817 treaty as quoted, is mostly about certain land use rights (East of the Mississippi), which might be retained by certain "Indians" if they met certain conditions -- namely, if they "wish to become citizens of the United States". However, in so doing, Article 8 implies that such "Indians" (living East of the Mississippi) who "wish to become citizens of the United States", could (would be allowed to) become citizens of the United States. It seems to (be worded so as to) anticipate a future (after 1817) in which lands West of the Mississippi would remain (territories of, or) outside the boundaries of, the United States. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, the Cherokee Nation has more than 314,000 members, the largest of the 566 federally recognized Native American tribes in the United States. In addition, numerous groups claiming Cherokee lineage, some of which are state-recognized, have members who are among those 819,000-plus people claiming Cherokee ancestry on the US census. Of the three federally recognized Cherokee tribes, the Cherokee Nation and the United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians (UKB) have headquarters in Tahlequah, Oklahoma. The UKB are mostly descendants of "Old Settlers," Cherokee who migrated to Arkansas and Oklahoma about 1817. They are related to the Cherokee who were forcibly relocated there in the 1830s under the Indian Removal Act. The Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians is on the Qualla Boundary in western North Carolina, and are descendants of those who resisted or avoided relocation. In addition, there are numerous Cherokee heritage groups throughout the United states, such as the satellite communities sponsored by the Cherokee Nation.

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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a sovereign state in East Asia.

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A claw is a curved, pointed appendage, found at the end of a toe or finger in most amniotes (mammals, reptiles, birds).

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Clinical Infectious Diseases

Clinical Infectious Diseases is a peer-reviewed medical journal published by Oxford University Press covering research on the pathogenesis, clinical investigation, medical microbiology, diagnosis, immune mechanisms, and treatment of diseases caused by infectious agents.

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Coat (animal)

Coat is the nature and quality of a mammal's pelage.

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Colugos are arboreal gliding mammals found in Southeast Asia.

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Common descent

Common descent describes how, in evolutionary biology, a group of organisms share a most recent common ancestor.

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Common pipistrelle

The common pipistrelle (Pipistrellus pipistrellus) is a small pipistrelle bat whose very large range extends across most of Europe, North Africa, southwestern Asia, and possibly into Korea.

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Common vampire bat

The common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) is a small, leaf-nosed bat native to the Americas.

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Crown of Aragon

The Crown of Aragon (Corona d'Aragón, Corona d'Aragó, Corona Aragonum, Corona de Aragón)Corona d'AragónCorona d'AragóCorona Aragonum (Corona de Aragón was a composite monarchy, also nowadays referred to as a confederation of individual polities or kingdoms ruled by one king with a personal and dynastic union of the Kingdom of Aragon and the County of Barcelona. At the height of its power in the 14th and 15th centuries, the Crown of Aragon was a thalassocracy (a state with primarily maritime realms) controlling a large portion of present-day eastern Spain, parts of what is now southern France, and a Mediterranean "empire" which included the Balearic Islands, Sicily, Corsica, Sardinia, Malta, Southern Italy (from 1442) and parts of Greece (until 1388). The component realms of the Crown were not united politically except at the level of the king, who ruled over each autonomous polity according to its own laws, raising funds under each tax structure, dealing separately with each Corts or Cortes. Put in contemporary terms, it has sometimes been considered that the different lands of the Crown of Aragon (mainly the Kingdom of Aragon, the Principality of Catalonia and the Kingdom of Valencia) functioned more as a confederacy of cultures rather than as a single country. In this sense, the larger Crown of Aragon must not be confused with one of its constituent parts, the Kingdom of Aragon, from which it takes its name. In 1469, a new dynastic familial union of the Crown of Aragon with the Crown of Castile by the Catholic Monarchs, joining what contemporaries referred to as "the Spains" led to what would become the Kingdom of Spain under King Philip II. The Crown existed until it was abolished by the Nueva Planta decrees issued by King Philip V in 1716 as a consequence of the defeat of Archduke Charles (as Charles III of Aragon) in the War of the Spanish Succession.

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Cryptic bat rabies

Cryptic bat rabies refers to infection from unrecognized exposure to rabies virus that can be phylogenetically traced to bats.

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In cryptozoology and sometimes in cryptobotany, both associated with pseudoscience, a cryptid (from the Greek κρύπτω, krypto, meaning "hide") is an animal or plant whose existence has been suggested but has not been discovered or documented by the scientific community.

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Current Biology

Current Biology is a scientific journal that covers all areas of biology, especially molecular biology, cell biology, genetics, neurobiology, ecology and evolutionary biology.

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A demon, daemon (from Koine Greek δαιμόνιον daimonion), or fiend is a supernatural, often malevolent being prevalent in religion, occultism, literature, fiction, mythology and folklore.

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Digit (anatomy)

A digit is one of several most distal parts of a limb, such as fingers or toes, present in many vertebrates.

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Dobwalls (Fos an Mogh) is a village in south-east Cornwall, England, United Kingdom.

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Doppler effect

The Doppler effect (or Doppler shift) is the change in frequency of a wave (or other periodic event) for an observer moving relative to its source.

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Dracula is an 1897 Gothic horror novel by Irish author Bram Stoker.

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The ear is the organ that detects sound.

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Eastern pipistrelle

Formerly known as the eastern pipistrelle, technically an inaccurate classification, the new more descriptive common name tri-colored bat (Perimyotis subflavus) was chosen because of the distinct tri-coloration of each hair, which is black at the base, yellow in the middle and brown at the tips.

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Eastern small-footed myotis

The eastern small-footed bat (Myotis leibii) is a species of vesper bat.

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Eastern United States

The Eastern United States or the American East, is today defined by some as the states east of the Mississippi River, and is traditionally divided by the Ohio River and Appalachian Mountains into the South, the Old Northwest and the Northeast.

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Ebola virus

Ebola virus (EBOV, formerly designated Zaire ebolavirus) is one of five known viruses within the genus Ebolavirus.

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Echolocation jamming

Echolocation (or sonar) systems of animals, like human radar systems, are susceptible to interference known as echolocation jamming or sonar jamming.

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EDGE species

Evolutionarily Distinct and Globally Endangered (EDGE) species represent a disproportionate amount of unique evolutionary history.

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The Eocene (symbol E&thinsp) Epoch, lasting from, is a major division of the geologic timescale and the second epoch of the Paleogene Period in the Cenozoic Era.

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Etruscan shrew

The Etruscan shrew (Suncus etruscus), also known as the Etruscan pygmy shrew or the white-toothed pygmy shrew is the smallest known mammal by mass, weighing only about on average (in Russian).

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Even-toed ungulate

The even-toed ungulates (order Artiodactyla) are ungulates (hoofed animals) whose weight is borne approximately equally by the third and fourth toes, rather than mostly or entirely by the third as in Odd-toed ungulate (perissodactyls), such as horses.

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Evolution is change in the heritable traits of biological populations over successive generations.

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Eyes are the organs of vision.

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Fiji (Viti; फ़िजी), officially the Republic of Fiji (Matanitu Tugalala o Viti; रिपब्लिक ऑफ फीजी Ripablik ăph Phījī), is an island country in Melanesia in the South Pacific Ocean about northeast of New Zealand's North Island.

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Fijian monkey-faced bat

The Fijian monkey-faced bat (Mirimiri acrodonta) is a megabat endemic to Fiji.

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A fish is any member of a paraphyletic group of organisms that consist of all gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.

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Fission–fusion society

In ethology, a fission–fusion society is one in which the size and composition of the social group change as time passes and animals move throughout the environment; animals merge (fusion)—e.g. sleeping in one place—or split (fission)—e.g. foraging in small groups during the day.

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Fleas are insects that form the order Siphonaptera.

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With regard to biology, flesh is the soft substance of the body of a living thing.

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Flight is the process by which an object moves, through an atmosphere (especially the air) or beyond it (as in the case of spaceflight), by generating aerodynamic lift, propulsive thrust, aerostatically using buoyancy, or by ballistic movement, without direct support from any surface.

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A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms).

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Flying primate hypothesis

In evolutionary biology, the flying primate hypothesis posits that megabats, a subgroup of Chiroptera (also known as flying foxes), form an evolutionary sister group of primates.

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Flying squirrel

Flying squirrels (scientifically known as Pteromyini or Petauristini) are a tribe of 44 species of squirrels (family Sciuridae).

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Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for the body.

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A forelimb is an anterior limb (arm, leg, or similar appendage) on a terrestrial vertebrate's body.

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Fraga is the major town of the comarca of Bajo Cinca (Baix Cinca) in the province of Huesca, Aragon, Spain.

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France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state comprising territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.

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Free-tailed bat

The Molossidae, or free-tailed bats, are a family of bats within the order Chiroptera.

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Fresnel lens

A Fresnel lens (pronounced or) is a type of compact lens originally developed by French physicist Augustin-Jean Fresnel for lighthouses.

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A frugivore is a fruit eater.

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In botany, a fruit is a part of a flowering plant that derives from specific tissues of the flower, one or more ovaries, and in some cases accessory tissues.

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A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes unicellular microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as multicellular fungi that produce familiar fruiting forms known as mushrooms.

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Furipteridae is one of the families of bats.

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Genetics is the study of genes, heredity, and genetic variation in living organisms.

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German language

German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that derives most of its vocabulary from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family.

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Germanic languages

The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of approximately 500 million people mainly in North America, Oceania, Central Europe, Western and Northern Europe.

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Ghost bat

The ghost bat (Macroderma gigas), also known as the false vampire bat is a bat native to Australia.

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Ghost-faced bat

The ghost-faced bat (Mormoops megalophylla) is a bat in the genus Mormoops.

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Giant golden-crowned flying fox

The giant golden-crowned flying fox (Acerodon jubatus), also known as the golden-capped fruit bat, is a rare megabat and one of the largest bats in the world.

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Gibbons are apes in the family Hylobatidae.

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Gliding flight

Gliding flight is heavier-than-air flight without the use of thrust; the term volplaning also refers to this mode of flight in animals.

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Gliding possum

There are many different types of Gliding possums, sometimes referred to simply as gliders: Australian gliders.

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A gnat is any of many species of tiny flying insects in the Dipterid suborder Nematocera, especially those in the families Mycetophilidae, Anisopodidae and Sciaridae.

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Grand Canyon National Park

Grand Canyon National Park is the United States' 15th oldest national park.

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Grandview Mine

The Grandview Mine, also known as the Last Chance Mine, was operated by Pete Berry from 1892 until 1901 in what later became Grand Canyon National Park.

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Greater nectar bat

The greater nectar bat or greater dawn bat (Eonycteris major) is a species of megabat within the genus Eonycteris.

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Greater noctule bat

The greater noctule bat (Nyctalus lasiopterus) is a rare bat found in Europe, West Asia, and North Africa.

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Greek language

Greek or Hellenic (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to the southern Balkans, the Aegean Islands, western Asia Minor, parts of northern and Eastern Anatolia and the South Caucasus, southern Italy, Albania and Cyprus.

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Green River Formation

The Green River Formation is an Eocene geologic formation that records the sedimentation in a group of intermountain lakes in three basins along the present-day Green River in Colorado, Wyoming, and Utah.

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Guano (via Spanish, ultimately from the Quechua wanu) is the excrement of seabirds, cave-dwelling bats, pinnipeds, or (in English usage) birds in general.

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Gunpowder, also known as black powder, is a chemical explosive—the earliest known.

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Hairless bat

The hairless bat (Cheiromeles torquatus), also called the naked bulldog bat and greater naked bat, is a species of bat in the family Molossidae found in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and the Philippines.

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Hairy-legged vampire bat

The hairy-legged vampire bat (Diphylla ecaudata) is one of three extant species of vampire bats.

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Halloween or Hallowe'en (a contraction of "All Hallows' Evening"), also known as Allhalloween, All Hallows' Eve, or All Saints' Eve, is a yearly celebration observed in a number of countries on 31 October, the eve of the Western Christian feast of All Hallows' Day.

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Harvard University

Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, established in 1636.

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Helicoverpa zea

Helicoverpa zea, commonly known as the corn earworm, is a species (formerly in the genus Heliothis) in the family Noctuidae.

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Hematophagy (sometimes spelled haematophagy or hematophagia) is the practice of certain animals of feeding on blood (from the Greek words αἷμα haima "blood" and φάγειν phagein "to eat").

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Henipavirus is a genus of RNA viruses in the family Paramyxoviridae, order Mononegavirales containing three established species: Hendra virus, Nipah virus and Cedar virus.

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Heraldry is the profession, study, or art of creating, granting, and blazoning arms and ruling on questions of rank or protocol, as exercised by an officer of arms.

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A hero (masculine or gender-neutral) or heroine (feminine) (ἥρως, hḗrōs) is a person or character who, in the face of danger and adversity or from a position of weakness, displays courage, bravery or self-sacrifice—that is, heroism—for some greater good; a man or woman of distinguished courage or ability, admired for his/her brave deeds and noble qualities.

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Hibernation is a state of inactivity and metabolic depression in endotherms.

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The Hipposideridae are a family of bats commonly known as the Old World leaf-nosed bats.

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The Holocene is the geological epoch that began after the Pleistocene at approximately 11,700 years BP and continues to the present.

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Horseshoe bat

Horseshoe bats make up the bat family Rhinolophidae.

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Hunting is the practice of killing or trapping any animal, or pursuing it with the intent of doing so.

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Icaronycteris is an extinct genus of microchiropteran (echolocating) bat that lived in the early Eocene, approximately, making it the earliest known definitive bat.

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Indiana bat

The Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis) is a medium-sized mouse-eared bat native to North America.

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Insects (from Latin insectum, a calque of Greek ἔντομον, "cut into sections") are a class of invertebrates within the arthropod phylum that have a chitinous exoskeleton, a three-part body (head, thorax and abdomen), three pairs of jointed legs, compound eyes and one pair of antennae.

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The order Insectivora (from Latin insectum "insect" and vorare "to eat") is a now-abandoned biological grouping within the class of mammals.

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robber fly eating a hoverfly An insectivore is a carnivorous plant or animal that eats insects.

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The jaguar, Panthera onca, is a big cat, a feline in the Panthera genus, and is the only extant Panthera species native to the Americas.

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James I of Aragon

James I the Conqueror (Catalan: Jaume el Conqueridor, Occitan: Jacme lo Conquistaire, Aragonese: Chaime lo Conqueridor, Spanish: Jaime el Conquistador; 2 February 1208 – 27 July 1276) was King of Aragon, Count of Barcelona, and Lord of Montpellier from 1213 to 1276; King of Majorca from 1231 to 1276; and Valencia from 1238 to 1276.

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Johann Friedrich Blumenbach

Johann Friedrich Blumenbach (11 May 1752 – 22 January 1840) was a German physician, naturalist, physiologist, and anthropologist.

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John Wiley & Sons

John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing and markets its products to professionals and consumers, students and instructors in higher education, and researchers and practitioners in scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly fields.

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Journal of General Virology

The Journal of General Virology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal that covers research into viruses affecting animals, plants, insects, bacteria, and fungi, including their molecular biology, immunology, and interactions with the host.

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Kaqchikel people

The Kaqchikel (also called Kachiquel) are one of the indigenous Maya peoples of the midwestern highlands in Guatemala.

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Kenneth Oppel

Kenneth Oppel (born August 31, 1967) is a Canadian children's writer.

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Kentucky, officially the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state located in the east south-central region of the United States.

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Kitti's hog-nosed bat

Kitti's hog-nosed bat (Craseonycteris thonglongyai), also known as the bumblebee bat, is a vulnerable species of bat and the only extant member of the family Craseonycteridae.

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Kunstformen der Natur

Kunstformen der Natur (known in English as Art Forms in Nature) is a book of lithographic and halftone prints by German biologist Ernst Haeckel.

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The Kwakwa̱ka̱’wakw (Kwak'wala pronunciation in) are a Pacific Northwest Coast indigenous people.

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Larco Museum

The Larco Museum (Museo Arqueológico Rafael Larco Herrera) is a privately owned museum of pre-Columbian art, located in the Pueblo Libre District of Lima, Peru.

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Late Cretaceous

The Late Cretaceous (100.5–66 Ma) is the younger of two epochs into which the Cretaceous period is divided in the geologic timescale.

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Laurasiatheria is the scientific name of a large group of placental mammals believed to have originated on the northern supercontinent of Laurasia.

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Lazzaro Spallanzani

Lazzaro Spallanzani (10 January 1729 – 12 February 1799) was an Italian Catholic priest, biologist and physiologist who made important contributions to the experimental study of bodily functions, animal reproduction, and essentially animal echolocation.

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Leaf-nosed bat

The New World leaf-nosed bats (Phyllostomidae) are found throughout Central and South America, from Mexico to northern Argentina.

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Lesser bushbaby

Lesser bushbabies, or lesser galagos, are strepsirrhine primates of the genus Galago.

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Levante UD

Levante Unión Deportiva, S.A.D. (Llevant Unió Esportiva) is a Spanish football club based in Valencia, in the namesake community.

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Lima is the capital and the largest city of Peru.

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Liminal being

A liminal being is one that cannot be easily placed into a single category of existence.

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List of Latin phrases (E)

Ex solo ad solem.

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Little brown bat

The little brown bat (sometimes called little brown myotis) (Myotis lucifugus) is a species of the genus Myotis (mouse-eared bats), one of the most common bats of North America.

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Louse (plural: lice) is the common name for members of over 3,000 species of wingless insects of the order Phthiraptera; three of which are classified as human disease agents.

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The lung is the essential respiratory organ in many air-breathing animals, including most tetrapods, a few fish and a few snails.

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Macedonia (region)

Macedonia is a geographical and historical region of the Balkan peninsula in southeastern Europe.

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Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy located in Southeast Asia.

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Malaysian Wildlife Law

Malaysian Wildlife Law consists of the regulation, protection, conservation and management of wildlife in Malaysia.

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Mammals (class Mammalia from Latin mamma "breast") are any members of a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles and birds by the possession of hair, three middle ear bones, mammary glands, and a neocortex (a region of the brain).

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Mammals of Borneo

The mammal species of Borneo include 288 species of terrestrial and 91 species of marine mammals recorded within the territorial boundaries of Brunei, Indonesia and Malaysia.

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Mammoth Cave National Park

Mammoth Cave National Park is a U.S. National Park in central Kentucky, encompassing portions of Mammoth Cave, the longest cave system known in the world.

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Manitoba is a province located at the longitudinal centre of Canada.

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Maya civilization

The Maya civilization was a Mesoamerican civilization developed by the Maya peoples, noted for the Maya hieroglyphic script, the only known fully developed writing system of the pre-Columbian Americas, as well as for its art, architecture, and mathematical and astronomical systems.

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Megabats constitute the suborder Megachiroptera, and its only family Pteropodidae of the order Chiroptera (bats).

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Megadermatidae, or False Vampire Bats, are a family of bats found from central Africa, eastwards through southern Asia, and into Australia.

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Merkel cell

Tactile cells, Merkel cells, or Merkel-Ranvier cells are oval receptor cells found in the skin of vertebrates that have synaptic contacts with somatosensory afferents.

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Mesoamerica is a region and cultural area in the Americas, extending approximately from central Mexico to Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and northern Costa Rica, within which pre-Columbian societies flourished before the Spanish colonization of the Americas in the 15th and 16th centuries.

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The Mexica (Nahuatl: Mēxihcah,; the singular is Mēxihcatl Nahuatl Dictionary. (1997). Wired Humanities Project. University of Oregon. Retrieved August 29, 2012, from) or Mexicas — were an indigenous people of the Valley of Mexico, known today as the rulers of the Aztec empire.

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Mexican free-tailed bat

The Mexican free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis), also known as the Brazilian free-tailed bat and Austonian bridge bat, is a medium-sized bat that is native to the Americas and is widely regarded as one of the most abundant mammals in North America.

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The microbats constitute the now outdated suborder Microchiroptera within the order Chiroptera (bats).

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Mid-Atlantic states

The Mid-Atlantic, also called Middle Atlantic states or the Mid-Atlantic states, form a region of the United States of America generally located between New England and the South Atlantic States.

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Moche culture

The Moche civilization (alternatively, the Mochica culture, Early Chimu, Pre-Chimu, Proto-Chimu, etc.) flourished in northern Peru with its capital near present-day Moche and Trujillo, from about 100 AD to 800 AD, during the Regional Development Epoch.

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Montchauvet, Yvelines

Montchauvet is a commune in the Yvelines department in the Île-de-France region in north-central France.

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The family Mormoopidae contains bats known generally as mustached bats, ghost-faced bats, and naked-backed bats.

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Mormoops is a genus of bat in the family Mormoopidae.

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Morphology (biology)

Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.

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Mosquitoes are small, midge-like flies which compose the family Culicidae.

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Moths are a group of insects related to butterflies belonging to the order Lepidoptera.

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Mouse lemur

The mouse lemurs are nocturnal lemurs of the genus Microcebus.

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Mouse-tailed bat

Mouse-tailed bats are a group of insectivorous bats of the family Rhinopomatidae with only three to six species, all contained in the single genus Rhinopoma.

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The Muscogee (or Muskogee), also known as the Creek, are a Native American people traditionally from the southeastern woodlands.

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Myotis vivesi

Myotis vivesi, the fish-eating bat or fish-eating myotis, is a species of bat that lives around the Gulf of California, and feeds on fish and crustaceans.

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Mystacinidae is a family of unusual bats, the New Zealand short-tailed bats.

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Mythology is a collection of myths, especially one belonging to a particular religious or cultural tradition of a group of people–their collection of stories they tell to explain nature, history, and customs–or the study of such myths.

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Myzopoda, which has two described species, is the only genus in the bat family Myzopodidae.

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The family Natalidae, or funnel-eared bats are found from Mexico to Brazil and the Caribbean islands.

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Native Americans in the United States

In the United States, Native Americans are considered to be people whose pre-Columbian ancestors were indigenous to the lands within the nation's modern boundaries.

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Natural reservoir

A natural reservoir or nidus (the latter from the Latin word for "nest") is the long-term host of a pathogen of an infectious disease.

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Nature (journal)

Nature is a British interdisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.

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Necromantis ("death-eater") is an extinct genus of bat from the Eocene of France.

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Nectar is a sugar-rich liquid produced by plants in glands called nectaries, either within the flowers with which it attracts pollinating animals, or by extrafloral nectaries, which provide a nutrient source to animal mutualists, which in turn provide antiherbivore protection.

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Nest box

A nest box, also spelled nestbox, is a man-made enclosure provided for animals to nest in.

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New England

New England is a region which comprises six states of the Northeastern United States: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont.

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New Scientist

New Scientist is a UK-based weekly non-peer-reviewed English-language international science magazine, founded in 1956.

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Nocturnality is an animal behavior characterized by activity during the night and sleeping during the day.

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North America

North America is a continent wholly within the Northern Hemisphere and almost wholly within the Western Hemisphere.

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Northern long-eared bat (myotis)

The northern long-eared bat or northern myotis (Myotis septentrionalis) is a species of bat native to North America.

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A novel is a long narrative, normally in prose, which describes fictional characters and events, usually in the form of a sequential story.

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The Nycteridae comprise a family of bats commonly called slit-faced or hollow-faced bats.

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Nyctimene (genus)

Nyctimene is a genus of bats in the Pteropodidae family.

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Oaxaca (from Huaxyacac), officially Free and Sovereign State of Oaxaca (Estado Libre y Soberano de Oaxaca), is one of the 31 states which, along with the Federal District, make up the 32 federative entities of Mexico.

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Odd-toed ungulate

Perissodactyls, otherwise known as odd-toed ungulates, compose an order of mammals characterized by an odd number of toes and being hindgut fermenters with somewhat simple stomachs.

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Ogg is a free, open container format maintained by the Xiph.Org Foundation.

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Old wives' tale

Old wives tale is an epithet used to indicate that a supposed truth is actually a superstition or something untrue, to be ridiculed.

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Ontario is one of the ten provinces of Canada, located in east-central Canada.

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Onychonycteris is the most primitive of the two oldest known monospecific genera of bat, having lived in the area that is current day Wyoming during the Eocene period, 52.5 million years ago.

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Order (biology)

In biological classification, the order (ordo) is.

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Organization for Bat Conservation

Organization for Bat Conservation (OBC) is a nonprofit organization based in Bloomfield Hills, Michigan established to further Bat Conservation.

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Owls are birds from the order Strigiformes, which includes about 200 species of mostly solitary and nocturnal birds of prey typified by an upright stance, a large, broad head, binocular vision, binaural hearing and feathers adapted for silent flight.

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Palaeochiropteryx is an extinct genus of bat from the Middle Eocene of Europe.

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Pallid bat

The pallid bat (Antrozous pallidus) is a species of bat that ranges from western Canada to central Mexico.

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Palma, Majorca

Palma, in full Palma de Mallorca, is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of the Balearic Islands in Spain.

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Pangolins (also referred to as scaly anteaters or trenggiling) are mammals of the order Pholidota.

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In biology/ecology, parasitism is a non-mutual symbiotic relationship between species, where one species, the parasite, benefits at the expense of the other, the host.

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The patagium is a membranous structure that assists an animal in gliding or flight.

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In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos “suffering, passion” and -γενής -genēs “producer of”) in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease, a term which came into use in the 1880s.

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Peru (Perú; Piruw; Piruw), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.

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PLOS ONE (originally PLoS ONE) is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal published by the Public Library of Science (PLOS) since 2006.

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Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country in Central Europe, bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine and Belarus to the east; and the Baltic Sea, Kaliningrad Oblast (a Russian exclave) and Lithuania to the north.

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Pollen is a fine to coarse powder containing the microgametophytes of seed plants, which produce the male gametes (sperm cells).

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A pollinator is the biotic agent (vector) that moves pollen from the male anthers of a flower to the female stigma of a flower to accomplish fertilization or 'syngamy' of the female gametes in the ovule of the flower by the male gametes from the pollen grain.

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Popobawa, also Popo Bawa, is the name of an evil spirit, or shetani, which is believed by residents to have first appeared on the Tanzanian island of Pemba.

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Pre-Columbian era

The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents, spanning the time of the original settlement in the Upper Paleolithic period to European colonization during the Early Modern period.

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A primate is a mammal of the order Primates (Latin: "prime, first rank").

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Pseudogymnoascus destructans

Pseudogymnoascus destructans (formerly known as Geomyces destructans) is a psychrophilic (cold-loving) fungus that causes white-nose syndrome (WNS), a fatal disease that has decimated bat populations in parts of the United States and Canada.

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Pteralopex is a genus of large megabats in the Pteropodidae family.

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Bats of the genus Pteropus, belonging to the megabat suborder, Megachiroptera, are the largest bats in the world.

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Public Health Reports

Public Health Reports (or PHR) is a peer-reviewed public health journal established in 1878 and published by the Association of Schools and Programs of Public Health on behalf of the United States Public Health Service.

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Quebec (or; Québec)According to the Canadian government, Québec (with the acute accent) is the official name in French and Quebec (without the accent) is the province's official name in English; the name is.

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Quirks & Quarks

Quirks & Quarks (Quirks) is the Canadian weekly science news program heard over CBC Radio One of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC).

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Rabbits are small mammals in the family Leporidae of the order Lagomorpha, found in several parts of the world.

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Rabies is a viral disease that causes acute inflammation of the brain in humans and other warm-blooded animals.

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The raccoon (Procyon lotor), sometimes spelled racoon, also known as the common raccoon, North American raccoon, northern raccoon and colloquially as coon, is a medium-sized mammal native to North America.

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Rodents (from Latin rodere, "to gnaw") are mammals of the order Rodentia, which are characterized by a single pair of unremittingly growing incisors in each of the upper and lower jaws.

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Rousettus is a genus of Old World fruit bats or megabats.

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Sac-winged bat

The 51 species of sac-winged or sheath-tailed bats constitute the family Emballonuridae, and can be found in tropical and subtropical regions all over the world.

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Saracen was a generic term for Muslims widely used among Christian writers in Europe during the later medieval era.

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Sarawak is one of the two Malaysian states on the island of Borneo.

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Saskatchewan is a prairie province in Canada, which has a total area of and a land area of, the remainder being water area (covered by lakes/ponds, reservoirs and rivers).

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Science (journal)

Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and is one of the world's top scientific journals.

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Scientific American

Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine.

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Sclerotin is a component of the cuticles of various Arthropoda, most familiarly insects.

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Scorpions are predatory arthropod animals of the order Scorpiones within the class Arachnida.

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Seasonal breeder

Seasonal breeders are animal species that successfully mate only during certain times of the year.

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Serotine bat

The serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus) is a fairly large Eurasian bat with quite large ears.

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Severe acute respiratory syndrome

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a viral respiratory disease of zoonotic origin caused by the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV).

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Silverwing (novel)

Silverwing is a best-selling children's novel, written by Kenneth Oppel, first published in 1997 by HarperCollins.

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The skeleton (from Greek σκελετός, skeletos "dried up") is the body part that forms the supporting structure of an organism.

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Skin is the soft outer covering of vertebrates.

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Skunks are mammals known for their ability to spray a liquid with a strong odor.

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Sloths are medium-sized mammals belonging to the families Megalonychidae (two-toed sloth) and Bradypodidae (three-toed sloth), classified into six species.

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Smoky bat

The smoky bat (Amorphochilus schnablii) is a species of bat in the family Furipteridae.

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Sodomy is generally anal or oral sex between people or sexual activity between a person and a non-human animal (bestiality), but may also include any non-procreative sexual activity.

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Solomon Islands

Solomon Islands is a sovereign country consisting of a large number of islands in Oceania lying to the east of Papua New Guinea and northwest of Vanuatu and covering a land area of.

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The soul, in many religious, philosophical and mythological traditions, is the incorporeal and, in many conceptions, immortal essence of a living thing.

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Soup is a primarily liquid food, generally served warm (but may be cool or cold), that is made by combining ingredients such as meat and vegetables with stock, juice, water, or another liquid.

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South America

South America is a continent located in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.

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Southeastern United States

The Southeastern United States is the eastern portion of the Southern United States, and the southern portion of the Eastern United States.

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Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state located on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe.

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Spectral bat

The genus Vampyrum contains only one species, the spectral bat (Vampyrum spectrum).

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Spiders (order Araneae) are air-breathing arthropods that have eight legs and chelicerae with fangs that inject venom.

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Swedish language

Swedish is a North Germanic language, spoken natively by about 9 million people predominantly in Sweden and parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.

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Tanzania, officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a country in East Africa within the African Great Lakes region.

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Taxonomy (biology)

Taxonomy (from τάξις taxis, "arrangement," and -νομία -nomia, "method") is the science of defining groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics and giving names to those groups.

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Templo Mayor

The Templo Mayor (Spanish for "Great Temple") was one of the main temples of the Aztecs in their capital city of Tenochtitlan, which is now Mexico City.

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Not to be confused with Teotihuacan Mexico-Tenochtitlan (México-Tenochtitlan), commonly known as Tenochtitlan (tenoːt͡ʃˈtit͡ɬan) was an Aztec altepetl (city-state) located on an island in Lake Texcoco, in the Valley of Mexico.

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Texas (Texas or Tejas) is the second most populous and second largest state of the United States of America.

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Thames & Hudson

Thames & Hudson (also Thames and Hudson and sometimes T&H for brevity) is a publisher of illustrated books on art, architecture, design, and visual culture.

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The Maritimes

The Maritime provinces, also called the Maritimes or the Canadian Maritimes, is a region of Eastern Canada consisting of three provinces: New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island.

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Three Witches

The Three Witches or Weird Sisters are characters in William Shakespeare's play Macbeth (c. 1603–1607).

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Disc-winged bats are a small group of bats of the family Thyropteridae.

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Tonga (Tongan: Puleʻanga Fakatuʻi ʻo Tonga), officially the Kingdom of Tonga, is a Polynesian sovereign state and archipelago comprising 177 islands with a total surface area of about scattered over of the southern Pacific Ocean, of which 52 islands are inhabited by its 103,000 people.

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The tongue is a muscular hydrostat on the floor of the mouth of most vertebrates which manipulates food for mastication.

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Torpor is a state of decreased physiological activity in an animal, usually by a reduced body temperature and metabolic rate.

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Townsend's big-eared bat

Townsend's big-eared bat (Corynorhinus townsendii) is a species of vesper bat.

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The treeshrews (or tree shrews or banxrings) are small mammals native to the tropical forests of Southeast Asia.

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Tribal chief

A tribal chief is the leader of a tribal society or chiefdom.

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In mythology, and in the study of folklore and religion, a trickster is a god, goddess, spirit, man, woman, or anthropomorphisation which exhibits a great degree of intellect or secret knowledge, and uses it to play tricks or otherwise disobey normal rules and conventional behaviour.

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Tube-lipped nectar bat

The tube-lipped nectar bat (Anoura fistulata) is a bat from Ecuador that was first described in 2005.

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Tymbal (or timbal) is a term for a corrugated exoskeletal structure used to produce sounds in insects.

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Tympanal organ

A tympanal organ is a hearing organ in insects, consisting of a membrane (tympanum) stretched across a frame backed by an air sac and associated sensory neurons.

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Ultrasounds are sound waves with frequencies higher than the upper audible limit of human hearing.

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Ultraviolet (UV) light is an electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 400 nm to 100 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain, is a sovereign state in Europe.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly referred to as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major territories and various possessions.

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United States Department of Agriculture

The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), also known as the Agriculture Department, is the U.S. federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal government policy on farming, agriculture, forestry, and food.

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United States Forest Service

The United States Forest Service (USFS) is an agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture that administers the nation's 154 national forests and 20 national grasslands, which encompass.

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United States Geological Survey

The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States government.

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United States Public Health Service

The Public Health Service Act of 1944 structured the United States Public Health Service (PHS), founded in 1798, as the primary division of the U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare (HEW), (which was established in 1953), which later became the United States Department of Health and Human Services in 1979-1980, (when the Education agencies were separated into their own U.S. Department of Education).

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University of Florida

The University of Florida (commonly referred to as Florida or UF) is an American public land-grant, sea-grant, and space-grant research university located on a campus in North Central Florida.

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Valencia, or València, is the capital of the autonomous community of Valencia and the third largest city in Spain after Madrid and Barcelona, with around 800,000 inhabitants in the administrative centre.

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Valencia CF

Valencia Club de Fútbol (València Club de Futbol; also known as Valencia CF, Valencia or Los Che) are a Spanish football club based in Valencia.

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Vampire bat

Vampire bats are bats whose food source is blood, a dietary trait called hematophagy.

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Van Gelder's bat

Van Gelder's bat (Bauerus dubiaquercus) is a species of vesper bat in the family Vespertilionidae.

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In the circulatory system, veins (from the Latin vena) are blood vessels that carry blood toward the heart.

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Vertebrates comprise any species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).

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Vesper bat

Vesper bats (family Vespertilionidae), also known as evening bats or common bats, are the largest and best-known family of bats.

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A villain (also known in film and literature as the "antagonist," "baddie", "bad guy", "heavy" or "black hat") is an "evil" character in a story, whether a historical narrative or, especially, a work of fiction.

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Virginia big-eared bat

The Virginia big-eared bat (Corynorhinus townsendii virginianus) is one of two endangered subspecies of the Townsend’s Big-Eared bat.

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Visual acuity

Visual Acuity (VA) commonly refers to the clarity of vision.

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Visual cortex

The visual cortex of the brain is the part of the cerebral cortex responsible for processing visual information.

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Vitamin C

Vitamin C or L-ascorbic acid, or simply ascorbate (the anion of ascorbic acid), is an essential nutrient for humans and certain other animal species.

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Watership Down

Watership Down is a classic adventure novel, written by English author Richard Adams, published by Rex Collings Ltd of London in 1972.

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Western culture

Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Western lifestyle, or European civilization, is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems, and specific artifacts and technologies that have some origin or association with Europe, having both indigenous and foreign origin.

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Western Europe

Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.

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White-winged vampire bat

The white-winged vampire bat (Diaemus youngi), a species of vampire bat, is the only member of the genus Diaemus.

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A wife is a female partner in a continuing marital relationship.

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Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981

The Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 is an Act of Parliament in the United Kingdom implemented to comply with the Directive 2009/147/EC on the conservation of wild birds and still in force.

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Wind turbine

A wind turbine is a device that converts kinetic energy from the wind into electrical power.

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A wing is a type of fin with a surface that produces aerodynamic force for flight or propulsion through the atmosphere, or through another gaseous or liquid fluid.

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The Yangochiroptera, or Vespertilioniformes, is a proposed suborder of Chiroptera that includes most of the microbat families, except the Rhinopomatidae, Rhinolophidae, Hipposideridae and the Megadermatidae.

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The Yinpterochiroptera, or Pteropodiformes, are a proposed suborder of the Chiroptera, which includes the megabats and four of the microbat families: Rhinopomatidae, Rhinolophidae, Hipposideridae, and Megadermatidae.

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Zapotec civilization

The Zapotec civilization was an indigenous pre-Columbian civilization that flourished in the Valley of Oaxaca in Mesoamerica.

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Zoonoses (plural -, also spelled zoönoses; singular zoonosis (or zoönosis); from Greek: ζῷον zoon "animal" and νόσος nosos "ailment") are infectious diseases of animals (usually vertebrates), that can naturally be transmitted to humans.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bat

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