123 relations: Aide-de-camp, Aleksey Petrovich Yermolov, Alexander I of Russia, Alexis Joseph Delzons, Auguste-Jean-Gabriel de Caulaincourt, Augustin Daniel Belliard, Édouard Mortier, Duke of Trévise, Étienne Marie Antoine Champion de Nansouty, Étienne Maurice Gérard, Bagration flèches, Battle at Borodino Field, Battle of Austerlitz, Battle of Eylau, Battle of Friedland, Battle of Torgau, Battle of Waterloo, Borodino (poem), Borodino (village), Mozhaysky District, Moscow Oblast, Carl von Clausewitz, Charles Antoine Morand, Charles Stanislas Marion, Chief of staff, Christopher Duffy, Claude Antoine Compère, Confederation of the Rhine, Cossacks, Cuirassier, David G. Chandler, Digby Smith, Dmitry Buturlin, Don Cossacks, Duchy of Warsaw, Duke Eugen of Württemberg (1788–1857), Embrasure, Eugène de Beauharnais, François Auguste Damas, Franz Roubaud, French invasion of Russia, Gagarin, Smolensk Oblast, Grand Duchy of Hesse, Grande Armée, Grenadier, Guillaume-Mathieu Dumas, Gwynne Dyer, Hell, II Cavalry Corps (Grande Armée), Imperial Guard (Napoleon I), Józef Poniatowski, Jean Dominique Compans, Jean Louis Romeuf, ..., Jean Pierre Lanabère, Jean Rapp, Jean Victor Tharreau, Jean-Andoche Junot, Jean-Baptiste Bessières, Jean-Baptiste Broussier, Jean-Barthélemot Sorbier, Joachim Murat, Johann von Thielmann, Joseph Marie, Count Dessaix, Julian calendar, Karl Gustav von Baggovut, Karl Ludwig von Phull, Karl Wilhelm von Toll, Kaunas, Kingdom of Bavaria, Kingdom of Italy (Napoleonic), Kingdom of Saxony, Kingdom of Württemberg, Kingdom of Westphalia, Laurent de Gouvion Saint-Cyr, Léonard Jean Aubry Huard de Saint-Aubin, Leo Tolstoy, Lifeguard Jaeger Regiment, Louis Auguste Marchand Plauzonne, Louis Friant, Louis Pierre Aimé Chastel, Louis-Alexandre Berthier, Louis-François Lejeune, Louis-Nicolas Davout, Louis-Pierre Montbrun, Ludwig von Wolzogen, Marshal of the Empire, Matvei Platov, Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly, Michel Ney, Mikhail Kutuzov, Mikhail Lermontov, Mikhail Miloradovich, Minor planet, Moscow, Moskva River, Mozhaysk, Napoleon, Napoleonic Wars, Neman, Nikolai Chernykh, Nikolay Raevsky, Nikolay Tuchkov, On War, Ottoman Empire, Philippe Paul, comte de Ségur, Pierre Antoine Noël Bruno, comte Daru, Pierre Watier, Poklonnaya Hill, Pyotr Bagration, Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, Pyrrhic victory, Ramesses II, Redan, Redoubt, Russia, Russian battleship Borodino, Russian Empire, Sweden, Undergrowth, Victor de Fay de La Tour-Maubourg, Vitebsk, Voenizdat, War and Peace, War of 1812, 1812 Overture, 3544 Borodino. Expand index (73 more) » « Shrink index
An aide-de-camp (French expression meaning literally helper in the military camp) is a personal assistant or secretary to a person of high rank, usually a senior military, police or government officer, a member of a royal family, or a head of state.
Aleksey Petrovich Yermolov (p; &ndash) was a Russian Imperial general of the 19th century who commanded Russian troops in the Caucasian War.
Alexander I (Александр Павлович, Aleksandr Pavlovich; –) reigned as Emperor of Russia between 1801 and 1825.
Alexis Joseph Delzons (1775 – October 24, 1812) was a French general of the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars.
Auguste-Jean-Gabriel, comte de Caulaincourt (born 16 September 1777 in Caulaincourt, Aisne -† 7 September 1812 at the battle of Borodino) was a French cavalry commander who rose to the rank of general during the First French Empire.
Augustin Daniel Belliard, comte Belliard et de l'Empire (25 May 1769 in Fontenay-le-Comte, Vendée – 28 January 1832 in Brussels) was a French general.
Adolphe Édouard Casimir Joseph Mortier, 1st Duc de Trévise (13 February 1768 – 28 July 1835) was a French general and Marshal of France under Napoleon I. He was one of 18 people killed in 1835 during Giuseppe Marco Fieschi's assassination attempt on King Louis Philippe I.
Étienne-Marie-Antoine Champion, comte de Nansouty (30 May 1768 – 12 February 1815) was a French cavalry commander during the French Revolutionary Wars who rose to the rank of General of Division in 1803 and subsequently held important military commands during the Napoleonic Wars.
Étienne Maurice Gérard, 1er Comte Gérard (4 April 177317 April 1852) was a French general, statesman and Marshal of France.
The Bagration flèches (багратионовы флеши) are certain historic military earthworks named after Pyotr Bagration who ordered their construction.
The Battle at Borodino Field was a part of the Battle of Moscow, on the Eastern Front of World War II.
The Battle of Austerlitz (2 December 1805/11 Frimaire An XIV FRC), also known as the Battle of the Three Emperors, was one of the most important and decisive engagements of the Napoleonic Wars.
The Battle of Eylau or Battle of Preussisch-Eylau, 7 and 8 February 1807, was a bloody and inconclusive battle between Napoleon's Grande Armée and the Imperial Russian Army under the command of Levin August, Count von Bennigsen near the town of Preussisch Eylau in East Prussia.
The Battle of Friedland (June 14, 1807) was a major engagement of the Napoleonic Wars between the armies of the French Empire commanded by Napoleon I and the armies of the Russian Empire led by Count von Bennigsen.
In the Battle of Torgau on 3 November 1760, King Frederick the Great's Prussian army fought a larger Austrian army under the command of Field Marshal Leopold Josef Graf Daun.
The Battle of Waterloo was fought on Sunday, 18 June 1815, near Waterloo in present-day Belgium, then part of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands.
Borodino (Бородино) is a poem by Russian poet Mikhail Lermontov which describes the Battle of Borodino, the major battle of Napoleon's invasion of Russia.
Borodino (Бородино́) is a rural locality (a village) in Mozhaysky District of Moscow Oblast, Russia, located west of Mozhaysk.
Carl Philipp Gottfried (or Gottlieb) von Clausewitz (1 June 1780 – 16 November 1831)Bassford, Christopher (2002).
Charles Antoine Louis Alexis Morand (4 June 1771, Pontarlier or Montbenoit, Doubs - 1835) Comte de l'Empire, was a general of the French army during the French Revolutionary Wars and Napoleonic Wars.
Charles Stanislas Marion (May 7, 1758 – September 7, 1812) was a French general of the First French Empire during the Napoleonic Wars.
The title chief of staff (or head of staff) identifies the leader of a complex organization, institution, or body of persons and it also may identify a principal staff officer (PSO), who is the coordinator of the supporting staff or a primary aide-de-camp to an important individual, such as a president or a senior military officer.
Christopher Duffy (born 1936) is a British military historian.
Claude Antoine Compère (21 May 1774 – 7 September 1812) was a French general of the Napoleonic Wars.
The Confederation of the Rhine (Rheinbund; French: officially États confédérés du Rhin, but in practice Confédération du Rhin) was a confederation of client states of the First French Empire.
Cossacks (козаки́, translit, kozaky, казакi, kozacy, Czecho-Slovak: kozáci, kozákok Pronunciations.
Cuirassiers were cavalry equipped with armour and firearms, first appearing in late 15th-century Europe.
David Geoffrey Chandler (15 January 1934 – 10 October 2004) was a British historian whose study focused on the Napoleonic era.
Digby Smith is a British military historian.
Dmitry Petrovich Buturlin (Дмитрий Петрович Бутурлин) (11 May 1790 – 21 October 1849) was a Russian Empire general and military historian from an old noble family of Ratshid stock.
Don Cossacks (Донские казаки) are Cossacks who settled along the middle and lower Don.
The Duchy of Warsaw (Księstwo Warszawskie, Duché de Varsovie, Herzogtum Warschau) was a Polish state established by Napoleon I in 1807 from the Polish lands ceded by the Kingdom of Prussia under the terms of the Treaties of Tilsit.
Duke Eugen of Württemberg (Herzog Friedrich Eugen Carl Paul Ludwig von Württemberg; 8 January 1788 – 16 September 1857) was a German prince and a General of Infantry in the Imperial Russian Army during the Napoleonic Wars.
In military architecture, an embrasure is the opening in a crenellation or battlement between the two raised solid portions or merlons, sometimes called a crenel or crenelle.
Eugène Rose de Beauharnais, Duke of Leuchtenberg (3 September 1781 – 21 February 1824) was the first child and only son of Alexandre de Beauharnais and Joséphine Tascher de la Pagerie, first wife of Napoleon I. He was born in Paris, France, and became the stepson and adopted child (but not the heir to the imperial throne) of Napoleon I. His biological father was executed during the revolutionary Reign of Terror.
François Auguste Damas (October 2, 1773 – September 7, 1812) was a French general of brigade.
Franz Alekseyevich Roubaud (Франц Алексеевич Рубо) was a Russian painter who created some of the largest and best known panoramic paintings.
The French invasion of Russia, known in Russia as the Patriotic War of 1812 (Отечественная война 1812 года Otechestvennaya Voyna 1812 Goda) and in France as the Russian Campaign (Campagne de Russie), began on 24 June 1812 when Napoleon's Grande Armée crossed the Neman River in an attempt to engage and defeat the Russian army.
Gagarin (Гага́рин), known until 1968 as Gzhatsk (Гжатск), is a town and the administrative center of Gagarinsky District of Smolensk Oblast, Russia, located on the Gzhat River, northeast of Smolensk, the administrative center of the oblast.
The Grand Duchy of Hesse and by Rhine (Großherzogtum Hessen und bei Rhein) was a state in western Germany that existed from the German mediatization to the end of the German Empire.
The Grande Armée (French for Great Army) was the army commanded by Napoleon during the Napoleonic Wars.
A grenadier (derived from the word grenade) was originally a specialized soldier, first established as a distinct role in the mid-to-late 17th century, for the throwing of grenades and sometimes assault operations.
Guillaume Mathieu, comte Dumas (23 November 1753 – 16 October 1837) was a French general.
Gwynne Dyer, OC (born April 17, 1943) is a London-based independent Canadian journalist, syndicated columnist and military historian.
Hell, in many religious and folkloric traditions, is a place of torment and punishment in the afterlife.
II Cavalry Corps (Grande Armée) was a French military formation during the Napoleonic Wars.
The Imperial Guard (French: Garde Impériale) was originally a small group of elite soldiers of the French Army under the direct command of Napoleon I, but grew considerably over time.
Prince Józef Antoni Poniatowski (7 May 1763 – 19 October 1813) was a Polish leader, general, minister of war and army chief, who became a Marshal of the French Empire.
Count Jean Dominique Compans (June 26, 1769, Salies-du-Salat-November 10, 1845, Blagnac) was a French Divisional General from 1811 and a participant of Napoleonic Wars.
Jean-Louis Romeuf (27 September 1766 – 9 September 1812) was a French general of the First French Empire during the Napoleonic Wars.
Jean Pierre Lanabère (December 24, 1770 – September 16, 1812) was a French general of the First French Empire during the Napoleonic Wars.
General Count Jean Rapp (27 April 1771 – 8 November 1821) was a French Army officer during the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars.
Jean Victor Tharreau or Jean Victor Thareau (15 January 1767, Bégrolles-en-Mauges – 26 September 1812), was a General of Division in the Army of the French Empire.
Jean-Andoche Junot, 1st Duke of Abrantès (24 September 1771 – 29 July 1813) was a French general during the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars.
Jean-Baptiste Bessières, 1st Duc d' Istria (6 August 17681 May 1813) was a Marshal of France of the Napoleonic Era.
Jean-Baptiste Broussier (10 March 1766 - 13 December 1814) was a French Divisional General of the French Revolutionary Wars and Napoleonic Wars.
Jean-Barthélemot Sorbier, count, (1762–1827), was a French general of the Napoleonic Wars.
Joachim-Napoléon Murat (born Joachim Murat; Gioacchino Napoleone Murat; Joachim-Napoleon Murat; 25 March 1767 – 13 October 1815) was a Marshal of France and Admiral of France under the reign of Napoleon.
Johann Adolf, Freiherr von Thielmann (27 April 176510 October 1824) was a Saxon soldier who served with Saxony, Prussia and France during the Napoleonic Wars.
Joseph Marie, Count Dessaix (24 September 1764, Thonon-les-Bains, Haute-Savoie – 26 October 1834) was a French general of the Napoleonic Wars.
The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC (708 AUC), was a reform of the Roman calendar.
Karl Gustav von Baggehufwudt (Baggovut) (Карл Фёдорович Багговут., Carl Feodorovitš Baggovut (27(J:16) September 1761 in Perila, Estonia18 (J:06) October 1812) was a lieutenant general of the Russian Empire who took part both in Napoleonic Wars and Finnish War. His family was originally Norwegian, but had moved to Sweden in the 16th century, then to Estonia in the 17th century. He was seen as one of the bravest Russian generals and, on his death at the Battle of Tarutino (or Winkowo), Alexander I of Russia wrote to his widow, "I have lost a brave commander, useful to the fatherland".
Karl Ludwig von Phull (or Pfuel) (6 November 1757 – 25 April 1826) was a German general in the service of the Kingdom of Prussia and the Russian Empire.
Count Karl Wilhelm von Toll (Карл Вильгельм Фёдорович Толль; 9 April 1777, Keskvere, Governorate of Estonia – 5 May 1842) was a Baltic German aristocrat and Russian subject who served in the Imperial Russian Army in the campaigns against the Napoleonic Army.
Kaunas (also see other names) is the second-largest city in Lithuania and the historical centre of Lithuanian economic, academic, and cultural life.
The Kingdom of Bavaria (Königreich Bayern) was a German state that succeeded the former Electorate of Bavaria in 1805 and continued to exist until 1918.
The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia; Royaume d'Italie) was a French client state founded in Northern Italy by Napoleon I, fully influenced by revolutionary France, that ended with his defeat and fall.
The Kingdom of Saxony (Königreich Sachsen), lasting between 1806 and 1918, was an independent member of a number of historical confederacies in Napoleonic through post-Napoleonic Germany.
The Kingdom of Württemberg (Königreich Württemberg) was a German state that existed from 1805 to 1918, located within the area that is now Baden-Württemberg.
The Kingdom of Westphalia was a kingdom in Germany, with a population of 2.6 million, that existed from 1807 to 1813.
Laurent de Gouvion Saint-Cyr, 1st Marquis of Gouvion-Saint-Cyr (13 April 1764 – 17 March 1830) was a French commander in the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars who rose to Marshal of France and Marquis.
Léonard Jean Aubry Huard de Saint-Aubin (January 11, 1770 - September 7, 1812) was a French general of the First French Empire during the Napoleonic Wars.
Count Lyov (also Lev) Nikolayevich Tolstoy (also Лев) Николаевич ТолстойIn Tolstoy's day, his name was written Левъ Николаевичъ Толстой.
His Majesty Lifeguard Regiment («Лейб-гвардии Егерский Его Величества полк»), short also Lifeguard Jaeger Regiment (or: LG Jaeger Regiment), was a Jaeger regiment of the Russian Imperial Guard from 1796 to 1917.
Louis Auguste Marchand Plauzonne (7 July 1774 – 7 September 1812) became a general officer during the First French Empire of Napoleon.
Louis Friant (18 September 1758 – 24 June 1829) was born in the village of Morlancourt, 8 km south of Albert near the river Somme.
Louis Pierre Aimé Chastel (29 April 1774, Veigy, near Carouge, Savoy - 26 September 1826, Geneva) was a French officer in the Napoleonic Wars, who rose to lieutenant general of cavalry.
Louis-Alexandre Berthier (20 November 1753 – 1 June 1815), 1st Prince of Wagram, Sovereign Prince of Neuchâtel, was a French Marshal and Vice-Constable of the Empire, and Chief of Staff under Napoleon.
Louis-François, Baron Lejeune (3 February 1775 in Strasbourg – 29 February 1848) was a French general, painter, and lithographer.
Louis-Nicolas d'Avout (10 May 17701 June 1823), better known as Davout, 1st Duke of Auerstaedt, 1st Prince of Eckmühl, was a French general who was Marshal of the Empire during the Napoleonic era.
Louis Pierre, Count Montbrun (1770, Florensac, Hérault – 1812), French cavalry general, served with great distinction in the cavalry arm throughout the wars of the Revolution and the Consulate, and in 1800 was appointed to command his regiment, having served therein from trooper upwards.
Justus Philipp Adolf Wilhelm Ludwig Freiherr von Wolzogen (4 February 1773 – 4 July 1845) was a Württembergian military officer, who served during the Napoleonic Wars.
Marshal of the Empire (Maréchal d'Empire) was a civil dignity during the First French Empire.
Count Matvei Ivanovich Platov (8 (19) August 1753 – 3 (15) January 1818) was a Russian general who commanded the Don Cossacks in the Napoleonic wars and founded Novocherkassk as the new capital of the Don Host Province.
Prince Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly (–) was a Russian Field Marshal and Minister of War during Napoleon's invasion in 1812 and War of the Sixth Coalition.
Marshal of the Empire Michel Ney, 1st Duke of Elchingen, 1st Prince of the Moskva (10 January 1769 – 7 December 1815), popularly known as Marshal Ney, was a French soldier and military commander during the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars.
Prince Mikhail Illarionovich Golenishchev-Kutuzov (князь Михаи́л Илларио́нович Голени́щев-Куту́зов) was a Field Marshal of the Russian Empire.
Mikhail Yuryevich Lermontov (p; –) was a Russian Romantic writer, poet and painter, sometimes called "the poet of the Caucasus", the most important Russian poet after Alexander Pushkin's death in 1837 and the greatest figure in Russian Romanticism.
Count Mikhail Andreyevich Miloradovich (Михаи́л Андре́евич Милора́дович), spelled Miloradovitch in contemporary English sources (&ndash) was a Russian general of Serbian origin, prominent during the Napoleonic Wars.
A minor planet is an astronomical object in direct orbit around the Sun (or more broadly, any star with a planetary system) that is neither a planet nor exclusively classified as a comet.
Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.
The Moskva River (река Москва, Москва-река, Moskva-reka) is a river of western Russia.
MozhayskAlternative transliterations include Mozhaisk, Mozhajsk, Mozhaĭsk, and Možajsk.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
The Neman, Nemunas, Nyoman, Niemen or Memel, a major Eastern European river.
Nikolai Stepanovich Chernykh (Николай Степанович Черных) (6 October 1931 – 26 May 2004) was a Russian-born Soviet astronomer and discoverer of minor planets and comets at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory in Nauchnij, on the Crimean peninsula.
Nikolay Nikolayevich Raevsky (Николай Николаевич Раевский; —) was a Russian general and statesman who achieved fame for his feats of arms during the Napoleonic Wars.
Nikolay Alexeivich Tuchkov (16 April 1765 - 30 October 1812, Yaroslavl) was a Russian general of the Russo-Swedish War (1788–1790), the suppression of the Kościuszko Uprising and the opposition to the French invasion of Russia.
Vom Kriege is a book on war and military strategy by Prussian general Carl von Clausewitz (1780–1831), written mostly after the Napoleonic wars, between 1816 and 1830, and published posthumously by his wife Marie von Brühl in 1832.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Philippe-Paul, comte de Ségur (4 November 1780 in Paris – 25 February 1873) was a French general and a historian.
Pierre Antoine Noël Bruno, comte Daru (12 January 1767 – 5 September 1829) was a French soldier, statesman, historian, and poet.
Pierre Watier or Pierre Wathier (4 September 1770 – 3 February 1846), was a French general of division during the First French Empire under Napoleon.
Poklonnaya Gora (Покло́нная гора́, literally "bow-down hill"; metaphorically "Worshipful Submission Hill"') was, at 171.5 meters, one of the highest spots in Moscow.
Pyotr Bagration (10 July 1765 – 24 September 1812) was a Russian general and prince of Georgian origin, prominent during the Napoleonic Wars.
Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky Often "Peter Ilich Tchaikovsky" in English.
A Pyrrhic victory is a victory that inflicts such a devastating toll on the victor that it is tantamount to defeat.
Ramesses II (variously also spelt Rameses or Ramses; born; died July or August 1213 BC; reigned 1279–1213 BC), also known as Ramesses the Great, was the third pharaoh of the 19th Dynasty of Egypt.
Redan (a French word for "projection", "salient") is a term related to fortifications.
A redoubt (historically redout) is a fort or fort system usually consisting of an enclosed defensive emplacement outside a larger fort, usually relying on earthworks, although some are constructed of stone or brick.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Borodino (Бородино) was the lead ship of her class of pre-dreadnought battleships built for the Imperial Russian Navy although she was the second ship of her class to be completed.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Undergrowth usually refers to the vegetation in the lower part of a forest, which can obstruct passage through the forest.
Marie-Victor-Nicolas de Faÿ, marquis de La Tour-Maubourg (22 May 1768 at Château de La Motte-de-Galaure, near Grenoble – 11 November 1850 at Dammarie-lès-Lys, Île-de-France) was a French cavalry military commander under France's Ancien Régime before rising to prominence during the First French Empire.
Vitebsk, or Vitsebsk (Ві́цебск, Łacinka: Viciebsk,; Витебск,, Vitebskas), is a city in Belarus.
Voenizdat (Воениздат) is a publishing house in Moscow, Russia.
War and Peace (pre-reform Russian: Война и миръ; post-reform translit) is a novel by the Russian author Leo Tolstoy.
The War of 1812 was a conflict fought between the United States, the United Kingdom, and their respective allies from June 1812 to February 1815.
The Year 1812, festival overture in flat major, Op.
3544 Borodino, provisional designation, is a stony background asteroid from the inner regions of the asteroid belt, approximately in diameter.