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Abbeville is a commune in the Somme department and in Hauts-de-France region in northern France.
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
A transformational growth in air reconnaissance occurred in the years 1939-45, especially in Britain and then in the United States.
Air supremacy is a position in war where a side holds complete control of air warfare and air power over opposing forces.
Airpower or air power consists of the application of military strategy and strategic theory to the realm of aerial warfare.
Aisne is a French department in the Hauts-de-France region of northern France.
The Albert Canal is a canal located in northeastern Belgium, which was named for King Albert I of Belgium.
Albert Kesselring (30 November 1885 – 16 July 1960) was a German Luftwaffe Generalfeldmarschall during World War II.
Alfred-Ingemar Berndt (born 22 April 1905 in Bromberg (West Prussia); died 28 March 1945 at Veszprém, Hungary) was a German journalist, writer and close collaborator of Nazi Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels.
Alfred Josef Ferdinand Jodl (10 May 1890 – 16 October 1946) was a German general during World War II, who served as the Chief of the Operations Staff of the Armed Forces High Command (Oberkommando der Wehrmacht).
The Allied advance from Paris to the Rhine was a phase in the Western European Campaign of World War II.
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
Alphonse Joseph Georges (August 15, 1875 in Allier - Montluçon – April 24, 1951 in Paris) was a French army officer.
The Imperial Territory of Alsace-Lorraine (Reichsland Elsaß-Lothringen or Elsass-Lothringen, or Alsace-Moselle) was a territory created by the German Empire in 1871, after it annexed most of Alsace and the Moselle department of Lorraine following its victory in the Franco-Prussian War.
Amiens is a city and commune in northern France, north of Paris and south-west of Lille.
André Georges Corap (15 January 1878 – 15 August 1953) was a General in the French Army who fought in World War II.
The Anglo-French Supreme War Council (SWC) was established to oversee joint military strategy at the start of the Second World War.
Antoine-Marie-Benoit Besson (1876–1969) was a French military officer.
The Appeal of 18 June (L'Appel du 18 juin) was a famous speech by Charles de Gaulle, the leader of the Free French Forces, in 1940.
The Arc de Triomphe de l'Étoile (Triumphal Arch of the Star) is one of the most famous monuments in Paris, standing at the western end of the Champs-Élysées at the center of Place Charles de Gaulle, formerly named Place de l'Étoile — the étoile or "star" of the juncture formed by its twelve radiating avenues.
The Ardennes (L'Ardenne; Ardennen; L'Årdene; Ardennen; also known as the Ardennes Forest or Forest of Ardennes) is a region of extensive forests, rough terrain, rolling hills and ridges formed by the geological features of the Ardennes mountain range and the Moselle and Meuse River basins.
An armistice is a formal agreement of warring parties to stop fighting.
The Armistice of 11 November 1918 was the armistice that ended fighting on land, sea and air in World War I between the Allies and their last opponent, Germany.
The Armistice of 22 June 1940 was signed at 18:36.
An armoured fighting vehicle (AFV) is an armed combat vehicle protected by armour, generally combining operational mobility with offensive and defensive capabilities.
Army Group A (Heeresgruppe A) was the name of several German Army Groups during World War II.
Army Group B (German: Heeresgruppe B) was the title of three German Army Groups that saw action during World War II.
Army Group C (in German, Heeresgruppe C or HGr C) was an army group of the German Wehrmacht during the Second World War.
The Army Reserve is the active-duty volunteer reserve force and integrated element of the British Army.
Arras (Atrecht) is the capital (chef-lieu/préfecture) of the Pas-de-Calais department, which forms part of the region of Hauts-de-France; prior to the reorganization of 2014 it was located in Nord-Pas-de-Calais.
In military organizations, an artillery battery is a unit of artillery, mortars, rocket artillery, multiple rocket launchers, surface to surface missiles, ballistic missiles, cruise missiles etc, so grouped to facilitate better battlefield communication and command and control, as well as to provide dispersion for its constituent gunnery crews and their systems.
The Atlantic Charter was a pivotal policy statement issued during World War II on 14 August 1941, which defined the Allied goals for the post war world.
In World War II, the Atlantic pockets were important points along the coasts of the Netherlands, Belgium and France chosen as centres of resistance by the occupying German forces, to be defended as long as possible against land attack by the Allies.
The Attack on Mers-el-Kébir (3 July 1940) also known as the Battle of Mers-el-Kébir, was part of Operation Catapult.
Avesnes-sur-Helpe is a commune in the Nord department in northern France.
Édouard Daladier (18 June 1884 – 10 October 1970) was a French "radical" (i.e. centre-left) politician and the Prime Minister of France at the start of the Second World War.
Baden-Württemberg is a state in southwest Germany, east of the Rhine, which forms the border with France.
The Battle for The Hague took place on 10 May 1940 as part of the Battle of the Netherlands between the Royal Netherlands Army and Luftwaffe Fallschirmjäger (paratroops).
The Battle of Abbeville took place from 27 May to 4 June 1940, near Abbeville during the Battle of France in the Second World War.
The Battle of Arras, part of the Battle of France, took place during the Second World War on 21 May 1940.
The Battle of Dunkirk was a military operation that took place in Dunkirk (Dunkerque), France, during the Second World War.
The Battle of Fort Eben-Emael was a battle between Belgian and German forces that took place between 10 May and 11 May 1940, and was part of the Battle of Belgium and Fall Gelb, the German invasion of the Low Countries and France.
The Battle of Gembloux (or Battle of the Gembloux Gap) was fought between French and German forces in May 1940.
The Battle of Hannut was a Second World War battle fought during the Battle of Belgium which took place between 12 and 14 May 1940 at Hannut in Belgium.
The Battle of Maastricht was one of the first battles that took place during the German Campaign on the Western Front during World War II.
The Battle of Montcornet, on 17 May 1940, was an engagement of the Battle of France.
The Battle of Rotterdam was a Second World War battle fought during the Battle of the Netherlands.
The Battle of the Grebbeberg (Slag om de Grebbeberg) was a major engagement during the Battle of the Netherlands, which was a part of the World War II Operation Fall Gelb in 1940.
The Battle of the Netherlands (Slag om Nederland) was a military campaign part of Case Yellow (Fall Gelb), the German invasion of the Low Countries (Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands) and France during World War II.
The Battle of Verdun (Bataille de Verdun,, Schlacht um Verdun), fought from 21 February to 18 December 1916, was the largest and longest battle of the First World War on the Western Front between the German and French armies.
The Battle of Zeeland occurred on the Western Front during the early stages of the German assault on France and the Low Countries during World War II.
The Land Component (Landcomponent, Composante terre) is the land-based branch of the Belgian Armed Forces.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (29 July 1883 – 28 April 1945) was an Italian politician and journalist who was the leader of the National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF).
Bern or Berne (Bern, Bärn, Berne, Berna, Berna) is the de facto capital of Switzerland, referred to by the Swiss as their (e.g. in German) Bundesstadt, or "federal city".
The birth rate (technically, births/population rate) is the total number of live births per 1,000 in a population in a year or period.
Blitzkrieg (German, "lightning war") is a method of warfare whereby an attacking force, spearheaded by a dense concentration of armoured and motorised or mechanised infantry formations with close air support, breaks through the opponent's line of defence by short, fast, powerful attacks and then dislocates the defenders, using speed and surprise to encircle them with the help of air superiority.
--> The Bofors 40 mm gun, often referred to simply as the Bofors gun, is an anti-aircraft/multi-purpose autocannon designed in the 1930s by the Swedish arms manufacturer AB Bofors.
Between the time of the German victory in the Battle of France and the liberation of the country, the Western Allies bombed many locations in France.
Bordeaux (Gascon Occitan: Bordèu) is a port city on the Garonne in the Gironde department in Southwestern France.
Boulogne-sur-Mer, often called Boulogne (Latin: Gesoriacum or Bononia, Boulonne-su-Mér, Bonen), is a coastal city in Northern France.
Breda is a city and municipality in the southern part of the Netherlands, located in the province of North Brabant.
A brigade is a major tactical military formation that is typically composed of three to six battalions plus supporting elements.
The Bristol Blenheim is a British light bomber aircraft designed and built by the Bristol Aeroplane Company (Bristol) which was used extensively in the first two years and in some cases throughout the Second World War.
The British Expeditionary Force (BEF) was the name of the British Army in Western Europe during the Second World War from 2 September 1939 when the BEF GHQ was formed until 31 May 1940, when GHQ closed down.
This is the British Expeditionary Force order of battle on 9 May 1940, the day before the German forces initiated the Battle of France.
Brittany (Bretagne; Breizh, pronounced or; Gallo: Bertaèyn, pronounced) is a cultural region in the northwest of France, covering the western part of what was known as Armorica during the period of Roman occupation.
Bulson is a commune in the Ardennes department in northern France.
A cadre is the complement of commissioned officers and non-commissioned officers of a military unit responsible for training the rest of the unit.
Calais (Calés; Kales) is a city and major ferry port in northern France in the department of Pas-de-Calais, of which it is a sub-prefecture.
Cambrai (Kimbré; Kamerijk; historically in English Camerick and Camericke) is a commune in the Nord department and in the Hauts-de-France region of France on the Scheldt river, which is known locally as the Escaut river.
The Canon de 75 contre avion modèle 1940 Schneider was a French 75 mm anti-aircraft gun designed and manufactured by Schneider et Cie at Le Creusot.
Carpet bombing, also known as saturation bombing, is a large aerial bombing done in a progressive manner to inflict damage in every part of a selected area of land.
Operation Anton, or Fall Anton, in German, was the codename for the military occupation of Vichy France carried out by Germany and Italy in November 1942.
The Char B1 was a French heavy tank manufactured before World War II.
Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle (22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970) was a French general and statesman who led the French Resistance against Nazi Germany in World War II and chaired the Provisional Government of the French Republic from 1944 to 1946 in order to reestablish democracy in France.
Charles Huntziger (25 June 1880 – 11 November 1941) was a French Army general during World War I and World War II.
Chartres is a commune and capital of the Eure-et-Loir department in France.
The Bataillon de Chasseurs Ardennais (French: "Ardennes Chasseur Battalion") is an infantry formation in the Land Component of the Belgian Armed Forces.
Cherbourg-Octeville is a city and former commune situated at the northern end of the Cotentin peninsula in the northwestern French department of Manche.
The title chief of staff (or head of staff) identifies the leader of a complex organization, institution, or body of persons and it also may identify a principal staff officer (PSO), who is the coordinator of the supporting staff or a primary aide-de-camp to an important individual, such as a president or a senior military officer.
Chief of the General Staff (CGS) has been the title of the professional head of the British Army since 1964.
The Chiefs of Staff Committee (CSC) is composed of the most senior military personnel in the British Armed Forces who advise on operational military matters and the preparation and conduct of military operations.
In military tactics, close air support (CAS) is defined as air action such as air strikes by fixed or rotary-winged aircraft against hostile targets that are in close proximity to friendly forces and which requires detailed integration of each air mission with fire and movement of these forces and attacks with aerial bombs, glide bombs, missiles, rockets, aircraft cannons, machine guns, and even directed-energy weapons such as lasers.
Colmar (Alsatian: Colmer; German during 1871–1918 and 1940–1945: Kolmar) is the third-largest commune of the Alsace region in north-eastern France.
Cologne (Köln,, Kölle) is the largest city in the German federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia and the fourth most populated city in Germany (after Berlin, Hamburg, and Munich).
Combined arms is an approach to warfare which seeks to integrate different combat arms of a military to achieve mutually complementary effects (for example, using infantry and armor in an urban environment, where one supports the other, or both support each other).
Command and control or C2 is a "set of organizational and technical attributes and processes...
A company is a military unit, typically consisting of 80–150 soldiers and usually commanded by a major or a captain.
Condé-sur-l'Escaut is a commune of the Nord department in northern France.
A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.
The cruiser tank (also called cavalry tank or fast tank) was a British tank concept of the interwar period for tanks designed to function as modernised armoured and mechanised cavalry.
The Curtiss P-36 Hawk, also known as the Curtiss Hawk Model 75, is an American-designed and built fighter aircraft of the 1930s and 40s.
The Czechoslovak government-in-exile, sometimes styled officially as the Provisional Government of Czechoslovakia (Czech: Prozatímní státní zřízení československé), was an informal title conferred upon the Czechoslovak National Liberation Committee, initially by British diplomatic recognition.
The Danube or Donau (known by various names in other languages) is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga.
In France, the Defence Historical Service (Service historique de la défense or SHD) is the archives centre of Ministry of Defence and its armed forces.
Defence in depth (also known as deep or elastic defence) is a military strategy that seeks to delay rather than prevent the advance of an attacker, buying time and causing additional casualties by yielding space.
In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast, maneuverable long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet, convoy or battle group and defend them against smaller powerful short-range attackers.
In the Destroyers for Bases Agreement between the United States and the United Kingdom on September 2, 1940, fifty,, and US Navy destroyers were transferred to the Royal Navy from the United States Navy in exchange for land rights on British possessions.
The Dewoitine D.520 was a French fighter aircraft that entered service in early 1940, shortly after the beginning of the Second World War.
The DFS 230 was a German transport glider operated by the Luftwaffe in World War II.
Dinant is a Walloon city and municipality located on the River Meuse, in the Belgian province of Namur.
A dive bomber is a bomber aircraft that dives directly at its targets in order to provide greater accuracy for the bomb it drops.
A division is a large military unit or formation, usually consisting of between 10,000 and 20,000 soldiers.
Dunkirk (Dunkerque; Duinkerke(n)) is a commune in the Nord department in northern France.
The Dunkirk evacuation, code-named Operation Dynamo, and also known as the Miracle of Dunkirk, was the evacuation of Allied soldiers during World War II from the beaches and harbour of Dunkirk, in the north of France, between 26 May and 4 June 1940.
Dusk occurs at the darkest stage of twilight, or at the very end of astronomical twilight after sunset and just before night.
The Dutch Empire (Het Nederlandse Koloniale Rijk) comprised the overseas colonies, enclaves, and outposts controlled and administered by Dutch chartered companies, mainly the Dutch West India and the Dutch East India Company, and subsequently by the Dutch Republic (1581–1795), and the modern Kingdom of the Netherlands since 1815.
The Dyle (Dyle and Dijle), is a river in central Belgium, left tributary of the Rupel.
East Prussia (Ostpreußen,; Prusy Wschodnie; Rytų Prūsija; Borussia orientalis; Восточная Пруссия) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1773 to 1829 and again from 1878 (with the Kingdom itself being part of the German Empire from 1871); following World War I it formed part of the Weimar Republic's Free State of Prussia, until 1945.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
Field Marshal William Edmund Ironside, 1st Baron Ironside, (6 May 1880 – 22 September 1959) was a senior officer of the British Army, who served as Chief of the Imperial General Staff during the first year of the Second World War.
The Eifel (Äifel) is a low mountain range in western Germany and eastern Belgium.
The Eighth Army (VIIIe Armée) was a Field army of the French Army during World War I and World War II.
Encirclement is a military term for the situation when a force or target is isolated and surrounded by enemy forces.
The English Channel (la Manche, "The Sleeve"; Ärmelkanal, "Sleeve Channel"; Mor Breizh, "Sea of Brittany"; Mor Bretannek, "Sea of Brittany"), also called simply the Channel, is the body of water that separates southern England from northern France and links the southern part of the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean.
Erhard Milch (30 March 1892 – 25 January 1972) was a German field marshal and war criminal who oversaw the development of the Luftwaffe as part of the re-armament of Nazi Germany following World War I. During World War II, he was in charge of aircraft production; his ineffective management resulted in the decline of the German air force and its loss of air superiority as the war progressed.
Erich Hoepner (14 September 1886 – 8 August 1944) was a German general during World War II.
Erich von Manstein (24 November 1887 – 9 June 1973) was a German commander of the Wehrmacht, Nazi Germany's armed forces during the Second World War.
Ernest Richard May (November 19, 1928 – June 1, 2009) was an American historian of international relations whose 14 published books include analyses of American involvement in World War I and the causes of the Fall of France during World War II.
Ernst Heinrich Freiherr von Weizsäcker (25 May 1882 – 4 August 1951) was a German naval officer, diplomat and politician.
Erwin Rommel (15 November 1891 – 14 October 1944) was a German general and military theorist.
Job Wilhelm Georg Erdmann Erwin von Witzleben (4 December 1881 – 8 August 1944) was a German officer, by 1940 in the rank of Generalfeldmarschall (General Field Marshal), and army commander in the Second World War.
The Fairey Battle was a British single-engine light bomber designed and manufactured by the Fairey Aviation Company.
During World War II, Fall Rot (Case Red) was the plan for the second phase of the conquest of France by the German Army and began on 5 June 1940.
Fallschirmjäger is the German word for paratroopers.
Fedor von Bock (3 December 1880 – 4 May 1945) was a German field marshal who served in the German army during the Second World War.
Feint is a French term that entered English via the discipline of swordsmanship and fencing.
Marshal Ferdinand Jean Marie Foch (2 October 1851 – 20 March 1929) was a French general and military theorist who served as the Supreme Allied Commander during the First World War.
Ferdinand Schaal (7 February 1889 – 9 October 1962) was a general in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany during World War II.
Field marshal (or field-marshal, abbreviated as FM) is a very senior military rank, ordinarily senior to the general officer ranks.
The Fifth Army was a famous fighting force that participated in World War I. Under its enthusiastic and offensive-minded commander, Louis Franchet d'Espèrey, it led the decisive attacks which resulted in the spectacular victory at the First Battle of the Marne in 1914.
A fighter aircraft is a military aircraft designed primarily for air-to-air combat against other aircraft, as opposed to bombers and attack aircraft, whose main mission is to attack ground targets.
The Italian First Army was an Italian army formation, in World War I, facing Austro-Hungarian and German forces, and in World War II, fighting on the North African front.
The Forest of Compiègne (French: Forêt de Compiègne) is a large forest in the region of Picardy, France, near the city of Compiègne and approximately north of Paris.
Fort Eben-Emael (Fort d'Ében-Émael) is an inactive Belgian fortress located between Liège and Maastricht, on the Belgian-Dutch border, near the Albert Canal.
The Fourth Army (IVe Armée) was a Field army of the French Army, which fought during World War I and World War II.
The Italian Fourth Army was an Italian army formation, in World War I, facing Austro-Hungarian and German forces, and in World War II, occupying Southern France.
Jean Louis Xavier François Darlan (7 August 1881 – 24 December 1942) was a French Admiral and political figure.
The Franco-Belgian Military Accord of 1920 (Accord militaire franco-belge de 1920) was a collective defense pact signed between France and Belgium in September 1920.
The Franco-Italian Armistice, or Armistice of Villa Incisa, signed on 24 June 1940, in effect from 25 June, ended the brief Italian invasion of France during the Second World War.
Franz Eher Nachfolger GmbH ("Franz Eher and Successors, LLC", usually referred to as the Eher-Verlag "Eher Publishing") was the central publishing house of the Nazi Party and one of the largest book and periodical firms during the Third Reich.
Franz Halder (30 June 1884 – 2 April 1972) was a German general and the chief of the Oberkommando des Heeres staff (OKH, Army High Command) from 1938 until September 1942, when he was dismissed after frequent disagreements with Adolf Hitler.
Free France and its Free French Forces (French: France Libre and Forces françaises libres) were the government-in-exile led by Charles de Gaulle during the Second World War and its military forces, that continued to fight against the Axis powers as one of the Allies after the fall of France.
Freiburg im Breisgau (Alemannic: Friburg im Brisgau; Fribourg-en-Brisgau) is a city in Baden-Württemberg, Germany, with a population of about 220,000.
The French Air Force (Armée de l'Air Française), literally Aerial Army) is the air force of the French Armed Forces. It was formed in 1909 as the Service Aéronautique, a service arm of the French Army, then was made an independent military arm in 1934. The number of aircraft in service with the French Air Force varies depending on source, however sources from the French Ministry of Defence give a figure of 658 aircraft in 2014. The French Air Force has 241 combat aircraft in service, with the majority being 133 Dassault Mirage 2000 and 108 Dassault Rafale. As of early 2017, the French Air Force employs a total of 41,160 regular personnel. The reserve element of the air force consisted of 5,187 personnel of the Operational Reserve. The Chief of Staff of the French Air Force (CEMAA) is a direct subordinate of the Chief of the Defence Staff (CEMA).
The French Army, officially the Ground Army (Armée de terre) (to distinguish it from the French Air Force, Armée de L'air or Air Army) is the land-based and largest component of the French Armed Forces.
The French colonial empire constituted the overseas colonies, protectorates and mandate territories that came under French rule from the 16th century onward.
The French Forces of the Interior (Forces Françaises de l'Intérieur) refers to French resistance fighters in the later stages of World War II.
The French Navy (Marine Nationale), informally "La Royale", is the maritime arm of the French Armed Forces.
During World War II, the French prisoners of war were primarily soldiers from France and its colonial empire captured by Nazi Germany.
The French Third Republic (La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) was the system of government adopted in France from 1870 when the Second French Empire collapsed during the Franco-Prussian War until 1940 when France's defeat by Nazi Germany in World War II led to the formation of the Vichy government in France.
From Lemberg to Bordeaux ('Von Lemberg bis Bordeaux'), written by Leo Leixner, a journalist and war correspondent, is an eye-witness account of the battles that led to the fall of Poland and France.
Gaston-Henri Billotte (10 February 1875 – 23 May 1940) was a French military officer, remembered chiefly for his central role in the failure of the French Army to defeat the German invasion of France in May 1940.
Günther von Kluge (30 October 1882 – 19 August 1944) was a German field marshal during World War II.
Georges Blanchard (1877–1954) was a French military officer.
Karl Rudolf Gerd von Rundstedt (12 December 1875 – 24 February 1953) was a Field Marshal in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany during World War II.
The German Army (Heer) was the land forces component of the Wehrmacht, the regular German Armed Forces, from 1935 until it was demobilized and later dissolved in August 1946.
The German bombing of Rotterdam, also known as the Rotterdam Blitz, was the aerial bombardment of Rotterdam by the Luftwaffe on 14 May 1940, during the German invasion of the Netherlands in World War II.
The Military Administration in France (Militärverwaltung in Frankreich; Occupation de la France par l'Allemagne) was an interim occupation authority established by Nazi Germany during World War II to administer the occupied zone in areas of northern and western France.
Germany and the Second World War (Das Deutsche Reich und der Zweite Weltkrieg) is a 12,000-page, 13-volume work published by the Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt (DVA), that has taken academics from the military history centre of the German armed forces 30 years to finish.
Ghent (Gent; Gand) is a city and a municipality in the Flemish Region of Belgium.
A government in exile is a political group which claims to be a country or semi-sovereign state's legitimate government, but is unable to exercise legal power and instead resides in another state or foreign country.
The Grand Quartier Général (abbreviated to GQG or Grand QG in spoken French) was the general headquarters of the French Army during the Second World War.
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.
Grebbelinie The Grebbe Line (Dutch: Grebbelinie) was a forward defence line of the Dutch Water Line, based on inundation.
Gross national product (GNP) is the market value of all the goods and services produced in one year by labor and property supplied by the citizens of a country.
Gross register tonnage (GRT, grt, g.r.t., gt) or gross registered tonnage, is a ship's total internal volume expressed in "register tons", each of which is equal to.
Hannut (Haneu) is a Walloon city and municipality in the Belgian province of Liege.
Hans Seidemann (18 January 1901 – 21 December 1967) was a German general during World War II.
General Sir Harold Edmund Franklyn (28 November 1885 − 31 March 1963) was a British Army officer who fought in both World War I and World War II.
The Hawker Hurricane is a British single-seat fighter aircraft of the 1930s–1940s that was designed and predominantly built by Hawker Aircraft Ltd.
The Heinkel He 111 was a German aircraft designed by Siegfried and Walter Günter at Heinkel Flugzeugwerke in 1934.
The Heinkel He 59 was a twin-engined German biplane designed in 1930, resulting from a requirement for a torpedo bomber and reconnaissance aircraft able to operate on wheeled landing gear or twin-floats.
Heinz Wilhelm Guderian (17 June 1888 – 14 May 1954) was a German general during the Nazi era.
Henri Honoré Giraud (18 January 1879 – 11 March 1949) was a French general who was captured in both World Wars, but escaped both times.
Henri Gerard Winkelman (17 August 1876 – 27 December 1952) was a Dutch military officer who served as Commander-in-chief of the Armed forces of the Netherlands during the German invasion of the Netherlands.
The Henschel Hs 123 was a single-seat biplane dive bomber and close-support attack aircraft flown by the German Luftwaffe during the Spanish Civil War and the early to midpoint of World War II.
Hermann Hoth (12 April 1885 – 25 January 1971) was a German army commander and war criminal during World War II.
The HS.404 is an autocannon originally designed and produced by Hispano-Suiza in the mid-1930s.
The Historiography of the Battle of France describes how the German victory over French and British forces in the Battle of France had been explained by historians and others.
The Hollandic Water Line (Hollandsche Waterlinie, modern spelling: Hollandse Waterlinie) was a series of water-based defences conceived by Maurice of Nassau in the early 17th century, and realised by his half brother Frederick Henry.
The Hotchkiss H35 or Char léger modèle 1935 H was a French cavalry tank developed prior to World War II.
The House of Hohenzollern is a dynasty of former princes, electors, kings and emperors of Hohenzollern, Brandenburg, Prussia, the German Empire, and Romania.
Hugo Sperrle (7 February 1885 – 2 April 1953) was a German field marshal of the Luftwaffe during World War II.
I.B. Tauris (usually typeset as I.B.Tauris) was an independent publishing house with offices in London and New York City.
Indiana University (IU) is a multi-campus public university system in the state of Indiana, United States.
The Infantry Regiment Großdeutschland (Infanterie-Regiment "Großdeutschland"; "Greater Germany" Infantry Regiment) was an élite German Army ceremonial and combat unit which saw action during World War II.
Interdiction is a military term for the act of delaying, disrupting, or destroying enemy forces or supplies en route to the battle area.
The Invasion of Poland, known in Poland as the September Campaign (Kampania wrześniowa) or the 1939 Defensive War (Wojna obronna 1939 roku), and in Germany as the Poland Campaign (Polenfeldzug) or Fall Weiss ("Case White"), was a joint invasion of Poland by Germany, the Soviet Union, the Free City of Danzig, and a small Slovak contingent that marked the beginning of World War II.
The Italian invasion of France, also called the Battle of the Alps (10–25 June 1940), was the first major Italian engagement of World War II and the last major engagement of the Battle of France.
Italian-occupied France was an area of south-eastern France occupied by Fascist Italy in two stages during World War II.
Field Marshal John Standish Surtees Prendergast Vereker, 6th Viscount Gort, (10 July 1886 – 31 March 1946) was a senior British Army officer.
Sir John Wheeler Wheeler-Bennett (13 October 1902 in Keston, Kent – 9 December 1975 in London) was a conservative English historian of German and diplomatic history, and the official biographer of King George VI.
Paul Joseph Goebbels (29 October 1897 – 1 May 1945) was a German Nazi politician and Reich Minister of Propaganda of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945.
The Junkers Ju 52/3m (nicknamed Tante Ju ("Aunt Ju") and Iron Annie) is a German trimotor transport aircraft manufactured from 1931 to 1952.
The Junkers Ju 87 or Stuka (from Sturzkampfflugzeug, "dive bomber") is a German dive bomber and ground-attack aircraft.
The Junkers Ju 88 was a German World War II Luftwaffe twin-engined multirole combat aircraft.
The K-W Line, an abbreviation for the full title of Koningshooikt–Wavre Line, was the main Belgian line of defence against a possible German armoured invasion through the centre of Belgium, during the initial phase of the Second World War.
Kampfgeschwader are the German-language name for (air force) bomber units.
Kampfgeschwader 54 "Totenkopf"() (KG 54) was a Luftwaffe bomber wing during World War II.
The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic.
Koblenz (Coblence), spelled Coblenz before 1926, is a German city situated on both banks of the Rhine where it is joined by the Moselle.
The Kriegsmarine (literally "War Navy") was the navy of Germany from 1935 to 1945.
Kriegsspiel ("war game") was a system used for training officers in the Prussian and German armies.
The Kroll Opera House (Krolloper, Kroll-Oper) was an opera building in Berlin, Germany, located in the central Tiergarten district on the western edge of the Königsplatz square (today Platz der Republik), facing the Reichstag building.
Kurt Student (12 May 1890 – 1 July 1978) was a German paratroop general in the Luftwaffe during World War II.
Kurt von Tippelskirch (9 October 1891 – 10 May 1957) was a general in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany during World War II who commanded several armies and Army Group Vistula.
L'Histoire is a monthly mainstream French magazine dedicated to historical studies, recognized by peers as the most important historical popular magazine (as opposed to specific university journals or less scientific popular historical magazines).
Labour battalions have been a form of alternative service or unfree labour in various countries in lieu of or resembling regular military service.
Le Havre, historically called Newhaven in English, is an urban French commune and city in the Seine-Maritime department in the Normandy region of northwestern France.
The Lend-Lease policy, formally titled An Act to Promote the Defense of the United States, was an American program to defeat Germany, Japan and Italy by distributing food, oil, and materiel between 1941 and August 1945.
Lens (Linse) is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais department in northern France.
Leo Leixner (1908-1942) was a Nazi journalist and war correspondent.
Leopold III (3 November 1901 – 25 September 1983) reigned as the fourth King of the Belgians from 1934 until 1951, when he abdicated in favour of the heir apparent, his son Baudouin.
The Liberation of Paris (also known as the Battle for Paris and Belgium; Libération de Paris) was a military action that took place during World War II from 19 August 1944 until the German garrison surrendered the French capital on 25 August 1944.
Lille (Rijsel; Rysel) is a city at the northern tip of France, in French Flanders.
Adolf Hitler's directives or Führer's directives (Führerbefehle) were instructions and strategic plans issued by Adolf Hitler himself.
Marshal of France (Maréchal de France, plural Maréchaux de France) is a French military distinction, rather than a military rank, that is awarded to generals for exceptional achievements.
Longuyon is a commune in the Meurthe-et-Moselle department in the Grand Est region of north-eastern France.
Longwy (Langich, Longkech) is a commune in the Meurthe-et-Moselle department in northeastern France.
The Low Countries or, in the geographic sense of the term, the Netherlands (de Lage Landen or de Nederlanden, les Pays Bas) is a coastal region in northwestern Europe, consisting especially of the Netherlands and Belgium, and the low-lying delta of the Rhine, Meuse, Scheldt, and Ems rivers where much of the land is at or below sea level.
Ludwig August Theodor Beck (29 June 1880 – 21 July 1944) was a German general and Chief of the German General Staff during the early years of the Nazi regime in Germany before World War II.
Luftflotte 2 (Air Fleet 2) was one of the primary divisions of the German Luftwaffe in World War II.
Luftflotte 3 (Air Fleet 3) was one of the primary divisions of the German Luftwaffe in World War II.
The Luftwaffe was the aerial warfare branch of the combined German Wehrmacht military forces during World War II.
Luxembourg (Lëtzebuerg; Luxembourg, Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in western Europe.
Maasmechelen is a municipality located on the Meuse river in the Belgian province of Limburg.
The Maghreb (al-Maɣréb lit.), also known as the Berber world, Barbary, Berbery, and Northwest Africa, is a major region of North Africa that consists primarily of the countries Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Libya and Mauritania.
The Maginot Line (Ligne Maginot), named after the French Minister of War André Maginot, was a line of concrete fortifications, obstacles, and weapon installations built by France in the 1930s to deter invasion by Germany and force them to move around the fortifications.
The term Malgré-nous (“against our will”) refers to men of the Alsace-Moselle region who were conscripted into the German Wehrmacht or in the Waffen-SS, during the Second World War.
Maneuver warfare, or manoeuvre warfare, is a military strategy that advocates attempting to defeat the enemy by incapacitating their decision-making through shock and disruption.
The Manstein Plan is one of the names used to describe the war plan of the German Army during the Battle of France in 1940.
The Tank, Infantry, Mk I, Matilda I (A11) was a British infantry tank of the Second World War.
The Infantry Tank Mark II, best known as the Matilda, was a British infantry tank of the Second World War.
Maurice Gustave Gamelin (20 September 1872 – 18 April 1958) was a senior French Army general.
Maxime Weygand (21 January 1867 – 28 January 1965) was a French military commander in World War I and World War II.
A medium bomber is a military bomber aircraft designed to operate with medium-sized bombloads over medium range distances; the name serves to distinguish this type from larger heavy bombers and smaller light bombers.
The Messerschmitt Bf 109 is a German World War II fighter aircraft that was the backbone of the Luftwaffe's fighter force.
Metz (Lorraine Franconian pronunciation) is a city in northeast France located at the confluence of the Moselle and the Seille rivers.
The Meuse (la Meuse; Walloon: Moûze) or Maas (Maas; Maos or Maas) is a major European river, rising in France and flowing through Belgium and the Netherlands before draining into the North Sea.
The Maschinengewehr 08, or MG 08, was the German Army's standard machine gun in World War I and is an adaptation of Hiram S. Maxim's original 1884 Maxim gun.
Military gliders (an offshoot of common gliders) have been used by the military of various countries for carrying troops (glider infantry) and heavy equipment to a combat zone, mainly during the Second World War.
The military history of France during World War II covers three periods.
Military supply chain management is a cross-functional approach to procuring, producing and delivering products and services for military applications.
Mission-type tactics (Auftragstaktik, from Auftrag and Taktik; also known as mission command in the US and UK), is a form of military tactics where the emphasis is on the outcome of a mission rather than the specific means of achieving it.
Montcornet is a commune in the Aisne department in Hauts-de-France in northern France.
Monthermé is a commune in the Ardennes department in northern France.
The Moselle (la Moselle,; Mosel; Musel) is a river flowing through France, Luxembourg, and Germany.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
The Ninth Army (IXe Armée) was a Field army of the French Army during World War I and World War II.
Normandy (Normandie,, Norman: Normaundie, from Old French Normanz, plural of Normant, originally from the word for "northman" in several Scandinavian languages) is one of the 18 regions of France, roughly referring to the historical Duchy of Normandy.
The Normandy landings were the landing operations on Tuesday, 6 June 1944 of the Allied invasion of Normandy in Operation Overlord during World War II.
North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.
The North Sea (Mare Germanicum) is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Great Britain, Scandinavia, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France.
Noyelles-sur-Mer is a commune in the Somme department in Hauts-de-France in northern France.
The Oberkommando der Wehrmacht (OKW, "High Command of the Armed Forces") was the High Command of the Wehrmacht (armed forces) of Nazi Germany during World War II.
The Oberkommando des Heeres (OKH) was the High Command of the German Army during the Era of Nazi Germany.
Oberstleutnant is a German Army and German Air Force rank equal to lieutenant colonel, above Major, and below Oberst.
During May 10 to May 12, 1940, Ockenburg, a small Dutch auxiliary airfield near The Hague, was the scene of bitter fighting between German airborne forces and Dutch defenders during World War II.
The Office of Public Sector Information (OPSI) is the body responsible for the operation of Her Majesty's Stationery Office (HMSO) and of other public information services of the United Kingdom.
In war, in the event of the imminent capture of a city, the government/military structure of the nation that controls the city will sometimes declare it an open city, thus announcing that it has abandoned all defensive efforts.
Operation Aerial (also Operation Ariel) was the name given to the World War II evacuation of Allied forces and civilians from ports in western France from 1940, following the military collapse in the Battle of France against Nazi Germany.
Operation Dragoon (initially Operation Anvil) was the code name for the Allied invasion of Southern France on 15August 1944.
Operation Overlord was the codename for the Battle of Normandy, the Allied operation that launched the successful invasion of German-occupied Western Europe during World War II.
Unternehmen Paula (Undertaking or Operation Paula) is the German codename given for the Second World War Luftwaffe offensive operation to destroy the remaining units of the Armée de l'Air (ALA), or French Air Force during the Battle of France in 1940.
Operation Sea Lion, also written as Operation Sealion (Unternehmen Seelöwe), was Nazi Germany's code name for the plan for an invasion of the United Kingdom during the Battle of Britain in the Second World War.
Operation Torch (8–16 November 1942, formerly Operation Gymnast) was a Anglo–American invasion of French North Africa, during the North African Campaign of the Second World War.
In the field of military theory, the operational level of war (also called the operational art, as derived from оперативное искусство, or the operational warfare) represents the level of command that connects the details of tactics with the goals of strategy.
In modern use, the order of battle of an armed force participating in a military operation or campaign shows the hierarchical organization, command structure, strength, disposition of personnel, and equipment of units and formations of the armed force.
Ouvrage Ferme Chappy is a petit ouvrage of the Maginot Line in northeastern France.
Ouvrage Fermont is a gros ouvrage of the Maginot Line, part of the Fortified Sector of the Crusnes in northeastern France, near the community of Montigny-sur-Chiers.
Ouvrage Schoenenbourg is a Maginot Line fortification.
The word Panzer is a German word that means "armour" or specifically, "tank".
A panzer division is one of the armored (tank) divisions in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany during World War II.
The Panzer I was a light tank produced in Germany in the 1930s.
The Panzer II is the common name used for a family of German tanks used in World War II.
The Panzerkampfwagen III, commonly known as the Panzer III, was a medium tank developed in the 1930s by Germany, and was used extensively in World War II.
The Panzerkampfwagen IV (PzKpfw IV), commonly known as the Panzer IV, was a German medium tank developed in the late 1930s and used extensively during the Second World War.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
Pas-de-Calais is a department in northern France named after the French designation of the Strait of Dover, which it borders ('pas' meaning passage).
Pau is a commune on the northern edge of the Pyrenees, and capital of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques Département in the region of Nouvelle-Aquitaine, France.
Paul Ludwig Ewald von Kleist (8 August 1881 – 13 November 1954) was a German field marshal during World War II.
Paul Reynaud (15 October 1878 – 21 September 1966) was a French politician and lawyer prominent in the interwar period, noted for his stances on economic liberalism and militant opposition to Germany.
A peninsula (paeninsula from paene "almost” and insula "island") is a piece of land surrounded by water on the majority of its border, while being connected to a mainland from which it extends.
Philippe François Marie Leclerc de Hauteclocque (22 November 1902 – 28 November 1947) was a French general during the Second World War.
Henri Philippe Benoni Omer Joseph Pétain (24 April 1856 – 23 July 1951), generally known as Philippe Pétain or Marshal Pétain (Maréchal Pétain), was a French general officer who attained the position of Marshal of France at the end of World War I, during which he became known as The Lion of Verdun, and in World War II served as the Chief of State of Vichy France from 1940 to 1944.
The Phoney War (Drôle de guerre; Sitzkrieg) was an eight-month period at the start of World War II, during which there was only one limited military land operation on the Western Front, when French troops invaded Germany's Saar district.
Marshal Pietro Badoglio, 1st Duke of Addis Abeba, 1st Marquess of Sabotino (28 September 1871 – 1 November 1956), was an Italian general during both World Wars and a Prime Minister of Italy, as well as the first viceroy of Italian East Africa.
Pillboxes are concrete dug-in guard posts, normally equipped with loopholes through which to fire weapons.
The pincer movement, or double envelopment, is a military maneuver in which forces simultaneously attack both flanks (sides) of an enemy formation.
A pocket refers to combat forces that have been isolated by opposing forces from their logistical base and other friendly forces.
The Polish Armed Forces in the West refers to the Polish military formations formed to fight alongside the Western Allies against Nazi Germany and its allies during World War II.
The Polish Army in France formed in France under the command of General Władysław Sikorski (and hence sometimes known as Sikorski's Army) in late 1939, after the fall of Poland resulting from the Polish Defensive War.
A pontoon bridge (or ponton bridge), also known as a floating bridge, uses floats or shallow-draft boats to support a continuous deck for pedestrian and vehicle travel.
The French Prime Minister (Premier ministre français) in the Fifth Republic is the head of government.
A prisoner of war (POW) is a person, whether combatant or non-combatant, who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict.
The Provisional Government of the French Republic (gouvernement provisoire de la République française or GPRF) was an interim government of Free France between 1944 and 1946 following the liberation of continental France after Operations ''Overlord'' and ''Dragoon'', and lasted until the establishment of the French Fourth Republic.
The QF 3.7-inch AA was Britain's primary heavy anti-aircraft gun during World War II.
RAF Bomber Command controlled the RAF's bomber forces from 1936 to 1968.
RAF Fighter Command was one of the commands of the Royal Air Force.
A reduit is a fortified structure such as a citadel or a keep into which the defending troops can retreat when the outer defences are breached.
The Remilitarization of the Rhineland by the German Army took place on 7 March 1936 when German military forces entered the Rhineland.
The Renault R35, an abbreviation of Char léger Modèle 1935 R or R 35, was a French light infantry tank of the Second World War.
René-Henri Olry CLH (28 June 1880 – 3 January 1944) was a French general and commander of the Army of the Alps (l'Armée des Alpes) during the Battle of France of World War II.
René Jacques Adolphe Prioux (April 11, 1879 – June 16, 1953) was a general of the French Army who served in both world wars.
The Rhône (Le Rhône; Rhone; Walliser German: Rotten; Rodano; Rôno; Ròse) is one of the major rivers of Europe and has twice the average discharge of the Loire (which is the longest French river), rising in the Rhône Glacier in the Swiss Alps at the far eastern end of the Swiss canton of Valais, passing through Lake Geneva and running through southeastern France.
--> The Rhine (Rhenus, Rein, Rhein, le Rhin,, Italiano: Reno, Rijn) is a European river that begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and eventually empties into the North Sea.
Rotterdam is a city in the Netherlands, in South Holland within the Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt river delta at the North Sea.
Rouen (Frankish: Rodomo; Rotomagus, Rothomagus) is a city on the River Seine in the north of France.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
The Royal Netherlands Army (Koninklijke Landmacht (KL), "Royal Army") is the land forces element of the military of the Netherlands.
Rudolf Schmundt (13 August 1896 – 1 October 1944) was a German officer in the Wehrmacht and adjutant to Adolf Hitler during World War II.
The Ruhr (Ruhrgebiet), or the Ruhr district, Ruhr region, Ruhr area or Ruhr valley, is a polycentric urban area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
A rump state is the remnant of a once much larger state, left with a reduced territory in the wake of secession, annexation, occupation, decolonization, or a successful coup d'état or revolution on part of its former territory.
Saarland (das Saarland,; la Sarre) is one of the sixteen states (Bundesländer) of the Federal Republic of Germany.
Saint-Quentin is a commune in the Aisne department in Hauts-de-France in northern France.
The Scheldt (l'Escaut, Escô, Schelde) is a long river in northern France, western Belgium and the southwestern part of the Netherlands.
The Schlieffen Plan (Schlieffen-Plan) was the name given after World War I to the thinking behind the German invasion of France and Belgium on 4 August 1914.
The Second Army (IIe Armée) was a field army of the French Army during World War I and World War II.
Sedan is a commune in the Ardennes department and Grand Est region of north-eastern France.
The Seine (La Seine) is a river and an important commercial waterway within the Paris Basin in the north of France.
The Senegalese Tirailleurs (Tirailleurs Sénégalais) were a corps of colonial infantry in the French Army.
The Seventh Army (VIIe Armée) was a field army of the French Army during World War I and World War II.
A shaped charge is an explosive charge shaped to focus the effect of the explosive's energy.
The Siege of Lille or Lille Pocket was a Second World War battle fought during the Battle of France.
The term Siegfried Line refers to two different German defensive lines, one during the First World War and the other during the Second World War.
Sigmaringen is a town in southern Germany, in the state of Baden-Württemberg.
The Sixth Army (6eme Armée) was a Field army of the French Army during World War I and World War II.
The Somme is a river in Picardy, northern France.
The SOMUA S35 was a French Cavalry tank of the Second World War.
Steven J. Zaloga (born February 1, 1952) is an American historian, defense consultant, and an author on military technology.
Stonne is a commune in the Ardennes department in northern France.
Strange Defeat (L'Étrange Défaite) is a book written in the summer of 1940 by French historian Marc Bloch.
Strategic bombing is a military strategy used in a total war with the goal of defeating the enemy by destroying its morale or its economic ability to produce and transport materiel to the theatres of military operations, or both.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
Szczecin (German and Swedish Stettin), known also by other alternative names) is the capital and largest city of the West Pomeranian Voivodeship in Poland. Located near the Baltic Sea and the German border, it is a major seaport and Poland's seventh-largest city. As of June 2011, the population was 407,811. Szczecin is located on the Oder, south of the Szczecin Lagoon and the Bay of Pomerania. The city is situated along the southwestern shore of Dąbie Lake, on both sides of the Oder and on several large islands between the western and eastern branches of the river. Szczecin is adjacent to the town of Police and is the urban centre of the Szczecin agglomeration, an extended metropolitan area that includes communities in the German states of Brandenburg and Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. The city's recorded history began in the 8th century as a Slavic Pomeranian stronghold, built at the site of the Ducal castle. In the 12th century, when Szczecin had become one of Pomerania's main urban centres, it lost its independence to Piast Poland, the Duchy of Saxony, the Holy Roman Empire and Denmark. At the same time, the House of Griffins established themselves as local rulers and the population was Christianized. After the Treaty of Stettin in 1630, the town came under the control of the Swedish Empire and became in 1648 the Capital of Swedish Pomerania until 1720, when it was acquired by the Kingdom of Prussia and then the German Empire. Following World War II Stettin became part of Poland, resulting in expulsion of the German population. Szczecin is the administrative and industrial centre of West Pomeranian Voivodeship and is the site of the University of Szczecin, Pomeranian Medical University, Maritime University, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin Art Academy, and the see of the Szczecin-Kamień Catholic Archdiocese. From 1999 onwards, Szczecin has served as the site of the headquarters of NATO's Multinational Corps Northeast. Szczecin was a candidate for the European Capital of Culture in 2016.
Tanks Break Through! (Panzerjäger Brechen Durch!), written by Alfred-Ingemar Berndt, a journalist and close associate of propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels, is an eye-witness account of the battles that led to the fall of France.
The Hague (Den Haag,, short for 's-Gravenhage) is a city on the western coast of the Netherlands and the capital of the province of South Holland.
The London Gazette is one of the official journals of record of the British government, and the most important among such official journals in the United Kingdom, in which certain statutory notices are required to be published.
The Second World War is a narrative history of World War II by British historian Antony Beevor.
The Third Army (IIIe Armée) was a Field army of the French Army, which fought during World War I and World War II.
Tilburg is a city in the Netherlands, in the southern province of North Brabant.
The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.
Toul is a commune in the Meurthe-et-Moselle department in north-eastern France.
Tournai (Latin: Tornacum, Picard: Tornai), known in Dutch as Doornik and historically as Dornick in English, is a Walloon municipality of Belgium, southwest of Brussels on the river Scheldt.
Tours is a city located in the centre-west of France.
A troopship (also troop ship or troop transport or trooper) is a ship used to carry soldiers, either in peacetime or wartime.
In military terminology, a two-front war is a war in which fighting takes place on two geographically separate fronts.
Umberto II (Umberto Nicola Tommaso Giovanni Maria di Savoia; 15 September 190418 March 1983) was the last King of Italy.
Verdun (official name before 1970 Verdun-sur-Meuse) is a small city in the Meuse department in Grand Est in northeastern France.
Veules-les-Roses is a commune in the Seine-Maritime department in the Normandy region in northern France.
Vichy France (Régime de Vichy) is the common name of the French State (État français) headed by Marshal Philippe Pétain during World War II.
Victory in Europe Day, generally known as V-E Day, VE Day or simply V Day, celebrated on May 8, 1945 to mark the formal acceptance by the Allies of World War II of Nazi Germany's unconditional surrender of its armed forces.
The Vosges (or; Vogesen), also called the Vosges Mountains, are a range of low mountains in eastern France, near its border with Germany.
The Waffen-SS (Armed SS) was the armed wing of the Nazi Party's SS organisation.
Walcheren is a region and former island in the Dutch province of Zeeland at the mouth of the Scheldt estuary.
Walther von Brauchitsch (4 October 1881 – 18 October 1948) was a German field marshal and the Commander-in-Chief of the German Army during the Nazi era.
Walter Karl Ernst August von Reichenau (8 October 1884 – 17 January 1942) was a field marshal in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany during World War II.
Władysław Eugeniusz Sikorski (20 May 1881 – 4 July 1943) was a Polish military and political leader.
The Western Allied invasion of Germany was coordinated by the Western Allies during the final months of hostilities in the European theatre of World War II.
Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.
The Western Front was a military theatre of World War II encompassing Denmark, Norway, Luxembourg, Belgium, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, France, Italy, and Germany. World War II military engagements in Southern Europe and elsewhere are generally considered under separate headings. The Western Front was marked by two phases of large-scale combat operations. The first phase saw the capitulation of the Netherlands, Belgium, and France during May and June 1940 after their defeat in the Low Countries and the northern half of France, and continued into an air war between Germany and Britain that climaxed with the Battle of Britain. The second phase consisted of large-scale ground combat (supported by a massive air war considered to be an additional front), which began in June 1944 with the Allied landings in Normandy and continued until the defeat of Germany in May 1945.
Wilhelm II (Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albert von Hohenzollern; 27 January 18594 June 1941) was the last German Emperor (Kaiser) and King of Prussia, ruling the German Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia from 15 June 1888 to 9 November 1918.
Wilhelm Keitel (22 September 1882 – 16 October 1946) was a German field marshal who served as Chief of the Armed Forces High Command (Oberkommando der Wehrmacht or OKW) in Nazi Germany during World War II.
Wilhelm List (14 May 1880 – 17 August 1971) was a German field marshal during World War II who was convicted as a war criminal by an Allied tribunal after the war.
Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb (5 September 1876 – 29 April 1956) was a German field marshal and World War II war criminal.
Wilhelmina (Wilhelmina Helena Pauline Maria; 31 August 1880 – 28 November 1962) was Queen of the Netherlands from 1890 until her abdication in 1948.
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
Wolfram Freiherr von Richthofen (10 October 1895 – 12 July 1945) was a German field marshal of the Luftwaffe (German Air Force) during World War II.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Wprost (meaning "Directly") is a Polish-language weekly newsmagazine published in Poznań, Poland.
Zeebrugge (from: Brugge aan zee meaning "Bruges on Sea", Zeebruges) is a village on the coast of Belgium and a subdivision of Bruges, for which it is the modern port.
The zone libre (free zone) was a partition of the French metropolitan territory during World War II, established at the Second Armistice at Compiègne on 22 June 1940.
Zone Rouge (English: Red Zone) is a chain of non-contiguous areas throughout northeastern France that the French government isolated after the First World War.
Zuid-Beveland (South Beveland) is part of the province of Zeeland in the Netherlands north of the Westerschelde and south of the Oosterschelde.
The 10.5 cm leFH 18 (leichte Feldhaubitze "light field howitzer") was a German light howitzer used in World War II and the standard artillery piece of the Wehrmacht, adopted for service in 1935 and used by all divisions and artillery battalions.
The 10th Panzer Division was a formation of the German Army during World War II.
The 12th (Eastern) Division was an infantry division raised by the British Army during World War I from men volunteering for Kitchener's New Armies.
The 12th Army (German: 12. Armee) was a World War II field army.
The 16th Army (16.) was a World War II field army of the Wehrmacht.
The 18th Army (German: 18. Armee) was a World War II field army in the German Wehrmacht.
The 1940 Field Marshal Ceremony refers to a promotion ceremony held at the Kroll Opera House in Berlin in which Adolf Hitler promoted twelve generals to the rank of Generalfeldmarschall ("field marshal") on 19 July 1940.
The 1st (United Kingdom) Division, formerly known as the 1st Armoured Division, is a division of the British Army, currently the only British division to be stationed in Germany.
The 1st Armored Division (1re Division Blindée, 1re DB) is a unit of the French Army formed during World War II.
The First Army (1re Armée) was a field army of France that fought during World War I and World War II.
The 1st Army (1.) was a World War II field army.
The 1st Army Corps (1er Corps d'Armée) was first formed before World War I. During World War II it fought in the Campaign for France in 1940, on the Mediterranean islands of Corsica and Elba in 1943 - 1944, and in the campaigns to liberate France in 1944 and invade Germany in 1945.
The 1st Canadian Division is an operational command and control formation of the Canadian Joint Operations Command, based at CFB Kingston.
The 1st Moroccan Infantry Division (1e division d'infanterie marocaine, 1e DIM) was a French Army formation during World War I and World War II.
The 1st Panzer Division (1st Tank Division) was an elite armoured division in the German Army, the Wehrmacht, during World War II.
The 1st Parachute Division (1.) was an elite German military parachute-landing division that fought during World War II.
The Flak 30 (Flugabwehrkanone 30) and improved Flak 38 were 20 mm anti-aircraft guns used by various German forces throughout World War II.
The 22nd Infantry Division was a specialized German infantry division in World War II.
The 23rd (Northumbrian) Division was a Territorial Army formation raised in 1939 as the 2nd line duplicate of the 50th (Northumbrian) Infantry Division.
The Hotchkiss 25 mm anti-aircraft gun was an anti-aircraft autocannon designed by the French firm of Hotchkiss.
The French 2nd Armored Division (2e Division Blindée, 2e DB), commanded by General Philippe Leclerc, fought during the final phases of World War II in the Western Front.
The 2nd Panzer Division (2nd Tank Division) was an armoured division in the German Army, the Wehrmacht, during World War II.
The 3.7 cm Flak 18/36/37/43 was a series of anti-aircraft cannon produced by Nazi Germany that saw widespread service in the Second World War.
The 30th Infantry Brigade was an infantry brigade of the British Army in the First and Second World Wars.
The 3rd Panzer Division (3rd Tank Division) was an armoured division in the German Army, the Wehrmacht, during World War II.
The 3rd Royal Tank Regiment (3 RTR) was an armoured regiment of the British Army in existence from 1917 until 1992.
The 4th Army was a field army of the Wehrmacht during World War II.
The 4th Panzer Division (4th Tank Division) was an armored division in the German Army, the Wehrmacht, during World War II, established in 1938.
The 50th (Northumbrian) Infantry Division was an infantry division of the British Army that saw distinguished service in the Second World War.
The 51st (Highland) Division was an infantry division of the British Army that fought on the Western Front in France during the First World War from 1915 to 1918.
The 55th Infantry Division (55e Division d'Infanterie, 55e DI) was a French Army formation during World War I and World War II.
5th Air Corps (V. Fliegerkorps) was formed 11 October 1939 in Gersthofen from the 5th Air Division.
The 5th Infantry Division was a regular army infantry division of the British Army.
The French 5th Light Cavalry Division was a French Army division active during World War II.
The French 5th Motorized Division was a French Army division active during World War II.
The 5th Panzer Division (5th Tank Division) was an armoured division in the German Army, the Wehrmacht, during World War II, established in 1938.
The 6th Army, a field-army unit of the German Wehrmacht during World War II (1939-1945), has become widely remembered for its destruction by the Red Army at the Battle of Stalingrad in the winter of 1942/43.
The 6th Panzer Division (6th Tank Division) was an armoured division in the German Army, the Heer, during World War II, established in 1939.
The 71st Infantry Division was a French Army formation during both World War I and World War II.
The 7th Army was a World War II field army of the German land forces.
The 7th Panzer Division was an armored formation of the German Army in World War II.
The 8.8 cm Flak 18/36/37/41 is a German 88 mm anti-aircraft and anti-tank artillery gun from World War II.
8th Air Corps (VIII. Fliegerkorps) was formed 19 July 1939 in Oppeln as Fliegerführer z.b.V. ("for special purposes").
The 8th Panzer Division was a formation of the Wehrmacht ''Heer''.
The 9th Panzer Division was a panzer division of the Wehrmacht Army during World War II.
Battle for France, Battle of France (1940), Battle of france, Battle: France, Battles of the Meuse Crossings, Case Yellow, Defeat of France, Fall of France, Fall of Paris, France & Low Countries 1940, French Campaign, French campaign, German invasion of France in 1940, Invasion of France (Nazi Germany), May 1940 blitzkrieg war, N W Europe 1940, Nazi invasion of France, Nazis invaded France, North West Europe 1940, North-West Europe 1940, Operation Gelb, Operation Yellow, Surrender of Paris, The Nazis invaded France, The fall of France, Western Offensive, Westfeldzug, Westfeldzug 1940, Yello Case, Yellow Plan.