206 relations: Aleksander Ford, Alexander I of Moldavia, Alfred Nicolas Rambaud, Andrzej Nadolski, Anna of Cilli, Antoni Wiwulski, Archery, Austria, Łodwigowo, Świecie, Banderia Prutenorum, Battle of Grunwald (Matejko), Battle of Koronowo, Battle of Stalingrad, Battle of Tannenberg, Battle of the Vorskla River, BC Žalgiris, Belarus, Bobrowniki, Bohemia, Bombard (weapon), Bydgoszcz, Camp follower, Casimir V, Duke of Pomerania, Central European University Press, Chancellor (Poland), Chełmno, Chełmno Land, Christianization of Lithuania, Commander (order), Council of war, Crossbow, Czechs, Czerwińsk nad Wisłą, Daugava, Dąbrówno, Dobrzyń Land, Dobrzyń nad Wisłą, Drwęca, Ducat, Duchy of Pomerania, Dysentery, Działdowo, Eastern Orthodox Church, Elbląg, Encyclopedia Lituanica, Field artillery, FK Žalgiris, Frisia, Galicia (Eastern Europe), ..., Gdańsk, German Empire, Germanic peoples, Germanisation, Germans, Giżycko, Golden Horde, Gollub War, Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Grand Duchy of Moscow, Grand strategy, Greater Poland, Grodno, Grunwald Swords, Grunwald, Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, Gvardeysk, Hans Delbrück, Heinrich von Plauen, Henryk Sienkiewicz, Historiography in the Soviet Union, History of Poland during the Jagiellonian dynasty, History Today, Holy Roman Emperor, Holy See, Hunger War, Hussites, Jadwiga of Poland, Jalal al-Din Khan ibn Tokhtamysh, James Westfall Thompson, Jan Žižka, Jan Długosz, Jan Dombrowski, Jan Matejko, Janusz I of Warsaw, Johann von Posilge, Klaipėda, Knights of the Teutonic Order (film), Konrad VII the White, Kopa (number), Kraków, Kurzętnik, Kuyavia, Lebensraum, Lengvenis, Lesser Poland, List of Bishops of Poznań, List of English monarchs, List of Historic Monuments (Poland), Lithuania proper, Lithuanian Civil War (1381–84), Livonian Order, Lizard Union (medieval), Lubawa, Malbork, Malbork Castle, Marcin of Wrocimowice, Marian Biskup, Marszałek, Masuria, Max Oehler, Mazovia, Medieval reenactment, Middle Ages, Miecznik, Mikołaj Trąba, Military order (monastic society), Moldavia, Moravia, Mszczuj of Skrzynno, National Heritage Board of Poland, Nazi Germany, Neman, Neman, Russia, Nicholas II Garai, Nicholas von Renys, Nobel Prize, Old Prussians, Oleśnica, Olsztyn, Order of the Cross of Grunwald, Ostrów Agreement, Paganism, Papal household, Peace of Raciąż, Peace of Thorn (1411), Personal union, Pike (weapon), Polish–Lithuanian union, Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War, Pontoon bridge, Poznań, Prague groschen, Principality of Smolensk, Projectile, Propaganda in Nazi Germany, Propaganda in the Soviet Union, Prussian Confederation, Prussian Crusade, Romantic nationalism, Russian Empire, Russification, Ruthenia, Ryn, Sambia Peninsula, Samogitia, Samogitian uprisings, Siege of Marienburg (1410), Siemowit IV, Duke of Masovia, Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor, Slavs, Smolensk, Stab-in-the-back myth, Standard-bearer, State of the Teutonic Order, Stębark, Stefan Maria Kuczyński, Stibor of Stiboricz, Stockade, Swabia, Szczecin, Tatars, Teutonic Order, The Knights of the Cross, Thirteen Years' War (1454–66), Tomb of the Unknown Soldier (Warsaw), Toruń, Treaty of Dubysa, Treaty of Kalisz (1343), Treaty of Melno, Ukraine, Ulrich von Jungingen, Union of Krewo, University of Washington Press, Ushakovo, Vaclau Lastouski, Vilnius, Vilnius Cathedral, Vistula, Voigt, Vytautas, Wagon fort, Wallachia, War reparations, Warsaw, Wawel Cathedral, Władysław II Jagiełło, Wenceslaus IV of Bohemia, Westphalia, William Urban, Wojciech Jastrzębiec, Wolbórz, World War I, Zbigniew of Brzezia, Zbigniew Oleśnicki (cardinal), Zigmantas Kiaupa, Zyndram of Maszkowice. Expand index (156 more) » « Shrink index
Aleksander Ford (born Mosze Lifszyc; 24 November 1908 in Kiev, Russian Empire – 4 April 1980 in Naples, Florida, United States) was a Polish Jewish film director; and head of the Polish People's Army Film Crew in the Soviet Union during World War II.
Alexander the Good (Alexandru cel Bun or Alexandru I Mușat) was a Voivode (Prince) of Moldavia, reigning between 1400 and 1432, son of Roman I Mușat.
Alfred Nicolas Rambaud (2 July 1842 – 10 November 1905) was a French historian.
Andrzej Nadolski (26 November 1921, Kraków – 24 December 1993, Łódź) was a Polish historian, specializing in Polish military history, an archaeologist, and professor.
Anna of Cilli or Anne of Celje (– 21 May 1416) was Queen consort of Poland (1402–1416).
Antoni Wiwulski (1877–1919) ('Antanas Vivulskis') was a Polish-Lithuanian architect and sculptor.
Archery is the art, sport, practice or skill of using a bow to shoot arrows.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
Łodwigowo (German Ludwigsdorf), also referred to as Ludwikowice, is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Grunwald, within Ostróda County, Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, in northern Poland.
Świecie (Schwetz) is a town in northern Poland with 25,968 inhabitants (2006), situated in Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship (since 1999); it was in Bydgoszcz Voivodeship from 1975 to 1998.
The Banderia Prutenorum is a manuscript of 48 parchment sheets, 18.6 by 29.3 cm (7.3 by 11.5 inches), composed by Jan Długosz and illuminated by Stanisław Durink, listing 56 vexillae, or banners, of the Order of the Teutonic Knights.
The Battle of Grunwald is a painting by Jan Matejko depicting the Battle of Grunwald and the victory of the allied Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania over the Teutonic Order in 1410.
The Battle of Koronowo was a battle of the Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War.
The Battle of Stalingrad (23 August 1942 – 2 February 1943) was the largest confrontation of World War II, in which Germany and its allies fought the Soviet Union for control of the city of Stalingrad (now Volgograd) in Southern Russia.
The Battle of Tannenberg was fought between Russia and Germany between the 26th and 30th of August 1914, the first month of World War I. The battle resulted in the almost complete destruction of the Russian Second Army and the suicide of its commanding general, Alexander Samsonov.
The Battle of the Vorskla River was a great battle in the medieval history of Eastern Europe.
Basketball Club Žalgiris (Krepšinio klubas Žalgiris) is a professional basketball team that is based in Kaunas, Lithuania.
Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.
Bobrowniki (Beweringen) is a village in Lipno County, Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship, in north-central Poland.
Bohemia (Čechy;; Czechy; Bohême; Bohemia; Boemia) is the westernmost and largest historical region of the Czech lands in the present-day Czech Republic.
The bombard is a cannon or mortar used throughout the Middle Ages and the early modern period.
Bydgoszcz (Bromberg; Bydgostia) is a city in northern Poland, on the Brda and Vistula rivers.
Camp follower is a term used to identify civilians and their children who follow armies.
Duke Casimir V of Pomerania (or, counting differently, Casimir VI; before 1380 – 13 April 1435) was a member of the House of Griffins and a Duke of Pomerania.
Following the founding of the Central European University by George Soros, the Central European University Press was established in 1993.
Chancellor of Poland (Kanclerz -, from cancellarius) was one of the highest officials in the historic Poland.
Chełmno (older Culm) is a town in northern Poland near the Vistula river with 20,000 inhabitants and the historical capital of Chełmno Land.
Chełmno land (ziemia chełmińska,, Old Prussian: Kulma, Kulmo žemė) is a historical region, located in central-northern Poland.
The Christianization of Lithuania (Lietuvos krikštas) occurred in 1387, initiated by King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania Władysław II Jagiełło and his cousin Vytautas the Great.
Commander (Commendatore, Commandeur, Komtur, Comandante, Comendador), or Knight Commander, is a title of honor prevalent in chivalric order and fraternal orders.
A council of war is a term in military science that describes a meeting held to decide on a course of action, usually in the midst of a battle.
A crossbow is a type of ranged weapon based on the bow and consisting of a horizontal bow-like assembly mounted on a frame which is handheld in a similar fashion to the stock of a gun.
The Czechs (Češi,; singular masculine: Čech, singular feminine: Češka) or the Czech people (Český národ), are a West Slavic ethnic group and a nation native to the Czech Republic in Central Europe, who share a common ancestry, culture, history and Czech language.
Czerwińsk nad Wisłą is a village in Płońsk County, Masovian Voivodeship, in east-central Poland.
The Daugava (Daugova) or Western Dvina is a river rising in the Valdai Hills, Russia, flowing through Russia, Belarus, and Latvia and into the Gulf of Riga.
Dąbrówno (German:, Gilgė) is a village and the seat of a gmina (municipality) in Ostróda County, Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship in northern Poland.
Dobrzyń Land (ziemia dobrzyńska) is a historic region, with the capital in the town of Dobrzyń nad Wisłą, in central-northern Poland, within the Greater Poland, between Mazovia and Prussia.
Dobrzyń nad Wisłą (Dobrin an der Weichsel) is a town in the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship, Poland.
The Drwęca (Drewenz, Druvinčia) is a river in northern Poland and a tributary of the Vistula river near Toruń, forming a part of the city's administrative boundary.
The ducat was a gold or silver coin used as a trade coin in Europe from the later middle ages until as late as the 20th century.
The Duchy of Pomerania (Herzogtum Pommern, Księstwo Pomorskie, 12th century – 1637) was a duchy in Pomerania on the southern coast of the Baltic Sea, ruled by dukes of the House of Pomerania (Griffins).
Dysentery is an inflammatory disease of the intestine, especially of the colon, which always results in severe diarrhea and abdominal pains.
Działdowo (Soldau) is a town in north-central Poland with 24,830 inhabitants (2006), the capital of Działdowo County.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
Elbląg (Elbing; Old Prussian: Elbings) is a city in northern Poland on the eastern edge of the Żuławy region with 124,257 inhabitants (December 31, 2011).
Encyclopedia Lituanica (likely named after Encyclopædia Britannica or Encyclopedia Americana) is a six-volume (about 3600-page) English language encyclopedia about Lithuania and Lithuania-related topics.
Field artillery is a category of mobile artillery used to support armies in the field.
Futbolo Klubas Žalgiris, commonly known as Žalgiris Vilnius or simply Žalgiris is a Lithuanian professional football club based in Vilnius.
Frisia (Fryslân, Dutch and Friesland) is a coastal region along the southeastern corner of the North Sea in what today is mostly a large part of the Netherlands, including modern Friesland, and smaller parts of northern Germany.
Galicia (Ukrainian and Галичина, Halyčyna; Galicja; Czech and Halič; Galizien; Galícia/Kaliz/Gácsország/Halics; Galiția/Halici; Галиция, Galicija; גאַליציע Galitsiye) is a historical and geographic region in Central Europe once a small Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia and later a crown land of Austria-Hungary, the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, that straddled the modern-day border between Poland and Ukraine.
Gdańsk (Danzig) is a Polish city on the Baltic coast.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.
The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.
Germanisation (also spelled Germanization) is the spread of the German language, people and culture or policies which introduced these changes.
Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.
Giżycko (Lėcius; former Lec) is a town in northeastern Poland with 29,796 inhabitants (2004).
The Golden Horde (Алтан Орд, Altan Ord; Золотая Орда, Zolotaya Orda; Алтын Урда, Altın Urda) was originally a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate established in the 13th century and originating as the northwestern sector of the Mongol Empire.
The Gollub War was a two-month war of the Teutonic Knights against the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in 1422.
The Grand Duchy of Lithuania was a European state that lasted from the 13th century up to 1795, when the territory was partitioned among the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia, and Austria.
The Grand Duchy or Grand Principality of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское, Velikoye Knyazhestvo Moskovskoye), also known in English simply as Muscovy from the Moscovia, was a late medieval Russian principality centered on Moscow and the predecessor state of the early modern Tsardom of Russia.
Grand strategy or high strategy comprises the "purposeful employment of all instruments of power available to a security community".
Greater Poland, often known by its Polish name Wielkopolska (Großpolen; Latin: Polonia Maior), is a historical region of west-central Poland.
Grodno or Hrodna (Гродна, Hrodna; ˈɡrodnə, see also other names) is a city in western Belarus.
The Grunwald Swords (miecze grunwaldzkie, Žalgirio kalavijai) were a gift presented by Ulrich von Jungingen, the Grand Master of the Order of Teutonic Knights, to King Władysław II Jagiełło of Poland and Grand Duke Vytautas of Lithuania on 15 July 1410, just before the Battle of Grunwald (Tannenberg).
Grunwald (Grünfelde, green field; Žalgiris) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Grunwald, within Ostróda County, Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, in northern Poland.
Gvardeysk (a), known prior to 1946 by its German name (Tepliava; Tapiawa/Tapiewo), is a town and the administrative center of Gvardeysky District in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia, located on the right bank of the Pregolya River east of Kaliningrad, the administrative center of the oblast.
Hans Delbrück (11 November 1848 – 14 July 1929) was a German historian.
Heinrich von Plauen (the Elder) (ca. 1370–1429) was the 27th Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights, serving from November 1410 to October 1413.
Henryk Adam Aleksander Pius Sienkiewicz (also known by the pseudonym "Litwos"; 5 May 1846 – 15 November 1916) was a Polish journalist, novelist and Nobel Prize laureate.
Soviet historiography is the methodology of history studies by historians in the Soviet Union (USSR).
The rule of the Jagiellonian dynasty in Poland between 1386 and 1572 spans the late Middle Ages and early Modern Era in European history.
History Today is an illustrated history magazine.
The Holy Roman Emperor (historically Romanorum Imperator, "Emperor of the Romans") was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire (800-1806 AD, from Charlemagne to Francis II).
The Holy See (Santa Sede; Sancta Sedes), also called the See of Rome, is the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, the episcopal see of the Pope, and an independent sovereign entity.
The Hunger War or Famine War was a brief conflict between the allied Kingdom of Poland, and Grand Duchy of Lithuania, against the Teutonic Knights in summer 1414 in an attempt to resolve territorial disputes.
The Hussites (Husité or Kališníci; "Chalice People") were a pre-Protestant Christian movement that followed the teachings of Czech reformer Jan Hus, who became the best known representative of the Bohemian Reformation.
Jadwiga, also known as Hedwig (Hedvig; 1373/4 – 17 July 1399), was the first female monarch of the Kingdom of Poland, reigning from 16 October 1384 until her death.
Jalal al-Din Khan ibn Tokhtamysh (Urdu; Persian; Arabic:; Tatar: Cäläletdin, Polish: Dżalal ad-Din) (1380–1412) was the Khan of the Golden Horde in 1411–1412.
James Westfall Thompson (1869–1941) was an American historian specializing in the history of medieval and early modern Europe, particularly of the Holy Roman Empire and France.
Jan Žižka z Trocnova a Kalicha (Johann Ziska; John Zizka of Trocnov and the Chalice) was a Czech general, a contemporary and follower of Jan Hus, Hussite military leader, and later also a Radical Hussite who led the Taborites.
Jan Długosz (1 December 1415 – 19 May 1480), also known as Ioannes, Joannes, or Johannes Longinus or Dlugossius, was a Polish priest, chronicler, diplomat, soldier, and secretary to Bishop Zbigniew Oleśnicki of Kraków.
Jan Dombrowski (26 May 1926 – 24 February 1992) was a Polish bobsledder.
Jan Alojzy Matejko (also known as Jan Mateyko; June 24, 1838 – November 1, 1893) was a Polish painter known for paintings of notable historical Polish political and military events.
Janusz I of Warsaw (pl: Janusz I warszawski), also known as Janusz I the Old (pl: Janusz I Starszy) (c. 1347/52 – 8 December 1429), was a Polish prince member of the House of Piast in the Masovian branch, from 1373/74 Duke of Warsaw and after the division of the paternal inheritance between him and his brother in 1381, ruler over Nur, Łomża, Liw, Ciechanów, Wyszogród and Zakroczym.
Johann von Posilge (c. 1340 – 1405) was a parish priest of Deutsch Eylau (Iława) and later assistant to Bishop of Pomesania.
Klaipėda (Samogitian name: Klaipieda, Polish name: Kłajpeda, German name: Memel), is a city in Lithuania on the Baltic Sea coast.
--> Knights of the Teutonic Order (Polish: Krzyżacy) is a 1960 Polish film directed by Aleksander Ford based on the novel of the same name by Henryk Sienkiewicz.
Konrad VII the White (Konrad VII Biały; aft. 1396 – 14 February 1452) was a Duke of Oels / Oleśnica, Koźle, half of Bytom and half of Ścinawa during 1416–1427 (with his brothers as co-rulers), sole Duke of Koźle and half of Bytom during 1427–1450, Duke of Oleśnica during 1421–1450 (until 1439 with his brother as co-ruler) and sole Duke of half of Ścinawa during 1447–1450.
Kopa (капа́, sexagena, kapa, kopa, копа́) was a medieval unit of measurement used in Central and Eastern Europe, particularly in the 15–18th-century Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Kraków, also spelled Cracow or Krakow, is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland.
Kurzętnik (Kauernik) is a village in Nowe Miasto County, Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, in northern Poland.
Kuyavia (Kujawy, Kujawien, Cuiavia), also referred to as Cuyavia, is a historical region in north-central Poland, situated on the left bank of Vistula, as well as east from Noteć River and Lake Gopło.
The German concept of Lebensraum ("living space") comprises policies and practices of settler colonialism which proliferated in Germany from the 1890s to the 1940s.
Lengvenis (Simeon Lingwen, born ca. 1360 – died after 1431; Лугвен-Сымон, Łuhvien; Лугвений, Лугвен, Лугвень, Lugven(y), Lingwen Semen Olgierdowicz) was one of the sons of Algirdas, Grand Duke of Lithuania, and the ruler of Great Novgorod Republic (1389–1392, 1406–1411).
Lesser Poland (Polish: Małopolska, Latin: Polonia Minor) is a historical region (dzielnica) of Poland; its capital is the city of Kraków.
This list of kings and queens of the Kingdom of England begins with Alfred the Great, King of Wessex, one of the petty kingdoms to rule a portion of modern England.
Historic Monument (pomnik historii) is one of several categories of objects of cultural heritage (in the singular, zabytek) in Poland.
Lithuania proper (Lithuania propria, literally: "Genuine Lithuania"; Didžioji Lietuva; ליטע, Lite) refers to a region which existed within the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and where the Lithuanian language was spoken.
The Lithuanian Civil War of 1381–1384 was the first struggle for power between the cousins Jogaila, Grand Duke of Lithuania and later King of Poland, and Vytautas the Great.
The Livonian Order was an autonomous branch of the Teutonic Order, formed in 1237.
The Lizard Union or Lizard League (Eidechsenbund; Związek Jaszczurczy) was an organization of Prussian nobles and knights established in Culmerland (Chełmno Land) in 1397.
Lubawa (Löbau in Westpreußen, Old Prussian: Lūbawa) is a town in the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, Poland.
Malbork (Marienburg; Civitas Beatae Virginis) is a town in northern Poland in the Żuławy region (Vistula delta), with 38,478 inhabitants (2006).
The Castle of the Teutonic Order in Malbork (zamek w Malborku; Ordensburg Marienburg) was built in the 13th century in Prussia and is currently located near the town of Malbork, Poland.
Marcin of Wrocimowice (Marcin z Wrocimowic,; died 1442) was a Polish knight and diplomat from the Półkozic clan.
Marian Biskup (December 19, 1922 – April 16, 2012) was a Polish historian, author and academic, who specialized in the history of the Baltics, Pomerelia, Teutonic Order, Prussia, Toruń and Copernicus.
Marszałek (Marshal, Маршалак) was one of the highest officials in the Polish royal court since the 13th century and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania since the 15th century.
Masuria (Masuren, Masurian: Mazurÿ) is a region in northern Poland famous for its 2,000 lakes.
Max Oehler (December 29, 1875 – March 1946) was a German army officer and archivist for the "Nietzsche-Archiv." Oehler pursued his career in the German Empire's military until the end of World War I and the German November Revolution.
Mazovia (Mazowsze) is a historical region (dzielnica) in mid-north-eastern Poland.
Medieval reenactment is a form of historical reenactment that focuses on re-enacting European history in the period from the fall of Rome to about the end of the 15th century.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Miecznik was a court office in Poland.
Mikołaj Trąba, of Trąby coat of arms (1358 – 2 December 1422) was a Polish Roman Catholic priest, Royal Notary from 1390, Deputy Chancellor of the Crown 1403–12, bishop of Halicz 1410–12, archbishop of Gniezno from 1412, and first primate of Poland 1417–22.
A military order (Militaris ordinis) is a chivalric order with military elements.
Moldavia (Moldova, or Țara Moldovei (in Romanian Latin alphabet), Цара Мѡлдовєй (in old Romanian Cyrillic alphabet) is a historical region and former principality in Central and Eastern Europe, corresponding to the territory between the Eastern Carpathians and the Dniester River. An initially independent and later autonomous state, it existed from the 14th century to 1859, when it united with Wallachia (Țara Românească) as the basis of the modern Romanian state; at various times, Moldavia included the regions of Bessarabia (with the Budjak), all of Bukovina and Hertza. The region of Pokuttya was also part of it for a period of time. The western half of Moldavia is now part of Romania, the eastern side belongs to the Republic of Moldova, and the northern and southeastern parts are territories of Ukraine.
Moravia (Morava;; Morawy; Moravia) is a historical country in the Czech Republic (forming its eastern part) and one of the historical Czech lands, together with Bohemia and Czech Silesia.
Mszczuj of Skrzynno (also Mściwoj of Skrzynno; Polish: Mszczuj ze Skrzynna) was one of the Polish knights of Władysław Jagiełło who took part on July 15, 1410 in the Battle of Grunwald against the Teutonic Knights.
The National Heritage Board of Poland (Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa,NID) is a Polish governmental institution responsible for the objects considered most important to the nation's cultural heritage.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
The Neman, Nemunas, Nyoman, Niemen or Memel, a major Eastern European river.
Neman (Неман), prior to 1946 known by its German name Ragnit (Ragainė; Ragneta), is a town and the administrative center of Nemansky District in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia, located in the historic East Prussia, on the steep southern bank of the Neman River, where it forms the Russian border with the Klaipėda Region in Lithuania, and northeast of Kaliningrad, the administrative center of the oblast.
Nicholas II Garai (Garai II Miklós, Nikola II Gorjanski; c. 1367 – December 1433) was a powerful Hungarian baron, who served as the Palatine of Hungary from 1402 until 1433 and the ban of Macsó, Usora, Só, Slavonia, Croatia and Dalmatia.
Nicholas von Renys (Nikolaus von Renys; Mikołaj z Ryńska) (1360–1411) was a secular member of the Teutonic Knights and a participant in the Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War (1409–1411).
The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.
Old Prussians or Baltic Prussians (Old Prussian: Prūsai; Pruzzen or Prußen; Pruteni; Prūši; Prūsai; Prusowie; Prësowié) refers to the indigenous peoples from a cluster of Baltic tribes that inhabited the region of Prussia.
Oleśnica (Oels) is a town in Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in south-western Poland.
Olsztyn (Allenstein; Old Polish: Holstin; Old Prussian: Alnāsteini or Alnestabs; Alnaštynas, Alnštynas, Alštynas (historical) and Olštynas (modern)) is a city on the Łyna River in northeastern Poland.
The Order of the Cross of Grunwald was a military decoration created in Poland in November 1943 by the High Command of Gwardia Ludowa, a World War II Polish resistance movement organised by the Polish Workers Party.
The Ostrów or Astrava Agreement (Astravos sutartis, Востраўскае пагадненне, Ugoda w Ostrowie) was a treaty between Jogaila (Władysław II Jagiełło), King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, and his cousin Vytautas the Great, signed on 4 August 1392.
Paganism is a term first used in the fourth century by early Christians for populations of the Roman Empire who practiced polytheism, either because they were increasingly rural and provincial relative to the Christian population or because they were not milites Christi (soldiers of Christ).
The papal household or pontifical household (usually not capitalized in the media and other nonofficial use), called until 1968 the Papal Court (Aula Pontificia), consists of dignitaries who assist the pope in carrying out particular ceremonies of either a religious or a civil character.
Peace of Raciąż was a treaty signed on 22 May 1404 between Kingdom of Poland, Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and the Teutonic Knights, regarding the control of the Dobrzyń Land and Samogitia.
The (First) Peace of Thorn was a peace treaty formally ending the Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War between allied Kingdom of Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania on one side, and the Teutonic Knights on the other.
A personal union is the combination of two or more states that have the same monarch while their boundaries, laws, and interests remain distinct.
A pike is a pole weapon, a very long thrusting spear formerly used extensively by infantry.
The term Polish–Lithuanian Union refers to a series of acts and alliances between the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania that lasted for prolonged periods of time and led to the creation of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth—the "Republic of the Two Nations"—in 1569 and eventually to the creation of a short-lived unitary state in 1791.
The Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War or Great War occurred between 1409 and 1411, pitting the allied Kingdom of Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania against the Teutonic Knights.
A pontoon bridge (or ponton bridge), also known as a floating bridge, uses floats or shallow-draft boats to support a continuous deck for pedestrian and vehicle travel.
Poznań (Posen; known also by other historical names) is a city on the Warta River in west-central Poland, in the Greater Poland region.
The Prague groschen (pražský groš, grossi pragenses, Prager Groschen, grosz praski) was a groschen-type silver coin that was issued by Wenceslaus II of Bohemia since 1300 in the Kingdom of Bohemia and became very common throughout Medieval Central Europe.
The Principality of Smolensk (eventually Grand Principality of Smolensk) was a Kievan Rus' lordship from the eleventh to the fifteenth century.
A projectile is any object thrown into space (empty or not) by the exertion of a force.
The propaganda used by the German Nazi Party in the years leading up to and during Adolf Hitler's leadership of Germany (1933–1945) was a crucial instrument for acquiring and maintaining power, and for the implementation of Nazi policies.
Communist propaganda in the Soviet Union was extensively based on the Marxism-Leninism ideology to promote the Communist Party line.
The Prussian Confederation (Preußischer Bund, Związek Pruski) was an organization formed on 21 February 1440 at Marienwerder by a group of 53 nobles and clergy and 19 cities in Prussia, to oppose the arbitrariness of the Teutonic Knights.
The Prussian Crusade was a series of 13th-century campaigns of Roman Catholic crusaders, primarily led by the Teutonic Knights, to Christianize the pagan Old Prussians.
Romantic nationalism (also national romanticism, organic nationalism, identity nationalism) is the form of nationalism in which the state derives its political legitimacy as an organic consequence of the unity of those it governs.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
Russification (Русификация), or Russianization, is a form of cultural assimilation process during which non-Russian communities, voluntarily or not, give up their culture and language in favor of the Russian one.
Ruthenia (Рѹ́сь (Rus) and Рѹ́сьскаѧ землѧ (Rus'kaya zemlya), Ῥωσία, Rus(s)ia, Ruscia, Ruzzia, Rut(h)enia, Roxolania, Garðaríki) is a proper geographical exonym for Kievan Rus' and other, more local, historical states.
Ryn (Rhein) is a town in Poland located 19 km southwest of Giżycko, in the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship.
Sambia (Самбийский полуостров, Sambiysky poluostrov, literally the Sambiysky Peninsula;Sembos pusiasalis) or Samland (Земландский полуостров, Zemlandsky poluostrov, literally the Zemlandsky Peninsula) or Kaliningrad Peninsula (official name, Калининградский полуостров, Kaliningradsky poluostrov) is a peninsula in the Kaliningrad Oblast of Russia, on the southeastern shore of the Baltic Sea.
Samogitia or Žemaitija (Samogitian: Žemaitėjė; Žemaitija; see below for alternate and historical names) is one of the five ethnographic regions of Lithuania. Žemaitija is located in northwestern Lithuania. Its largest city is Šiauliai. Žemaitija has a long and distinct cultural history, reflected in the existence of the Samogitian dialect.
Samogitian uprisings refer to two uprisings by the Samogitians against the Teutonic Knights in 1401–1404 and 1409.
The Siege of Marienburg was an unsuccessful two-month siege of the castle in Marienburg (Malbork), the capital of the monastic state of the Teutonic Knights.
Siemowit IV (Ziemowit IV), also known as Siemowit IV the Younger (pl: Siemowit IV Młodszy; ca. 1353/1356 – 21 January 1426), was a Polish prince member of the House of Piast from the Masovian branch, from 1373/74 Duke of Rawa, and after the division of the paternal inheritance between him and his brother in 1381, ruler over Rawa, Płock, Sochaczew, Gostynin, Płońsk and Wizna, since 1386 hereditary Polish vassal, since 1388 ruler over Belz, during 1382–1401 he lost Wizna and during 1384–1399 and 1407–1411 he lost Zawkrze, during 1384–1399 he lost Płońsk, taken by the Teutonic Order.
Sigismund of Luxembourg (15 February 1368 in Nuremberg – 9 December 1437 in Znaim, Moravia) was Prince-elector of Brandenburg from 1378 until 1388 and from 1411 until 1415, King of Hungary and Croatia from 1387, King of Germany from 1411, King of Bohemia from 1419, King of Italy from 1431, and Holy Roman Emperor for four years from 1433 until 1437, the last male member of the House of Luxembourg.
Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group.
Smolensk (a) is a city and the administrative center of Smolensk Oblast, Russia, located on the Dnieper River, west-southwest of Moscow.
The stab-in-the-back myth (Dolchstoßlegende) was the notion, widely believed and promulgated in right-wing circles in Germany after 1918, that the German Army did not lose World War I on the battlefield but was instead betrayed by the civilians on the home front, especially the republicans who overthrew the monarchy in the German Revolution of 1918–19.
A standard-bearer is a person (soldier or civilian) who bears an emblem called or standard, i.e. either a type of flag or an inflexible but mobile image, which is used (and often honoured) as a formal, visual symbol of a state, prince, military unit, etc.
The State of the Teutonic Order (Staat des Deutschen Ordens; Civitas Ordinis Theutonici), also called Deutschordensstaat or Ordensstaat in German, was a crusader state formed by the Teutonic Knights or Teutonic Order during the 13th century Northern Crusades along the Baltic Sea.
Stębark (Tannenberg) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Grunwald, within Ostróda County, Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, in northern Poland.
Stefan Maria Kuczyński, nom de plume Włodzimierz Bart (21 September 1904, Bogusław, Wołyń – 30 March 1985, Katowice), was a Polish historian and academic specializing in the medieval history of the Kingdom of Poland during the Piast dynasty and the Jagiellon dynasty, especially in the period of King Władysław II Jagiełło.
Stibor of Stiboricz of Ostoja (also written in English as Scibor or Czibor; Ścibor ze Ściborzyc, Stiborici Stibor, Știbor de Știborici, Stibor zo Stiboríc; c. 1348 – February 1414) was an aristocrat of Polish origin in the Kingdom of Hungary.
A stockade is an enclosure of palisades and tall walls made of logs placed side by side vertically with the tops sharpened as a defensive wall.
Swabia (Schwaben, colloquially Schwabenland or Ländle; in English also archaic Suabia or Svebia) is a cultural, historic and linguistic region in southwestern Germany.
Szczecin (German and Swedish Stettin), known also by other alternative names) is the capital and largest city of the West Pomeranian Voivodeship in Poland. Located near the Baltic Sea and the German border, it is a major seaport and Poland's seventh-largest city. As of June 2011, the population was 407,811. Szczecin is located on the Oder, south of the Szczecin Lagoon and the Bay of Pomerania. The city is situated along the southwestern shore of Dąbie Lake, on both sides of the Oder and on several large islands between the western and eastern branches of the river. Szczecin is adjacent to the town of Police and is the urban centre of the Szczecin agglomeration, an extended metropolitan area that includes communities in the German states of Brandenburg and Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. The city's recorded history began in the 8th century as a Slavic Pomeranian stronghold, built at the site of the Ducal castle. In the 12th century, when Szczecin had become one of Pomerania's main urban centres, it lost its independence to Piast Poland, the Duchy of Saxony, the Holy Roman Empire and Denmark. At the same time, the House of Griffins established themselves as local rulers and the population was Christianized. After the Treaty of Stettin in 1630, the town came under the control of the Swedish Empire and became in 1648 the Capital of Swedish Pomerania until 1720, when it was acquired by the Kingdom of Prussia and then the German Empire. Following World War II Stettin became part of Poland, resulting in expulsion of the German population. Szczecin is the administrative and industrial centre of West Pomeranian Voivodeship and is the site of the University of Szczecin, Pomeranian Medical University, Maritime University, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin Art Academy, and the see of the Szczecin-Kamień Catholic Archdiocese. From 1999 onwards, Szczecin has served as the site of the headquarters of NATO's Multinational Corps Northeast. Szczecin was a candidate for the European Capital of Culture in 2016.
The Tatars (татарлар, татары) are a Turkic-speaking peoples living mainly in Russia and other Post-Soviet countries.
The Order of Brothers of the German House of Saint Mary in Jerusalem (official names: Ordo domus Sanctæ Mariæ Theutonicorum Hierosolymitanorum, Orden der Brüder vom Deutschen Haus der Heiligen Maria in Jerusalem), commonly the Teutonic Order (Deutscher Orden, Deutschherrenorden or Deutschritterorden), is a Catholic religious order founded as a military order c. 1190 in Acre, Kingdom of Jerusalem.
The Knights of the Cross or The Teutonic Knights (Krzyżacy) is a 1900 historical novel written by the eminent Polish Positivist writer and the 1905 Nobel laureate, Henryk Sienkiewicz.
The Thirteen Years' War (Dreizehnjähriger Krieg; wojna trzynastoletnia), also called the War of the Cities, was a conflict fought in 1454–66 between the Prussian Confederation, allied with the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland, and the State of the Teutonic Order.
The Tomb of the Unknown Soldier (Grób Nieznanego Żołnierza) is a monument in Warsaw, Poland, dedicated to the unknown soldiers who have given their lives for Poland.
Toruń (Thorn) is a city in northern Poland, on the Vistula River.
The Treaty of Dubysa or Treaty of Dubissa (Dubysos sutartys) consisted of three legal acts formulated on 31 October 1382 between Jogaila, Grand Duke of Lithuania, with his brother Skirgaila and Konrad von Wallenrode, Marshal of the Teutonic Order.
The Treaty of Kalisz (Pokój kaliski, Vertrag von Kalisch) was a peace treaty signed by King Casimir III the Great of Poland and the Teutonic Knights on 2 June 1343 in Kalisz.
The Treaty of Melno (Melno taika; Pokój melneński) or Treaty of Lake Melno (Friede von Melnosee) was a peace treaty ending the Gollub War.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
Ulrich von Jungingen (c.a. 1360 – 15 July 1410) was the 26th Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights, serving from 1407 to 1410.
In a strict sense, the Union of Krewo or "Act of Krėva" (also spelled "Union of Krevo", "Act of Kreva"; Krėvos sutartis) was a set of prenuptial promises made in the Kreva Castle on 14 August 1385 by Jogaila, Grand Duke of Lithuania, in exchange for marriage to the underage reigning Queen Jadwiga of Poland.
The University of Washington Press is an American academic publishing house.
Ushakovo (Ушаково) is the name of several rural localities in Russia.
Vatslaw Yustynavich Lastowski (Вацлаў Юстынавіч Ластоўскі, Вацлав Устинович Ластовский, Wacław Łastowski; 1883 – 1938) was a Belarusian critic, historian of literature, and politician.
Vilnius (see also other names) is the capital of Lithuania and its largest city, with a population of 574,221.
The Cathedral Basilica of St Stanislaus and St Ladislaus of Vilnius (Vilniaus Šv., Bazylika archikatedralna św.) is the main Roman Catholic Cathedral of Lithuania.
The Vistula (Wisła, Weichsel,, ווייסל), Висла) is the longest and largest river in Poland, at in length. The drainage basin area of the Vistula is, of which lies within Poland (54% of its land area). The remainder is in Belarus, Ukraine and Slovakia. The Vistula rises at Barania Góra in the south of Poland, above sea level in the Silesian Beskids (western part of Carpathian Mountains), where it begins with the White Little Vistula (Biała Wisełka) and the Black Little Vistula (Czarna Wisełka). It then continues to flow over the vast Polish plains, passing several large Polish cities along its way, including Kraków, Sandomierz, Warsaw, Płock, Włocławek, Toruń, Bydgoszcz, Świecie, Grudziądz, Tczew and Gdańsk. It empties into the Vistula Lagoon (Zalew Wiślany) or directly into the Gdańsk Bay of the Baltic Sea with a delta and several branches (Leniwka, Przekop, Śmiała Wisła, Martwa Wisła, Nogat and Szkarpawa).
Voigt (mainly written Vogt, also Voight) is a German surname, and may refer to.
Vytautas (c. 1350 – October 27, 1430), also known as Vytautas the Great (Lithuanian:, Вітаўт Кейстутавіч (Vitaŭt Kiejstutavič), Witold Kiejstutowicz, Rusyn: Vitovt, Latin: Alexander Vitoldus) from the 15th century onwards, was a ruler of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, which chiefly encompassed the Lithuanians and Ruthenians.
A wagon fort is a mobile fortification made of wagons arranged into a rectangle, a circle or other shape and possibly joined with each other, an improvised military camp.
Wallachia or Walachia (Țara Românească; archaic: Țeara Rumânească, Romanian Cyrillic alphabet: Цѣра Рȣмѫнѣскъ) is a historical and geographical region of Romania.
War reparations are payments made after a war by the vanquished to the victors.
Warsaw (Warszawa; see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland.
The Royal Archcathedral Basilica of Saints Stanislaus and Wenceslaus on the Wawel Hill (królewska bazylika archikatedralna śś.), also known as the Wawel Cathedral (katedra wawelska), is a Roman Catholic church located on Wawel Hill in Kraków, Poland.
Jogaila (later Władysław II JagiełłoHe is known under a number of names: Jogaila Algirdaitis; Władysław II Jagiełło; Jahajła (Ягайла). See also: Names and titles of Władysław II Jagiełło. (c. 1352/1362 – 1 June 1434) was the Grand Duke of Lithuania (1377–1434) and then the King of Poland (1386–1434), first alongside his wife Jadwiga until 1399, and then sole King of Poland. He ruled in Lithuania from 1377. Born a pagan, in 1386 he converted to Catholicism and was baptized as Władysław in Kraków, married the young Queen Jadwiga, and was crowned King of Poland as Władysław II Jagiełło. In 1387 he converted Lithuania to Christianity. His own reign in Poland started in 1399, upon the death of Queen Jadwiga, and lasted a further thirty-five years and laid the foundation for the centuries-long Polish–Lithuanian union. He was a member of the Jagiellonian dynasty in Poland that bears his name and was previously also known as the Gediminid dynasty in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The dynasty ruled both states until 1572,Anna Jagiellon, the last member of royal Jagiellon family, died in 1596. and became one of the most influential dynasties in late medieval and early modern Central and Eastern Europe. During his reign, the Polish-Lithuanian state was the largest state in the Christian world. Jogaila was the last pagan ruler of medieval Lithuania. After he became King of Poland, as a result of the Union of Krewo, the newly formed Polish-Lithuanian union confronted the growing power of the Teutonic Knights. The allied victory at the Battle of Grunwald in 1410, followed by the Peace of Thorn, secured the Polish and Lithuanian borders and marked the emergence of the Polish–Lithuanian alliance as a significant force in Europe. The reign of Władysław II Jagiełło extended Polish frontiers and is often considered the beginning of Poland's Golden Age.
Wenceslaus (also Wenceslas; Václav IV.; Wenzel, nicknamed der Faule ("the Idle"); 26 February 1361 – 16 August 1419) was, by inheritance, King of Bohemia (as Wenceslaus IV) from 1363 and by election, German King (formally King of the Romans) from 1376.
Westphalia (Westfalen) is a region in northwestern Germany and one of the three historic parts of the state of North Rhine-Westphalia.
William Urban is an American historian specializing in the Baltic Crusades and Teutonic knights.
Wojciech of Jastrzębiec (c. 1362–1436) was a Polish mediaeval politician and religious leader.
Wolbórz is a town in Piotrków County, Łódź Voivodeship, in central Poland.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
Zbigniew of Brzezia (or Zbigniew Lanckoroński) (ca. 1360 – ca. 1425) was a notable Polish knight and nobleman of Clan Zadora.
Zbigniew Oleśnicki (5 December 1389 in Sienno, Masovian Voivodeship – 1 April 1455), known in Latin as Sbigneus, was a high-ranking Roman Catholic clergyman and an influential Polish statesman and diplomat.
Zigmantas Kiaupa (June 29, 1942 in Pakiaunis village near Ignalina) is a Lithuanian historian, archivist, and professor.
Zyndram z Maszkowic (Zyndram of Maszkowice, c. 1355 – c. 1414) was a Polish 14th and 15th century knight.
Battle Of Grunwald, Battle of Gruenwald, Battle of Grunwald (1410), Battle of Grunwaldu, Battle of Grünwald, Battle of Stebark, Battle of Tannenberg (1410), Battle of Zalgiris, Battle of grunwald, Battle of Žalgiris, Bitwa pod Grunwaldem, First Battle of Tannenberg.