97 relations: Aegean Sea, Ahlat, Aleppo, Alexios I Komnenos, Alp Arslan, Anatolia, Andronikos Doukas (cousin of Michael VII), Ani, Anna Komnene, Antioch, Archery, Armenia, Armeniac Theme, Armenians, Artuk Bey, Üsküdar, İznik, Battle of Myriokephalon, Black Sea, Bulgaria, Byzantine army, Byzantine Empire, Byzantine–Seljuq wars, Cilicia, Conscription, Constantine IX Monomachos, Constantine X Doukas, Constantinople, Crescent, Crusades, Cumans, Dardanelles, Diplomatic mission, Doukas, Duke, Eastern Christianity, Encyclopædia Britannica, Erzurum, Fatimid Caliphate, First Crusade, Franks, Galatia, Hit-and-run tactics, Iberia (theme), Ibn al-Adim, Isaac I Komnenos, John Doukas (Caesar), John Julius Norwich, John Skylitzes, Joseph Tarchaneiotes, ..., Kınalıada, Kızılırmak River, Kekaumenos, Kingdom of Georgia, Konya, Lake Van, Malazgirt, Mamluk, Manbij, Manuel I Komnenos, Medieval Armenia, Mediterranean Sea, Mercenary, Mercury Publications, Michael Attaleiates, Michael VII Doukas, Middle East, Mosul, Muş Province, Muslim, Nicaea, Nikephoros Bryennios the Elder, Normans, Oghuz Turks, Pamphylia, Paul K. Davis (historian), Pechenegs, Ransom, Rashid al-Dawla Mahmud, Romanos IV Diogenes, Roussel de Bailleul, Rout, Seljuk Empire, Sivas, Steven Runciman, Suleiman ibn Qutulmish, Sultan, Syria, Tagma (military), Theodore Alyates, Thomas Asbridge, Turkey, Turkic peoples, Turkification, Usurper, Varangian Guard, Vintage Books. Expand index (47 more) » « Shrink index
The Aegean Sea (Αιγαίο Πέλαγος; Ege Denizi) is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the Greek and Anatolian peninsulas, i.e., between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey.
Ahlat (Խլաթ, Khlat; اخلاط; ხლათი, Khlati; Xelat; Χαλάτα, Chalata), is a historic town and district in Turkey's Bitlis Province in Eastern Anatolia Region.
Aleppo (ﺣﻠﺐ / ALA-LC) is a city in Syria, serving as the capital of the Aleppo Governorate, the most-populous Syrian governorate.
Alexios I Komnenos (Ἀλέξιος Αʹ Κομνηνός., c. 1048 – 15 August 1118) was Byzantine emperor from 1081 to 1118.
Alp Arslan (honorific in Turkish meaning "Heroic Lion"; in آلپ ارسلان; full name: Diya ad-Dunya wa ad-Din Adud ad-Dawlah Abu Shuja Muhammad Alp Arslan ibn Dawud ابو شجاع محمد آلپ ارسلان ابن داود; 20 January 1029 – 15 December 1072), real name Muhammad bin Dawud Chaghri, was the second Sultan of the Seljuk Empire and great-grandson of Seljuk, the eponymous founder of the dynasty.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
Andronikos Doukas, Latinized as Andronicus Ducas, (Ανδρόνικος Δούκας; died 14 October 1077) was a protovestiarios and protoproedros of the Byzantine Empire.
Ani (Անի; Ἄνιον, Ánion; Abnicum; ანი, Ani, or ანისი, Anisi; Ani) is a ruined medieval Armenian city now situated in Turkey's province of Kars, next to the closed border with Armenia.
Anna Komnene (Ἄννα Κομνηνή, Ánna Komnēnḗ; 1 December 1083 – 1153), commonly latinized as Anna Comnena, was a Byzantine princess, scholar, physician, hospital administrator, and historian.
Antioch on the Orontes (Antiókheia je epi Oróntou; also Syrian Antioch)Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Ὀρόντου; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Δάφνῃ, "Antioch on Daphne"; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ Μεγάλη, "Antioch the Great"; Antiochia ad Orontem; Անտիոք Antiok; ܐܢܛܝܘܟܝܐ Anṭiokya; Hebrew: אנטיוכיה, Antiyokhya; Arabic: انطاكية, Anṭākiya; انطاکیه; Antakya.
Archery is the art, sport, practice or skill of using a bow to shoot arrows.
Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
The Armeniac Theme (Άρμενιακόν, Armeniakon), more properly the Theme of the Armeniacs (Greek: θέμα Άρμενιάκων, thema Armeniakōn) was a Byzantine theme (a military-civilian province) located in northeastern Asia Minor (modern Turkey).
Armenians (հայեր, hayer) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands.
Zaheer-ul-Daulah Artuk Beg (also known as "son of Eksük") was a Turkish commander of the Seljuq Empire in the 11th century.
Üsküdar, traditionally known in Italian and English as Scutari (Σκουτάριον in Greek), is a large and densely populated district and municipality of Istanbul, Turkey, on the Anatolian shore of the Bosphorus.
İznik is a town and an administrative district in the Province of Bursa, Turkey.
The Battle of Myriokephalon, also known as the Battle of Myriocephalum, or Miryokefalon Savaşı in Turkish, was a battle between the Byzantine Empire and the Seljuk Turks in Phrygia on 17 September 1176.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.
The Byzantine army or Eastern Roman army was the primary military body of the Byzantine armed forces, serving alongside the Byzantine navy.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
The Byzantine–Seljuq Wars (Bizans-Selçuklu Savaşları) were a series of decisive battles that shifted the balance of power in Asia Minor and Syria from the European Byzantine Empire to the Central Asian Seljuq Turks.
In antiquity, Cilicia(Armenian: Կիլիկիա) was the south coastal region of Asia Minor and existed as a political entity from Hittite times into the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia during the late Byzantine Empire.
Conscription, sometimes called the draft, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.
Constantine IX Monomachos, Latinized as Constantine IX Monomachus (translit; c. 1000 – 11 January 1055), reigned as Byzantine emperor from June 11, 1042 to January 11, 1055.
Constantine X Doukas or Dukas, Latinized as Ducas (Κωνσταντῖνος Ι΄ Δούκας, Kōnstantinos X Doukas, 1006 – 22 May 1067) was emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 24 November 1059 to 22 May 1067.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
A crescent shape (British English also) is a symbol or emblem used to represent the lunar phase in the first quarter (the "sickle moon"), or by extension a symbol representing the Moon itself.
The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.
The Cumans (Polovtsi) were a Turkic nomadic people comprising the western branch of the Cuman–Kipchak confederation.
The Dardanelles (Çanakkale Boğazı, translit), also known from Classical Antiquity as the Hellespont (Ἑλλήσποντος, Hellespontos, literally "Sea of Helle"), is a narrow, natural strait and internationally-significant waterway in northwestern Turkey that forms part of the continental boundary between Europe and Asia, and separates Asian Turkey from European Turkey.
A diplomatic mission or foreign mission is a group of people from one state or an organisation present in another state to represent the sending state/organisation officially in the receiving state.
Doukas, Latinized as Ducas (Δούκας; feminine: Doukaina/Ducaena, Δούκαινα; plural: Doukai/Ducae, Δοῦκαι), from the Latin tile dux ("leader", "general", Hellenized as δοὺξ), is the name of a Byzantine Greek noble family, whose branches provided several notable generals and rulers to the Byzantine Empire in the 9th–11th centuries.
A duke (male) or duchess (female) can either be a monarch ruling over a duchy or a member of royalty or nobility, historically of highest rank below the monarch.
Eastern Christianity consists of four main church families: the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Oriental Orthodox churches, the Eastern Catholic churches (that are in communion with Rome but still maintain Eastern liturgies), and the denominations descended from the Church of the East.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
Erzurum (Կարին) is a city in eastern Anatolia (Asian Turkey).
The Fatimid Caliphate was an Islamic caliphate that spanned a large area of North Africa, from the Red Sea in the east to the Atlantic Ocean in the west.
The First Crusade (1095–1099) was the first of a number of crusades that attempted to recapture the Holy Land, called for by Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont in 1095.
The Franks (Franci or gens Francorum) were a collection of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine in the 3rd century AD, on the edge of the Roman Empire.
Ancient Galatia (Γαλατία, Galatía) was an area in the highlands of central Anatolia (Ankara, Çorum, Yozgat Province) in modern Turkey.
Hit-and-run tactics is a tactical doctrine where the purpose of the combat involved is not to seize control of territory, but to inflict damage on a target and immediately exit the area to avoid the enemy's defense and/or retaliation.
The theme of Iberia (θέμα Ἰβηρίας) was an administrative and military unit – theme – within the Byzantine Empire carved by the Byzantine Emperors out of several Georgian lands in the 11th century.
Kamal al-Din ʻUmar ibn Aḥmad Ibn al-Adim (1192–1262; Arabic: كمال الدين عمر بن أحمد ابن العديم) was an Arab biographer and historian from Aleppo.
Isaac I Komnenos (or Comnenus) (Ισαάκιος A' Κομνηνός, Isaakios I Komnēnos; c. 1007 – 1060/61) was Byzantine Emperor from 1057 to 1059, the first reigning member of the Komnenos dynasty.
John Doukas (or Ducas) (Ιωάννης Δούκας, Iōannēs Doukas) (died c. 1088) was the son of Andronikos Doukas, a Paphlagonian nobleman who may have served as governor of the theme of Moesia, and the younger brother of Emperor Constantine X Doukas.
John Julius Cooper, 2nd Viscount Norwich, (15 September 1929 – 1 June 2018), known as John Julius Norwich, was an English popular historian, travel writer and television personality.
John Skylitzes, Latinized as Ioannes Scylitzes (Ἰωάννης Σκυλίτζης, also Σκυλλίτζης/Σκυλίτσης, Iōannēs Skylitzēs/Skyllitzēs/Skylitsēs; early 1040s – after 1101), was a Greek historian of the late 11th century.
Joseph Tarchaneiotes (Ιωσήφ Ταρχανειώτης) was a Byzantine general primarily known for his lack of participation in the decisive Battle of Manzikert (1071).
Kınalıada (Գնալը կղզի; Πρώτη, Proti 'first') is an island in the Sea of Marmara; it is the closest of the Prince Islands to Istanbul, Turkey, lying about to the south.
The Kızılırmak (Turkish for "Red River"), also known as the Halys River (Ἅλυς), is the longest river entirely within Turkey.
Kekaumenos (Κεκαυμένος) is the family name of the otherwise unidentified Byzantine author of the Strategikon, a manual on military and household affairs composed c. 1078.
The Kingdom of Georgia (საქართველოს სამეფო), also known as the Georgian Empire, was a medieval Eurasian monarchy which emerged circa 1008 AD.
Konya (Ikónion, Iconium) is a major city in south-western edge of the Central Anatolian Plateau and is the seventh-most-populous city in Turkey with a metropolitan population of over 2.1 million.
Lake Van (Van Gölü, Վանա լիճ, Vana lič̣, Gola Wanê), the largest lake in Turkey, lies in the far east of that country in the provinces of Van and Bitlis.
Malazgirt (also Malâzgird; Մանազկերտ Manazkert; Ματζιέρτη Matzierte; historically Manzikert, Μαντζικέρτ) is a town in Muş Province in eastern Turkey, with a population of 23,697 (year 2000).
Mamluk (Arabic: مملوك mamlūk (singular), مماليك mamālīk (plural), meaning "property", also transliterated as mamlouk, mamluq, mamluke, mameluk, mameluke, mamaluke or marmeluke) is an Arabic designation for slaves.
Manbij (منبج, Minbic) is a city in the northeast of Aleppo Governorate in northern Syria, 30 kilometers west of the Euphrates.
Manuel I Komnenos (or Comnenus; Μανουήλ Α' Κομνηνός, Manouēl I Komnēnos; 28 November 1118 – 24 September 1180) was a Byzantine Emperor of the 12th century who reigned over a crucial turning point in the history of Byzantium and the Mediterranean.
Western Armenia had been under Byzantine control since the partition of the Kingdom of Armenia in AD 387, while Eastern Armenia had been under the occupation of the Sassanid Empire starting 428.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
A mercenary is an individual who is hired to take part in an armed conflict but is not part of a regular army or other governmental military force.
Mercury Publications (a.k.a. Mercury Press) was a magazine publishing company, owned and operated by Lawrence E. Spivak, which mainly published genre fiction in digest-sized formats.
Michael Attaleiates or Attaliates (Μιχαήλ Ἀτταλειάτης) (c. 1022-1080) was a Byzantine public servant and historian active in Constantinople and around the empire's provinces in the second half of the eleventh century.
Michael VII Doukas or Dukas/Ducas (Μιχαήλ Ζ΄ Δούκας, Mikhaēl VII Doukas), nicknamed Parapinakes (Παραπινάκης, lit. "minus a quarter", with reference to the devaluation of the Byzantine currency under his rule), was Byzantine emperor from 1071 to 1078.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
Mosul (الموصل, مووسڵ, Māwṣil) is a major city in northern Iraq. Located some north of Baghdad, Mosul stands on the west bank of the Tigris, opposite the ancient Assyrian city of Nineveh on the east bank. The metropolitan area has grown to encompass substantial areas on both the "Left Bank" (east side) and the "Right Bank" (west side), as the two banks are described by the locals compared to the flow direction of Tigris. At the start of the 21st century, Mosul and its surrounds had an ethnically and religiously diverse population; the majority of Mosul's population were Arabs, with Assyrians, Armenians, Turkmens, Kurds, Yazidis, Shabakis, Mandaeans, Kawliya, Circassians in addition to other, smaller ethnic minorities. In religious terms, mainstream Sunni Islam was the largest religion, but with a significant number of followers of the Salafi movement and Christianity (the latter followed by the Assyrians and Armenians), as well as Shia Islam, Sufism, Yazidism, Shabakism, Yarsanism and Mandaeism. Mosul's population grew rapidly around the turn of the millennium and by 2004 was estimated to be 1,846,500. In 2014, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant seized control of the city. The Iraqi government recaptured it in the 2016–2017 Battle of Mosul. Historically, important products of the area include Mosul marble and oil. The city of Mosul is home to the University of Mosul and its renowned Medical College, which together was one of the largest educational and research centers in Iraq and the Middle East. Mosul, together with the nearby Nineveh plains, is one of the historic centers for the Assyrians and their churches; the Assyrian Church of the East; its offshoot, the Chaldean Catholic Church; and the Syriac Orthodox Church, containing the tombs of several Old Testament prophets such as Jonah, some of which were destroyed by ISIL in July 2014.
Muş Province (Muş ili) is a province in eastern Turkey.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
Nicaea or Nicea (Νίκαια, Níkaia; İznik) was an ancient city in northwestern Anatolia, and is primarily known as the site of the First and Second Councils of Nicaea (the first and seventh Ecumenical councils in the early history of the Christian Church), the Nicene Creed (which comes from the First Council), and as the capital city of the Empire of Nicaea following the Fourth Crusade in 1204, until the recapture of Constantinople by the Byzantines in 1261.
Nikephoros Bryennios the Elder (Νικηφόρος Βρυέννιος ο πρεσβύτερος), Latinized as Nicephorus Bryennius, was a Byzantine general who tried to establish himself as Emperor in the late eleventh century.
The Normans (Norman: Normaunds; Normands; Normanni) were the people who, in the 10th and 11th centuries, gave their name to Normandy, a region in France.
The Oghuz, Oguz or Ghuzz Turks were a western Turkic people who spoke the Oghuz languages from the Common branch of Turkic language family.
Pamphylia (Παμφυλία, Pamphylía, modern pronunciation Pamfylía) was a former region in the south of Asia Minor, between Lycia and Cilicia, extending from the Mediterranean to Mount Taurus (modern-day Antalya province, Turkey).
Paul K. Davis (born 1952) is a historian specializing in military history.
The Pechenegs or Patzinaks were a semi-nomadic Turkic people from Central Asia speaking the Pecheneg language which belonged to the Oghuz branch of Turkic language family.
Ransom is the practice of holding a prisoner or item to extort money or property to secure their release, or it may refer to the sum of money involved.
Rashid al-Dawla Mahmud, full name Mahmud bin Shibl al-Dawla Nasr bin Salih bin Mirdas, also known as Abu Salama Mahmud bin Nasr bin Salih, (died 1075) was the Mirdasid emir of Aleppo from 1060 to 1061 and again from 1065 until his death.
Romanos IV Diogenes (Ρωμανός Δ΄ Διογένης, Rōmanós IV Diogénēs), also known as Romanus IV, was a member of the Byzantine military aristocracy who, after his marriage to the widowed empress Eudokia Makrembolitissa, was crowned Byzantine emperor and reigned from 1068 to 1071.
Roussel de Bailleul (died 1077), also known as Phrangopoulos (literally "son-of-a-Frank"), was a Norman adventurer (or exile) who travelled to Byzantium and there received employ as a soldier and leader of men from the Emperor Romanus IV (ruled 1068–71).
A rout is a chaotic and disorderly retreat or withdrawal of troops from a battlefield, resulting in the victory of the opposing party, or following defeat, a collapse of discipline, or poor morale.
The Seljuk Empire (also spelled Seljuq) (آل سلجوق) was a medieval Turko-Persian Sunni Muslim empire, originating from the Qiniq branch of Oghuz Turks.
Sivas (Latin and Greek: Sebastia, Sebastea, Sebasteia, Sebaste, Σεβάστεια, Σεβαστή) is a city in central Turkey and the seat of Sivas Province.
Sir James Cochran Stevenson Runciman, CH, FBA (7 July 1903 – 1 November 2000), known as Steven Runciman, was an English historian best known for his three-volume A History of the Crusades (1951–54).
Kutalmışoglu Suleiman (سُلَیمان بن قُتَلمِش, سلیمان بن قتلمش) founded an independent Seljuq Turkish state in Anatolia and ruled as Seljuq Sultan of Rûm from 1077 until his death in 1086.
Sultan (سلطان) is a position with several historical meanings.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
The tagma (τάγμα, pl. τάγματα) is a military unit of battalion or regiment size, especially the elite regiments formed by Byzantine emperor Constantine V and comprising the central army of the Byzantine Empire in the 8th–11th centuries.
Theodore Alyates (Θεόδωρος Ἀλυάτης) was a Byzantine general and close associate of the Emperor Romanos IV Diogenes.
Thomas Asbridge is a medieval history scholar at Queen Mary University of London and has been since 1999.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethno-linguistic groups of Central, Eastern, Northern and Western Asia as well as parts of Europe and North Africa.
Turkification, or Turkicization (Türkleştirme), is a cultural shift whereby populations or states adopted a historical Turkic culture, such as in the Ottoman Empire.
A usurper is an illegitimate or controversial claimant to power, often but not always in a monarchy.
The Varangian Guard (Τάγμα τῶν Βαράγγων, Tágma tōn Varángōn) was an elite unit of the Byzantine Army, from the 10th to the 14th centuries, whose members served as personal bodyguards to the Byzantine Emperors.
Vintage Books is a publishing imprint established in 1954 by Alfred A. Knopf.