235 relations: A Canticle for Leibowitz, Adolf Hitler, Adriatic Sea, Alban Hills, Albert Kesselring, Alexander Galloway, Alfred Gruenther, Allied Armies in Italy, Allied Force Headquarters, Allied invasion of Italy, Allied invasion of Sicily, Allies of World War II, Alphonse Juin, Amphibious warfare, Anno Domini, Apennine Mountains, Appian Way, Artillery, Attrition warfare, Augsburg, Augustin Guillaume, Aurunci Mountains, Ausonia, Lazio, Australia, Axis powers, Barbara Line, Battle honour, Battle of Anzio, Battle of Ortona, Battle of San Pietro Infine, Battle of Verdun, Benedict of Nursia, Bernard Freyberg, 1st Baron Freyberg, Bernard Montgomery, Bernhardt Line, Blockbuster bomb, Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress, Bomber, Breakthrough (military), Bridgehead, British Raj, Bronze, C. L. Sulzberger, Caesar C line, Cardinal Secretary of State, Cassino, Cassino Band of Northumbria Army Cadet Force, Cassino War Cemetery, Charles W. Ryder, Colonial troops, ..., Combat command, Combined Chiefs of Staff, Commander-in-chief, Commandos (United Kingdom), Commonwealth War Graves Commission, Defensive fighting position, Division (military), Dominion of New Zealand, Dudley Russell, Eberhard Rodt, Eberhard von Mackensen, Eighth Army (United Kingdom), El Greco, Esperia, European theatre of World War II, Fallschirmjäger (World War II), Feliks Konarski, Flanking maneuver, Florence, Francis Tuker, Francisco Goya, Fred L. Walker, French Expeditionary Corps (1943–44), Fridolin von Senger und Etterlin, Friedrich Franek, G.I. (military), Gari (river), Garigliano, General (United Kingdom), Generalfeldmarschall, Generalleutnant, Geoffrey Keyes, Gothic Line, Gurkha, Harold Alexander, 1st Earl Alexander of Tunis, Harry Kenneth Dimoline, Heinrich von Vietinghoff, Henry Maitland Wilson, Himalayas, Hitler Line, Holy See, Howard Kippenberger, I Canadian Corps, II Corps (Poland), II Corps (United States), Incunable, Invasion of Normandy, Ira C. Eaker, Italian Campaign (World War II), Italian Civil War, Italian Co-belligerent Army, Italian Social Republic, Italy, Jacob L. Devers, Janusz Piekałkiewicz, John P. Lucas, Julius Ringel, La Repubblica, Lamp of Brotherhood, Landing craft, Lieutenant general, Lieutenant general (United States), Lieutenant-general (United Kingdom), Liri, Looting, Lucian Truscott, Ludwig Heilmann, Luigi Maglione, Machine gun, Major general (United States), Mark W. Clark, Marocchinate, Martin B-26 Marauder, Māori Battalion, Melchior Wańkowicz, Military history of Canada during World War II, Minsk, Monasticism, Monte Cairo, Monte Cassino, Monte Cassino Commemorative Cross, Monument to the Battle of Monte Cassino in Warsaw, Moroccan Goumier, Morocco, Mountain warfare, Naples, Nazi Germany, Nebelwerfer, Nettuno, Normandy landings, North American B-25 Mitchell, Nuclear warfare, Oberst, Office of Public Sector Information, Oliver Leese, Operation Overlord, Order of Saint Benedict, Paul Conrath, PAX Association, Perugia, Piedimonte San Germano, Piotra Sych, Piper J-3 Cub, Polish Armed Forces in the West, Polish Cemetery at Monte Cassino, Polish government-in-exile, Pontificia Commissione di Assistenza, Pontine Marshes, Pope Pius XII, Rapido (river), Richard McCreery, Rick Atkinson, Rome, Royal Sussex Regiment, Rule of Saint Benedict, San Giorgio a Liri, Sicily–Rome American Cemetery and Memorial, Stinson L-5 Sentinel, The Guardian, The New York Times, The Red Poppies on Monte Cassino, Time (magazine), Titian, Trasimene Line, Tropical disease, Ulex, Union of South Africa, United States Army Center of Military History, United States Army North, United States Army Rangers, United States congressional hearing, Valmontone, VI Corps (United Kingdom), VI Corps (United States), Walter M. Miller Jr., Warsaw, Władysław Anders, Winter Line, World War II, X Corps (United Kingdom), XIII Corps (United Kingdom), XIV Panzer Corps, Zbigniew Wawer, 10th Army (Wehrmacht), 12th Podolian Uhlan Regiment, 141st Infantry Regiment (United States), 142nd Infantry Regiment (United States), 143rd Infantry Regiment (United States), 14th Army (Wehrmacht), 15th Army Group, 15th Panzergrenadier Division (Wehrmacht), 1st Armored Division (United States), 1st Armoured Infantry Brigade (United Kingdom), 1st Canadian Armoured Brigade, 1st Canadian Division, 1st Free French Division, 1st Infantry Division (United Kingdom), 1st Parachute Division (Germany), 23rd Infantry Division (Wehrmacht), 29th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht), 2nd King Edward VII's Own Gurkha Rifles (The Sirmoor Rifles), 2nd New Zealand Division, 34th Infantry Division (United States), 36th Infantry Division (United States), 3rd Algerian Infantry Division, 3rd Carpathian Rifle Division (Poland), 3rd Infantry Division (United States), 44th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht), 46th Infantry Division (United Kingdom), 4th Infantry Division (India), 4th Infantry Division (United Kingdom), 504th Infantry Regiment (United States), 56th (London) Infantry Division, 5th Canadian Division, 5th Infantry Division (United Kingdom), 5th Kresowa Infantry Division, 5th Mountain Division (Wehrmacht), 6th Rajputana Rifles, 71st Infantry Division (Wehrmacht), 78th Infantry Division (United Kingdom), 7th Indian Infantry Brigade, 8th Infantry Division (India), 9 Gorkha Rifles, 90th Light Infantry Division (Wehrmacht), 94th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht). Expand index (185 more) » « Shrink index
A Canticle for Leibowitz is a post-apocalyptic science fiction novel by American writer Walter M. Miller Jr., first published in 1959.
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
The Adriatic Sea is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkan peninsula.
The Alban Hills are the site of a quiescent volcanic complex in Italy, located southeast of Rome and about north of Anzio.
Albert Kesselring (30 November 1885 – 16 July 1960) was a German Luftwaffe Generalfeldmarschall during World War II.
Lieutenant-General Sir Alexander Galloway, (3 November 1895 − 28 January 1977) was a British Army officer who served during both World War I and World War II. During the latter, he was particularly highly regarded as a staff officer and, as such, had an influential role in the outcome of Operation Crusader during the Western Desert Campaign in late 1941, and later commanded the 4th Indian Infantry Division at the Battle of Monte Cassino during the Italian Campaign in early 1944.
Alfred Maximilian Gruenther (March 3, 1899 – May 30, 1983) was a senior United States Army officer, Red Cross president, and bridge player.
The Allied Armies in Italy (AAI) was the title of the highest Allied field headquarters in Italy, during the middle part of the Italian Campaign of World War II.
Allied Force Headquarters (AFHQ) was the headquarters that controlled all Allied operational forces in the Mediterranean Theatre of World War II from late 1942 until the end of the war in Europe in May 1945.
The Allied invasion of Italy was the Allied amphibious landing on mainland Italy that took place on 3 September 1943 during the early stages of the Italian Campaign of World War II.
The Allied invasion of Sicily, codenamed Operation Husky, was a major campaign of World War II, in which the Allies took the island of Sicily from the Axis powers (Italy and Nazi Germany).
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
Alphonse Pierre Juin (16 December 1888 – 27 January 1967) was a senior French Army officer who became a Marshal of France.
Amphibious warfare is a type of offensive military operation that today uses naval ships to project ground and air power onto a hostile or potentially hostile shore at a designated landing beach.
The terms anno Domini (AD) and before Christ (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars.
The Apennines or Apennine Mountains (Ἀπέννινα ὄρη; Appenninus or Apenninus Mons—a singular used in the plural;Apenninus has the form of an adjective, which would be segmented Apenn-inus, often used with nouns such as mons (mountain) or Greek ὄρος oros, but just as often used alone as a noun. The ancient Greeks and Romans typically but not always used "mountain" in the singular to mean one or a range; thus, "the Apennine mountain" refers to the entire chain and is translated "the Apennine mountains". The ending can vary also by gender depending on the noun modified. The Italian singular refers to one of the constituent chains rather than to a single mountain and the Italian plural refers to multiple chains rather than to multiple mountains. Appennini) are a mountain range consisting of parallel smaller chains extending along the length of peninsular Italy.
The Appian Way (Latin and Italian: Via Appia) is one of the earliest and strategically most important Roman roads of the ancient republic.
Artillery is a class of large military weapons built to fire munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry's small arms.
Attrition warfare is a military strategy consisting of belligerent attempts to win a war by wearing down the enemy to the point of collapse through continuous losses in personnel and materiel.
Augsburg (Augschburg) is a city in Swabia, Bavaria, Germany.
Augustin Léon Guillaume (30 July 1895 – 9 March 1983) was a French general.
The Monti Aurunci or Aurunci Mountains is a mountain range of southern Lazio, in central Italy.
Ausonia is a town and comune in southern Lazio, central Italy.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
The Axis powers (Achsenmächte; Potenze dell'Asse; 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku), also known as the Axis and the Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied forces.
During the Italian Campaign of World War II, the Barbara Line was a series of German military fortifications in Italy, some south of the Gustav Line, from Colli al Volturno to the Adriatic Coast in San Salvo and a similar distance north of the Volturno Line.
A battle honour is an award of a right by a government or sovereign to a military unit to emblazon the name of a battle or operation on its flags ("colours"), uniforms or other accessories where ornamentation is possible.
The Battle of Anzio was a battle of the Italian Campaign of World War II that took place from January 22, 1944 (beginning with the Allied amphibious landing known as Operation Shingle) to June 5, 1944 (ending with the capture of Rome).
The Battle of Ortona (20–28 December 1943) was a battle fought between two battalions of elite German Fallschirmjäger (paratroops) from the German 1st Parachute Division under Generalleutnant Richard Heidrich, and assaulting Canadian troops from the Canadian 1st Infantry Division under Major General Chris Vokes, most of whom were fresh recruits whose first taste of combat was during the Invasion of Sicily.
The Battle of San Pietro Infine (commonly referred to as the "Battle of San Pietro") was a major engagement from 8–17 December 1943, in the Italian Campaign of World War II involving Allied forces attacking from the south against heavily fortified positions of the German "Winter Line" in and around the town of San Pietro Infine, just south of Monte Cassino about halfway between Naples and Rome.
The Battle of Verdun (Bataille de Verdun,, Schlacht um Verdun), fought from 21 February to 18 December 1916, was the largest and longest battle of the First World War on the Western Front between the German and French armies.
Benedict of Nursia (Benedictus Nursiae; Benedetto da Norcia; Vulgar Latin: *Benedecto; Benedikt; 2 March 480 – 543 or 547 AD) is a Christian saint, who is venerated in the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Churches, the Oriental Orthodox Churches, the Anglican Communion and Old Catholic Churches.
Lieutenant General Bernard Cyril Freyberg, 1st Baron Freyberg, (21 March 1889 – 4 July 1963) was a British-born soldier and Victoria Cross recipient, who served as the 7th Governor-General of New Zealand from 1946 to 1952.
Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein, (17 November 1887 – 24 March 1976), nicknamed "Monty" and "The Spartan General", was a senior British Army officer who fought in both the First World War and the Second World War.
The Bernhardt Line (or Reinhard Line) was a German defensive line in Italy during the Italian Campaign of World War II.
A blockbuster bomb or cookie was any of several of the largest conventional bombs used in World War II by the Royal Air Force (RAF).
The Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress is a four-engine heavy bomber developed in the 1930s for the United States Army Air Corps (USAAC).
A bomber is a combat aircraft designed to attack ground and naval targets by dropping air-to-ground weaponry (such as bombs), firing torpedoes and bullets or deploying air-launched cruise missiles.
A breakthrough occurs when an offensive force has broken an opponent's defensive line, and rapidly exploits the gap.
A bridgehead (or bridge-head) is the strategically important area of ground around the end of a bridge or other place of possible crossing over a body of water which at time of conflict is sought to be defended/taken over by the belligerent forces.
The British Raj (from rāj, literally, "rule" in Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.
Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon.
Cyrus Leo Sulzberger II (October 27, 1912 – September 20, 1993) was an American journalist, diarist, and non-fiction writer.
The Caesar Line was the last German line of defence in Italy before Rome during the Italian Campaign of the Second World War.
The Secretary of State of His Holiness The Pope, commonly known as the Cardinal Secretary of State, presides over the Holy See Secretariat of State, which is the oldest and most important dicastery of the Roman Curia.
Cassino is a comune in the province of Frosinone, central Italy, at the southern end of the region of Lazio, the last City of the Latin Valley.
The Cassino Band of Northumbria Army Cadet Force is a Cadet-Youth Band.
The Cassino War Cemetery is a war grave cemetery in the commune of Cassino, Province of Frosinone, south-east of Rome, Italy.
Major General Charles Wolcott Ryder CB (January 16, 1892 – August 17, 1960) was a senior United States Army officer who served with distinction in both World War I and World War II.
Colonial troops or colonial army refers to various military units recruited from, or used as garrison troops in, colonial territories.
A Combat Command was a combined-arms military organization of comparable size to a brigade or regiment employed by armored forces of the United States Army from 1942 until 1963.
The Combined Chiefs of Staff (CCS) was the supreme military staff for the United States and Great Britain during World War II.
A commander-in-chief, also sometimes called supreme commander, or chief commander, is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces.
The Commandos also known as British Commandos were formed during the Second World War in June 1940, following a request from the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Winston Churchill, for a force that could carry out raids against German-occupied Europe.
The Commonwealth War Graves Commission (CWGC) is an intergovernmental organisation of six independent member states whose principal function is to mark, record and maintain the graves and places of commemoration of Commonwealth of Nations military service members who died in the two World Wars.
A defensive fighting position (DFP) is a type of earthwork constructed in a military context, generally large enough to accommodate anything from one man to a small number of soldiers.
A division is a large military unit or formation, usually consisting of between 10,000 and 20,000 soldiers.
The Dominion of New Zealand was the historical successor to the Colony of New Zealand.
Lieutenant General Sir Dudley Russell KBE, CB, DSO, MC (1 December 18964 February 1978) was a senior officer of both the British Army and the British Indian Army, and served during World War I and World War II, where he commanded the 8th Indian Infantry Division during the Italian Campaign from late 1943 until the end of the war.
Eberhard Rodt (4 December 1895 – 14 December 1979) was a German general during World War II who command several divisions.
Friedrich August Eberhard von Mackensen (24 September 1889 – 19 May 1969) was a German general of the Wehrmacht during World War II who served as commander of the 1st Panzer Army and the 14th Army, and was a recipient of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves.
The Eighth Army was a field army formation of the British Army during the Second World War, fighting in the North African and Italian campaigns.
Doménikos Theotokópoulos (Δομήνικος Θεοτοκόπουλος; October 1541 7 April 1614), most widely known as El Greco ("The Greek"), was a painter, sculptor and architect of the Spanish Renaissance.
Esperia is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Frosinone in the Italian region Lazio, located about southeast of Rome and about southeast of Frosinone.
The European theatre of World War II, also known as the Second European War, was a huge area of heavy fighting across Europe, from Germany's and the Soviet Union's joint invasion of Poland in September 1939 until the end of the war with the Soviet Union conquering most of Eastern Europe along with the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945 (Victory in Europe Day).
The Fallschirmjäger were the paratrooper (Fallschirmjäger) branch of the German Luftwaffe before and during World War II.
Feliks Konarski (pseudonym: Ref-Ren) (9 January 1907 – 12 September 1991) was a Polish poet, songwriter, and cabaret performer.
In military tactics, a flanking maneuver, or flanking manoeuvre is a movement of an armed force around a flank to achieve an advantageous position over an enemy.
Florence (Firenze) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany.
Lieutenant General Sir Francis Ivan Simms Tuker KCIE CB DSO OBE (4 July 1894 – 7 October 1967) was a senior British Indian Army officer who commanded the 4th Indian Infantry Division during the Second World War.
Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes (30 March 1746 – 16 April 1828) was a Spanish romantic painter and printmaker.
Major General Fred Livingood Walker (June 11, 1887 – October 6, 1969) was a highly decorated senior United States Army officer who served in both World War I and World War II and was awarded with the second highest military decorations in both wars, the Distinguished Service Cross.
The French Expeditionary Corps (Corps Expéditionnaire Français, CEF), also known as the French Expeditionary Corps in Italy (Corps Expéditionaire Français en Italie, CEFI.), was an expeditionary force composed of Free French soldiers that fought in the Italian Campaign during World War II under the command of General Alphonse Juin.
Fridolin von Senger und Etterlin (4 September 1891 – 9 January 1963) was a general in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany during World War II.
Friedrich Franek (16 July 1891 – 8 April 1976) was an Austrian general in the armed forces of Nazi Germany during World War II.
G.I. is an acronym used to describe the soldiers of the United States Army and airmen of the United States Army Air Forces and also for general items of their equipment.
The Gari is a short river that flows in Monte Cassino, Italy at the southern end of the region of Lazio.
The Garigliano is a river in central Italy.
General (or full general to distinguish it from the lower general officer ranks) is the highest rank currently achievable by serving officers of the British Army.
Generalfeldmarschall (general field marshal, field marshal general, or field marshal;; abbreviated to Feldmarschall) was a rank in the armies of several German states and the Holy Roman Empire; in the Habsburg Monarchy, the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary, the rank Feldmarschall was used.
Generalleutnant, short GenLt, (lieutenant general) is the second highest general officer rank in the German Army (Heer) and the German Air Force (Luftwaffe).
Lieutenant General Geoffrey T. Keyes (October 30, 1888 – September 17, 1967) was a highly decorated senior United States Army officer who served with distinction in Sicily and Italian Campaign during World War II.
The Gothic Line (Gotenstellung; Linea Gotica) was a German defensive line of the Italian Campaign of World War II.
The Gurkhas or Gorkhas with endonym Gorkhali (गोरखाली) are the soldiers of Nepalese nationality and ethnic Indian Gorkhas recruited in the British Army, Nepalese Army, Indian Army, Gurkha Contingent Singapore, Gurkha Reserve Unit Brunei, UN Peace Keeping force, and war zones around the world.
Field Marshal Harold Rupert Leofric George Alexander, 1st Earl Alexander of Tunis, (10 December 1891 – 16 June 1969) was a senior British Army officer who served with distinction in both the First World War and the Second World War and, afterwards, as Governor General of Canada, the 17th since Canadian Confederation.
Brigadier Harry Kenneth Dimoline CBE MBE DSO TD CPM (6 September? 1903–15 November 1972) was an artillery officer in the British and British Indian Armies during World War II.
Heinrich von Vietinghoff (6 December 1887 – 23 February 1952) was a German general (Generaloberst) of the Wehrmacht during World War II.
Field Marshal Henry Maitland Wilson, 1st Baron Wilson, (5 September 1881 – 31 December 1964), also known as Jumbo Wilson, was a senior British Army officer of the 20th century.
The Himalayas, or Himalaya, form a mountain range in Asia separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau.
The Hitler Line was a German defensive line in central Italy during the Second World War.
The Holy See (Santa Sede; Sancta Sedes), also called the See of Rome, is the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, the episcopal see of the Pope, and an independent sovereign entity.
Major General Sir Howard Karl Kippenberger, (28 January 1897 – 5 May 1957), known as "Kip", was an officer of the New Zealand Military Forces who served in the First and Second World Wars.
I Canadian Corps was one of the two corps fielded by the Canadian Army during the Second World War.
The Polish II Corps (Drugi Korpus Wojska Polskiego), 1943–1947, was a major tactical and operational unit of the Polish Armed Forces in the West during World War II.
The II Corps was a corps-sized formation of the United States Army that was active in both World War I and World War II.
An incunable, or sometimes incunabulum (plural incunables or incunabula, respectively), is a book, pamphlet, or broadside printed in Europe before the year 1501.
The Western Allies of World War II launched the largest amphibious invasion in history when they assaulted Normandy, located on the northern coast of France, on 6 June 1944.
General Ira Clarence Eaker (April 13, 1896 – August 6, 1987) was a general of the United States Army Air Forces during World War II.
The Italian Campaign of World War II consisted of the Allied operations in and around Italy, from 1943 to the end of the war in Europe.
The Italian Civil War (Italian: La guerra civile) is the period between September 8, 1943 (the date of the armistice of Cassibile), and May 2, 1945 (the date of the surrender of German forces in Italy) in which the Italian Resistance and the Italian Co-Belligerent Army joined the allies fighting Axis forces including continuing Italian Fascists Italian Social Republic.
The Italian Co-belligerent Army (Esercito Cobelligerante Italiano), Army of the South (Esercito del Sud), or Italian Liberation Corps (Corpo Italiano di Liberazione) were names applied to various division sets of the now former Royal Italian Army during the period when it fought on the side of the Allies during World War II from September 1943 onwards.
The Italian Social Republic (Repubblica Sociale Italiana,; RSI), informally known as the Republic of Salò (Repubblica di Salò), was a German puppet state with limited recognition that was created during the later part of World War II, existing from the beginning of German occupation of Italy in September 1943 until the surrender of German troops in Italy in May 1945.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Jacob Loucks Devers (8 September 1887 – 15 October 1979) was a general in the United States Army who commanded the 6th Army Group in the European Theater during World War II.
Janusz Piekałkiewicz (1925 in Warsaw – March 9, 1988) was a Polish underground soldier, historian, writer, as well as a television and cinema director and producer.
Major General John Porter Lucas (January 14, 1890 – December 24, 1949) was a senior officer of the United States Army who saw service in World War I and World War II.
Julius 'Papa' Ringel (16 November 1889 – 11 February 1967) was an Austrian general in the armed forces of Nazi Germany during World War II.
la Repubblica (the Republic) is an Italian daily general-interest newspaper.
A Lamp of Brotherhood or Fraternitatis Lumen is one of 84 decorative oil lamps cast from the bronze doors of the destroyed Monte Cassino Abbey in Italy.
Landing craft are small and medium seagoing vessels such as boats, and barges, used to convey a landing force (infantry and vehicles) from the sea to the shore during an amphibious assault.
Lieutenant general, lieutenant-general and similar (abbrev Lt Gen, LTG and similar) is a three-star military rank (NATO code OF-8) used in many countries.
In the United States Army, United States Marine Corps, and the United States Air Force, lieutenant general (abbreviated LTG in the Army, Lt Gen in the Air Force, and LtGen in the Marine Corps) is a three-star general officer rank, with the pay grade of O-9.
Lieutenant general (Lt Gen), formerly more commonly lieutenant-general, is a senior rank in the British Army and the Royal Marines.
The Liri (Latin Liris or Lyris, previously, Clanis; Greek: Λεῖρις) is one of the principal rivers of central Italy, flowing into the Tyrrhenian Sea a little below Minturno under the name Garigliano.
Looting, also referred to as sacking, ransacking, plundering, despoiling, despoliation, and pillaging, is the indiscriminate taking of goods by force as part of a military or political victory, or during a catastrophe, such as war, natural disaster (where law and civil enforcement are temporarily ineffective), or rioting.
General Lucian King Truscott Jr. (January 9, 1895 – September 12, 1965) was a highly decorated senior United States Army officer, who saw distinguished active service during World War II.
Ludwig Heilmann (9 August 1903 – 26 October 1959) was a German paratroop general in the Wehrmacht during World War II.
Luigi Maglione (2 March 1877 – 23 August 1944) was an Italian Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church.
A machine gun is a fully automatic mounted or portable firearm designed to fire bullets in rapid succession from an ammunition belt or magazine, typically at a rate of 300 rounds per minute or higher.
In the United States Army, United States Marine Corps, and United States Air Force, major general is a two-star general-officer rank, with the pay grade of O-8.
Mark Wayne Clark (May 1, 1896 – April 17, 1984) was a United States Army officer who saw service during World War I, World War II, and the Korean War.
Marocchinate (Italian for "Moroccans’ deeds") is a term applied to the mass rape and killings committed during World War II after the Battle of Monte Cassino in Italy.
The Martin B-26 Marauder was an American World War II twin-engined medium bomber built by the Glenn L. Martin Company in Middle River, Maryland (just east of Baltimore) from 1941 to 1945.
The 28th (Māori) Battalion, more commonly known as the Māori Battalion, was an infantry battalion of the New Zealand Army that served during the Second World War.
Melchior Wańkowicz (10 January 1892 – 10 September 1974) was a Polish army officer, popular writer, political journalist and publisher.
The military history of Canada during the Second World War begins with the German invasion of Poland on 1 September 1939.
Minsk (Мінск,; Минск) is the capital and largest city of Belarus, situated on the Svislach and the Nyamiha Rivers.
Monasticism (from Greek μοναχός, monachos, derived from μόνος, monos, "alone") or monkhood is a religious way of life in which one renounces worldly pursuits to devote oneself fully to spiritual work.
Monte Cairo (1,669 m) is a mountain in Lazio (in the province of Frosinone), overshadowing both the Abbey and the town of Monte Cassino, 5 kilometres to the south.
Monte Cassino (sometimes written Montecassino) is a rocky hill about southeast of Rome, in the Latin Valley, Italy, to the west of the town of Cassino and altitude.
The Monte Cassino Commemorative Cross (Krzyż Pamiątkowy Monte Cassino) is a commemorative medal awarded to all soldiers of the Polish II Corps who fought in the battle of Monte Cassino and the battles for Piedimonte and Passo Corno.
The Monument to the Battle of Monte Cassino (Pomnik Bitwy o Monte Cassino w Warszawie) is a monument in Warsaw, Poland located in the square between General Anders Street and the gates of the Krasiński Gardens near the National Archaeological Museum in the Warsaw Arsenal.
The Moroccan Goumiers (Les Goumiers Marocains) were indigenous soldiers who served in auxiliary units attached to the French Army of Africa, between 1908 and 1956.
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
Mountain warfare refers to warfare in the mountains or similarly rough terrain.
Naples (Napoli, Napule or; Neapolis; lit) is the regional capital of Campania and the third-largest municipality in Italy after Rome and Milan.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
The Nebelwerfer ("Smoke Mortar") was a World War II German series of weapons.
Nettuno is a town and comune of the Metropolitan City of Rome in the Lazio region of central Italy, south of Rome.
The Normandy landings were the landing operations on Tuesday, 6 June 1944 of the Allied invasion of Normandy in Operation Overlord during World War II.
The North American B-25 Mitchell is an American twin-engine, medium bomber manufactured by North American Aviation (NAA).
Nuclear warfare (sometimes atomic warfare or thermonuclear warfare) is a military conflict or political strategy in which nuclear weaponry is used to inflict damage on the enemy.
Oberst is a military rank in several German-speaking and Scandinavian countries, equivalent to Colonel.
The Office of Public Sector Information (OPSI) is the body responsible for the operation of Her Majesty's Stationery Office (HMSO) and of other public information services of the United Kingdom.
Lieutenant General Sir Oliver William Hargreaves Leese, 3rd Baronet, (27 October 1894 – 22 January 1978) was a senior British Army officer who saw distinguished active service during both the world wars.
Operation Overlord was the codename for the Battle of Normandy, the Allied operation that launched the successful invasion of German-occupied Western Europe during World War II.
The Order of Saint Benedict (OSB; Latin: Ordo Sancti Benedicti), also known as the Black Monksin reference to the colour of its members' habitsis a Catholic religious order of independent monastic communities that observe the Rule of Saint Benedict.
Paul Conrath (22 November 1896 – 15 January 1979) was a German general during World War II.
The PAX Association was a pro-communist secular Catholic organization created in 1947 in the People's Republic of Poland at the onset of the Stalinist period.
Perugia (Perusia) is the capital city of both the region of Umbria in central Italy, crossed by the river Tiber, and of the province of Perugia.
Piedimonte San Germano (locally Prmont) is a comune (municipality) in the province of Frosinone in the Italian region of Lazio, located in the Liri River valley about southeast of Rome and about southeast of Frosinone.
Piotra Sych (Пятро Сыч or Пётра Сыч) (January 18, 1912 - June 20, 1963), a Belarusian writer and journalist, born in Baturyna, Western Belarus, near Vileyka.
The Piper J-3 Cub is an American light aircraft that was built between 1937 and 1947 by Piper Aircraft.
The Polish Armed Forces in the West refers to the Polish military formations formed to fight alongside the Western Allies against Nazi Germany and its allies during World War II.
The Polish Cemetery at Monte Cassino holds the graves of over a thousand Poles who died storming the bombed-out Benedictine abbey atop the mountain in May 1944, during the Battle of Monte Cassino.
The Polish government-in-exile, formally known as the Government of the Republic of Poland in exile (Rząd Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej na uchodźstwie), was the government in exile of Poland formed in the aftermath of the Invasion of Poland of September 1939, and the subsequent occupation of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union, which brought to an end the Second Polish Republic.
Pontificia Commissione di Assistenza (PCA), also known as “Pontificia Commissione di Assistenza ai Profughi”, “Vatican mission” and “Vatican Relief”, was a papal ad hoc commission, created by Pope Pius XII on April 18, 1944, to provide quick, non-bureaucratic and direct aid to needy populations, refugees, and prisoners in war-torn Europe.
Lake Fogliano, a coastal lagoon in the Pontine Plain. The Pontine Marshes, termed in Latin Pomptinus Ager by Titus Livius, Pomptina Palus (singular) and Pomptinae Paludes (plural) by Pliny the Elder,Natural History 3.59.
Pope Pius XII (Pio XII), born Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli (2 March 18769 October 1958), was the Pope of the Catholic Church from 2 March 1939 to his death.
The Rapido is a short river (c.40 km) which flows in the Italian province of Frosinone.
General Sir Richard Loudon McCreery (1 February 1898 – 18 October 1967), was a career soldier of the British Army, who was decorated for leading one of the last cavalry actions in the First World War.
Lawrence Rush "Rick" Atkinson IV (born November 16, 1952) is an American author.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
The Royal Sussex Regiment was a line infantry regiment of the British Army that was in existence from 1881 to 1966.
The Rule of Saint Benedict (Regula Benedicti) is a book of precepts written by Benedict of Nursia (AD 480–550) for monks living communally under the authority of an abbot.
San Giorgio a Liri is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Frosinone in the Italian region Lazio, located about southeast of Rome and about southeast of Frosinone.
The Sicily–Rome American Cemetery and Memorial is a cemetery in Italy for American military personnel who were killed in World War II.
The Stinson L-5 Sentinel was a World War II era liaison aircraft used by all branches of the U.S. military and by the British Royal Air Force.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
Czerwone maki na Monte Cassino (The Red Poppies on Monte Cassino) is one of the best-known Polish military songs of World War II.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
Tiziano Vecelli or Tiziano Vecellio (1488/1490 – 27 August 1576), known in English as Titian, was an Italian painter, the most important member of the 16th-century Venetian school.
The Trasimene Line (so-named for Lake Trasimene, the site of a major battle of the Second Punic War in 217 BCE) was a German defensive line during the Italian Campaign of World War II.
Tropical diseases are diseases that are prevalent in or unique to tropical and subtropical regions.
Ulex (commonly known as gorse, furze or whin) is a genus of flowering plants in the family Fabaceae.
The Union of South Africa (Unie van Zuid-Afrika, Unie van Suid-Afrika) is the historic predecessor to the present-day Republic of South Africa.
The United States Army Center of Military History (CMH) is a directorate within the Office of the Administrative Assistant to the Secretary of the Army.
The United States Army North is a formation of the United States Army Service Component Command of United States Northern Command.
The United States Army Rangers are designated U.S. Army Ranger units, past or present, or are graduates of the U.S. Army Ranger School.
A United States congressional hearing is the principal formal method by which United States congressional committees collect and analyze information in the early stages of legislative policymaking.
Valmontone is a comune (municipality) in the Metropolitan City of Rome in the Italian region Lazio, located about southeast of Rome.
VI Corps was an army corps of the British Army in World War I. It was first organised in June 1915 and fought throughout on the Western Front.
The VI Corps was activated as VI Army Corps in August 1918 at Neufchâteau, France, serving in the Lorraine Campaign.
Walter Michael Miller Jr. (January 23, 1923 – January 9, 1996) was an American science fiction writer.
Warsaw (Warszawa; see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland.
Władysław Albert Anders (11 August 1892 – 12 May 1970) was a general in the Polish Army and later in life a politician and prominent member of the Polish government-in-exile in London.
The Winter Line was a series of German and Italian military fortifications in Italy, constructed during World War II by Organisation Todt and commanded by Albert Kesselring.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
X Corps was a corps of the British Army that served in the First World War on the Western Front before being disbanded in 1919.
XIII Corps was a corps-sized formation of the British Army that fought on the Western Front during the First World War and was reformed for service during the Second World War, serving in the Mediterranean and Middle East throughout its service.
XIV Panzer Corps (also: XIV Army Corps or XIV. Armeekorps) was a corps-level formation of the German Army which saw extensive action on both the Eastern Front and Italian Campaign.
Zbigniew Wawer is a Polish historian, specializing in Polish military history in World War II.
The 10th Army (German: 10. Armee) was a World War II field army of Wehrmacht (Germany).
12th Podolian Uhlan Regiment (Polish language: 12 Pulk Ulanów Podolskich, 12 p. ul) was a cavalry unit of the Polish Army.
The 141st Infantry Regiment ("1st Texas Infantry") is an infantry regiment in the United States Army.
The 142nd Infantry Regiment is an infantry regiment in the U.S. Army National Guard.
The 143rd Infantry Regiment is an airborne infantry formation in the Army National Guard and has one battalion active under the 173rd Airborne Brigade Combat Team as part of the Associated Unit Program, aligning active and reserve units with one another for training and deployment.
The 14th Army (14.) was a World War II field army of the German Army.
The 15th Army Group was an Army Group consisted by the British Eighth and the U.S. Fifth Armies, which apart troops from British Empire and U.S.A., also had whole units from other allied countries/regions; like 2 of their Corps (from free France and Poland), 1 Division (from Brazil) and 7 Brigades (6 Italians and one Greek), besides supporting and being supported by the local Italian partisans.
15th Panzergrenadier Division was a mobile division of the German Army in World War II.
The 1st Armored Division—nicknamed "Old Ironsides"—is a combined arms division of the United States Army.
The 1st Armoured Infantry Brigade is an infantry brigade of the British Army with a long history including service during both World War I and World War II.
The 1st Canadian Army Tank Brigade, later known as 1st Canadian Armoured Brigade, was an armoured brigade of the Canadian Army, raised during the Second World War.
The 1st Canadian Division is an operational command and control formation of the Canadian Joint Operations Command, based at CFB Kingston.
The 1st Free French Division (1re Division Française Libre, 1re DFL) was one of the principal units of the Free French Forces (FFL) during World War II, renowned for having fought the Battle of Bir Hakeim.
The 1st Infantry Division was a regular army infantry division of the British Army with a very long history.
The 1st Parachute Division (1.) was an elite German military parachute-landing division that fought during World War II.
The German 23rd Infantry Division was a military unit operational during World War II.
The 29th Infantry Division was a unit of the German army created in the fall of 1936.
The 2nd King Edward VII's Own Gurkha Rifles (The Sirmoor Rifles) was a rifle regiment of the British Indian Army before being transferred to the British Army on India's independence in 1947.
The 2nd New Zealand Division, initially the New Zealand Division, was an infantry division of the New Zealand Military Forces (New Zealand's army) during the Second World War.
The 34th Infantry Division is an infantry division of the United States Army, part of the National Guard, that participated in World War I, World War II and multiple current conflicts.
The 36th Infantry Division ("Arrowhead"), also known as the "Panther Division" or "Lone Star Division,", history.army.mil, last updated 20 May 2011, last accessed 23 January 2017 is an infantry division of the United States Army and part of the Texas Army National Guard.
The 3rd Algerian Infantry Division (3e Division d'Infanterie Algérienne, 3e DIA) was an infantry division of the Army of Africa (Armée d'Afrique) which participated in World War II.
The 3rd Carpathian Rifle Division (3 Dywizja Strzelców Karpackich, sometimes translated as 3rd Carpathian Infantry Division), also commonly known as Christmas Tree Division due to the characteristic emblem, was an infantry division of the Polish Armed Forces in the West that fought during World War II on the Italian Front.
The 3rd Infantry Division (nicknamed "The Rock of the Marne)" is an Infantry division of the United States Army based at Fort Stewart, Georgia.
The 44th Infantry Division was formed on 1 April 1938 in Vienna, about two weeks after the Anschluss of Austria.
The 46th Infantry Division was an infantry division of the British Army raised in 1939 that saw distinguished service during World War II, fighting in the Battle of France and the Battle of Dunkirk where it was evacuated and later in North Africa, Italy and Greece.
The 4th Indian Infantry Division, also known as the Red Eagle Division, is the infantry division name the Indian Army retained after the present India adopted its entire rank and structure from its parent Army, the British Army.
The 4th Infantry Division was a regular infantry division of the British Army with a very long history, seeing active service in the Peninsular War, the Crimean War, the First World War, and during the Second World War.
The 504th Infantry Regiment, originally the 504th Parachute Infantry Regiment (504th PIR), is an airborne forces regiment of the United States Army, part of the 82nd Airborne Division, with a long and distinguished history.
The 56th (London) Infantry Division was an infantry division of the British Army, which served under several different titles and designations.
The 5th Canadian Division is a formation of the Canadian Army.
The 5th Infantry Division was a regular army infantry division of the British Army.
The Polish 5th Kresowa Infantry Division (5 Kresowa Dywizja Piechoty) was an infantry division of the Polish Armed Forces in the West during World War II.
The 5th Mountain Division (5.) was established in the Austrian Tirol in October 1940, out of regiments taken from the 1st Mountain Division and the 10th Infantry Division.
The 6th Rajputana Rifles were an infantry regiment of the British Indian Army.
The 71st Infantry Division Kleeblatt ("Cloverleaf", "Happy One") (71.) was an infantry division of the German Army, raised in August 1939, shortly before the outbreak of World War II.
The 78th Infantry Division, also known as the Battleaxe Division, was an infantry division of the British Army, raised during World War II that fought, with great distinction, in Tunisia, Sicily and Italy from late 1942–1945.
The 7th Indian Infantry Brigade was an infantry brigade of the Indian Army during World War II.
The 8th Mountain Division was raised as the 8th Indian Infantry division of the British Indian Army.
9 Gorkha Rifles is a Gorkha regiment of the Indian Army comprising Gurkha soldiers of Nepalese origin.
The 90th Light Infantry Division was a light infantry division of the German Army during World War II that served in North Africa as well as Sardinia and Italy.
The 94th Infantry Division (German: 94. Infanteriedivision) was a German Army infantry division in World War II.