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Battle of Okinawa

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The (Uchinaa ikusa), codenamed Operation Iceberg, was a major battle of the Pacific War fought on the island of Okinawa by United States Marine and Army forces against the Imperial Japanese Army. [1]

244 relations: Admiral, Aircraft carrier, Airstrike, Allies of World War II, American mutilation of Japanese war dead, Amphibious warfare, April Fools' Day, Armoured flight deck, Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Attack aircraft, Barbarian, Battle of Britain, Battle of Iwo Jima, Battle of Leyte Gulf, Battle of Okinawa (film), Beauford T. Anderson, Bernard Rawlings (Royal Navy officer), Boeitai, Bombardment, Breakthrough (military), British Pacific Fleet, Cactus Ridge, Camp Foster, Camp Hansen, Camp Kinser, Camp Schwab, Cape Hedo, Charles R. Brown, Chester W. Nimitz, Chief of staff, Chiran Peace Museum for Kamikaze Pilots, Clarence B. Craft, Claudius Miller Easley, Close combat, Coastal artillery, Combat stress reaction, Combined Fleet, Commonwealth of Nations, Confiscation, Conscription, Cornerstone of Peace, Corps, Counter-battery fire, Counter-offensive, Debate over the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Demonstration (military), Demonstration (protest), Desmond Doss, Destroyer escort, Distinguished Service Medal (United States Navy), ..., Dive bomber, Division (military), Empire of Japan, Ernie Pyle, Fast Carrier Task Force, Fifth Air Force, Fighter aircraft, Firepower, Flame tank, Flight deck, Friendly fire, Front line, Garrison, Geography of Taiwan, Giretsu Kuteitai, Henry A. Courtney Jr., Hierarchy, Himeyuri students, Hiromichi Yahara, Historical revisionism, History of the Ryukyu Islands, History of United States Naval Operations in World War II, Human shield, Iejima, III Marine Expeditionary Force, Imperial Japanese Army, Imperial Japanese Navy, Impressment, Indigenous peoples, Indoctrination, Infiltration tactics, Invasion, Isamu Chō, Itoman, Okinawa, James L. Day, Japan Policy Research Institute, Japanese archipelago, Japanese battleship Yamato, John L. Hall Jr., John R. Hodge, John Toland (author), Josef R. Sheetz, Joseph Stilwell, Journalist, Kadena Air Base, Kamikaze, Kenzaburō Ōe, Kerama Islands, Kyushu, Landing Ship, Tank, Landing Vehicle Tracked, Lawrence Fairfax Reifsnider, Leapfrogging (strategy), Lieutenant general, Life (magazine), Light cruiser, List of Imperial Japanese Navy admirals, Major general, Malaria, Marc Mitscher, Marine Aircraft Group 31, Marine Aviation Training Support Group 33, Marine Corps Air Station Futenma, Marine Corps Gazette, Marines, Mark Selden, Masahide Ōta, Mass suicide, Materiel, Matome Ugaki, Middle school, Military, Military air base, Military campaign, Military Intelligence Corps (United States Army), Military reserve, Military strategy, Military tactics, Militia, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Minoru Ōta, Mitsuru Ushijima, Morale, Mortar (weapon), Morton Deyo, Motobu Peninsula, Mount Yae, Mukden Incident, Murder–suicide, Naha, Napalm, Nobel Prize, North Korea, Nursing, Offensive (military), Okinawa Island, Okinawa Memorial Day, Okinawa Prefectural Assembly, Okinawa Prefectural Peace Memorial Museum, Okinawa Prefecture, Okinawan language, Operation Downfall, Operation Zebra, Osaka Prefecture, Pacific Ocean theater of World War II, Pacific War, Pedro del Valle, Propaganda in Japan during the Second Sino-Japanese War and World War II, Radar picket, Rape during the occupation of Japan, Raymond A. 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Blandy, William Halsey Jr., With the Old Breed, World War I, World War II, XXIV Corps (United States), Yomitan, 155 mm Gun M1, 1945 Katsuyama killing incident, 1st Battalion, 5th Marines, 1st Marine Division (United States), 22nd Marine Regiment (United States), 24th Division (Imperial Japanese Army), 27th Infantry Division (United States), 28th Division (Imperial Japanese Army), 2nd Battalion, 1st Marines, 2nd Fleet (Imperial Japanese Navy), 2nd Marine Division (United States), 5th Marine Regiment (United States), 62nd Division (Imperial Japanese Army), 6th Marine Division (United States), 763rd Tank Battalion (United States), 77th Sustainment Brigade, 7th Infantry Division (United States), 96th Sustainment Brigade (United States), 9th Division (Imperial Japanese Army). Expand index (194 more) »

Admiral

Admiral is one of the highest ranks in some navies, and in many navies is the highest rank.

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Aircraft carrier

An aircraft carrier is a warship that serves as a seagoing airbase, equipped with a full-length flight deck and facilities for carrying, arming, deploying, and recovering aircraft.

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Airstrike

An airstrike or air strike is an offensive operation carried out by attack aircraft.

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Allies of World War II

The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).

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American mutilation of Japanese war dead

During World War II, some members of the United States military mutilated dead Japanese service personnel in the Pacific theater of operations.

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Amphibious warfare

Amphibious warfare is a type of offensive military operation that today uses naval ships to project ground and air power onto a hostile or potentially hostile shore at a designated landing beach.

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April Fools' Day

April Fools' Day is an annual celebration in some European and Western countries commemorated on April 1 by playing practical jokes and spreading hoaxes.

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Armoured flight deck

An armoured flight deck is an aircraft carrier flight deck that incorporates substantial armour in its design.

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Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

During the final stage of World War II, the United States detonated two nuclear weapons over the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August 6 and 9, 1945, respectively.

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Attack aircraft

An attack aircraft, strike aircraft, or attack bomber, is a tactical military aircraft that has a primary role of carrying out airstrikes with greater precision than bombers, and is prepared to encounter strong low-level air defenses while pressing the attack.

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Barbarian

A barbarian is a human who is perceived to be either uncivilized or primitive.

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Battle of Britain

The Battle of Britain (Luftschlacht um England, literally "The Air Battle for England") was a military campaign of the Second World War, in which the Royal Air Force (RAF) defended the United Kingdom (UK) against large-scale attacks by Nazi Germany's air force, the Luftwaffe.

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Battle of Iwo Jima

The Battle of Iwo Jima (19 February – 26 March 1945) was a major battle in which the United States Marine Corps landed on and eventually captured the island of Iwo Jima from the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) during World War II.

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Battle of Leyte Gulf

The Battle of Leyte Gulf (Filipino: Labanan sa Golpo ng Leyte) is generally considered to have been the largest naval battle of World War II and, by some criteria, possibly the largest naval battle in history.

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Battle of Okinawa (film)

is a 1971 Japanese war film directed by Kihachi Okamoto from a screenplay by Kaneto Shindo with effects by Teruyoshi Nakano.

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Beauford T. Anderson

Beauford Theodore "Andy" Anderson (July 6, 1922 – November 7, 1996) was a United States Army soldier who received the Medal of Honor for his actions during World War II.

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Bernard Rawlings (Royal Navy officer)

Admiral Sir Henry Bernard Hughes Rawlings (21 May 1889 – 30 September 1962) was a Royal Navy officer who went on to be Flag Officer, Eastern Mediterranean during World War II.

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Boeitai

The Boeitai was a Japanese "home guard" force of World War II.

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Bombardment

A bombardment is an attack by artillery fire or by dropping bombs from aircraft on fortifications, combatants, or towns and buildings.

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Breakthrough (military)

A breakthrough occurs when an offensive force has broken an opponent's defensive line, and rapidly exploits the gap.

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British Pacific Fleet

The British Pacific Fleet (BPF) was a Royal Navy formation which saw action against Japan during the Second World War.

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Cactus Ridge

Cactus Ridge was the name given to a rise of land approximately 600 yards southeast of Mashiki, Okinawa which commanded much of the ground between Uchitomari and Oyama, both of which lie along Highway No.

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Camp Foster

Camp Foster, formerly known as Camp Zukeran (キャンプ・フォスター) is a United States Marine Corps camp located in Ginowan City with portions overlapping into Okinawa City, Chatan town and Kitanakagusuku village in the Japanese prefecture of Okinawa Island.

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Camp Hansen

Camp Hansen is a United States Marine Corps base located in Okinawa, Japan.

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Camp Kinser

Camp Kinser is a United States Marine Corps logistics base in Okinawa, Japan.

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Camp Schwab

Camp Schwab, nicknamed Man Camp, is a United States Marine Corps camp located in northeastern Okinawa Prefecture, Japan, that is currently home to the 4th Marine Regiment and other elements of the 28,000 American servicemen based on the island.

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Cape Hedo

, also known as Hedo Point, is the northernmost point on Okinawa Island, located within Kunigami Village.

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Charles R. Brown

Charles Randall Brown (23 December 1899 – 8 December 1983) was a United States Navy four-star admiral.

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Chester W. Nimitz

Chester William Nimitz, Sr. (February 24, 1885February 20, 1966) was a fleet admiral of the United States Navy.

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Chief of staff

The title chief of staff (or head of staff) identifies the leader of a complex organization, institution, or body of persons and it also may identify a principal staff officer (PSO), who is the coordinator of the supporting staff or a primary aide-de-camp to an important individual, such as a president or a senior military officer.

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Chiran Peace Museum for Kamikaze Pilots

The airbase at Chiran, Minamikyūshū, on the Satsuma Peninsula of Kagoshima, Japan, served as the departure point for hundreds of Special Attack or kamikaze sorties launched in the final months of World War II.

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Clarence B. Craft

Clarence Byrle Craft (September 23, 1921 – March 28, 2002) was a United States Army soldier and a recipient of the United States military's highest decoration—the Medal of Honor—for his actions in World War II.

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Claudius Miller Easley

Brigadier General Claudius Miller Easley (July 11, 1891 – June 19, 1945) was a decorated United States Army officer who was killed in action by the Japanese during the Battle of Okinawa.

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Close combat

Close combat means a violent physical confrontation between two or more opponents at short range.

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Coastal artillery

Coastal artillery is the branch of the armed forces concerned with operating anti-ship artillery or fixed gun batteries in coastal fortifications.

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Combat stress reaction

Combat stress reaction (CSR) is a term used within the military to describe acute behavioral disorganization seen by medical personnel as a direct result of the trauma of war.

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Combined Fleet

was the main ocean-going component of the Imperial Japanese Navy.

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Commonwealth of Nations

The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.

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Confiscation

Confiscation (from the Latin confiscare "to consign to the fiscus, i.e. transfer to the treasury") is a legal form of seizure by a government or other public authority.

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Conscription

Conscription, sometimes called the draft, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.

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Cornerstone of Peace

The Cornerstone of Peace is a monument in Itoman commemorating the Battle of Okinawa and the role of Okinawa during World War II.

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Corps

Corps (plural corps; via French, from the Latin corpus "body") is a term used for several different kinds of organisation.

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Counter-battery fire

Counter-battery fire (sometimes called counter-fire) is a battlefield military activity to defeat the enemy's indirect fire elements (guns, rocket launchers, artillery and mortars), including their target acquisition, command and control components.

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Counter-offensive

A counter-offensive is the term used by the military to describe large-scale, usually strategic offensive operations by forces that had successfully halted the enemy's offensive, while occupying defensive positions.

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Debate over the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

The debate over the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki concerns the ethical, legal, and military controversies surrounding the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 August and 9 August 1945 at the close of World War II (1939–45).

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Demonstration (military)

In military terminology, a demonstration is an attack or show of force on a front where a decision is not sought, made with the aim of deceiving the enemy.

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Demonstration (protest)

A demonstration or street protest is action by a mass group or collection of groups of people in favor of a political or other cause; it normally consists of walking in a mass march formation and either beginning with or meeting at a designated endpoint, or rally, to hear speakers.

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Desmond Doss

Desmond Thomas Doss (February 7, 1919 – March 23, 2006) was a United States Army corporal who served as a combat medic with an infantry company in World War II.

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Destroyer escort

Destroyer escort (DE) was the United States Navy mid-20th-century classification for a warship designed with endurance to escort mid-ocean convoys of merchant marine ships.

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Distinguished Service Medal (United States Navy)

The Navy Distinguished Service Medal is a military decoration of the United States Navy and United States Marine Corps which was first created in 1919.

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Dive bomber

A dive bomber is a bomber aircraft that dives directly at its targets in order to provide greater accuracy for the bomb it drops.

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Division (military)

A division is a large military unit or formation, usually consisting of between 10,000 and 20,000 soldiers.

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Empire of Japan

The was the historical nation-state and great power that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 to the enactment of the 1947 constitution of modern Japan.

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Ernie Pyle

Ernest Taylor Pyle (August 3, 1900 – April 18, 1945) was a Pulitzer Prize–winning American journalist.

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Fast Carrier Task Force

The Fast Carrier Task Force was the main striking force of the United States Navy in the Pacific War from January 1944 through the end of the war in August 1945.

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Fifth Air Force

The Fifth Air Force (5 AF) is a numbered air force of the United States Air Force Pacific Air Forces (PACAF).

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Fighter aircraft

A fighter aircraft is a military aircraft designed primarily for air-to-air combat against other aircraft, as opposed to bombers and attack aircraft, whose main mission is to attack ground targets.

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Firepower

Firepower is the military capability to direct force at an enemy.

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Flame tank

A flame tank is a type of tank equipped with a flamethrower, most commonly used to supplement combined arms attacks against fortifications, confined spaces, or other obstacles.

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Flight deck

The flight deck of an aircraft carrier is the surface from which its aircraft take off and land, essentially a miniature airfield at sea.

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Friendly fire

Friendly fire is an attack by a military force on non-enemy, own, allied or neutral, forces while attempting to attack the enemy, either by misidentifying the target as hostile, or due to errors or inaccuracy.

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Front line

A front line (alternative forms: front-line or frontline) in military terminology is the position(s) closest to the area of conflict of an armed force's personnel and equipment, generally referring to maritime or land forces.

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Garrison

Garrison (various spellings) (from the French garnison, itself from the verb garnir, "to equip") is the collective term for a body of troops stationed in a particular location, originally to guard it, but now often simply using it as a home base.

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Geography of Taiwan

Taiwan, formerly known as Formosa, is an island in East Asia; located some off the southeastern coast of mainland China across the Taiwan Strait.

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Giretsu Kuteitai

("Heroic Paratroopers") was an airlifted special forces unit of the Imperial Japanese Army formed from Army paratroopers, in November 1944 as a last-ditch attempt to reduce and delay Allied bombing raids on the Japanese home islands.

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Henry A. Courtney Jr.

Henry Alexius Courtney Jr. (January 6, 1916–May 15, 1945) was an officer of the United States Marine Corps Reserve during World War II and a posthumous recipient of the Medal of Honor.

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Hierarchy

A hierarchy (from the Greek hierarchia, "rule of a high priest", from hierarkhes, "leader of sacred rites") is an arrangement of items (objects, names, values, categories, etc.) in which the items are represented as being "above", "below", or "at the same level as" one another A hierarchy can link entities either directly or indirectly, and either vertically or diagonally.

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Himeyuri students

The, sometimes called "Lily Corps" in English, was a group of 222 students and 18 teachers of the Okinawa Daiichi Women's High School and Okinawa Shihan Women's School formed into a nursing unit for the Imperial Japanese Army during the Battle of Okinawa in 1945.

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Hiromichi Yahara

was the senior staff officer in charge of operations of the 32nd Japanese Army at Okinawa during the American invasion of that island during World War II.

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Historical revisionism

In historiography, the term historical revisionism identifies the re-interpretation of the historical record.

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History of the Ryukyu Islands

This article is about the history of the Ryukyu Islands southwest of the main islands of Japan.

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History of United States Naval Operations in World War II

The History of United States Naval Operations in World War II is a 15-volume account of the United States Navy in World War II, written by Samuel Eliot Morison and published by Little, Brown and Company between 1947 and 1962.

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Human shield

Human shield is a military and political term describing the deliberate placement of non-combatants in or around combat targets to deter the enemy from attacking these combat targets.

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Iejima

, previously romanized in English as Ie Shima, is an island in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan, lying a few kilometers off the Motobu Peninsula on Okinawa Island.

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III Marine Expeditionary Force

III Marine Expeditionary Force (III MEF) is a formation of the Marine Air-Ground Task Force of the United States Marine Corps.

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Imperial Japanese Army

The Imperial Japanese Army (IJA; Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun; "Army of the Greater Japanese Empire") was the official ground-based armed force of the Empire of Japan from 1868 to 1945.

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Imperial Japanese Navy

The Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN; Kyūjitai: 大日本帝國海軍 Shinjitai: 大日本帝国海軍 or 日本海軍 Nippon Kaigun, "Navy of the Greater Japanese Empire") was the navy of the Empire of Japan from 1868 until 1945, when it was dissolved following Japan's defeat and surrender in World War II.

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Impressment

Impressment, colloquially "the press" or the "press gang", is the taking of men into a military or naval force by compulsion, with or without notice.

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Indigenous peoples

Indigenous peoples, also known as first peoples, aboriginal peoples or native peoples, are ethnic groups who are the pre-colonial original inhabitants of a given region, in contrast to groups that have settled, occupied or colonized the area more recently.

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Indoctrination

Indoctrination is the process of inculcating a person with ideas, attitudes, cognitive strategies or professional methodologies (see doctrine).

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Infiltration tactics

In warfare, infiltration tactics involve small independent light infantry forces advancing into enemy rear areas, bypassing enemy front-line strongpoints, possibly isolating them for attack by follow-up troops with heavier weapons.

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Invasion

An invasion is a military offensive in which large parts of combatants of one geopolitical entity aggressively enter territory controlled by another such entity, generally with the objective of either conquering; liberating or re-establishing control or authority over a territory; forcing the partition of a country; altering the established government or gaining concessions from said government; or a combination thereof.

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Isamu Chō

was an officer in the Imperial Japanese Army known for his support of ultranationalist politics and involvement in a number of attempted coup d'états in pre-World War II Japan.

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Itoman, Okinawa

is a city located in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan.

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James L. Day

Major General James Lewis Day (October 5, 1925 – October 28, 1998) was a United States Marine Corps major general who served in World War II, in the Korean War, and in the Vietnam War.

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Japan Policy Research Institute

The Japan Policy Research Institute (JPRI) is a non-profit organization organized under section 501(c)(3) of the U.S. Internal Revenue Code that was founded in 1994 by Chalmers Johnson and Steven C. Clemons in order "to promote public education about Japan, its then growing significance in world affairs, and trans-Pacific international relations." Japan was never the exclusive focus, and JPRI has also published many articles about China, Korea, Southeast Asia, and Inner Asia.

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Japanese archipelago

The is the group of islands that forms the country of Japan, and extends roughly from northeast to southwest along the northeastern coast of the Eurasia mainland, washing upon the northwestern shores of the Pacific Ocean.

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Japanese battleship Yamato

was the lead ship of her class of battleships built for the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) shortly before World War II.

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John L. Hall Jr.

Admiral John Lesslie Hall Jr. (11 April 1891 – 6 March 1978) was a senior officer of the United States Navy, who served during World War II.

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John R. Hodge

John Reed Hodge (June 12, 1893 – November 12, 1963) was a highly decorated officer of the United States Army with the rank of general.

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John Toland (author)

John Willard Toland (June 29, 1912 – January 4, 2004) was an American writer and historian.

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Josef R. Sheetz

Major General Josef Robert Sheetz (1895–1992)"Biography of Major-General Josef Robert Sheetz.". Accessed 24 September 2008.

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Joseph Stilwell

Joseph Warren Stilwell (March 19, 1883 – October 12, 1946) was a United States Army general who served in the China Burma India Theater during World War II.

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Journalist

A journalist is a person who collects, writes, or distributes news or other current information to the public.

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Kadena Air Base

, (IATA: DNA, ICAO: RODN) is a United States Air Force base in the towns of Kadena and Chatan and the city of Okinawa, in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan.

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Kamikaze

, officially, were a part of the Japanese Special Attack Units of military aviators who initiated suicide attacks for the Empire of Japan against Allied naval vessels in the closing stages of the Pacific campaign of World War II, designed to destroy warships more effectively than possible with conventional air attacks.

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Kenzaburō Ōe

is a Japanese writer and a major figure in contemporary Japanese literature.

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Kerama Islands

The are a group of 22 islands located southwest of Okinawa Island in Japan.

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Kyushu

is the third largest island of Japan and most southwesterly of its four main islands.

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Landing Ship, Tank

Landing Ship, Tank (LST), or tank landing ship, is the naval designation for ships built during World War II to support amphibious operations by carrying tanks, vehicles, cargo, and landing troops directly onto shore with no docks or piers.

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Landing Vehicle Tracked

The Landing Vehicle, Tracked (LVT) is an amphibious warfare vehicle and amphibious landing craft, introduced by the United States Navy.

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Lawrence Fairfax Reifsnider

Lawrence Fairfax Reifsnider (November 26, 1887 – May 14, 1956) was an American football player and a vice admiral in the United States Navy.

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Leapfrogging (strategy)

Leapfrogging, also known as island hopping, was a military strategy employed by the Allies in the Pacific War against Japan and the Axis powers during World War II.

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Lieutenant general

Lieutenant general, lieutenant-general and similar (abbrev Lt Gen, LTG and similar) is a three-star military rank (NATO code OF-8) used in many countries.

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Life (magazine)

Life was an American magazine that ran regularly from 1883 to 1972 and again from 1978 to 2000.

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Light cruiser

A light cruiser is a type of small- or medium-sized warship.

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List of Imperial Japanese Navy admirals

The following is a list of the Admirals of the Imperial Japanese Navy during its existence from 1868 until 1945.

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Major general

Major general (abbreviated MG, Maj. Gen. and similar) is a military rank used in many countries.

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Malaria

Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.

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Marc Mitscher

Marc Andrew "Pete" Mitscher (January 26, 1887 – February 3, 1947) was a pioneer in naval aviation who became an admiral in the United States Navy, and served as commander of the Fast Carrier Task Force in the Pacific during the latter half of World War II.

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Marine Aircraft Group 31

Marine Aircraft Group 31 (MAG-31) is a United States Marine Corps aviation group based at Marine Corps Air Station Beaufort, South Carolina that is currently composed of two F/A-18C Hornet squadrons, one F/A-18A++ Hornet squadron, two F/A-18D Hornet squadrons, one F-35B Lightning II training squadron, an aviation logistics squadron, and a wing support squadron.

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Marine Aviation Training Support Group 33

Marine Aviation and Training Support Group 33 (MATSG-33) is a United States Marine Corps aviation training group that was originally established during World War II as Marine Aircraft Group 33 (MAG-33).

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Marine Corps Air Station Futenma

is a United States Marine Corps base located in Ginowan, Okinawa, Japan, northeast of Naha, on the island of Okinawa.

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Marine Corps Gazette

Marine Corps Gazette is a professional journal for U.S. Marines founded in 1916 at Marine Corps Base Quantico for members of the United States Marine Corps.

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Marines

Marines, also known as a marine corps or naval infantry, are typically an infantry force that specializes in the support of naval and army operations at sea and on land, as well as the execution of their own operations.

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Mark Selden

Mark Selden (born 1938) is a Coordinator of the open access journal The Asia-Pacific Journal: Japan Focus, a Senior Research Associate in the East Asia Program at Cornell University, and Bartle Professor of History and Sociology at Binghamton University.

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Masahide Ōta

was a Japanese academic and politician who served as the governor of Okinawa Prefecture from 1990 until 1998.

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Mass suicide

Mass suicide is a form of suicide, occurring when a group of people simultaneously kill themselves.

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Materiel

Materiel, more commonly matériel in US English and also listed as the only spelling in some UK dictionaries (both pronounced, from French matériel meaning equipment or hardware), refers to military technology and supplies in military and commercial supply chain management.

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Matome Ugaki

was an admiral in the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War II, remembered for his extensive and revealing war diary, role at the Battle of Leyte Gulf, and kamikaze suicide hours after the announced surrender of Japan at the end of the war.

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Middle school

A middle school (also known as intermediate school or junior high school) is an educational stage which exists in some countries, providing education between primary school and secondary school.

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Military

A military or armed force is a professional organization formally authorized by a sovereign state to use lethal or deadly force and weapons to support the interests of the state.

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Military air base

A military air base (sometimes referred to as a military airfield, military airport, air force station, air force base or short air base) is an aerodrome (military base) used by a military force for the operation of military aircraft.

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Military campaign

The term military campaign applies to large scale, long duration, significant military strategy plans incorporating a series of inter-related military operations or battles forming a distinct part of a larger conflict often called a war.

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Military Intelligence Corps (United States Army)

The Military Intelligence Corps (sometimes referred to as MI) is the intelligence branch of the United States Army.

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Military reserve

A military reserve, reserve formation, or simply reserve, is a group of military personnel or units which are initially not committed to a battle by their commander so that they are available to address unforeseen situations or exploit sudden opportunities.

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Military strategy

Military strategy is a set of ideas implemented by military organizations to pursue desired strategic goals.

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Military tactics

Military tactics encompasses the art of organising and employing fighting forces on or near the battlefield.

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Militia

A militia is generally an army or some other fighting organization of non-professional soldiers, citizens of a nation, or subjects of a state, who can be called upon for military service during a time of need, as opposed to a professional force of regular, full-time military personnel, or historically, members of a warrior nobility class (e.g., knights or samurai).

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Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology

The, also known as MEXT, Monka-shō, and formerly the, is one of the ministries of the Japanese government.

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Minoru Ōta

was an admiral in the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War II, and the final commander of the Japanese naval forces defending the Oroku Peninsula during the Battle of Okinawa.

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Mitsuru Ushijima

was a Japanese general who served during the Second Sino-Japanese War and World War II.

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Morale

Morale, also known as esprit de corps, is the capacity of a group's members to maintain belief in an institution or goal, particularly in the face of opposition or hardship.

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Mortar (weapon)

A mortar is usually a simple, lightweight, man portable, muzzle-loaded weapon, consisting of a smooth-bore metal tube fixed to a base plate (to absorb recoil) with a lightweight bipod mount.

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Morton Deyo

Vice Admiral Morton Lyndholm Deyo (1 July 1887 – 10 November 1973) was an officer in the United States Navy, who was a naval gunfire support task force commander of World War II.

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Motobu Peninsula

The is a peninsula in the Yanbaru region of Okinawa Island.

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Mount Yae

, also known as Mount Yaedake or Yae-Take, is a mountain in Motobu, Okinawa on Okinawa Island.

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Mukden Incident

The Mukden Incident, or Manchurian Incident, was a staged event engineered by Japanese military personnel as a pretext for the Japanese invasion in 1931 of northeastern China, known as Manchuria.

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Murder–suicide

A murder–suicide is an act in which an individual kills one or more other persons before killing themselves.

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Naha

is the capital city of Okinawa Prefecture, the southernmost prefecture of Japan.

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Napalm

Napalm is a mixture of a gelling agent and either gasoline (petrol) or a similar fuel.

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Nobel Prize

The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.

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North Korea

North Korea (Chosŏn'gŭl:조선; Hanja:朝鮮; Chosŏn), officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (abbreviated as DPRK, PRK, DPR Korea, or Korea DPR), is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.

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Nursing

Nursing is a profession within the health care sector focused on the care of individuals, families, and communities so they may attain, maintain, or recover optimal health and quality of life.

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Offensive (military)

An offensive is a military operation that seeks through aggressive projection of armed force to occupy territory, gain an objective or achieve some larger strategic, operational, or tactical goal.

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Okinawa Island

is the largest of the Okinawa Islands and the Ryukyu (Nansei) Islands of Japan.

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Okinawa Memorial Day

is a public holiday observed in Japan's Okinawa Prefecture annually on June 23 to remember the lives lost during the Battle of Okinawa.

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Okinawa Prefectural Assembly

The is the prefectural parliament of Okinawa.

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Okinawa Prefectural Peace Memorial Museum

is a museum in Itoman, Okinawa.

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Okinawa Prefecture

is the southernmost prefecture of Japan.

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Okinawan language

Central Okinawan, or simply the Okinawan language (沖縄口/ウチナーグチ Uchinaaguchi), is a Northern Ryukyuan language spoken primarily in the southern half of the island of Okinawa, as well as in the surrounding islands of Kerama, Kumejima, Tonaki, Aguni, and a number of smaller peripheral islands.

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Operation Downfall

Operation Downfall was the proposed Allied plan for the invasion of Japan near the end of World War II.

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Operation Zebra

Operation Zebra was a July 1945 major mine clearance operation by U.S. Navy minesweepers off Sakishima Gunto, in association with the invasion of Okinawa by Allied Forces in World War II.

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Osaka Prefecture

is a prefecture located in the Kansai region on Honshu, the main island of Japan.

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Pacific Ocean theater of World War II

The Pacific Ocean theater, during World War II, was a major theater of the war between the Allies and the Empire of Japan.

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Pacific War

The Pacific War, sometimes called the Asia-Pacific War, was the theater of World War II that was fought in the Pacific and Asia. It was fought over a vast area that included the Pacific Ocean and islands, the South West Pacific, South-East Asia, and in China (including the 1945 Soviet–Japanese conflict). The Second Sino-Japanese War between the Empire of Japan and the Republic of China had been in progress since 7 July 1937, with hostilities dating back as far as 19 September 1931 with the Japanese invasion of Manchuria. However, it is more widely accepted that the Pacific War itself began on 7/8 December 1941, when Japan invaded Thailand and attacked the British possessions of Malaya, Singapore, and Hong Kong as well as the United States military and naval bases in Hawaii, Wake Island, Guam and the Philippines. The Pacific War saw the Allies pitted against Japan, the latter briefly aided by Thailand and to a much lesser extent by the Axis allied Germany and Italy. The war culminated in the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and other large aerial bomb attacks by the Allies, accompanied by the Soviet declaration of war and invasion of Manchuria on 9 August 1945, resulting in the Japanese announcement of intent to surrender on 15 August 1945. The formal surrender of Japan ceremony took place aboard the battleship in Tokyo Bay on 2 September 1945. Japan's Shinto Emperor was forced to relinquish much of his authority and his divine status through the Shinto Directive in order to pave the way for extensive cultural and political reforms. After the war, Japan lost all rights and titles to its former possessions in Asia and the Pacific, and its sovereignty was limited to the four main home islands.

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Pedro del Valle

Lieutenant General Pedro Augusto del Valle (August 28, 1893 – April 28, 1978) was a United States Marine Corps officer who became the first Hispanic to reach the rank of lieutenant general.

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Propaganda in Japan during the Second Sino-Japanese War and World War II

Propaganda in imperial Japan, in the period just before and during World War II, was designed to assist the ruling government of Japan during that time.

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Radar picket

A radar picket is a radar-equipped station, ship, submarine, aircraft, or vehicle used to increase the radar detection range around a force to protect it from surprise attack, typically air attack.

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Rape during the occupation of Japan

Rapes during the occupation of Japan were war rapes or rapes committed under the Allied military occupation of Japan.

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Raymond A. Spruance

Raymond Ames Spruance (July 3, 1886 – December 13, 1969) was a United States Navy admiral in World War II.

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Rear (military)

In military parlance, the rear is the part of concentration of military forces that is farthest from the enemy (compare its antonym, the front).

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Rear admiral

Rear admiral is a naval commissioned officer rank above that of a commodore (U.S equivalent of Commander) and captain, and below that of a vice admiral.

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Regular army

A regular army is the official army of a state or country (the official armed forces), contrasting with irregular forces, such as volunteer irregular militias, private armies, mercenaries, etc.

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Reverse slope defence

A reverse slope defence is a military tactic where a defending force is positioned on the slope of an elevated terrain feature such as a hill, ridge, or mountain, on the side opposite from the attacking force.

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Richard E. Bush

Richard Earl Bush (December 23, 1924 – June 7, 2004) was a United States Marine master gunnery sergeant who received the Medal of Honor as a corporal for heroism on Okinawa during World War II.

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Richmond K. Turner

Admiral Richmond Kelly Turner (May 27, 1885 – February 12, 1961), commonly known as Admiral Kelly Turner, served in the United States Navy during World War II, and is best known for commanding the Amphibious Force during the campaign across the Pacific.

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Robert Eugene Bush

Robert Eugene Bush (October 4, 1926 – November 8, 2005), at age 18, was the youngest member of the United States Navy in World War II to receive the nation's highest military decoration for valor, the Medal of Honor.

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Roy Geiger

General Roy Stanley Geiger (January 25, 1885 – January 23, 1947) was a United States Marine Corps four-star general who served in World War I and World War II.

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Royal Australian Navy

The Royal Australian Navy (RAN) is the naval branch of the Australian Defence Force.

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Royal Canadian Navy

The Royal Canadian Navy (RCN; French: Marine royale canadienne) is the naval force of Canada.

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Royal New Zealand Navy

The Royal New Zealand Navy (RNZN; Maori: Te Taua Moana o Aotearoa, "Warriors of the Sea of New Zealand") is the maritime arm of the New Zealand Defence Force. The fleet currently consists of ten ships and eight naval helicopters.

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Ryūkyū Shimpō

The was the first Okinawan newspaper.

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Ryukyu Islands

The, also known as the or the, are a chain of islands annexed by Japan that stretch southwest from Kyushu to Taiwan: the Ōsumi, Tokara, Amami, Okinawa, and Sakishima Islands (further divided into the Miyako and Yaeyama Islands), with Yonaguni the southernmost.

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Ryukyuan people

The; also Lewchewan or) are the indigenous peoples of the Ryukyu Islands between the islands of Kyushu and Taiwan. Politically, they live in either Okinawa Prefecture or Kagoshima Prefecture. Their languages make up the Ryukyuan languages, considered to be one of the two branches of the Japonic language family, the other being Japanese and its dialects. Ryukyuans are not a recognized minority group in Japan, as Japanese authorities consider them just a subgroup of the Japanese people, akin to the Yamato people and Ainu. Although unrecognized, Ryukyuans constitute the largest ethnolinguistic minority group in Japan, with 1.3 million living in Okinawa Prefecture alone. There is also a considerable Ryukyuan diaspora. As many as 600,000 more ethnic Ryukyuans and their descendants are dispersed elsewhere in Japan and worldwide; mostly in Hawaii and, to a lesser extent, in other territories where there is also a sizable Japanese diaspora. In the majority of countries, the Ryukyuan and Japanese diaspora are not differentiated so there are no reliable statistics for the former. Recent genetic and anthropological studies indicate that the Ryukyuans are significantly related to the Ainu people and share the ancestry with the indigenous prehistoric Jōmon period (pre 10,000–1,000 BCE) people, who arrived from Southeast Asia, and with the Yamato people who are mostly an admixture of the Yayoi period (1,000 BCE–300 CE) migrants from East Asia (specifically China and the Korean peninsula). The Ryukyuans have a specific culture with some matriarchal elements, native religion, and cuisine which had fairly late 12th century introduction of rice. The population lived on the islands in isolation for many centuries, and in the 14th century from the three divided Okinawan political polities emerged the Ryukyu Kingdom (1429–1879) which continued the maritime trade and tributary relations started in 1372 with Ming dynasty China. In 1609 the kingdom was invaded by Satsuma Domain which allowed its independence being in vassal status because the Tokugawa Japan was prohibited to trade with China, being in dual subordinate status between both China and Japan. During the Meiji period, the kingdom became Ryukyu Domain (1872–1879), after which it was politically annexed by the Empire of Japan. In 1879, after the annexation, the territory was reorganized as Okinawa Prefecture with the last king Shō Tai forcibly exiled to Tokyo. China renounced its claims to the islands in 1895. During this period, Okinawan ethnic identity, tradition, culture and language were suppressed by the Meiji government, which sought to assimilate the Ryukyuan people as Japanese (Yamato). After World War II, the Ryūkyū Islands were occupied by the United States between 1945–1950 and 1950–1972. During this time, there were many violations of human rights. Since the end of World War II, there exists strong resentment against the Japanese government and US military facilities stationed in Okinawa, as seen in the Ryukyu independence movement. United Nations special rapporteur on discrimination and racism Doudou Diène in his 2006 report, noted perceptible level of discrimination and xenophobia against the Ryukyuans, with the most serious discrimination they endure linked to their dislike of American military installations in the archipelago. An investigation into fundamental human rights was suggested.

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Sakishima Islands

The (or 先島群島, Sakishima-guntō) (Okinawan: Sachishima) are an archipelago located at the southernmost end of the Japanese Archipelago.

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San Pedro Bay (Philippines)

San Pedro Bay is a bay in the Philippines, at the northwest end of Leyte Gulf, about 15 km east-west and 20 km north-south.

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Seabee

United States Naval Construction Battalions, better known as the Seabees, form the Naval Construction Force (NCF) of the United States Navy.

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Seiichi Itō

was an admiral in the Imperial Japanese Navy and commander of the battleship on its final mission towards the end of World War II.

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Seppuku

Seppuku (切腹, "cutting belly"), sometimes referred to as harakiri (腹切り, "abdomen/belly cutting", a native Japanese kun reading), is a form of Japanese ritual suicide by disembowelment.

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Shin'yō-class suicide motorboat

The were Japanese suicide motorboats developed during World War II.

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Shuri Castle

is a Ryukyuan gusuku in Shuri, Okinawa.

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Simon Bolivar Buckner Jr.

Simon Bolivar Buckner Jr. (July 18, 1886 – June 18, 1945) was a lieutenant general in the United States Army during World War II.

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South Korea

South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국; Hanja: 大韓民國; Daehan Minguk,; lit. "The Great Country of the Han People"), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland.

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Soviet invasion of Manchuria

The Soviet invasion of Manchuria, formally known as the Manchurian Strategic Offensive Operation (Манчжурская стратегическая наступательная операция, lit. Manchzhurskaya Strategicheskaya Nastupatelnaya Operatsiya) or simply the Manchurian Operation (Маньчжурская операция), began on 9 August 1945 with the Soviet invasion of the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo.

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Stars and Stripes (newspaper)

Stars and Stripes is an American military newspaper that focuses and reports on matters concerning the members of the United States Armed Forces.

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Starvation

Starvation is a severe deficiency in caloric energy intake, below the level needed to maintain an organism's life.

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Submarine

A submarine (or simply sub) is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater.

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Suicide attack

A suicide attack is any violent attack in which the attacker expects their own death as a direct result of the method used to harm, damage or destroy the target.

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Suicide in Japan

Suicide in Japan has become a major national social issue.

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Surrender of Japan

The surrender of Imperial Japan was announced on August 15 and formally signed on September 2, 1945, bringing the hostilities of World War II to a close.

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Taiwan

Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.

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Tenth United States Army

The Tenth United States Army was the last army level command established in the Pacific Theater of Operations during World War II.

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Teruto Tsubota

Teruto "Terry" Tsubota (July 28, 1922 – May 22, 2013) was a second-generation Japanese American (Nisei) and a former United States Marine.

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The Guardian

The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.

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The Japan Times

The Japan Times is Japan's largest and oldest English-language daily newspaper.

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The New York Times International Edition

The New York Times International Edition is an English-language newspaper printed at 38 sites throughout the world and sold in more than 160 countries and territories.

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The Pinnacle, Battle of Okinawa

The Pinnacle was the name given to a 30-foot spire, atop a 450-foot ridge of coral approximately 1,000 yards southwest of Arakachi, Okinawa.

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The Rising Sun

The Rising Sun: The Decline and Fall of the Japanese Empire, 1936–1945, written by John Toland, was published by Random House in 1970 and won the 1971 Pulitzer Prize for General Non-Fiction.

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Thirty-Second Army (Japan)

The was an army of the Imperial Japanese Army during the final stages of World War II.

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Thomas E. Watson (USMC)

Thomas Eugene Watson (January 18, 1892 – March 6, 1966) was a United States Marine Corps General who served in the Marine Corps from 1912 to 1950.

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Thompson submachine gun

The Thompson submachine gun is an American submachine gun, invented by John T. Thompson in 1918, that became infamous during the Prohibition era, becoming a signature weapon of various organized crime syndicates in the United States.

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Torii Station

US Army Garrison Okinawa is a United States Army facility located in Yomitan, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan.

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Torpedo bomber

A torpedo bomber is a military aircraft designed primarily to attack ships with aerial torpedoes.

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Underwater Demolition Team

The Underwater Demolition Teams (UDT) were an elite special-purpose force established by the United States Navy during World War II.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United States Army

The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.

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United States Army Center of Military History

The United States Army Center of Military History (CMH) is a directorate within the Office of the Administrative Assistant to the Secretary of the Army.

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United States Army Command and General Staff College

The United States Army Command and General Staff College (CGSC or, obsolete, USACGSC) at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, is a graduate school for United States Army and sister service officers, interagency representatives, and international military officers.

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United States Civil Administration of the Ryukyu Islands

The, or "USCAR", was the government in Okinawa, Japan, after World War II from 1950 until 1972.

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United States Fifth Fleet

The Fifth Fleet is a numbered fleet of the United States Navy.

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United States Forces Japan

The is an active subordinate unified command of the United States Indo-Pacific Command (USINDOPACOM).

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United States Marine Corps

The United States Marine Corps (USMC), also referred to as the United States Marines, is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for conducting amphibious operations with the United States Navy.

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United States Marine Corps Amphibious Reconnaissance Battalion

The United States Marine Corps's Amphibious Reconnaissance Battalion, formerly Company, was a specialized team of Marines and Navy Corpsmen that performed clandestine preliminary pre–D-Day amphibious reconnaissance of planned beachheads and their littoral area within uncharted enemy territory for the joint-Navy/Marine force commanders of the Pacific Fleet during World War II.

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United States Third Fleet

The Third Fleet is one of the numbered fleets in the United States Navy.

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Vice admiral

Vice admiral is a senior naval flag officer rank, equivalent to lieutenant general and air marshal.

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Victor Davis Hanson

Victor Davis Hanson (born September 5, 1953) is an American classicist, military historian, columnist, and farmer.

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Ward Wilson

Ward Hayes Wilson is a Senior Fellow and director of the Rethinking Nuclear Weapons project at the British American Security Information Council (BASIC), a think tank focusing on nuclear disarmament based in London and Washington, D.C. He lives and works in Trenton, New Jersey.

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William H. P. Blandy

William Henry Purnell Blandy (June 28, 1890 – January 12, 1954), known to friends as "Spike", was an admiral in the United States Navy during World War II.

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William Halsey Jr.

Fleet Admiral William Frederick Halsey Jr., KBE (October 30, 1882 – August 16, 1959),"Halsey", ArlingtonCemetery.net.

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With the Old Breed

With the Old Breed: At Peleliu and Okinawa is a World War II memoir by Eugene Sledge, a United States Marine.

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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XXIV Corps (United States)

XXIV Corps (24th Corps) was a U.S. Army Corps-level command during World War II and the Vietnam War.

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Yomitan

is a village located in Nakagami District, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan.

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155 mm Gun M1

The 155 mm Gun M1 was a 155 millimeter caliber field gun developed and used by the United States military.

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1945 Katsuyama killing incident

The Katsuyama killing incident in 1945 was a killing of three African American Marines by Okinawans from the Katsuyama village near Nago, Okinawa, after the Battle of Okinawa, shortly before the end of the war in the Pacific.

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1st Battalion, 5th Marines

1st Battalion, 5th Marines (1/5) is an infantry battalion in the United States Marine Corps based out of Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, California consisting of approximately 800 Marines and sailors.

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1st Marine Division (United States)

The 1st Marine Division (1st MARDIV) is a Marine infantry division of the United States Marine Corps headquartered at Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, California.

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22nd Marine Regiment (United States)

The 22nd Marine Regiment (22nd Marines) is an inactive United States Marine Corps infantry regiment.

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24th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

The was an infantry division in the Imperial Japanese Army.

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27th Infantry Division (United States)

The 27th Infantry Division was a unit of the Army National Guard in World War I and World War II.

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28th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

The was an infantry division in the Imperial Japanese Army.

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2nd Battalion, 1st Marines

2nd Battalion, 1st Marines (2/1) is an infantry battalion in the United States Marine Corps based out of Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, California.

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2nd Fleet (Imperial Japanese Navy)

The was a fleet of the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) created as a mobile strike force in response to hostilities with Russia, and saw action in every IJN military operation until the end of World War II.

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2nd Marine Division (United States)

The U.S. 2nd Marine Division (2nd MARDIV) is a division of the United States Marine Corps, which forms the ground combat element of the II Marine Expeditionary Force (II MEF).

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5th Marine Regiment (United States)

The 5th Marine Regiment (also referred to as "5th Marines") is an infantry regiment of the United States Marine Corps based at Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, California.

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62nd Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

The was an infantry division of the Imperial Japanese Army.

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6th Marine Division (United States)

The 6th Marine Division was a United States Marine Corps World War II infantry division formed in September 1944.

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763rd Tank Battalion (United States)

The 763rd Tank Battalion was an independent tank battalion of the United States Army during World War II.

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77th Sustainment Brigade

The 77th Sustainment Brigade is a unit of the United States Army that inherited the lineage of the 77th Infantry Division ("Statue of Liberty"), which served in World War I and World War II.

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7th Infantry Division (United States)

The 7th Infantry Division was an infantry division of the United States Army.

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96th Sustainment Brigade (United States)

The 96th Sustainment Brigade, is a unit of the United States Army that inherited the lineage of the 96th Infantry Division that served in World War II.

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9th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

The was an infantry division in the Imperial Japanese Army.

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Redirects here:

Assault on Shuri Castle, Assualt on Shuri Castle, Batalla de Okinawa, Battle of okinawa, Fighting on Okinawa, Invasion of Okinawa, L-Day, Okinawa Battle, Okinawa Campaign, Okinawa campaign, Okinawa invasion, Operation Iceberg, Rain of steel, Sugar Loaf Hill, Takehido Udo, Tetsu no ame, Tetsu no bofu, Tetsu no bōfū, The Battle of Okinawa, Typhoon of Steel, U.S. invasion of Okinawa, Violent wind of steel, World War II/Okinawa.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Okinawa

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