184 relations: A. J. P. Taylor, Actions of the Bluff, 1916, Admiralty, Aisne, Albrecht von Thaer, Allies of World War I, American Expeditionary Forces, Arras, Artois, Attrition warfare, Australian War Memorial, Baltic Sea, Battle of Cambrai (1917), Battle of Caporetto, Battle of Messines (1917), Battle of Mont Sorrel, Battle of Pilckem Ridge, Battle of the Lys (1918), Battle of the Menin Road Ridge, Battle of the Yser, Belgium, British Expeditionary Force (World War I), British royal family, British Summer Time, Bruges, C. R. M. F. Cruttwell, Canadian Corps, Cap Gris-Nez, Casus belli, Celtic cross, Central Powers, Chantilly, Oise, Charles, Prince of Wales, Chief of Staff of the French Army, Christchurch, Claud Jacob, Combined arms, Commonwealth War Graves Commission, Cyril Falls, David Lloyd George, Douglas Haig, 1st Earl Haig, Drainage divide, Duckboards, Dunedin, Eastern Front (World War I), Eingreif division, Enfilade and defilade, English Channel, Erich Ludendorff, Erich von Falkenhayn, ..., Ernest Gold (meteorologist), Ferdinand Foch, Field marshal (United Kingdom), Fifth Army (United Kingdom), Fifth Battle of Ypres, First Army (United Kingdom), First Battle of Ypres, Flanders, Flanders U-boat flotillas, Fourth Army (United Kingdom), François Anthoine, Frank Hurley, Friedrich Sixt von Armin, Fritz von Loßberg, Galicia (Eastern Europe), General (United Kingdom), German Empire, German General Staff, German invasion of Belgium, Giffard Le Quesne Martel, Guards Reserve Corps, Gulf of Riga, Henry Rawlinson, 1st Baron Rawlinson, Herbert Plumer, 1st Viscount Plumer, Hermann von Kuhl, Heuvelland, Hill 60 (Ypres), Hindenburg Line, Hollebeke, Hooge in World War I, Hooge, Ypres, Houthulst, Hubert Gough, II ANZAC Corps, II Corps (United Kingdom), Infiltration tactics, Italian Front (World War I), IX Corps (United Kingdom), James Edward Edmonds, John Charteris, John Davidson (British Army officer), John French, 1st Earl of Ypres, John Terraine, Joseph Joffre, Julian Byng, 1st Viscount Byng of Vimy, Kemmelberg, Koekelare, Lens, Pas-de-Calais, Lille, Linda Fabiani, London Clay, Loos-en-Gohelle, Louis Ruquoy, Marl, Menin Gate, Mesen, Mines in the Battle of Messines (1917), Mons, New Zealand Division, Nivelle Offensive, Norman MacMullen, Oberste Heeresleitung, Office of Public Sector Information, Official History of Australia in the War of 1914–1918, Oise, Operation Albion, Operation Hush, Otto von Below, Passchendaele (film), Passchendaele Memorial, Passendale, Paul Maistre, Picardy, Ploegsteert Wood, Polygon Wood, Zonnebeke, Poperinge, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Race to the Sea, Reginald Bacon, Richard Holmes (military historian), Riga, Robert Nivelle, Roeselare, Rupprecht, Crown Prince of Bavaria, Salient (military), Sanctuary Wood, Scottish Parliament, Second Army (United Kingdom), Second Battle of Ypres, Silt, Sint-Elooi, Spanbroekmolen, Spring Offensive, Tank, Theresa May, Torhout, Treaty of London (1839), Trench foot, Tunnel warfare, Tyne Cot, VIII Corps (United Kingdom), Vlamertinge, War Office, West Estonian archipelago, West Flanders, Western Front (World War I), Westrozebeke, William Birdwood, Winter operations 1914–1915, World War I, XIV Corps (United Kingdom), XIX Corps (United Kingdom), XVIII Corps (United Kingdom), Yale University Press, Ypres, Ypres Salient, Zonnebeke, 10th Ersatz Division (German Empire), 15th Brigade (Australia), 16th Division (German Empire), 19th Reserve Division (German Empire), 1st Canadian Division, 20th Division (German Empire), 2nd Canadian Division, 2nd Infantry Brigade (New Zealand), 33rd Division (United Kingdom), 45th Reserve Division (German Empire), 4th Army (German Empire), 4th Guards Infantry Division (German Empire), 4th Royal Bavarian Division, 50th Reserve Division (German Empire), 5th Division (Australia), 6th Army (German Empire), 6th Royal Bavarian Division. Expand index (134 more) » « Shrink index
Alan John Percivale Taylor (25 March 1906 – 7 September 1990) was an English historian who specialised in 19th- and 20th-century European diplomacy.
The Actions of the Bluff were local operations carried out in Flanders during the First World War by the German 4th Army and the British Second Army in 1916.
The Admiralty, originally known as the Office of the Admiralty and Marine Affairs, was the government department responsible for the command of the Royal Navy firstly in the Kingdom of England, secondly in the Kingdom of Great Britain, and from 1801 to 1964, the United Kingdom and former British Empire.
Aisne is a French department in the Hauts-de-France region of northern France.
Albrecht von Thaer (2 June 1868 - 23 June 1957) was a German General Staff Officer and authorised representative (''"Generalbevollmächtigter"'') of the last King of Saxony.
The Allies of World War I, or Entente Powers, were the countries that opposed the Central Powers in the First World War.
The American Expeditionary Forces (A. E. F., A.E.F. or AEF) was a formation of the United States Army on the Western Front of World War I. The AEF was established on July 5, 1917, in France under the command of Gen.
Arras (Atrecht) is the capital (chef-lieu/préfecture) of the Pas-de-Calais department, which forms part of the region of Hauts-de-France; prior to the reorganization of 2014 it was located in Nord-Pas-de-Calais.
Artois (adjective Artesian; Artesië) is a region of northern France.
Attrition warfare is a military strategy consisting of belligerent attempts to win a war by wearing down the enemy to the point of collapse through continuous losses in personnel and materiel.
The Australian War Memorial is Australia's national memorial to the members of its armed forces and supporting organisations who have died or participated in wars involving the Commonwealth of Australia.
The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany and the North and Central European Plain.
The Battle of Cambrai (Battle of Cambrai, 1917, First Battle of Cambrai and Schlacht von Cambrai) was a British attack followed by the biggest German counter-attack against the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) since 1914, in the First World War.
The Battle of Caporetto (also known as the Twelfth Battle of the Isonzo, the Battle of Kobarid or the Battle of Karfreit as it was known by the Central Powers) was a battle on the Austro-Italian front of World War I. The battle was fought between the Entente and the Central Powers and took place from 24 October to 19 November 1917, near the town of Kobarid (now in north-western Slovenia, then part of the Austrian Littoral).
The Battle of Messines was conducted by the British Second Army (General Sir Herbert Plumer), on the Western Front near the village of Messines in West Flanders, Belgium, during the First World War.
The Battle of Mont Sorrel (Battle of Mount Sorrel, Battle of Hill 62) was a local operation in World War I by three divisions of the British Second Army and three divisions of the 4th Army in the Ypres Salient, near Ypres, Belgium, from 2 to 13 June 1916.
The Battle of Pilckem Ridge (31 July – 2 August 1917) was the opening attack of the Third Battle of Ypres in the First World War.
The Battle of the Lys, also known as the Lys Offensive, the Fourth Battle of Ypres, the Fourth Battle of Flanders and Operation Georgette (Batalha de La Lys and 3ème Bataille des Flandres), was part of the 1918 German offensive in Flanders during World War I, also known as the Spring Offensive.
The Battle of the Menin Road Ridge, sometimes called "Battle of the Menin Road", was the third British general attack of the Third Battle of Ypres in the First World War.
The Battle of the Yser (Bataille de l'Yser, Slag om de IJzer) was a battle of World War I that took place in October 1914 between the towns on Nieuwpoort and Diksmuide, along a stretch of the Yser River and the Yperlee Canal, in Belgium.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
The British Expeditionary Force (BEF) was the British Army sent to the Western Front during the First World War.
The British royal family comprises Queen Elizabeth II and her close relations.
During British Summer Time (BST), civil time in the United Kingdom is advanced one hour forward of Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) (in effect, changing the time zone from UTC+0 to UTC+1), so that evenings have more daylight and mornings have less.
Bruges (Brugge; Bruges; Brügge) is the capital and largest city of the province of West Flanders in the Flemish Region of Belgium, in the northwest of the country.
Charles Robert Mowbray Fraser Cruttwell (23 May 1887 – 14 March 1941) was a British historian and academic who served as dean and later principal of Hertford College, Oxford.
The Canadian Corps was a World War I corps formed from the Canadian Expeditionary Force in September 1915 after the arrival of the 2nd Canadian Division in France.
Cap Gris-Nez (literally "cape grey nose") is a cape on the Côte d'Opale in the Pas-de-Calais département in northern France.
Casus belli is a Latin expression meaning "an act or event that provokes or is used to justify war" (literally, "a case of war").
The Celtic cross is a form of Christian cross featuring a nimbus or ring that emerged in Ireland and Britain in the Early Middle Ages.
The Central Powers (Mittelmächte; Központi hatalmak; İttifak Devletleri / Bağlaşma Devletleri; translit), consisting of Germany,, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria – hence also known as the Quadruple Alliance (Vierbund) – was one of the two main factions during World War I (1914–18).
Chantilly is a commune in the Oise department in the valley of the Nonette in the Hauts-de-France region of northern France.
Charles, Prince of Wales (Charles Philip Arthur George; born 14 November 1948) is the heir apparent to the British throne as the eldest child of Queen Elizabeth II.
The Chief of Staff of the French Army (Chef d'état-major de l'Armée de terre (CEMAT) is the highest rank officer in the chain of command of the French Army. The chief of staff (CEMAT) is assisted by the Major General of the French Army (Major général de l'Armée de terre). The CEMAT title has been in use since 1962; prior to that the position for the general in charge of France's army was referred to as Chief of Staff of the Army (Chef d'État-Major de l'Armée, CEMA).
Christchurch (Ōtautahi) is the largest city in the South Island of New Zealand and the seat of the Canterbury Region.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
Field Marshal Sir Claud William Jacob, (21 November 1863 – 2 June 1948) was a British Indian Army officer.
Combined arms is an approach to warfare which seeks to integrate different combat arms of a military to achieve mutually complementary effects (for example, using infantry and armor in an urban environment, where one supports the other, or both support each other).
The Commonwealth War Graves Commission (CWGC) is an intergovernmental organisation of six independent member states whose principal function is to mark, record and maintain the graves and places of commemoration of Commonwealth of Nations military service members who died in the two World Wars.
Cyril Bentham Falls CBE (2 March 1888 – 23 April 1971) was a military historian noted for his work on the First World War.
David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd-George of Dwyfor, (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British statesman of the Liberal Party and the final Liberal to serve as Prime Minister.
Field Marshal Douglas Haig, 1st Earl Haig, (19 June 1861 – 29 January 1928), was a senior officer of the British Army.
A drainage divide, water divide, divide, ridgeline, watershed, or water parting is the line that separates neighbouring drainage basins.
A duckboard is a platform made of wooden slats built over muddy ground to form a dry passageway.
Dunedin (Ōtepoti) is the second-largest city in the South Island of New Zealand, and the principal city of the Otago region.
The Eastern Front or Eastern Theater of World War I (Восточный фронт, Vostochnıy front, sometimes called the Second Fatherland War or Second Patriotic War (Вторая Отечественная война, Vtoraya Otechestvennaya voyna) in Russian sources) was a theatre of operations that encompassed at its greatest extent the entire frontier between the Russian Empire and Romania on one side and the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Bulgaria, the Ottoman Empire and the German Empire on the other. It stretched from the Baltic Sea in the north to the Black Sea in the south, included most of Eastern Europe and stretched deep into Central Europe as well. The term contrasts with "Western Front", which was being fought in Belgium and France. During 1910, Russian General Yuri Danilov developed "Plan 19" under which four armies would invade East Prussia. This plan was criticised as Austria-Hungary could be a greater threat than the German Empire. So instead of four armies invading East Prussia, the Russians planned to send two armies to East Prussia, and two Armies to defend against Austro-Hungarian forces invading from Galicia. In the opening months of the war, the Imperial Russian Army attempted an invasion of eastern Prussia in the northwestern theater, only to be beaten back by the Germans after some initial success. At the same time, in the south, they successfully invaded Galicia, defeating the Austro-Hungarian forces there. In Russian Poland, the Germans failed to take Warsaw. But by 1915, the German and Austro-Hungarian armies were on the advance, dealing the Russians heavy casualties in Galicia and in Poland, forcing it to retreat. Grand Duke Nicholas was sacked from his position as the commander-in-chief and replaced by the Tsar himself. Several offensives against the Germans in 1916 failed, including Lake Naroch Offensive and the Baranovichi Offensive. However, General Aleksei Brusilov oversaw a highly successful operation against Austria-Hungary that became known as the Brusilov Offensive, which saw the Russian Army make large gains. The Kingdom of Romania entered the war in August 1916. The Entente promised the region of Transylvania (which was part of Austria-Hungary) in return for Romanian support. The Romanian Army invaded Transylvania and had initial successes, but was forced to stop and was pushed back by the Germans and Austro-Hungarians when Bulgaria attacked them in the south. Meanwhile, a revolution occurred in Russia in February 1917 (one of the several causes being the hardships of the war). Tsar Nicholas II was forced to abdicate and a Russian Provisional Government was founded, with Georgy Lvov as its first leader, who was eventually replaced by Alexander Kerensky. The newly formed Russian Republic continued to fight the war alongside Romania and the rest of the Entente until it was overthrown by the Bolsheviks in October 1917. Kerensky oversaw the July Offensive, which was largely a failure and caused a collapse in the Russian Army. The new government established by the Bolsheviks signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with the Central Powers, taking it out of the war and making large territorial concessions. Romania was also forced to surrender and signed a similar treaty, though both of the treaties were nullified with the surrender of the Central Powers in November 1918.
Eingreif division is a term for a type of German Army formation of World War I, which developed in 1917, which was responsible for engaging in immediate counter-attacks (''Gegenstoße'') against enemy troops who broke through a defensive position being held by a front-holding division (Stellungsdivision).
Enfilade and defilade are concepts in military tactics used to describe a military formation's exposure to enemy fire.
The English Channel (la Manche, "The Sleeve"; Ärmelkanal, "Sleeve Channel"; Mor Breizh, "Sea of Brittany"; Mor Bretannek, "Sea of Brittany"), also called simply the Channel, is the body of water that separates southern England from northern France and links the southern part of the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean.
Erich Friedrich Wilhelm Ludendorff (9 April 1865 – 20 December 1937) was a German general, the victor of the Battle of Liège and the Battle of Tannenberg.
General Erich Georg Anton von Falkenhayn (11 September 1861 – 8 April 1922) was the Chief of the German General Staff during the First World War from September 1914 until 29 August 1916.
Ernest Gold CB DSO OBE FRS (24 July 1881 – 30 January 1976) was a British meteorologist.
Marshal Ferdinand Jean Marie Foch (2 October 1851 – 20 March 1929) was a French general and military theorist who served as the Supreme Allied Commander during the First World War.
Field Marshal has been the highest rank in the British Army since 1736.
The Fifth Army was a field army of the British Army during World War I that formed part of the British Expeditionary Force on the Western Front between 1916 and 1918.
The Fifth Battle of Ypres, also called the Advance of Flanders and the Battle of the Peaks of Flanders (Bataille des Crêtes de Flandres) is an informal name used to identify a series of battles in northern France and southern Belgium from late September through October 1918.
The First Army was a formation of the British Army that existed during the First and Second World Wars.
The First Battle of Ypres (Première Bataille des Flandres Erste Flandernschlacht, was a battle of the First World War, fought on the Western Front around Ypres, in West Flanders, Belgium, during October and November 1914.
Flanders (Vlaanderen, Flandre, Flandern) is the Dutch-speaking northern portion of Belgium, although there are several overlapping definitions, including ones related to culture, language, politics and history.
The Flanders U-boat flotillas were Imperial German Navy formations set up to prosecute the U-boat campaign against Allied shipping in the British Home Waters during the First World War.
The Fourth Army was a field army that formed part of the British Expeditionary Force during the First World War.
François Paul Anthoine (28 February 1860 – 25 December 1944) was a French army general during World War I. When the "Great War" began, Anthoine was General Castelnau's Chief of Staff (Second Army).
James Francis Hurley, OBE (15 October 1885 – 16 January 1962) was an Australian photographer and adventurer.
Friedrich Bertram Sixt von Armin (27 November 1851 – 30 September 1936) was a German general who participated in the Franco-Prussian War and the First World War.
Friedrich Karl "Fritz" von Loßberg (30 April 1868 – 4 May 1942) was a German colonel, and later general, of World War I. He was a strategic planner, especially of defence, who was Chief of Staff for the 2nd, 3rd and 4th armies.
Galicia (Ukrainian and Галичина, Halyčyna; Galicja; Czech and Halič; Galizien; Galícia/Kaliz/Gácsország/Halics; Galiția/Halici; Галиция, Galicija; גאַליציע Galitsiye) is a historical and geographic region in Central Europe once a small Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia and later a crown land of Austria-Hungary, the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, that straddled the modern-day border between Poland and Ukraine.
General (or full general to distinguish it from the lower general officer ranks) is the highest rank currently achievable by serving officers of the British Army.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.
The German General Staff, originally the Prussian General Staff and officially Great General Staff (Großer Generalstab), was a full-time body at the head of the Prussian Army and later, the German Army, responsible for the continuous study of all aspects of war, and for drawing up and reviewing plans for mobilization or campaign.
The German invasion of Belgium was a military campaign which began on 4 August 1914.
Lieutenant-General Sir Giffard Le Quesne Martel (10 October 1889 – 3 September 1958) was a British Army officer who served in both the First and Second World Wars.
The Guards Reserve Corps (Garde-Reserve-Korps / Garde RK) was a corps level command of the German Army in World War I.
The Gulf of Riga, Bay of Riga, or Gulf of Livonia (Rīgas jūras līcis, Liivi laht, Рижский залив) is a bay of the Baltic Sea between Latvia and Estonia.
General Henry Seymour Rawlinson, 1st Baron Rawlinson, (20 February 1864 – 28 March 1925), known as Sir Henry Rawlinson, 2nd Baronet between 1895 and 1919, was a British First World War general best known for his roles in the Battle of the Somme of 1916 and the Battle of Amiens in 1918.
Field Marshal Herbert Charles Onslow Plumer, 1st Viscount Plumer, (13 March 1857 – 16 July 1932) was a senior British Army officer of the First World War.
Hermann Josef von Kuhl (2 November 1856 – 4 November 1958) was a Prussian military officer, member of the German General Staff, and a Generalleutnant during World War I. One of the most competent commanders in the German Army, he retired in 1919 to write a number of critically acclaimed essays on the war.
Heuvelland is a municipality located in the Belgian province of West Flanders.
Hill 60 is a World War I battlefield memorial site and park in the Zwarteleen area of Zillebeke south of Ypres, Belgium.
The Hindenburg Line (Siegfriedstellung or Siegfried Position) was a German defensive position of World War I, built during the winter of 1916–1917 on the Western Front, from Arras to Laffaux, near Soissons on the Aisne.
Hollebeke is a Flemish village in the Belgian province of West Vlaanderen, now part of Ypres city.
In World War I, the area around Hooge on Bellewaerde Ridge, about east of Ypres in Flanders in Belgium, was one of the eastern-most sectors of the Ypres Salient and was the site of much fighting between German and Allied forces.
Hooge is a small village on the Bellewaerde Ridge, about 4 kilometres east of Ypres in the Flemish province of West-Vlaanderen in Belgium.
Houthulst (West Flemish: Outulst) is a municipality located in the Belgian province of West Flanders.
General Sir Hubert de la Poer Gough (12 August 1870 – 18 March 1963) was a senior officer in the British Army in the First World War.
The II ANZAC Corps (Second Anzac Corps) was an Australian and New Zealand First World War army corps formed in Egypt in February 1916 as part of the reorganization of the Australian Imperial Force following the evacuation of Gallipoli in November 1915, under the command of William Birdwood.
II Corps was an army corps of the British Army formed in both the First World War and the Second World War.
In warfare, infiltration tactics involve small independent light infantry forces advancing into enemy rear areas, bypassing enemy front-line strongpoints, possibly isolating them for attack by follow-up troops with heavier weapons.
The Italian Front (Fronte italiano; in Gebirgskrieg, "Mountain war") was a series of battles at the border between Austria-Hungary and Italy, fought between 1915 and 1918 in World War I. Following the secret promises made by the Allies in the Treaty of London, Italy entered the war in order to annex the Austrian Littoral and northern Dalmatia, and the territories of present-day Trentino and South Tyrol.
IX Corps was a corps-sized formation of the British Army that existed during World War I and World War II.
Brigadier General Sir James Edward Edmonds (25 December 1861 – 2 August 1956) was a British First World War officer of the Royal Engineers.
Brigadier General John Charteris CMG, DSO (1877–1946) was a British general during the First World War.
Major-General Sir John Humphrey Davidson, (24 July 1876 – 11 December 1954), nicknamed "Tavish", was a British Army officer and Member of Parliament.
Field Marshal John Denton Pinkstone French, 1st Earl of Ypres, (28 September 1852 – 22 May 1925), known as Sir John French from 1901 to 1916, and as The Viscount French between 1916 and 1922, was a senior British Army officer.
John Alfred Terraine (15 January 1921 – 28 December 2003) was an English military historian, and a TV screenwriter.
Marshal Joseph Jacques Césaire Joffre (12 January 1852 – 3 January 1931), was a French general who served as Commander-in-Chief of French forces on the Western Front from the start of World War I until the end of 1916.
Field Marshal Julian Hedworth George Byng, 1st Viscount Byng of Vimy, (11 September 1862 – 6 June 1935) was a British Army officer who served as Governor General of Canada, the 12th since Canadian Confederation.
Kemmelberg is a hill formation in Flanders, Belgium.
Koekelare (West Flemish: Kookloare) is a municipality located in the Belgian province of West Flanders.
Lens (Linse) is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais department in northern France.
Lille (Rijsel; Rysel) is a city at the northern tip of France, in French Flanders.
Linda Fabiani (born 14 December 1956 in Glasgow) is a Scottish politician, with Italian origins.
The London Clay Formation is a marine geological formation of Ypresian (early Eocene Epoch, c. 56–49 Ma) age which crops out in the southeast of England.
Loos-en-Gohelle is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais department in the Hauts-de-France region of France.
Lieutenant-General baron Louis Ruquoy (or Louis Rucquoy) (1861 – 1937) was the Chief of Staff of the Belgian Army during the second part of the First World War.
Marl or marlstone is a calcium carbonate or lime-rich mud or mudstone which contains variable amounts of clays and silt.
The Menin Gate Memorial to the Missing is a war memorial in Ypres, Belgium, dedicated to the British and Commonwealth soldiers who were killed in the Ypres Salient of World War I and whose graves are unknown.
Mesen (Messines in French, historically used in English) is a city located in the Belgian province of West Flanders.
The mines in the Battle of Messines comprised a series of underground explosive charges, secretly planted by British tunnelling units beneath the German 4th Army lines near the village of Mesen (Messines in French, historically used in English) in Belgian West Flanders during the First World War.
Mons (Bergen; Mont; Mont) is a Walloon city and municipality, and the capital of the Belgian province of Hainaut.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
The New Zealand Division was an infantry division of the New Zealand Expeditionary Force raised for service in the First World War.
The Nivelle Offensive of 1917, was a Franco-British offensive on the Western Front in the First World War.
General Sir (Cyril) Norman MacMullen, KCB, CMG, CIE, DSO (13 December 1877 - 12 November 1944) was a British officer in the Indian Army.
The Oberste Heeresleitung (Supreme Army Command or OHL) was the highest echelon of command of the army (Heer) of the German Empire.
The Office of Public Sector Information (OPSI) is the body responsible for the operation of Her Majesty's Stationery Office (HMSO) and of other public information services of the United Kingdom.
The Official History of Australia in the War of 1914–1918 is a 12-volume series covering Australian involvement in the First World War.
Oise is a department in the north of France.
Operation Albion was the codename for the German air, land and naval operation in October 1917 to occupy the West Estonian Archipelago, part of the Autonomous Governorate of Estonia, Russian Republic.
Operation Hush was a British plan to make amphibious landings on the Belgian coast in 1917 during World War I, supported by an attack from Nieuwpoort and the Yser bridgehead, which were a legacy of the Battle of the Yser (1914).
Otto Ernst Vincent Leo von Below (18 January 1857 – 15 March 1944) was a Prussian general officer in the Imperial German Army during the First World War.
Passchendaele is a 2008 Canadian war film, written, co-produced, directed by, and starring Paul Gross.
The Passchendaele Memorial is a Canadian war memorial that commemorates the actions of the Canadian Corps in the Second Battle of Passchendaele of World War I. The memorial is located on the former site of Crest Farm, an objective captured by the 4th Canadian Division during the assault of 30 October 1917.
Passendale or Passchendaele (obsolete spelling, retained in English) is a rural Belgian village in the Zonnebeke municipality of West Flanders province.
Paul André Marie Maistre, (20 June 1858 – 25 July 1922) was a highly decorated French general who fought in World War I. Maistre commanded the French Sixth Army at the Battle of La Malmaison.
Picardy (Picardie) is a historical territory and a former administrative region of France.
Ploegsteert Wood was a sector of the Western Front in Flanders in World War I, part of the Ypres Salient.
Polygon Wood is a forest located between Ypres and Zonnebeke, Belgium.
Poperinge (also spelled Poperinghe in the past) is a municipality located in the Belgian province of West Flanders, Flemish Region, and has a history going back to medieval times.
The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of the United Kingdom government.
The Race to the Sea took place from about 1914, after the Battle of the Frontiers and the German advance into France, which had been stopped at the First Battle of the Marne and was followed by the First Battle of the Aisne a Franco-British counter-offensive.
Admiral Sir Reginald Hugh Spencer Bacon, (6 September 1863 – 9 June 1947) was an officer in the Royal Navy noted for his technical abilities.
Edward Richard Holmes, CBE, TD, VR, JP (29 March 1946 – 30 April 2011), known as Richard Holmes, was a British soldier and military historian, known for his many television appearances.
Riga (Rīga) is the capital and largest city of Latvia.
Robert Georges Nivelle (15 October 1856 – 22 March 1924) was a French artillery officer who served in the Boxer Rebellion, and the First World War.
Roeselare (Roulers, West Flemish: Roeseloare) is a Belgian city and municipality in the Flemish province of West Flanders.
Rupprecht, Crown Prince of Bavaria (Rupprecht Maria Luitpold Ferdinand; 18 May 1869 – 2 August 1955) was the last heir apparent to the Bavarian throne.
A salient, also known as a bulge, is a battlefield feature that projects into enemy territory.
Sanctuary Wood is an area east of Ypres, Belgium which was the site of fighting on the Ypres Salient in World War I.
The Scottish Parliament (Pàrlamaid na h-Alba; Scots: The Scots Pairlament) is the devolved national, unicameral legislature of Scotland.
The British Second Army was a field army active during the First and Second World Wars.
During World War I, the Second Battle of Ypres was fought from for control of the strategic Flemish town of Ypres in western Belgium after the First Battle of Ypres the previous autumn.
Silt is granular material of a size between sand and clay, whose mineral origin is quartz and feldspar.
Sint-Elooi is a small village, about south of Ypres in the Flemish province of West-Vlaanderen in Belgium.
Spanbroekmolen is a small group of farms in Heuvelland, a municipality located in the Belgian province of West Flanders.
The 1918 Spring Offensive, or Kaiserschlacht (Kaiser's Battle), also known as the Ludendorff Offensive, was a series of German attacks along the Western Front during the First World War, beginning on 21 March 1918, which marked the deepest advances by either side since 1914.
A tank is an armoured fighting vehicle designed for front-line combat, with heavy firepower, strong armour, tracks and a powerful engine providing good battlefield maneuverability.
Theresa Mary May (Brasier; born 1 October 1956) is a British politician serving as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Conservative Party since 2016.
Torhout (West Flemish: Toeroet) is a municipality located in the Belgian province of West Flanders.
The Treaty of London of 1839, also called the First Treaty of London, the Convention of 1839, the Treaty of Separation, the Quintuple Treaty of 1839, or the Treaty of the XXIV articles, was a treaty signed on 19 April 1839 between the Concert of Europe, the United Kingdom of the Netherlands and the Kingdom of Belgium.
Trench foot is a medical condition caused by prolonged exposure of the feet to damp, unsanitary, and cold conditions.
Tunnel warfare is a general name for war being conducted in tunnels and other underground cavities.
Tyne Cot Commonwealth War Graves Cemetery and Memorial to the Missing is a Commonwealth War Graves Commission (CWGC) burial ground for the dead of the First World War in the Ypres Salient on the Western Front.
VIII Corps was a British Army corps formation that existed during the First and Second World Wars.
Vlamertinge is a village in the Belgian province of West Flanders and a borough of the city of Ypres.
The War Office was a department of the British Government responsible for the administration of the British Army between 1857 and 1964, when its functions were transferred to the Ministry of Defence.
West Estonian archipelago (Lääne-Eesti saarestik, also Moonsund archipelago) is a group of Estonian islands, around Väinameri, located in the Baltic Sea.
West Flanders (West-Vlaanderen; West Flemish: West Vloandern; French: (Province de) Flandre-Occidentale; German: Westflandern) is the most western province of the Flemish Region, in Belgium.
The Western Front was the main theatre of war during the First World War.
Westrozebeke is a village in the Belgian province of West-Flanders.
Field Marshal William Riddell Birdwood, 1st Baron Birdwood, (13 September 1865 – 17 May 1951) was a British Army officer.
Winter operations 1914–1915 is the name given to military operations during the First World War from 1915, on the part of the Western Front held by the British Expeditionary Force (BEF), in French and Belgian Flanders.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
XIV Corps was a British infantry corps during the First World War.
The British XIX Corps was a British infantry corps during World War I.
The XVIII Corps was a British infantry formation during World War I. It was reactivated, briefly, in Cyprus during World War II as part of a military deception.
Yale University Press is a university press associated with Yale University.
Ypres (Ieper) is a Belgian municipality in the province of West Flanders.
The Ypres Salient is the area around Ypres in Belgium which was the scene of some of the biggest battles in World War I.
Zonnebeke is a municipality located in the Belgian province of West Flanders.
The 10th Ersatz Division (10. Ersatz-Division) was a unit of the German Army, in World War I. The division was formed on the mobilization of the German Army in August 1914.
The 15th Brigade was an infantry brigade of the Australian Army.
The 16th Division (16. Division) was a unit of the Prussian/German Army.
The 19th Reserve Division (19. Reserve-Division) was a unit of the Imperial German Army in World War I. The division was formed on mobilization of the German Army in August 1914 as part of X Reserve Corps.
The 1st Canadian Division is an operational command and control formation of the Canadian Joint Operations Command, based at CFB Kingston.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
The 20th Division (20. Division) was a unit of the Prussian/German Army.
The 2nd Canadian Division (2 Cdn Div) is responsible for generating and maintaining an operationally ready, multi-purpose land force for the Canadian Army in the province of Quebec, Canada, in order to meet Canada's defence objectives, domestically and overseas.
The 2nd Infantry Brigade was a formation of the New Zealand Military Forces raised for service abroad with the New Zealand Expeditionary Force during the First World War.
The 33rd Division was a New Army infantry division of the British Army formed in 1914 during the First World War as the 40th Division in the K5 Army group then renumbered in April 1915 as part of the new K4 Army Group.
The 45th Reserve Division (45. Reserve-Division) was a unit of the Imperial German Army in World War I. The division was formed in August 1914 and organized over the next two months.
The 4th Army (4.) was an army level command of the German Army in World War I. It was formed on mobilization in August 1914 from the VI Army Inspection.
The 4th Guards Infantry Division (4. Garde-Infanterie-Division) was a unit of the Imperial German Army in World War I. The division was formed on May 18, 1915.
The 4th Royal Bavarian Division was a unit of the Royal Bavarian Army which served alongside the Prussian Army as part of the Imperial German Army.
The 50th Reserve Division (50. Reserve-Division) was a formation of the Imperial German Army in World War I. The division was formed in September 1914 and organized over the next month, arriving in the line in October.
The 5th Division was an infantry division of the Australian Army which served during the First and Second World Wars.
The 6th Army (6.) was an army level command of the German Army in World War I. It was formed on mobilization in August 1914 from the IV Army Inspectorate.
The 6th Royal Bavarian Division was a unit of the Royal Bavarian Army which served within the Imperial German Army.
3rd Battle of Ypres, Battle of Passchendale, Battle of Passendale, Battle of Third Ypres, Battle of passchendaele, Final Battle of Ypres, Passchendaele Ridge, Passendale campaign, Second Battle of Flanders, The Battle of Passchendaele, Third Battle of Ypres, Third Flanders Battle, Third Ypres, Third battle of Ypres, Third battle of ypres, Ypres 1917, Ypres, 1917.