360 relations: A. V. Alexander, 1st Earl Alexander of Hillsborough, Aces of the Deep, Action in the North Atlantic, Actions of 5–6 May 1945, Actions of 7–8 May 1945, Adolf Hitler, Aircraft carrier, Alan Turing, Alfred Thayer Mahan, Allies of World War II, Angelo Parona, Angers, Anti-submarine warfare, Archibald Hill, Archimede-class submarine, Arctic convoys of World War II, Arctic Ocean, Argentina, Armed merchantman, Arthur L. Bristol, Atlantic Ocean, Attack on Pearl Harbor, Axis powers, B-Dienst, Battle of Dunkirk, Battle of France, Battle of Jutland, Battle of the Barents Sea, Battle of the Caribbean, Battle of the Denmark Strait, Battle of the North Cape, Battle of the River Plate, Battle of the St. Lawrence, Battlecruiser, Bay of Biscay, Befehlshaber der U-Boote, Bermuda, BETASOM, Binoculars, Black May (1943), Bletchley Park, Blockade of Germany (1939–1945), Blockade runner, Bold (decoy), Bordeaux, Bosporus, Boston, Brazil, Brazilian Air Force, Brazilian cruiser Bahia, ..., Brazilian Navy, Brest, France, British Empire, British Isles, British merchant seamen of World War II, British occupation of the Faroe Islands, British Security Co-ordination, British Tanker Company, Bureau of Ordnance, Cabinet of the United Kingdom, CAM ship, Capital ship, Caribbean Sea, Carlo Fecia di Cossato, Cavity magnetron, Channel Dash, Château de Pignerolle, Chief of Naval Operations, Clay Blair, Commander-in-Chief, Western Approaches, Commerce raiding, Consolidated B-24 Liberator, Consolidated PBY Catalina, Convoy, Convoy battles of World War II, Convoy HG 76, Convoy HX 106, Convoy HX 112, Convoy HX 228, Convoy HX 72, Convoy HX 79, Convoy HX 84, Convoy HX 90, Convoy ON 154, Convoy ON 166, Convoy ONS 5, Convoy SC 104, Convoy SC 107, Convoy SC 118, Convoy SC 121, Convoy SC 130, Convoy SC 26, Convoy SC 7, Convoy SC 94, Convoys HX 229/SC 122, Convoys ONS 18/ON 202, Corvette, Dairy cattle, Dan van der Vat, Das Boot, Demoralization (warfare), Denys Rayner, Depth charge, Destroyer, Destroyer Command, Destroyer escort, Destroyers for Bases Agreement, Deutschland-class cruiser, Dominion of Newfoundland, Donald Macintyre (Royal Navy officer), Dudley Pound, East Coast of the United States, Eddy current, Elektroboot, Ellerman Lines, Empire of Japan, Empire ship, End of World War II in Europe, Engelbert Endrass, English Channel, Enigma machine, Erich Raeder, Ernest King, Escort carrier, First Lord of the Admiralty, Fliegerführer Atlantik, Focke-Wulf Fw 200 Condor, Force H, Foreign minister, Foxer, France, Frank Birch, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Frederic John Walker, Frederick Bowhill, Free France, Freetown, French Navy, French Resistance, French Third Republic, Frigate, G7es torpedo, Günther Lütjens, Günther Prien, German battleship Gneisenau, German Instrument of Surrender, German U-boat bases in occupied Norway, Getúlio Vargas, Gianfranco Gazzana-Priaroggia, Gibraltar, Gilbert Stephenson, Great Depression, Greenland, Grumman F4F Wildcat, Grumman TBF Avenger, Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of Saint Lawrence, H2S (radar), Hans-Georg von Friedeburg, Hans-Rudolf Rösing, Hawker Hurricane, Hebrides, Hedgehog (weapon), Heinkel He 177, Heinrich Bleichrodt, Hellmuth Walter, Henry H. Arnold, Henry Tizard, Henschel Hs 293, Herbert Werner, High-frequency direction finding, HMS Audacity, HMS Barham (04), HMS Charybdis (88), HMS Courageous (50), HMS Curacoa (D41), HMS Curlew (D42), HMS Dasher (D37), HMS Dunedin, HMS Edinburgh (16), HMS Effingham (D98), HMS Glorious, HMS Hood, HMS Nabob (D77), HMS Royal Oak (08), HMS Trinidad (46), Home Fleet, Hudson, Human torpedo, Humphrey de Verd Leigh, Hydrophone, Iceland, In Enemy Hands (film), Indian Ocean, Interdiction, Invasion of Iceland, Irish Mercantile Marine during World War II, Irish Sea, JATO, Jürgen Rohwer, Joachim Schepke, John Slessor, Joseph P. Kennedy Sr., Junkers Ju 290, Karl Dönitz, Key (cryptography), Killed in action, Kingdom of Italy, Kriegsmarine, La Pallice, La Rochelle, Labrador Sea, Last battle of the battleship Bismarck, Leigh Light, Lend-Lease, Leonard W. Murray, Liberty ship, List of German U-boat World War II raiding careers, List of most successful U-boat commanders, List of wolfpacks of World War II, List of World War II torpedoes of Germany, Liverpool, London Naval Treaty, Long Island City, Lorient, Losses during the Battle of the Atlantic, Low Countries, Luftwaffe, Magnetic pistol, Manstein Plan, Maritime patrol, Mark 14 torpedo, Martin Dunbar-Nasmith, Martin Harlinghausen, Max Hastings, Max Horton, Mediterranean Fleet, Merchant aircraft carrier, Merchant navy, Merchant Navy (United Kingdom), Merchant raider, Metox radar detector, Mid-Atlantic gap, Mid-Ocean Escort Force, Military campaign, Military doctrine, Minesweeping, Ministry of War Transport, Monsun Gruppe, Montevideo, Morse code, Mortar (weapon), Mumbai, Naval history of World War II, Naval mine, Nazi Germany, Newfoundland Escort Force, No. 209 Squadron RAF, Normandy landings, North Sea, Nortraship, Norwegian Campaign, Ocean liner, Operation Berlin (Atlantic), Operation Catechism, Operation Deadlight, Operation Overlord, Operation Rheinübung, Operation Teardrop, Operation Torch, Operation Weserübung, Operations research, Osprey Publishing, Osvaldo Aranha, Otto Kretschmer, Outer Banks, Pan-American Security Zone, Panama, Parliament of the United Kingdom, Percy Noble (Royal Navy officer), Peter Gretton, Peter-Erich Cremer, Philip Joubert de la Ferté, Phoney War, Plan Z, Plymouth, Port Said, President of the United States, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Prize (law), RAF Coastal Command, Río de la Plata, Regia Marina, Robert Carney, Romolo Polacchini, Rotor machine, Royal Air Force, Royal Canadian Navy, Royal E. Ingersoll, Royal Navy, Scapa Flow, Scuttling, Second Happy Time, Second Polish Republic, Ship commissioning, Sieglinde (decoy), Silent Hunter III, Silver Line (shipping company), Simulation, Singapore, Sloop-of-war, Sonar, Soviet Union, Squid (weapon), St Nazaire Raid, St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, Stavanger, Submarine, Submarine pen, Submarine snorkel, Tallboy (bomb), The Cruel Sea (1953 film), The Enemy Below, Thermocline, Threat assessment, Time (magazine), Timeline of the Battle of the Atlantic, Tobermory, Mull, Tonnage war, Torpedo, Town-class destroyer, Type IX submarine, Type VII submarine, Type XIV submarine, Type XXI submarine, Type XXIII submarine, U-571 (film), U-boat, U-Boote westwärts!, UG convoys, United States, United States Merchant Marine, United States Navy, Unrestricted submarine warfare, Uruguay, Vargas Era, Very high frequency, Vickers Wellington, Victor Oehrn, Vidkun Quisling, War film, Water landing, West Africa, West Indies, Western Approaches, Western Approaches (film), Winston Churchill, Wolfpack (naval tactic), World War I, World War II. Expand index (310 more) » « Shrink index
Albert Victor Alexander, 1st Earl Alexander of Hillsborough, (1 May 1885 – 11 January 1965) was a British Labour Co-operative politician.
Aces of the Deep is a World War II submarine simulator game developed and published by Dynamix for MS-DOS in 1994.
Action in the North Atlantic (also known as Heroes Without Uniforms) is a 1943 American black-and-white war film from Warner Bros. Pictures, produced by Jerry Wald, directed by Lloyd Bacon, that stars Humphrey Bogart and Raymond Massey as sailors in the U.S. Merchant Marine during World War II.
The last actions of the Battle of the Atlantic in American waters took place on 5–6 May 1945.
The last actions in British coastal waters and the last actions of the Battle of the Atlantic took place on 7–8 May 1945.
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
An aircraft carrier is a warship that serves as a seagoing airbase, equipped with a full-length flight deck and facilities for carrying, arming, deploying, and recovering aircraft.
Alan Mathison Turing (23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was an English computer scientist, mathematician, logician, cryptanalyst, philosopher, and theoretical biologist.
Alfred Thayer Mahan (September 27, 1840 – December 1, 1914) was a United States naval officer and historian, whom John Keegan called "the most important American strategist of the nineteenth century." His book The Influence of Sea Power Upon History, 1660–1783 (1890) won immediate recognition, especially in Europe, and with its successor, The Influence of Sea Power Upon the French Revolution and Empire, 1793–1812 (1892), made him world-famous and perhaps the most influential American author of the nineteenth century.
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
Angelo Parona (April 23, 1889 – May 14, 1977) was an Italian admiral during World War II.
Angers is a city in western France, about southwest of Paris.
Anti-submarine warfare (ASW, or in older form A/S) is a branch of underwater warfare that uses surface warships, aircraft, or other submarines to find, track and deter, damage, or destroy enemy submarines.
Archibald Vivian Hill (26 September 1886 – 3 June 1977), known as A. V. Hill, was an English physiologist, one of the founders of the diverse disciplines of biophysics and operations research.
The Archimede class were a group of submarines built for the Italian Navy in the early 1930s.
The Arctic convoys of World War II were oceangoing convoys which sailed from the United Kingdom, Iceland, and North America to northern ports in the Soviet Union – primarily Arkhangelsk (Archangel) and Murmansk in Russia.
The Arctic Ocean is the smallest and shallowest of the world's five major oceans.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
An armed merchantman is a merchant ship equipped with guns, usually for defensive purposes, either by design or after the fact.
Arthur LeRoy Bristol, Jr. (July 15, 1886 – April 27, 1942), was a Vice Admiral in the United States Navy, who held important commands during World War I and World War II, and was an early aircraft carrier commander.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
The attack on Pearl Harbor was a surprise military strike by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service against the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii Territory, on the morning of December 7, 1941.
The Axis powers (Achsenmächte; Potenze dell'Asse; 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku), also known as the Axis and the Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied forces.
The B-Dienst (Beobachtungsdienst, observation service), also called xB-Dienst, X-B-Dienst and χB-Dienst, was a Department of the German Naval Intelligence Service (Marinenachrichtendienst, MND III) of the OKM, that dealt with the interception and recording, decoding and analysis of the enemy, in particular British radio communications before and during World War II.
The Battle of Dunkirk was a military operation that took place in Dunkirk (Dunkerque), France, during the Second World War.
The Battle of France, also known as the Fall of France, was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries during the Second World War.
The Battle of Jutland (Skagerrakschlacht, the Battle of Skagerrak) was a naval battle fought by the British Royal Navy's Grand Fleet under Admiral Sir John Jellicoe, against the Imperial German Navy's High Seas Fleet under Vice-Admiral Reinhard Scheer during the First World War.
The Battle of the Barents Sea was a naval engagement on 31 December 1942 between warships of the Nazi German Kriegsmarine and British ships escorting convoy JW 51B to Kola Inlet in the USSR.
The Battle of the Caribbean refers to a naval campaign waged during World War II that was part of the Battle of the Atlantic, from 1941 to 1945.
The Battle of the Denmark Strait was a naval engagement on 24 May 1941 in the Second World War, between ships of the Royal Navy and the German Kriegsmarine.
The Battle of the North Cape was a Second World War naval battle which occurred on 26 December 1943, as part of the Arctic Campaign.
The Battle of the River Plate was the first naval battle in the Second World War and the first one of the Battle of the Atlantic in South American waters.
The Battle of the St.
The battlecruiser, or battle cruiser, was a type of capital ship of the first half of the 20th century.
The Bay of Biscay (Golfe de Gascogne, Golfo de Vizcaya, Pleg-mor Gwaskogn, Bizkaiko Golkoa) is a gulf of the northeast Atlantic Ocean located south of the Celtic Sea.
The Befehlshaber der Unterseeboote (BdU) was the supreme commander of the Kriegsmarines U-boat Arm (Ubootwaffe) during World War II.
Bermuda is a British Overseas Territory in the North Atlantic Ocean.
BETASOM (an Italian language acronym of Bordeaux Sommergibile or Sommergibili) was a submarine base established at Bordeaux, France by the Italian Regia Marina Italiana during World War II.
Binoculars or field glasses are two telescopes mounted side-by-side and aligned to point in the same direction, allowing the viewer to use both eyes (binocular vision) when viewing distant objects.
‘Black May’ refers to a period (May 1943) in the Battle of the Atlantic campaign during World War II, when the German U-boat arm (U-Bootwaffe) suffered high casualties with fewer Allied ships sunk; it is considered a turning point in the Battle of the Atlantic.
Bletchley Park was the central site for British (and subsequently, Allied) codebreakers during World War II.
The Blockade of Germany (1939–1945), also known as the Economic War, was carried out during World War II by the United Kingdom and France in order to restrict the supplies of minerals, metals, food and textiles needed by Nazi Germany - and later Fascist Italy - in order to sustain their war efforts.
A blockade runner is usually a lighter-weight ship used for evading a naval blockade of a port or strait, as opposed to confronting the blockaders to break the blockade.
Bold (a term derived from kobold) was a German sonar decoy, used by U-boats during the Second World War from 1942 onwards.
Bordeaux (Gascon Occitan: Bordèu) is a port city on the Garonne in the Gironde department in Southwestern France.
The Bosporus or Bosphorus;The spelling Bosporus is listed first or exclusively in all major British and American dictionaries (e.g.,,, Merriam-Webster,, and Random House) as well as the Encyclopædia Britannica and the.
Boston is the capital city and most populous municipality of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
The Brazilian Air Force (Força Aérea Brasileira, FAB) is the air branch of the Brazilian Armed Forces and one of the three national uniformed services.
Bahia was the lead ship of a two-vessel class of cruisers built for Brazil by the British company Armstrong Whitworth.
The Brazilian Navy (Marinha do Brasil) is the naval service branch of the Brazilian Armed Forces, responsible for conducting naval operations.
Brest is a city in the Finistère département in Brittany.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
The British Isles are a group of islands off the north-western coast of continental Europe that consist of the islands of Great Britain, Ireland, the Isle of Man and over six thousand smaller isles.
Merchant seamen crewed the merchant ships of the British Merchant Navy which kept the United Kingdom supplied with raw materials, arms, ammunition, fuel, food and all of the necessities of a nation at war throughout World War II literally enabling the country to defend itself.
The British occupation of the Faroe Islands in World War II, also known as Operation Valentine, was implemented immediately following the German invasion of Denmark and Norway.
British Security Co-ordination (BSC) was a covert organisation set up in New York City by the British Secret Intelligence Service (MI6) in May 1940 upon the authorisation of Prime Minister Winston Churchill.
British Tanker Company Limited was the maritime transport arm of the Anglo-Persian Oil Company, the forerunner of BP.
The Bureau of Ordnance (BuOrd) was the U.S. Navy's organization responsible for the procurement, storage, and deployment of all naval weapons, between the years 1862 and 1959.
The Cabinet of the United Kingdom is the collective decision-making body of Her Majesty's Government of the United Kingdom, composed of the Prime Minister and 21 cabinet ministers, the most senior of the government ministers.
CAM ships were World War II-era British merchant ships used in convoys as an emergency stop-gap until sufficient escort carriers became available.
The capital ships of a navy are its most important warships; they are generally the larger ships when compared to other warships in their respective fleet.
The Caribbean Sea (Mar Caribe; Mer des Caraïbes; Caraïbische Zee) is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean in the tropics of the Western Hemisphere.
Carlo Fecia di Cossato (25 September 1908 – 27 August 1944) was an officer in the Regia Marina (Italian Navy), in command of submarines and torpedo boats during World War II.
The cavity magnetron is a high-powered vacuum tube that generates microwaves using the interaction of a stream of electrons with a magnetic field while moving past a series of open metal cavities (cavity resonators).
The Channel Dash or Unternehmen Zerberus (Operation Cerberus) was a German naval operation during World War II.
The Chateau de Pignerolle is located to the east of Angers in the commune of Saint-Barthélemy-d'Anjou in the department of Maine-et-Loire in France.
The Chief of Naval Operations (CNO) is the most senior officer in the United States Navy.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
Clay Blair Jr. (May 1, 1925 – December 16, 1998) was an American historian, best known for his books on military history.
Commander-in-Chief, Western Approaches was the commander of a major operational command of the Royal Navy during World War II.
Commerce raiding is a form of naval warfare used to destroy or disrupt logistics of the enemy on the open sea by attacking its merchant shipping, rather than engaging its combatants or enforcing a blockade against them.
The Consolidated B-24 Liberator is an American heavy bomber, designed by Consolidated Aircraft of San Diego, California.
The Consolidated PBY Catalina, also known as the Canso in Canadian service, is an American flying boat, and later an amphibious aircraft of the 1930s and 1940s produced by Consolidated Aircraft.
A convoy is a group of vehicles, typically motor vehicles or ships, traveling together for mutual support and protection.
Convoy Battles of World War II occurred when convoys of cargo ships assembled for mutual defense, and were attacked by enemy submarines, surface ships, and/or aircraft.
HG 76 was an Allied convoy of the HG (Homeward from Gibraltar) series during World War II.
Convoy HX 106 was the 106th of the numbered series of Allied HX convoys of merchant ships from Halifax, Nova Scotia to Liverpool, England.
HX 112 was a North Atlantic convoy of the HX series which ran during the battle of the Atlantic in the Second World War.
HX 228 was a North Atlantic convoy of the HX series which ran during the Battle of the Atlantic in World War II.
HX 72 was a North Atlantic convoy of the HX series which ran during the battle of the Atlantic in World War II.
HX 79 was an Allied North Atlantic convoy of the HX series which ran during the Battle of the Atlantic in World War II.
Convoy HX 84 was the 84th of the numbered series of Allied North Atlantic HX convoys of merchant ships from Halifax, Nova Scotia to Liverpool, England during the battle of the Atlantic.
Convoy HX 90 was a North Atlantic convoy of the HX series which ran during the Battle of the Atlantic in World War II.
Convoy ON-154 was the 154th of the numbered series of World War II merchant ship convoys Outbound from the British Isles to North America.
Convoy ON 166 was the 166th of the numbered ON series of merchant ship convoys Outbound from the British Isles to North America.
ONS 5 was the 5th of the numbered ONS series of Slow trade convoys Outbound from the British Isles to North America.
Convoy SC-104 was the 104th of the numbered series of World War II '''S'''low '''C'''onvoys of merchant ships from '''S'''ydney, '''C'''ape Breton Island to Liverpool.
Convoy SC 107 was the 107th of the numbered series of World War II '''S'''low '''C'''onvoys of merchant ships from '''S'''ydney, '''C'''ape Breton Island to Liverpool.
Convoy SC-118 was the 118th of the numbered series of World War II '''S'''low '''C'''onvoys of merchant ships from '''S'''ydney, '''C'''ape Breton Island to Liverpool.
Convoy SC-121 was the 121st of the numbered series of World War II '''S'''low '''C'''onvoys of merchant ships from '''S'''ydney, '''C'''ape Breton Island to Liverpool.
Convoy SC 130 was a North Atlantic convoy which ran during the battle of the Atlantic in World War II.
SC 26 was a North Atlantic convoy of the SC series which ran during the battle of the Atlantic in World War II.
SC 7 was the code name for a large Allied World War II convoy of 35 merchant ships and six escorts, which sailed eastbound from Sydney, Nova Scotia for Liverpool and other United Kingdom ports on 5 October 1940.
Convoy SC-94 was the 94th of the numbered series of World War II '''S'''low '''C'''onvoys of merchant ships from '''S'''ydney, '''C'''ape Breton Island, Nova Scotia, to Liverpool.
The battle around convoys HX 229 and SC 122 occurred during March 1943 in the Battle of the Atlantic, and was the largest convoy battle of World War II.
ONS 18 and ON 202 were North Atlantic convoys of the ONS/ON series which ran during the battle of the Atlantic in World War II.
A corvette is a small warship.
Dairy cattle (also called dairy cows) are cattle cows bred for the ability to produce large quantities of milk, from which dairy products are made.
Daniel Francis Jeroen van der Vat (born 28 October 1939, Alkmaar, North Holland) is a journalist, writer and military historian, with a focus on naval history.
Das Boot (German: "The Boat") is a 1981 German war film written and directed by Wolfgang Petersen, produced by Günter Rohrbach, and starring Jürgen Prochnow, Herbert Grönemeyer, and Klaus Wennemann.
Demoralization is, in a context of warfare, national security, and law enforcement, a process in psychological warfare with the objective to erode morale among enemy combatants and/or noncombatants.
Denys Arthur Rayner DSC & Bar, VRD, RNVR (9 February 1908 – 4 January 1967) was a Royal Navy officer who fought throughout the Battle of the Atlantic.
A depth charge is an anti-submarine warfare weapon.
In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast, maneuverable long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet, convoy or battle group and defend them against smaller powerful short-range attackers.
Destroyer Command is a naval simulation released by Ubisoft in 2002 and developed by the now-defunct Ultimation Inc.
Destroyer escort (DE) was the United States Navy mid-20th-century classification for a warship designed with endurance to escort mid-ocean convoys of merchant marine ships.
In the Destroyers for Bases Agreement between the United States and the United Kingdom on September 2, 1940, fifty,, and US Navy destroyers were transferred to the Royal Navy from the United States Navy in exchange for land rights on British possessions.
The Deutschland class was a series of three Panzerschiffe ("armored ships"), a form of heavily armed cruiser, built by the Reichsmarine officially in accordance with restrictions imposed by the Treaty of Versailles.
Newfoundland was a British dominion from 1907 to 1949.
Donald George Frederick Wyville Macintyre DSO & Two Bars, DSC (26 January 1904 – 23 May 1981) was a Royal Navy officer during the Second World War and a successful convoy escort commander.
Admiral of the Fleet Sir Alfred Dudley Pickman Rogers Pound, (29 August 1877 – 21 October 1943) was a senior officer of the Royal Navy.
The East Coast of the United States is the coastline along which the Eastern United States meets the North Atlantic Ocean.
Eddy currents (also called Foucault currents) are loops of electrical current induced within conductors by a changing magnetic field in the conductor due to Faraday's law of induction.
An elektroboot ("electric boat" in German) was a submarine designed to operate entirely submerged, rather than as submersibles that could submerge as a temporary means to escape detection or launch an attack.
Ellerman Lines was a UK cargo and passenger shipping company that operated from the late nineteenth century and into the twentieth century.
The was the historical nation-state and great power that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 to the enactment of the 1947 constitution of modern Japan.
An Empire ship was one a group of merchant ships given names beginning "Empire" in the service of the British Government during and after the Second World War.
The final battles of the European Theatre of World War II as well as the German surrender to the Allies took place in late April and early May 1945.
Engelbert Endrass (Engelbert Endraß) (2 March 1911 – 21 December 1941) was a German U-boat commander in World War II.
The English Channel (la Manche, "The Sleeve"; Ärmelkanal, "Sleeve Channel"; Mor Breizh, "Sea of Brittany"; Mor Bretannek, "Sea of Brittany"), also called simply the Channel, is the body of water that separates southern England from northern France and links the southern part of the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean.
The Enigma machines were a series of electro-mechanical rotor cipher machines developed and used in the early- to mid-20th century to protect commercial, diplomatic and military communication.
Erich Johann Albert Raeder (24 April 1876 – 6 November 1960) was a German grand admiral who played a major role in the naval history of World War II.
Ernest Joseph King (23 November 1878 – 25 June 1956) was Commander in Chief, United States Fleet (COMINCH) and Chief of Naval Operations (CNO) during World War II.
The escort carrier or escort aircraft carrier (US hull classification symbol CVE), also called a "jeep carrier" or "baby flattop" in the United States Navy (USN) or "Woolworth Carrier" by the Royal Navy, was a small and slow type of aircraft carrier used by the Royal Navy, the Imperial Japanese Navy and Imperial Japanese Army Air Force, and the United States Navy in World War II.
The First Lord of the Admiralty, or formally the Office of the First Lord of the Admiralty, was the political head of the Royal Navy who was the government's senior adviser on all naval affairs and responsible for the direction and control of Admiralty Department as well as general administration of the Naval Service of the United Kingdom, that encompassed the Royal Navy, the Royal Marines and other services.
Fliegerführer Atlantik (German: "Flyer Command Atlantic") was a World War II Luftwaffe naval command dedicated to maritime patrol.
The Focke-Wulf Fw 200 Condor, also known as Kurier to the Allies, was a German all-metal four-engined monoplane originally developed by Focke-Wulf as a long-range airliner.
Force H was a British naval formation during the Second World War.
A foreign minister or minister of foreign affairs (less commonly for foreign affairs) is generally a cabinet minister in charge of a state's foreign policy and relations.
Foxer was the code name for a British built acoustic decoy used to confuse German acoustic homing torpedoes like the G7 torpedo during the Second World War.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Francis Lyall Birch, CMG, OBE (5 December 1889 – 14 February 1956) was a British cryptographer and actor.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt Sr. (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.
Captain Frederic John Walker, (3 June 1896 – 9 July 1944) (his first name is given as Frederick in the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography and some London Gazette entries) was a Royal Navy officer noted for his exploits during World War II.
Air Chief Marshal Sir Frederick William Bowhill, (1 September 1880 – 12 March 1960) was a senior commander in the Royal Air Force before and during the Second World War.
Free France and its Free French Forces (French: France Libre and Forces françaises libres) were the government-in-exile led by Charles de Gaulle during the Second World War and its military forces, that continued to fight against the Axis powers as one of the Allies after the fall of France.
Freetown is the capital and largest city of Sierra Leone.
The French Navy (Marine Nationale), informally "La Royale", is the maritime arm of the French Armed Forces.
The French Resistance (La Résistance) was the collection of French movements that fought against the Nazi German occupation of France and against the collaborationist Vichy régime during the Second World War.
The French Third Republic (La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) was the system of government adopted in France from 1870 when the Second French Empire collapsed during the Franco-Prussian War until 1940 when France's defeat by Nazi Germany in World War II led to the formation of the Vichy government in France.
A frigate is any of several types of warship, the term having been used for ships of various sizes and roles over the last few centuries.
The G7es (T5) "Zaunkönig" ("wren") was an acoustic torpedo employed by German U-boats during World War II.
Johann Günther Lütjens (25 May 1889 – 27 May 1941) was a German Admiral whose military service spanned more than thirty years and two world wars.
Günther Prien (16 January 1908 – presumed 7 March 1941) was a German U-boat commander during World War II.
Gneisenau was a German capital ship, alternatively described as a battleship and battlecruiser, of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine.
The German Instrument of Surrender ended World War II in Europe.
German U-boat bases in occupied Norway operated between 1940 and 1945, when the Kriegsmarine (German navy), converted several naval bases in Norway into submarine bases.
Getúlio Dornelles Vargas (19 April 1882 – 24 August 1954) was a Brazilian lawyer and politician, who served as President during two periods: the first was from 1930–1945, when he served as interim president from 1930–1934, constitutional president from 1934–1937, and dictator from 1937–1945.
Gianfranco Gazzana Priaroggia (30 August 1912 – 23 May 1943) was an officer in the Italian Royal Navy (Regia Marina), and was the highest-scoring Italian submarine captain of World War II.
Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory located at the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula.
Sir Gilbert Owen Stephenson KBE, CB, CMG, DL (13 February 1878 – 27 May 1972) was a British Vice-Admiral in the Royal Navy, a pioneer of anti-submarine techniques in World War I, and most famous as an important Naval training commandant during World War II.
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.
Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat,; Grønland) is an autonomous constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.
The Grumman F4F Wildcat is an American carrier-based fighter aircraft that began service with both the United States Navy and the British Royal Navy in 1940, where it was initially known by the latter as the Martlet.
The Grumman TBF Avenger (designated TBM for aircraft manufactured by General Motors) is an American torpedo bomber developed initially for the United States Navy and Marine Corps, and eventually used by several air and naval aviation services around the world.
The Gulf of Mexico (Golfo de México) is an ocean basin and a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean, largely surrounded by the North American continent.
The Gulf of Saint Lawrence (French: Golfe du Saint-Laurent) is the outlet of the North American Great Lakes via the Saint Lawrence River into the Atlantic Ocean.
H2S was the first airborne, ground scanning radar system.
Hans-Georg von Friedeburg (15 July 1895 – 23 May 1945) was a German admiral, the deputy commander of the U-boat Forces of Nazi Germany and the last Commander-in-Chief of the Kriegsmarine.
Hans-Rudolf Rösing (28 September 1905 – 16 December 2004) was a German U-boat commander in World War II and later served in the Bundesmarine of the Federal Republic of Germany.
The Hawker Hurricane is a British single-seat fighter aircraft of the 1930s–1940s that was designed and predominantly built by Hawker Aircraft Ltd.
The Hebrides (Innse Gall,; Suðreyjar) compose a widespread and diverse archipelago off the west coast of mainland Scotland.
The Hedgehog (also known as an Anti-Submarine Projector) was a forward-throwing anti-submarine weapon that was used during the Battle of the Atlantic in the Second World War.
The Heinkel He 177 Greif ("Griffin") was a large, long-range heavy bomber flown by the Luftwaffe during World War II.
Heinrich Bleichrodt (21 October 1909 – 9 January 1977) was one of the most successful German U-boat commanders of the Second World War.
Hellmuth Walter (26 August 1900 – 16 December 1980) was a German engineer who pioneered research into rocket engines and gas turbines.
Henry Harley "Hap" Arnold (June 25, 1886 – January 15, 1950) was an American general officer holding the grades of General of the Army and General of the Air Force.
Sir Henry Thomas Tizard (23 August 1885 – 9 October 1959) was an English chemist, inventor and Rector of Imperial College, who developed the modern "octane rating" used to classify petrol, helped develop radar in World War II, and led the first serious studies of UFOs.
The Henschel Hs 293 was a World War II German anti-ship guided missile: a radio controlled glide bomb with a rocket engine slung underneath it.
Herbert A. Werner (13 May 1920 – 6 April 2013) was a German submarine officer and captain during World War II.
High-frequency direction finding, usually known by its abbreviation HF/DF or nickname huff-duff, is a type of radio direction finder (RDF) introduced in World War II.
HMS Audacity was a British escort carrier of the Second World War and the first of her kind.
HMS Barham was a built for the Royal Navy during the early 1910s.
HMS Charybdis was a of the Royal Navy.
HMS Courageous was the lead ship of the cruisers built for the Royal Navy during the First World War.
HMS Curacoa was a C-class light cruiser built for the Royal Navy during the First World War.
HMS Curlew was a light cruiser built for the Royal Navy during World War I. She was part of the Ceres sub-class of the C class.
HMS Dasher (D37) was a British Royal Navy aircraft carrier, of the – converted merchant vessels – and one of the shortest lived escort carriers.
HMS Dunedin was a light cruiser of the Royal Navy, pennant number D93.
HMS Edinburgh was a light cruiser of the Royal Navy, which served during the Second World War.
HMS Effingham was a heavy cruiser of the Royal Navy.
HMS Glorious was the second of the three s built for the Royal Navy during the First World War.
HMS Hood (pennant number 51) was the last battlecruiser built for the Royal Navy.
HMS Nabob (D77) was a escort aircraft carrier which served in the Royal Navy during 1943 and 1944.
HMS Royal Oak was one of five s built for the Royal Navy during the First World War.
HMS Trinidad was a Royal Navy cruiser (also known as the Fiji class).
The Home Fleet was a fleet of the Royal Navy that operated in the United Kingdom's territorial waters from 1902 with intervals until 1967.
Hudson may refer to.
Human torpedoes or manned torpedoes are a type of diver propulsion vehicle on which the diver rides, generally in a seated position behind a fairing.
Wing Commander Humphrey de Verd Leigh, OBE, DFC, AFC (1897–1980) was a Royal Air Force officer.
A hydrophone (Ancient Greek ὕδωρ.
Iceland is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of and an area of, making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe.
In Enemy Hands is a World War II submarine film released in 2004, starring William H. Macy, Til Schweiger, Scott Caan and Lauren Holly.
The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).
Interdiction is a military term for the act of delaying, disrupting, or destroying enemy forces or supplies en route to the battle area.
The invasion of Iceland took place on 10 May 1940 during World War II.
The Irish Mercantile Marine during World War II continued essential overseas trade in the conflict, a period referred to as The Long Watch by Irish mariners.
The Irish Sea (Muir Éireann / An Mhuir Mheann, Y Keayn Yernagh, Erse Sea, Muir Èireann, Ulster-Scots: Airish Sea, Môr Iwerddon) separates the islands of Ireland and Great Britain; linked to the Celtic Sea in the south by St George's Channel, and to the Inner Seas off the West Coast of Scotland in the north by the Straits of Moyle.
JATO (acronym for jet-assisted take-off), is a type of assisted take-off for helping overloaded aircraft into the air by providing additional thrust in the form of small rockets.
Jürgen Rohwer (24 May 1924, Friedrichroda, Thuringia – 24 July 2015, Weinstadt, Baden-Württemberg) was a German naval military historian and emeritus professor of history at the University of Stuttgart, Germany.
Joachim Schepke (8 March 1912 – 17 March 1941) was a German U-boat commander during World War II.
Marshal of the Royal Air Force Sir John Cotesworth Slessor, (3 June 1897 – 12 July 1979), sometimes known as Jack Slessor, was a senior commander in the Royal Air Force (RAF), serving as Chief of the Air Staff from 1950 to 1952.
Joseph Patrick Kennedy Sr. (September 6, 1888 – November 18, 1969) was an American businessman, investor, and politician known for his high-profile positions in United States politics.
The Junkers Ju 290 was a large, four-engine long-range transport and maritime patrol aircraft used by the Luftwaffe late in World War II that had been developed from an earlier airliner.
Grand Admiral Karl Dönitz (sometimes spelled Doenitz;; 16 September 1891 24 December 1980) was a German admiral who played a major role in the naval history of World War II.
In cryptography, a key is a piece of information (a parameter) that determines the functional output of a cryptographic algorithm.
Killed in action (KIA) is a casualty classification generally used by militaries to describe the deaths of their own combatants at the hands of hostile forces.
The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic.
The Kriegsmarine (literally "War Navy") was the navy of Germany from 1935 to 1945.
La Pallice (also known as grand port maritime de La Rochelle) is the commercial deep-water port of La Rochelle, France.
La Rochelle is a city in western France and a seaport on the Bay of Biscay, a part of the Atlantic Ocean.
The Labrador Sea (French: mer du Labrador, Danish: Labradorhavet) is an arm of the North Atlantic Ocean between the Labrador Peninsula and Greenland.
The last battle of the German battleship Bismarck took place in the Atlantic Ocean approximately west of Brest, France, on 26–27 May 1941.
The Leigh Light (abbreviated L/L) was a British World War II era anti-submarine device used in the Battle of the Atlantic.
The Lend-Lease policy, formally titled An Act to Promote the Defense of the United States, was an American program to defeat Germany, Japan and Italy by distributing food, oil, and materiel between 1941 and August 1945.
Rear Admiral Leonard Warren Murray, CB, CBE (22 June 1896 – 25 November 1971) was an officer of the Royal Canadian Navy who played a significant role in the Battle of the Atlantic.
Liberty ships were a class of cargo ship built in the United States during World War II.
The list of most successful U-boat commanders contains the top-scoring German U-boat commanders in the two World Wars based on their total tonnage sunk.
Wolfpacks (U-Boot-Gruppe) were employed by Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine during World War II against Allied and neutral shipping.
Liverpool is a city in North West England, with an estimated population of 491,500 in 2017.
The Treaty for the Limitation and Reduction of Naval Armament, commonly known as the London Naval Treaty, was an agreement between the United Kingdom, Japan, France, Italy and the United States, signed on 22 April 1930, which regulated submarine warfare and limited naval shipbuilding.
Long Island City (LIC) is the westernmost residential and commercial neighborhood of the New York City borough of Queens.
Lorient is a town (French "commune") and seaport in the Morbihan "department" of Brittany in North-Western France.
The following is a table of Allied shipping losses in the Battle of the Atlantic during World War II.
The Low Countries or, in the geographic sense of the term, the Netherlands (de Lage Landen or de Nederlanden, les Pays Bas) is a coastal region in northwestern Europe, consisting especially of the Netherlands and Belgium, and the low-lying delta of the Rhine, Meuse, Scheldt, and Ems rivers where much of the land is at or below sea level.
The Luftwaffe was the aerial warfare branch of the combined German Wehrmacht military forces during World War II.
Magnetic pistol is the term for the device on a torpedo or naval mine that detects its target by its magnetic field, and triggers the fuse for detonation.
The Manstein Plan is one of the names used to describe the war plan of the German Army during the Battle of France in 1940.
Maritime patrol is the task of monitoring areas of water.
The Mark 14 torpedo was the United States Navy's standard submarine-launched anti-ship torpedo of World War II.
Admiral Sir Martin Eric Dunbar-Nasmith, (1 April 1883 – 29 June 1965) was a Royal Navy officer and a recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.
Martin Harlinghausen (17 January 1902 – 22 March 1986) was a German general during World War II.
Sir Max Hugh Macdonald Hastings (born 28 December 1945) is a British journalist, who has worked as a foreign correspondent for the BBC, editor-in-chief of The Daily Telegraph, and editor of the Evening Standard.
Admiral Sir Max Kennedy Horton, & Two Bars, SGM (29 November 1883 – 30 July 1951) was a British submariner during the First World War and commander-in-chief of the Western Approaches in the later half of the Second World War, responsible for British participation in the Battle of the Atlantic.
The British Mediterranean Fleet also known as the Mediterranean Station was part of the Royal Navy.
A merchant aircraft carrier (also known as a MAC) was a limited-purpose aircraft carrier operated under British and Dutch civilian registry during World War II.
A merchant navy or merchant marine is the fleet of merchant vessels that are registered in a specific country.
The Merchant Navy is the maritime register of the United Kingdom, and comprises the seagoing commercial interests of UK-registered ships and their crews.
Merchant raiders are armed commerce raiding ships that disguise themselves as non-combatant merchant vessels.
Metox, named after its manufacturer, was a pioneering high-frequency radar warning receiver (RWR) manufactured by a small French company in occupied Paris.
The Mid-Atlantic Gap is a geographical term attributed to an undefended area beyond the reach of land-based RAF Coastal Command antisubmarine (A/S) aircraft during the Battle of the Atlantic in the Second World War.
Mid-Ocean Escort Force (MOEF) referred to the organisation of anti-submarine escorts for World War II trade convoys between Canada and Newfoundland, and the British Isles.
The term military campaign applies to large scale, long duration, significant military strategy plans incorporating a series of inter-related military operations or battles forming a distinct part of a larger conflict often called a war.
Military doctrine is the expression of how military forces contribute to campaigns, major operations, battles, and engagements.
Minesweeping is the practice of the removal of explosive naval mines, usually by a specially designed ship called a minesweeper using various measures to either capture or detonate the mines, but sometimes also with an aircraft made for that purpose.
The Ministry of War Transport (MoWT) was a department of the British Government formed early in the Second World War to control transportation policy and resources.
The Gruppe Monsun or Monsoon Group was a force of German U-boats (submarines) that operated in the Pacific and Indian Oceans during World War II.
Montevideo is the capital and largest city of Uruguay.
Morse code is a method of transmitting text information as a series of on-off tones, lights, or clicks that can be directly understood by a skilled listener or observer without special equipment.
A mortar is usually a simple, lightweight, man portable, muzzle-loaded weapon, consisting of a smooth-bore metal tube fixed to a base plate (to absorb recoil) with a lightweight bipod mount.
Mumbai (also known as Bombay, the official name until 1995) is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra.
In the beginning of World War II the Royal Navy was still the strongest navy in the world, with the largest number of warships built and with naval bases across the globe.
A naval mine is a self-contained explosive device placed in water to damage or destroy surface ships or submarines.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
The Newfoundland Escort Force (NEF) was a Second World War naval command created on 20 May 1941 as part of the Allied convoy system in the Battle of the Atlantic.
The Normandy landings were the landing operations on Tuesday, 6 June 1944 of the Allied invasion of Normandy in Operation Overlord during World War II.
The North Sea (Mare Germanicum) is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Great Britain, Scandinavia, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France.
The Norwegian Shipping and Trade Mission (Nortraship) was established in London in April 1940 to administer the Norwegian merchant fleet outside German-controlled areas.
The Norwegian Campaign (9 April to 10 June 1940) was fought in Norway between Norway, the Allies and Germany in World War II after the latter's invasion of the country.
An ocean liner is a passenger ship primarily used as a form of transportation across seas or oceans.
Operation Berlin was a successful commerce raid performed by the German battleships and between January and March 1941.
Operation Catechism was the last of nine attempts to sink or sabotage the Kriegsmarine battleship during the Second World War.
Operation Deadlight was the code name for the Royal Navy operation to scuttle German U-boats surrendered to the Allies after the defeat of Germany near the end of World War II.
Operation Overlord was the codename for the Battle of Normandy, the Allied operation that launched the successful invasion of German-occupied Western Europe during World War II.
Operation Rheinübung ("Exercise Rhine") was the sortie into the Atlantic by the new German battleship and heavy cruiser on 18–27 May 1941, during World War II.
Operation Teardrop was a United States Navy operation of World War II conducted during April and May 1945 to sink German U-boats approaching the United States East Coast that were believed to be armed with V-1 flying bombs.
Operation Torch (8–16 November 1942, formerly Operation Gymnast) was a Anglo–American invasion of French North Africa, during the North African Campaign of the Second World War.
Operation Weserübung was the code name for Germany's assault on Denmark and Norway during the Second World War and the opening operation of the Norwegian Campaign.
Operations research, or operational research in British usage, is a discipline that deals with the application of advanced analytical methods to help make better decisions.
Osprey Publishing is an Oxford-based publishing company specializing in military history.
Osvaldo Euclides de Sousa Aranha (February 15, 1894 – January 27, 1960) was a Brazilian politician, diplomat and statesman, who came to national prominence in 1930 under Getúlio Vargas.
Otto Kretschmer (1 May 1912 – 5 August 1998) was the most successful German U-boat commander in the Second World War and later an admiral in the Bundesmarine.
The Outer Banks (OBX) is a string of barrier islands and spits off the coast of North Carolina and southeastern Virginia, on the east coast of the United States.
During the early years of World War II before the United States became a formal belligerent, President Franklin D. Roosevelt declared a region of the Atlantic, adjacent to the Americas as the Pan-American Security Zone.
Panama (Panamá), officially the Republic of Panama (República de Panamá), is a country in Central America, bordered by Costa Rica to the west, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the north and the Pacific Ocean to the south.
The Parliament of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the UK Parliament or British Parliament, is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and overseas territories.
Admiral Sir Percy Lockhart Harnam Noble, GBE, KCB, CVO (16 January 1880 – 25 July 1955) was a Royal Navy officer who served in both World Wars.
Vice Admiral Sir Peter William Gretton & Two Bars, (27 August 1912 – 11 November 1992) was an officer in the Royal Navy.
Peter-Erich Cremer (25 March 1911 – 5 July 1992) was a German U-boat commander during the Second World War.
Air Chief Marshal Sir Philip Bennet Joubert de la Ferté, (21 May 1887 – 21 January 1965) was a senior commander in the Royal Air Force during the 1930s and the Second World War.
The Phoney War (Drôle de guerre; Sitzkrieg) was an eight-month period at the start of World War II, during which there was only one limited military land operation on the Western Front, when French troops invaded Germany's Saar district.
Plan Z was the name given to the planned re-equipment and expansion of the Kriegsmarine (German navy) ordered by Adolf Hitler in early 1939.
Plymouth is a city situated on the south coast of Devon, England, approximately south-west of Exeter and west-south-west of London.
Port Said (بورسعيد, the first syllable has its pronunciation from Arabic; unurbanized local pronunciation) is a city that lies in north east Egypt extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea, north of the Suez Canal, with an approximate population of 603,787 (2010).
The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.
The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of the United Kingdom government.
Prize is a term used in admiralty law to refer to equipment, vehicles, vessels, and cargo captured during armed conflict.
RAF Coastal Command was a formation within the Royal Air Force (RAF).
The Río de la Plata ("river of silver") — rendered River Plate in British English and the Commonwealth and La Plata River (occasionally Plata River) in other English-speaking countries — is the estuary formed by the confluence of the Uruguay and the Paraná rivers.
The Royal Navy (Italian: Regia Marina) was the navy of the Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) from 1861 to 1946.
Robert Bostwick Carney (March 26, 1895 – June 25, 1990) was an admiral in the United States Navy who served as commander-in-chief of the NATO forces in Southern Europe (1951–1953) and then as Chief of Naval Operations (1953–1954) during the Eisenhower administration.
Romolo Polacchini (May 20, 1897 – October 16, 1968) was an Italian admiral during World War II.
In cryptography, a rotor machine is an electro-mechanical stream cipher device used for encrypting and decrypting secret messages.
The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force.
The Royal Canadian Navy (RCN; French: Marine royale canadienne) is the naval force of Canada.
Royal Eason Ingersoll (20 June 1883 – 20 May 1976) was a United States Navy four-star admiral who served as Commander in Chief, U.S. Atlantic Fleet (CINCLANT) from January 1, 1942 to late 1944; Commander, Western Sea Frontier from late 1944 to 1946; and Deputy Commander in Chief, U.S. Fleet/Deputy Chief of Naval Operations (DCOMINCH/DCNO) from late 1944 to late 1945.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
Scapa Flow viewed from its eastern end in June 2009 Scapa Flow is a body of water in the Orkney Islands, Scotland, sheltered by the islands of Mainland, Graemsay, Burray,S.
Scuttling is the deliberate sinking of a ship by allowing water to flow into the hull.
The Second Happy Time, also known among German submarine commanders as the American shooting season, was the informal name for a phase in the Battle of the Atlantic during which Axis submarines attacked merchant shipping and Allied naval vessels along the east coast of North America.
The Second Polish Republic, commonly known as interwar Poland, refers to the country of Poland between the First and Second World Wars (1918–1939).
Ship commissioning is the act or ceremony of placing a ship in active service, and may be regarded as a particular application of the general concepts and practices of project commissioning.
Sieglinde was a sonar decoy used during the Second World War by German U-boats.
Silent Hunter III is a submarine simulation developed by Ubisoft Bucharest and published by Ubisoft.
The Silver Line was a shipping company formed in 1908, part of the British Merchant Navy.
Simulation is the imitation of the operation of a real-world process or system.
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.
In the 18th century and most of the 19th, a sloop-of-war in the Royal Navy was a warship with a single gun deck that carried up to eighteen guns.
Sonar (originally an acronym for SOund Navigation And Ranging) is a technique that uses sound propagation (usually underwater, as in submarine navigation) to navigate, communicate with or detect objects on or under the surface of the water, such as other vessels.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Squid was a British World War II ship-mounted anti-submarine weapon.
The St Nazaire Raid or Operation Chariot was a successful British amphibious attack on the heavily defended Normandie dry dock at St Nazaire in German-occupied France during the Second World War.
Stavanger is a city and municipality in Norway.
A submarine (or simply sub) is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater.
A submarine pen (U-Boot-Bunker in German) is a type of submarine base that acts as a bunker to protect submarines from air attack.
A submarine snorkel is a device which allows a submarine to operate submerged while still taking in air from above the surface.
Tallboy, or Bomb, Medium Capacity, 12,000 lb, was an earthquake bomb developed by the British aeronautical engineer Barnes Wallis and used by the RAF during the Second World War.
The Cruel Sea is a 1953 British war film starring Jack Hawkins, Donald Sinden, Denholm Elliott, Stanley Baker, Liam Redmond, Virginia McKenna and Moira Lister.
The Enemy Below is a 1957 DeLuxe Color war film in CinemaScope, which tells the story of the battle between the captain of an American destroyer escort and the commander of a German U-boat during World War II.
A thermocline (also known as the thermal layer or the metalimnion in lakes) is a thin but distinct layer in a large body of fluid (e.g. water, such as an ocean or lake) or air (such as an atmosphere) in which temperature changes more rapidly with depth than it does in the layers above or below.
Threat Assessment is the practice of determining the credibility and seriousness of a potential threat, as well as the probability that the threat will become a reality.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
This is a timeline for the Battle of the Atlantic (1939–1945) in World War II.
Tobermory (Tobar Mhoire) is the capital of, and the only burgh until 1973 on, the Isle of Mull in the Scottish Inner Hebrides.
A tonnage war is a military strategy aimed at merchant shipping.
A modern torpedo is a self-propelled weapon with an explosive warhead, launched above or below the water surface, propelled underwater towards a target, and designed to detonate either on contact with its target or in proximity to it.
The Town-class destroyers were a group of destroyers transferred from the United States Navy to the Royal Navy and the Royal Canadian Navy in exchange for military bases in the Bahamas and elsewhere, as outlined in the Destroyers for Bases Agreement between Britain and United States, signed on 2 September 1940.
The Type IX U-boat was designed by Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine in 1935 and 1936 as a large ocean-going submarine for sustained operations far from the home support facilities.
Type VII U-boats were the most common type of German World War II U-boat.
The Type XIV U-boat was a modification of the Type IXD, designed to resupply other U-boats, being the only Submarine tenders built which were not surface ships.
Type XXI U-boats were a class of German diesel-electric Elektroboot (German: "electric boat") submarines designed during the Second World War.
German Type XXIII submarines were the first so-called elektroboats to become operational.
U-571 is a 2000 French-American war film about a World War II German submarine boarded by American submariners to capture her Enigma cipher machine.
U-boat is an anglicised version of the German word U-Boot, a shortening of Unterseeboot, literally "undersea boat".
U-Boote westwärts! (in English: U-boat Westward!) was a 1941 German war propaganda film promoting the Kriegsmarine.
The UG convoys were a series of east-bound trans-Atlantic convoys from the '''U'''nited States to '''G'''ibraltar carrying food, ammunition, and military hardware to the United States Army in North Africa and southern Europe during World War II.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Merchant Marine refers to either United States civilian mariners, or to U.S. civilian and federally owned merchant vessels.
The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.
Unrestricted submarine warfare is a type of naval warfare in which submarines sink vessels such as freighters and tankers without warning, as opposed to attacks per prize rules (also known as "cruiser rules").
Uruguay, officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay (República Oriental del Uruguay), is a sovereign state in the southeastern region of South America.
The Vargas Era (Portuguese: Era Vargas) is the period in the history of Brazil between 1930 and 1945, when the country was under the dictatorship of Getúlio Vargas.
Very high frequency (VHF) is the ITU designation for the range of radio frequency electromagnetic waves (radio waves) from 30 to 300 megahertz (MHz), with corresponding wavelengths of ten to one meter.
The Vickers Wellington was a British twin-engined, long-range medium bomber.
Victor Otto Oehrn (21 October 1907 – 26 December 1997) was a Fregattenkapitän with the Kriegsmarine during World War II.
Vidkun Abraham Lauritz Jonssøn Quisling (18 July 1887 – 24 October 1945) was a Norwegian military officer and politician who nominally headed the government of Norway during the occupation of the country by Nazi Germany during World War II.
War film is a film genre concerned with warfare, typically about naval, air, or land battles, with combat scenes central to the drama.
A water landing is, in the broadest sense, a landing on a body of water.
West Africa, also called Western Africa and the West of Africa, is the westernmost region of Africa.
The West Indies or the Caribbean Basin is a region of the North Atlantic Ocean in the Caribbean that includes the island countries and surrounding waters of three major archipelagoes: the Greater Antilles, the Lesser Antilles and the Lucayan Archipelago.
The Western Approaches is an approximately rectangular area of the Atlantic ocean lying immediately to the west of Ireland and parts of Great Britain.
Western Approaches is a Technicolor 1944 docufiction film directed by Pat Jackson.
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
The term wolfpack refers to the mass-attack tactics against convoys used by German U-boats of the Kriegsmarine during the Battle of the Atlantic, and by submarines of the United States Navy against Japanese shipping in the Pacific Ocean in World War II.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
Atlantic Battle, Atlantic Battle Climax, Atlantic Conveys, Atlantic War, Battle of the Atlantic (1939-1945), Battle of the Atlantic (1939–1945), Battle of the Atlantic (1940), Battle of the Atlantic (World War II), Battle of the North Atlantic, Battle of the atlantic, Battle of the north atlantic, Second Battle of the Atlantic, Second battle of the Atlantic, The Battle of the Atlantic, Third Battle of the Atlantic, War in the Atlantic, War of the Atlantic, World War II/Battle of the Atlantic.