223 relations: Abdominal pain, Acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, Adverse effect, Aktiengesellschaft, Alka-Seltzer, Allies of World War II, Aniline, Antacid, Apixaban, Aprotinin, Arthritis, Arthur Eichengrün, Aspirin, Atrial fibrillation, Auschwitz concentration camp, Bark (botany), Barmen, BASF, Bayer, Bayer 04 Leverkusen, Bayer Corporation, Belarus, Berocca, Biotechnology, Birth defect, Bloomberg L.P., Bloomberg News, Bombay Stock Exchange, Brand, Canada's Top 100 Employers, Carbamate, Cardiology, Carl Leverkus, Cerivastatin, Charles Frédéric Gerhardt, Chemical substance, Chlorpromazine, Ciprofloxacin, Clothianidin, Coagulation, Cold War, Colony collapse disorder, Combined oral contraceptive pill, Commonwealth of Independent States, Contaminated haemophilia blood products, Corporate Equality Index, Corporate spin-off, Covestro, Cutter Laboratories, Dabigatran, ..., DAX, Deep vein thrombosis, Degesch, Delta & Pine Land Company of Mississippi, Diabetes mellitus, Dimethyl fumarate, Drospirenone, Elberfeld, Eli Lilly and Company, Elie Wiesel, Ernest Fourneau, Ethinylestradiol, Euro, Euro Stoxx 50, European Commission, European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations, Factor VIII, Factor VIII (medication), Factor X, Felix Hoffmann, Flintstones Chewable Vitamins, Fluopyram, Food and Drug Administration, Frankfurt Stock Exchange, Friedrich Bayer, Fritz ter Meer, Fuchsine, Full-time equivalent, Genetically modified crops, Genetically modified food, Gerhard Domagk, Germany, Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung, Glatiramer acetate, GlaxoSmithKline, Glufosinate, Glyphosate, Haemophilia, Haemophilia A, Health system, Help desk, Hematology, Hemiptera, Hepatocellular carcinoma, Heroin, Hoffmann-La Roche, Holding company, Honey bee, Human Rights Campaign, Hyderabad, IG Farben, IG Farben Trial, Imidacloprid, Imidacloprid/permethrin/pyriproxyfen, India, Innovative Medicines Initiative, Insect repellent, Institute, West Virginia, Interferon beta-1b, Interferon type I, Jenapharm, KFC Uerdingen 05, Kidney failure, Lanxess, Lepidoptera, Leverkusen, List of companies of Germany, List of life sciences, List of pharmaceutical companies, Market capitalization, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp complex, Medical imaging, Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency, Menstruation, Merck & Co., Merck Group, Methods in Molecular Biology, Methyl isocyanate, Mildew, Miles Laboratories, Monsanto, Motto, Moxidectin, Multinational corporation, Multiple sclerosis, National Stock Exchange of India, Nausea, Nazi concentration camps, Nazi Germany, Neonicotinoid, New York City, New York Daily News, Norethisterone, Oncology, One A Day, Ophthalmology, Over-the-counter drug, Panasonic, Parathion, Pasteur Institute, Pennsylvania, Pest (organism), Pesticide, Pesticide Action Network, Pharmaceutical industry, Pharmacia & Upjohn, Phenobarbital, Pittsburgh, Plant breeding, Plant Genetic Systems, Polymer, Pre-clinical development, Premenstrual dysphoric disorder, Primodos, Progestin, Prontosil, Propoxur, Public–private partnership, Pulmonary embolism, Pyrimethanil, Radiation therapy, Radium-223, Redoxon, Renal cell carcinoma, Reuters, Rhabdomyolysis, Rivaroxaban, Robinson Township, Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, Rust (fungus), Salicin, Salicylic acid, Sanofi, Schering AG, Seed, Seminis, Siemens Healthineers, Slavery, Sorafenib, Standard Ethics Aei, Statin, Sterling Drug, Stock exchange, Stock market index, Sulfonamide (medicine), Supervisory board, Suramin, Syngenta, Tebuconazole, Teriflunomide, The Climate Corporation, The Daily Telegraph, The Holocaust, The New York Times, Thyroid cancer, Toronto Star, Trademark, Traditional medicine, Trypanosomatida, Ukraine, United States, Veterinary medicine, Walt Bogdanich, Werner Baumann, White knight (business), WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, Willow, Wirtschaftswunder, Women's health, World War I, World War II, Wuppertal, Zyklon B. Expand index (173 more) » « Shrink index
Abdominal pain, also known as a stomach ache, is a symptom associated with both non-serious and serious medical issues.
An acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (often abbreviated AChEI) or anti-cholinesterase is a chemical or a drug that inhibits the acetylcholinesterase enzyme from breaking down acetylcholine, thereby increasing both the level and duration of action of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
In medicine, an adverse effect is an undesired harmful effect resulting from a medication or other intervention such as surgery.
Aktiengesellschaft (abbreviated AG) is a German word for a corporation limited by share ownership (i.e. one which is owned by its shareholders) and may be traded on a stock market.
Alka-Seltzer is an effervescent antacid and pain reliever first marketed by the Dr. Miles Medicine Company of Elkhart, Indiana, United States.
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
Aniline is an organic compound with the formula C6H5NH2.
An antacid is a substance which neutralizes stomach acidity and is used to relieve heartburn, indigestion or an upset stomach.
Apixaban, sold under the tradename Eliquis, is an anticoagulant for the treatment of venous thromboembolic events.
The drug aprotinin (Trasylol, previously Bayer and now Nordic Group pharmaceuticals), is a small protein bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI), or basic trypsin inhibitor of bovine pancreas, which is an antifibrinolytic molecule that inhibits trypsin and related proteolytic enzymes.
Arthritis is a term often used to mean any disorder that affects joints.
Arthur Eichengrün (13 August 1867 – 23 December 1949) was a German Jewish chemist, materials scientist, and inventor.
Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is a medication used to treat pain, fever, or inflammation.
Atrial fibrillation (AF or A-fib) is an abnormal heart rhythm characterized by rapid and irregular beating of the atria.
Auschwitz concentration camp was a network of concentration and extermination camps built and operated by Nazi Germany in occupied Poland during World War II.
Bark is the outermost layers of stems and roots of woody plants.
Barmen is a former industrial metropolis of the region of Bergisches Land, Germany, which merged with four other towns in 1929 to form the city of Wuppertal.
BASF SE is a German chemical company and the largest chemical producer in the world.
Bayer AG is a German multinational, pharmaceutical and life sciences company.
Bayer 04 Leverkusen Fußball GmbH, also known as Bayer 04 Leverkusen, Bayer Leverkusen, Leverkusen or simply Bayer, is a German football club based in Leverkusen, North Rhine-Westphalia.
Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.
Berocca is a brand of effervescent drink and vitamin tablets containing B vitamins and vitamin C. Berocca is available in a number of countries worldwide.
Biotechnology is the broad area of science involving living systems and organisms to develop or make products, or "any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use" (UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Art. 2).
A birth defect, also known as a congenital disorder, is a condition present at birth regardless of its cause.
Bloomberg L.P. is a privately held financial, software, data, and media company headquartered in Midtown Manhattan, New York City.
Bloomberg News is an international news agency headquartered in New York, United States and a division of Bloomberg L.P. Content produced by Bloomberg News is disseminated through Bloomberg Terminals, Bloomberg Television, Bloomberg Radio, Bloomberg Businessweek, Bloomberg Markets, Bloomberg.com and Bloomberg's mobile platforms.
The Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) is an Indian stock exchange located at Dalal Street, Mumbai (formerly Bombay).
A brand is a name, term, design, symbol, or other feature that distinguishes an organization or product from its rivals in the eyes of the customer.
Canada's Top 100 Employers is an annual editorial competition that recognizes the best places in Canada to work.
A carbamate is an organic compound derived from carbamic acid (NH2COOH).
Cardiology (from Greek καρδίᾱ kardiā, "heart" and -λογία -logia, "study") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the heart as well as parts of the circulatory system.
Carl Leverkus (5 November 1804 – 4 February 1889) was a German chemist and chemistry entrepreneur.
Cerivastatin (INN, brand names: Baycol, Lipobay) is a synthetic member of the class of statins used to lower cholesterol and prevent cardiovascular disease.
Charles Frédéric Gerhardt (21 August 1816 – 19 August 1856) was a French chemist.
A chemical substance, also known as a pure substance, is a form of matter that consists of molecules of the same composition and structure.
Chlorpromazine (CPZ), marketed under the trade names Thorazine and Largactil among others, is an antipsychotic medication.
Ciprofloxacin is an antibiotic used to treat a number of bacterial infections.
Clothianidin is an insecticide developed by Takeda Chemical Industries and Bayer AG.
Coagulation (also known as clotting) is the process by which blood changes from a liquid to a gel, forming a blood clot.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
Colony collapse disorder (CCD) is the phenomenon that occurs when the majority of worker bees in a colony disappear and leave behind a queen, plenty of food and a few nurse bees to care for the remaining immature bees.
The combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP), often referred to as the birth control pill or colloquially as "the pill", is a type of birth control that is designed to be taken orally by women.
The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS; r), also nicknamed the Russian Commonwealth (in order to distinguish it from the Commonwealth of Nations), is a political and economic intergovernmental organization of nine member states and one associate member, all of which are former Soviet Republics located in Eurasia (primarily in Central to North Asia), formed following the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
Contaminated haemophilia blood products were a serious public health problem in the late 1970s up to 1985.
The Corporate Equality Index is a report published by the Human Rights Campaign Foundation as a tool to rate American businesses on their treatment of gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender employees, consumers and investors.
A corporate spin-off, also known as a spin-out, or starburst, is a type of corporate action where a company "splits off" a section as a separate business.
Covestro is a Bayer spin off formed in the fall of 2015 and formerly Bayer MaterialScience, Bayer's $12.3 billion materials science division.
Cutter Laboratories was a family-owned pharmaceutical company located in Berkeley, California, founded by Edward Ahern Cutter in 1897.
Dabigatran, sold under the brand name Pradaxa among others, is an anticoagulant medication which can be taken by mouth.
The DAX (Deutscher Aktienindex (German stock index)) is a blue chip stock market index consisting of the 30 major German companies trading on the Frankfurt Stock Exchange.
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT), is the formation of a blood clot in a deep vein, most commonly the legs.
The Deutsche Gesellschaft für Schädlingsbekämpfung mbH (translation: German Corporation for Pest control), in short Degesch, was a German chemical corporation.
Delta & Pine Land Company was initially chartered in Mississippi in 1886 as a land speculation company, but was inactive until 1919, when a British textile company acquired the name.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is the methyl ester of fumaric acid.
Drospirenone, sold under the brand names Yasmin and Angeliq among others, is a progestin medication which is used in birth control pills and in menopausal hormone therapy. The medication is available only in combination with an estrogen. It is taken by mouth. Drospirenone is a progestin, or a synthetic progestogen, and hence is an agonist of the progesterone receptor, the biological target of progestogens like progesterone. It has additional antimineralocorticoid and antiandrogenic activity and no other important hormonal activity. Drospirenone was introduced for medical use in 2000. It is available widely throughout the world. The medication is sometimes referred to as a "fourth-generation" progestin. It is available as a generic medication.https://www.drugs.com/availability/generic-yasmin.html.
Elberfeld is a municipal subdivision of the German city of Wuppertal; it was an independent town until 1929.
Eli Lilly and Company is a global pharmaceutical company headquartered in Indianapolis, Indiana, with offices in 18 countries.
Eliezer "Elie" Wiesel (’Ēlí‘ézer Vízēl; September 30, 1928 – July 2, 2016) was a Romanian-born American Jewish writer, professor, political activist, Nobel Laureate, and Holocaust survivor.
Ernest Fourneau (4 October 1872 – 5 August 1949) was a French medicinal chemist who played a major role in the discovery of synthetic local anesthetics, as well as in the synthesis of suramin.
Ethinylestradiol (EE) is an estrogen medication which is used widely in birth control pills in combination with progestins.
The euro (sign: €; code: EUR) is the official currency of the European Union.
The EURO STOXX 50 is a stock index of Eurozone stocks designed by STOXX, an index provider owned by Deutsche Börse Group.
The European Commission (EC) is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.
The European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations (EFPIA) is a Brussels-based trade association founded in 1978 representing the research-based pharmaceutical industry operating in Europe.
Factor VIII (FVIII) is an essential blood-clotting protein, also known as anti-hemophilic factor (AHF).
Factor VIII is a medication used to treat and prevent bleeding in people with hemophilia A and other causes of low factor VIII.
Factor X, also known by the eponym Stuart–Prower factor, is an enzyme of the coagulation cascade.
Felix Hoffmann was born on 21 January 1868 in Ludwigsburg, the son of an industrialist.
Flintstones Chewable Vitamins are supplemental multivitamins for children based on the animated sitcom The Flintstones.
Fluopyram is a fungicide used against fungal diseases such as gray mold (Botrytis), powdery mildew, apple scab, Alternaria, Sclerotinia, and Monilinia.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
The Frankfurt Stock Exchange (Frankfurter Wertpapierbörse, FWB) is the world's 10th largest stock exchange by market capitalization.
Friedrich Bayer (6 June 1825 in Barmen now Wuppertal – 6 May 1880 in Würzburg) was the founder of what would become Bayer, a German chemical and pharmaceutical company.
Fritz ter Meer (4 July 1884 – 27 October 1967) was a German chemist and a war criminal.
Fuchsine (sometimes spelled fuchsin) or rosaniline hydrochloride is a magenta dye with chemical formula C20H19N3·HCl.
Full-time equivalent (FTE) or whole time equivalent (WTE) is a unit that indicates the workload of an employed person (or student) in a way that makes workloads or class loads comparable across various contexts.
Genetically modified crops (GMCs, GM crops, or biotech crops) are plants used in agriculture, the DNA of which has been modified using genetic engineering methods.
Genetically modified foods or GM foods, also known as genetically engineered foods, bioengineered foods, genetically modified organisms, or GMOs, are foods produced from organisms that have had changes introduced into their DNA using the methods of genetic engineering.
Gerhard Johannes Paul Domagk (30 October 1895 – 24 April 1964) was a German pathologist and bacteriologist.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
A Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung (abbreviated GmbH and also GesmbH in Austria) is a type of legal entity very common in Germany, Austria, Switzerland (where it is equivalent to a société à responsabilité limitée) and Liechtenstein.
Glatiramer acetate (also known as Copolymer 1, Cop-1, or Copaxone) is an immunomodulator medication currently used to treat multiple sclerosis.
GlaxoSmithKline plc (GSK) is a British pharmaceutical company headquartered in Brentford, London.
Glufosinate (also known as phosphinothricin and often sold as an ammonium salt) is a naturally occurring broad-spectrum systemic herbicide produced by several species of Streptomyces soil bacteria.
Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine) is a broad-spectrum systemic herbicide and crop desiccant.
Haemophilia, also spelled hemophilia, is a mostly inherited genetic disorder that impairs the body's ability to make blood clots, a process needed to stop bleeding.
Haemophilia A (or hemophilia A) is a genetic deficiency in clotting factor VIII, which causes increased bleeding and usually affects males.
A health system, also sometimes referred to as health care system or as healthcare system, is the organization of people, institutions, and resources that deliver health care services to meet the health needs of target populations.
A help desk is a resource intended to provide the customer or end user with information and support related to a company's or institution's products and services.
Hematology, also spelled haematology, is the branch of medicine concerned with the study of the cause, prognosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases related to blood.
The Hemiptera or true bugs are an order of insects comprising some 50,000 to 80,000 species of groups such as the cicadas, aphids, planthoppers, leafhoppers, and shield bugs.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of primary liver cancer in adults, and is the most common cause of death in people with cirrhosis.
Heroin, also known as diamorphine among other names, is an opioid most commonly used as a recreational drug for its euphoric effects.
A holding company is a company that owns other companies' outstanding stock.
A honey bee (or honeybee) is any member of the genus Apis, primarily distinguished by the production and storage of honey and the construction of perennial, colonial nests from wax.
The Human Rights Campaign (HRC) is the largest LGBT civil rights advocacy group and political lobbying organization in the United States.
Hyderabad is the capital of the Indian state of Telangana and de jure capital of Andhra Pradesh.
IG Farben was a German chemical and pharmaceutical industry conglomerate.
The United States of America vs.
Imidacloprid is a systemic insecticide that acts as an insect neurotoxin and belongs to a class of chemicals called the neonicotinoids which act on the central nervous system of insects.
Imidacloprid/permethrin/pyriproxyfen, sold under the trade name K9 Advantix II, is a combination insecticide product for dogs, used for the treatment and prevention of an array of common external parasites.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Innovative Medicines Initiative (IMI) is a European initiative to improve the competitive situation of the European Union in the field of pharmaceutical research.
An insect repellent (also commonly called "bug spray") is a substance applied to skin, clothing, or other surfaces which discourages insects (and arthropods in general) from landing or climbing on that surface.
Institute is an unincorporated community on the Kanawha River in Kanawha County, West Virginia, United States.
Interferon beta-1b is a cytokine in the interferon family used to treat the relapsing-remitting and secondary-progressive forms of multiple sclerosis (MS).
Human type I interferons (IFNs) are a large subgroup of interferon proteins that help regulate the activity of the immune system.
Jenapharm is a pharmaceutical company from Jena, Germany.
KFC Uerdingen 05 is a German football club in the Uerdingen district of the city of Krefeld, North Rhine-Westphalia.
Kidney failure, also known as end-stage kidney disease, is a medical condition in which the kidneys no longer work.
Lanxess Aktiengesellschaft is a specialty chemicals company based in Cologne, Germany that was founded in 2004 via the spin-off of the chemicals division and parts of the polymers business from Bayer AG.
Lepidoptera is an order of insects that includes butterflies and moths (both are called lepidopterans).
Leverkusen is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany on the eastern bank of the Rhine.
Germany is a federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe.
The life sciences or biological sciences comprise the branches of science that involve the scientific study of life and organisms – such as microorganisms, plants, and animals including human beings – as well as related considerations like bioethics.
It is limited to those companies notable enough to have articles in Wikipedia.
Market capitalization (market cap) is the market value of a publicly traded company's outstanding shares.
Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. is a privately held independent publishing company founded by its president, Mary Ann Liebert, in 1980.
The Mauthausen–Gusen concentration camp complex consisted of the Mauthausen concentration camp on a hill above the market town of Mauthausen (roughly east of Linz, Upper Austria) plus a group of nearly 100 further subcamps located throughout Austria and southern Germany.
Medical imaging is the technique and process of creating visual representations of the interior of a body for clinical analysis and medical intervention, as well as visual representation of the function of some organs or tissues (physiology).
The Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) is an executive agency of the Department of Health and Social Care in the United Kingdom which is responsible for ensuring that medicines and medical devices work and are acceptably safe.
Menstruation, also known as a period or monthly, is the regular discharge of blood and mucosal tissue (known as menses) from the inner lining of the uterus through the vagina.
Merck & Company, Inc., d.b.a. Merck Sharp & Dohme (MSD) outside the United States and Canada, is an American pharmaceutical company and one of the largest pharmaceutical companies in the world.
Merck KGaA, branded and commonly known as Merck, is a German multinational pharmaceutical, chemical and life sciences company headquartered in Darmstadt, with around 50,000 employees in around 70 countries.
Methods in Molecular Biology is a book series published by Humana Press that covers molecular biology research methods and protocols.
Methyl isocyanate (MIC) is an organic compound with the molecular formula CH3NCO.
Mildew is a form of fungus.
Miles Laboratories was founded as the Dr.
Monsanto Company was an agrochemical and agricultural biotechnology corporation.
A motto (derived from the Latin muttum, 'mutter', by way of Italian motto, 'word', 'sentence') is a maxim; a phrase meant to formally summarize the general motivation or intention of an individual, family, social group or organization.
Moxidectin is an anthelmintic drug used in animals to prevent or control parasitic worms (helminths), such as heartworm and intestinal worms, in dogs, cats, horses, cattle and sheep.
A multinational corporation (MNC) or worldwide enterprise is a corporate organization that owns or controls production of goods or services in at least one country other than its home country.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease in which the insulating covers of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord are damaged.
The National Stock Exchange of India Limited (NSE) is the leading stock exchange of India, located in Mumbai.
Nausea or queasiness is an unpleasant sense of unease, discomfort, and revulsion towards food.
Nazi Germany maintained concentration camps (Konzentrationslager, KZ or KL) throughout the territories it controlled before and during the Second World War.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Neonicotinoids (sometimes shortened to neonics) are a class of neuro-active insecticides chemically similar to nicotine.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
The New York Daily News, officially titled Daily News, is an American newspaper based in New York City.
Norethisterone, also known as norethindrone and sold under the brand names Aygestin and Primolut N among many others, is a progestin medication which is used in birth control pills, menopausal hormone therapy, and for the treatment of gynecological disorders.
Oncology is a branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer.
One A Day (sometimes referred to as One-A-Day) is a product family of multivitamins produced by the Bayer corporation.
Ophthalmology is a branch of medicine and surgery (both methods are used) that deals with the anatomy, physiology and diseases of the eyeball and orbit.
Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are medicines sold directly to a consumer without a prescription from a healthcare professional, as opposed to prescription drugs, which may be sold only to consumers possessing a valid prescription.
, formerly known as, is a Japanese multinational electronics corporation headquartered in Kadoma, Osaka, Japan.
Parathion, also called parathion-ethyl or diethyl parathion and locally known as "Folidol", is an organophosphate insecticide and acaricide.
The Pasteur Institute (Institut Pasteur) is a French non-profit private foundation dedicated to the study of biology, micro-organisms, diseases, and vaccines.
Pennsylvania (Pennsylvania German: Pennsylvaani or Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States.
A pest is a plant or animal detrimental to humans or human concerns including crops, livestock, and forestry.
Pesticides are substances that are meant to control pests, including weeds.
Pesticide Action Network (PAN) is "an international coalition of around 600 NGOs, citizens' groups, and individuals in about 60 countries." PAN is involved in fighting problems caused by pesticide use, and advocates ecologically sound alternatives.
The pharmaceutical industry (or medicine industry) is the commercial industry that discovers, develops, produces, and markets drugs or pharmaceutical drugs for use as different types of medicine and medications.
Pharmacia & Upjohn was a global pharmaceutical company formed by the merger of Sweden-based Pharmacia AB and the American company Upjohn in 1995.
Phenobarbital, also known as phenobarbitone or phenobarb, is a medication recommended by the World Health Organization for the treatment of certain types of epilepsy in developing countries.
Pittsburgh is a city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States, and is the county seat of Allegheny County.
Plant breeding is the art and science of changing the traits of plants in order to produce desired characteristics.
Plant Genetic Systems (PGS), since 2002 part of Bayer CropScience, is a biotech company located in Ghent, Belgium.
A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.
In drug development, preclinical development, also named preclinical studies and nonclinical studies, is a stage of research that begins before clinical trials (testing in humans) can begin, and during which important feasibility, iterative testing and drug safety data are collected.
Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a severe and disabling form of premenstrual syndrome affecting 3–8% of menstruating women.
Primodos was a hormone-based pregnancy test used in the 1960s and 1970s that consisted of two pills that contained norethisterone (as acetate) and ethinylestradiol.
A progestin is a type of medication which is used most commonly in hormonal birth control and menopausal hormone therapy.
Prontosil is an antibacterial drug discovered in 1932 by a research team at the Bayer Laboratories of the IG Farben conglomerate in Germany.
Propoxur (Baygon) is a carbamate insecticide and was introduced in 1959.
A public–private partnership (PPP, 3P or P3) is a cooperative arrangement between two or more public and private sectors, typically of a long-term nature.
Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a blockage of an artery in the lungs by a substance that has moved from elsewhere in the body through the bloodstream (embolism).
Pyrimethanil is a broad spectrum fungicide often applied to seeds.
Radiation therapy or radiotherapy, often abbreviated RT, RTx, or XRT, is therapy using ionizing radiation, generally as part of cancer treatment to control or kill malignant cells and normally delivered by a linear accelerator.
Radium-223 (Ra-223, 223Ra) is an isotope of radium with an 11.4-day half-life, in contrast to the more common isotope radium-226, discovered by the Curies, which has a 1601-year half-life.
Redoxon was the brand name of the first artificially synthesized ascorbic acid (vitamin C).
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a kidney cancer that originates in the lining of the proximal convoluted tubule, a part of the very small tubes in the kidney that transport primary urine.
Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
Rhabdomyolysis is a condition in which damaged skeletal muscle breaks down rapidly.
Rivaroxaban, sold under the brand name Xarelto, among others, is an oral anticoagulant medication (blood thinner).
Robinson Township is a township in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, United States approximately west of Pittsburgh.
Rusts are plant diseases caused by pathogenic fungi of the order Pucciniales (previously also known as Uredinales).
Salicin is an alcoholic β-glucoside.
Salicylic acid (from Latin salix, willow tree) is a lipophilic monohydroxybenzoic acid, a type of phenolic acid, and a beta hydroxy acid (BHA).
Sanofi S.A. is a French multinational pharmaceutical company headquartered in Gentilly, France, as of 2013 the world's fifth-largest by prescription sales.
Schering AG was a research-centered German multinational pharmaceutical company headquartered in Wedding, Berlin, which operated as an independent company from 1851 to 2006.
A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering.
Seminis is the largest developer, grower and marketer of fruit and vegetable seeds in the world.
Siemens Healthineers (formerly Siemens Healthcare, Siemens Medical Solutions, Siemens Medical Systems) is a medical technology company and is headquartered in Erlangen, Germany.
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.
Sorafenib (co-developed and co-marketed by Bayer and Onyx Pharmaceuticals as Nexavar), is a kinase inhibitor drug approved for the treatment of primary kidney cancer (advanced renal cell carcinoma), advanced primary liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma), and radioactive iodine resistant advanced thyroid carcinoma.
Standard Ethics is a sustainability reporting and rating agency based in London and Brussels which aims at promoting corporate ethics, Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), Socially responsible investing (SRI) and corporate governance according to the principles and guidelines of the United Nations (UN), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), and the European Union (EU).
Statins, also known as HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, are a class of lipid-lowering medications.
Sterling Drug was an American global pharmaceutical company, known as Sterling-Winthrop, Inc. after the merger with Winthrop-Stearns Inc. (which resulted from the merger of Winthrop Chemical Company Inc. and Frederick Stearns & Company).
A stock exchange, securities exchange or bourse, is a facility where stock brokers and traders can buy and sell securities, such as shares of stock and bonds and other financial instruments.
A stock index or stock market index is a measurement of a section of the stock market.
Sulfonamide (also called sulphonamide, sulfa drugs or sulpha drugs) is the basis of several groups of drugs.
A supervisory board or supervisory committee, often called board of directors, is a group of individuals chosen by the stockholders of a company to promote their interests through the governance of the company and to hire and supervise the executive directors and CEO.
Suramin is a medication used to treat African sleeping sickness and river blindness.
Syngenta AG is a global company agribusiness that produces agrochemicals and seeds.
Tebuconazole is a triazole fungicide used agriculturally to treat plant pathogenic fungi.
Teriflunomide (trade name Aubagio, marketed by Sanofi) is the active metabolite of leflunomide.
The Climate Corporation is a digital agriculture company that examines weather, soil and field data to help farmers determine potential yield-limiting factors in their fields.
The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.
The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered approximately 6 million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
Thyroid cancer is cancer that develops from the tissues of the thyroid gland.
The Toronto Star is a Canadian broadsheet daily newspaper.
A trademark, trade mark, or trade-markThe styling of trademark as a single word is predominantly used in the United States and Philippines only, while the two-word styling trade mark is used in many other countries around the world, including the European Union and Commonwealth and ex-Commonwealth jurisdictions (although Canada officially uses "trade-mark" pursuant to the Trade-mark Act, "trade mark" and "trademark" are also commonly used).
Traditional medicine (also known as indigenous or folk medicine) comprises medical aspects of traditional knowledge that developed over generations within various societies before the era of modern medicine.
Trypanosomatida is a group of kinetoplastid excavates distinguished by having only a single flagellum.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
Veterinary medicine is the branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of disease, disorder and injury in non-human animals.
Walt Bogdanich (born October 10, 1950) is an American investigative journalist and three-time recipient of the Pulitzer Prize.
Werner Baumann (born 6 October 1962) is a German businessman and chief executive officer (CEO) of Bayer, succeeding Marijn Dekkers on 1 May 2016.
In business, a white knight is a friendly investor that acquires a corporation at a fair consideration with the support from the corporation's board of directors and management.
The WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (EML), published by the World Health Organization (WHO), contains the medications considered to be most effective and safe to meet the most important needs in a health system.
Willows, also called sallows, and osiers, form the genus Salix, around 400 speciesMabberley, D.J. 1997.
The term Wirtschaftswunder ("economic miracle"), also known as The Miracle on the Rhine, describes the rapid reconstruction and development of the economies of West Germany and Austria after World War II (adopting an Ordoliberalism-based social market economy).
Women's health refers to the health of women, which differs from that of men in many unique ways.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Wuppertal is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, in and around the Wupper valley, east of Düsseldorf and south of the Ruhr.
Zyklon B (translated Cyclone B) was the trade name of a cyanide-based pesticide invented in Germany in the early 1920s.
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