237 relations: 'Azazme, Abdul Hamid II, Abdullah II of Jordan, Abu Basma Regional Council, Al Anbar Governorate, Al Arabiya English, Al Bahah Region, Al Jazeera, Al Murrah, Al-Assad family, Al-Hadid, Al-Karak, Al-Khasawneh, Al-Mawasi, Al-Mu'izz ibn Badis, Algeria, Algiers, Almohad Caliphate, Anazzah, Ansar (Islam), Arab (etymology), Arab News, Arab Spring, Arabian Peninsula, Arabic, Arabophone, Arabs, Ardhanarishvara, Assyrian people, Ba'ath Party, Badia (region), Bahrain, Balkans, Bani Hamida, Bani Khalid, Bani Sakhr, Banu Hilal, Banu Sulaym, Banu Tamim, Banu Yam, Battle of Katia, Bedouin music, Bedouin systems of justice, Beni Hammad Fort, Beqaa Valley, Berbers, Bisha'a, Cabinet of Israel, Cairo, Casablanca, ..., Caucasus, Circassians, Classical Arabic, Claude Scudamore Jarvis, Columbidae, Conservative (language), Constantine, Algeria, Cyrenaica, Dahab, Daily News Egypt, Dawasir, Dawn Chatty, Dead Sea Scrolls, Djerid, Doukkala, Dromedary, Dulaim, E1 (Jerusalem), Early Middle Ages, Eastern Desert, Economic development, Effendi, Egypt, Egyptian revolution of 2011, Encyclopaedia Judaica, Encyclopædia Britannica Online, Fatimid Caliphate, Food and Agriculture Organization, Gabès, Galilee, Gaza City, Gaza Strip, Ghamd, Ghinnawa, Goat, Haaretz, Hadith, Hafez al-Assad, Hajj, Hamilton Alexander Rosskeen Gibb, Harb (tribe), Hashemites, Hassaniya Arabic, Hautes Plaines, Hejazi Arabic, Herding, Highway 15 (Jordan), Historian, Honor codes of the Bedouin, Howeitat, Hura, Ibn Battuta, Ibn Khaldun, Idan haNegev, Ifriqiya, Illegal immigration from Africa to Israel, Institute for Palestine Studies, Inter Press Service, Iraq, Irbid, Ishmael, Islam, Israel, Israel Central Bureau of Statistics, Israel Defense Forces, Israel Land Authority, Israeli Declaration of Independence, Jahalin Bedouin, Jerusalem, Jewish Telegraphic Agency, Joktan, Jordan, Jordan River, Journal of Palestine Studies, Judea, Kairouan, Koiné language, Kuwait, Landfill, Levant, Libya, Lie detection, Livestock, Louisiana Purchase Exposition, Maghreb, Majali, Maqil, Marrakesh, Mehri people, Middle East, Middle East Institute, Ministry of Construction (Israel), Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Israel), Ministry of Interior (Israel), Morocco, Moulouya River, Muslim, Muslim Brotherhood, Mutayr, Muzziena tribe, Nabataeans, Najd, Najdi Arabic, Najran Region, Nature reserve, Negev, Nile, Nomad, North Africa, Northwest Arabian Arabic, Nuclear family, Old Testament, Omani Arabic, Oral poetry, Oran, Oriental studies, Otaibah, Ottoman Empire, Overseas Development Institute, Palestine Exploration Fund, Persian Gulf, Petra, Prawer Commission, Qahtan (tribe), Qahtanite, Qatar, Qays, Qedarite, Qumran, Quran, Rahat, Rashaida people, Red Sea, Refugees of the Syrian Civil War, Religious festival, Riyadh, Rub' al Khali, Ruwallah, Sahara, Sahel, Tunisia, Sahih al-Bukhari, Saudi Arabia, Sedentism, Shahran, Shammar, Sharm El Sheikh, Sharqiya Sands, Sheikh, Sinai Peninsula, Social control, Standard language, Subay', Syria, Syrian Civil War, T. E. Lawrence, Tamasna, Tanzimat, Tapu (Ottoman law), Tarabin Bedouin, Tayy, Tel Arad, Tel Sheva, The Jerusalem Post, The Middle East Journal, The National (Abu Dhabi), The New York Times, Tiyaha bedouin, Township, Tribes of Arabia, Tripolitania, Tuba-Zangariyye, Tunisia, Umar, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, Unrecognized Bedouin villages in Israel, Urbanization, Varieties of Arabic, Wadi Rum, Wilfred Thesiger, William Lancaster (anthropologist), World War I, Yemen, Ynetnews, Zirid dynasty, 1982 Hama massacre. Expand index (187 more) » « Shrink index
The 'Azazme are a Bedouin tribe whose grazing territory used to be the desert around the wells at El Auja and Bir Ain on the border between Israel and Egypt.
Abdul Hamid II (عبد الحميد ثانی, `Abdü’l-Ḥamīd-i sânî; İkinci Abdülhamit; 21 September 184210 February 1918) was the 34th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and the last Sultan to exert effective control over the fracturing state.
Abdullah II bin Al-Hussein (عبد الله الثاني بن الحسين., ʿAbdullāh ath-thānī ibn Al-Ḥusayn, born 30 January 1962) has been King of Jordan since 1999.
Abu Basma Regional Council (מועצה אזורית אבו בסמה, Moatza Ezorit Abu Basma, مجلس إقليمي أبو بسمة, Majlis Iqlimi Abu Basma) was a regional council operating in 2003-2012 and covering several Bedouin villages in the northwestern Negev desert of Israel.
Al Anbar Governorate (محافظة الأنبار; muḥāfaẓat al-’Anbār), or Anbar Province, is the largest governorate in Iraq by area.
Al Arabiya English is the English language service of the Dubai-based regional Arab newscaster, Al-Arabiya News Channel.
Al-Bahah Region is a region of Saudi Arabia.
Al Jazeera (translit,, literally "The Island", though referring to the Arabian Peninsula in context), also known as JSC (Jazeera Satellite Channel), is a state-funded broadcaster in Doha, Qatar, owned by the Al Jazeera Media Network.
The Al Murrah (قبيلة آل مرة) is a noble Arab tribe descended from the well-known Banu Yam tribe.
The al-Assad family (عائِلَة الأَسَد) has ruled Syria since Hafez al-Assad became President of Syria in 1971 and established an authoritarian government under the control of the Ba'ath Party.
Surah al-Ḥadīd (سورة الحديد) is the 57th chapter of the Quran with 29 verses.
Al-Karak (الكرك), also known as just Karak or Kerak, is a city in Jordan known for its Crusader castle, the Kerak Castle.
Al-Khasawneh or Khasawneh (الخصاونه) (other transliterations include Khassawneh, khassaweneh, Khasawinah, Khassawnih, Khasawnih, Khasawineh, Khassawineh, Khassawneh, Khasawne, Khasawna, and Khasawnah all of which may also be preceded by 'Al' or 'El'), is a prominent Arab Muslim clan descending from the noble family of Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq and Imam Husayn ibn Ali.
Al-Mawasi (المواصي) is a Bedouin Palestinian town on the southern coast of the Gaza Strip, approximately one kilometer wide and fourteen kilometers long, that prior to Israel's unilateral disengagement plan in 2005 existed as a Palestinian enclave within the Katif bloc of Israeli settlements.
Al- Muʻizz ibn Bādīs; 1008–1062) was the fourth ruler of the Zirids in Ifriqiya, reigning from 1016 to 1062.
Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
Algiers (الجزائر al-Jazā’er, ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻ, Alger) is the capital and largest city of Algeria.
The Almohad Caliphate (British English:, U.S. English:; ⵉⵎⵡⴻⵃⵃⴷⴻⵏ (Imweḥḥden), from Arabic الموحدون, "the monotheists" or "the unifiers") was a Moroccan Berber Muslim movement and empire founded in the 12th century.
Anazzah (عنزة, `Anizah, `Aniza) is an Arab tribe in the Arabian Peninsula, Iraq, and the Levant.
Ansar (الأنصار, "The Helpers") is an Islamic term for the local inhabitants of Medina who took the Islamic Prophet Muhammad and his followers (the Muhajirun) into their homes when they emigrated from Mecca (hijra).
The proper name Arab or Arabian (and cognates in other languages) has been used to translate several different but similar-sounding words in ancient and classical texts which do not necessarily have the same meaning or origin.
Arab News is an English-language daily newspaper published in Saudi Arabia.
The Arab Spring (الربيع العربي ar-Rabīʻ al-ʻArabī), also referred to as Arab Revolutions (الثورات العربية aṯ-'awrāt al-ʻarabiyyah), was a revolutionary wave of both violent and non-violent demonstrations, protests, riots, coups, foreign interventions, and civil wars in North Africa and the Middle East that began on 18 December 2010 in Tunisia with the Tunisian Revolution.
The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia (شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, ‘Arabian island’ or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, ‘Island of the Arabs’), is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
The adjective Arabophone means Arabic-speaking, typically as primary language, whether referring to individuals, groups, or places.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
Ardhanarishwara (अर्धनारीश्वर) is a composite androgynous form of the Hindu God Shiva and his consort Parvati (also known as Devi, Shakti and Uma in this icon).
Assyrian people (ܐܫܘܪܝܐ), or Syriacs (see terms for Syriac Christians), are an ethnic group indigenous to the Middle East.
The Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party (حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي) was a political party founded in Syria by Michel Aflaq, Salah al-Din al-Bitar, and associates of Zaki al-Arsuzi.
The Badia (also known as the Syrian steppe or Jordanian steppe) is a region of semi-arid, steppic rangeland in eastern Jordan and the central and southeastern parts of Syria.
Bahrain (البحرين), officially the Kingdom of Bahrain (مملكة البحرين), is an Arab constitutional monarchy in the Persian Gulf.
The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.
The Bani Hamida were a semi-nomadic bedouin tribe that controlled much of the land East of the Dead Sea before the establishment of the emirate of Transjordan.
Bani Khalid (بني خالد) or the Al-Khaldi family, is an Arab tribal confederation.
Beni Sakhr is the name of a large Bedouin tribe living in Jordan.
The Banu Hilal (Arabic: بنو هلال or الهلاليين) was a confederation of tribes of Arabia from the Hejaz and Najd regions of the Arabian Peninsula that emigrated to North Africa in the 11th century.
The Banu Sulaym (بنو سليم) were an Arab tribe that dominated part of the Hejaz in the pre-Islamic era.
The tribe of Banu Tamim (بـنـو تـمـيـم) or Bani Tamim (بـني تـمـيـم) is one of the main tribes of Arabia.
Banu Yam (بنو يام) are a large tribe native to Najran Province in Saudi Arabia and the principal tribe of that area.
The Battle of Katia, also known as the Affair of Qatia by the British, was an engagement fought east of the Suez Canal and north of El Ferdan Station, in the vicinity of Katia and Oghratina, on 23 April 1916 during the Defence of the Suez Canal Campaign of World War I. An Ottoman force led by the German General Friedrich Freiherr Kress von Kressenstein made a surprise attack on three and a half squadrons of the British 5th Mounted Brigade, which was widely scattered to the east of Romani.
Bedouin music is the music of nomadic Bedouin tribes of the Arabian Peninsula, Sudan and the Levant.
Systems of justice among the Bedouin are varied among the tribes.
Beni Hammad Fort, also called Al Qal'a of Beni Hammad (قلعة بني حماد) is a fortified palatine city in Algeria.
The Beqaa Valley (وادي البقاع,, Lebanese; Բեքայի դաշտավայր), also transliterated as Bekaa, Biqâ and Becaa and known in Classical antiquity as Coele-Syria, is a fertile valley in eastern Lebanon.
Berbers or Amazighs (Berber: Imaziɣen, ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⴻⵏ; singular: Amaziɣ, ⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗ) are an ethnic group indigenous to North Africa, primarily inhabiting Algeria, northern Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, northern Niger, Tunisia, Libya, and a part of western Egypt.
Bisha'a or Bisha (ordeal by fire, trial by fire or fire test) is a ritual practiced by Bedouin tribes of the Judean, Negev and Sinai deserts for the purpose of lie detection.
The Government of Israel (officially: ממשלת ישראל Memshelet Yisrael) exercises executive authority in the State of Israel.
Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.
Casablanca (ad-dār al-bayḍāʾ; anfa; local informal name: Kaẓa), located in the central-western part of Morocco bordering the Atlantic Ocean, is the largest city in Morocco.
The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.
The Circassians (Черкесы Čerkesy), also known by their endonym Adyghe (Circassian: Адыгэхэр Adygekher, Ады́ги Adýgi), are a Northwest Caucasian nation native to Circassia, many of whom were displaced in the course of the Russian conquest of the Caucasus in the 19th century, especially after the Russian–Circassian War in 1864.
Classical Arabic is the form of the Arabic language used in Umayyad and Abbasid literary texts from the 7th century AD to the 9th century AD.
Major Claude Scudamore Jarvis CMG OBE (20 July 1879 – 8 December 1953) was a British colonial governor.
Pigeons and doves constitute the animal family Columbidae and the order Columbiformes, which includes about 42 genera and 310 species.
In linguistics, a conservative form, variety, or modality is one that has changed relatively little over its history, or which is relatively resistant to change.
Not to be confused with Constantinople, the historical city from 330 to 1453 in Thrace, now Istanbul, Turkey. Constantine (قسنطينة, ⵇⵙⴻⵏⵟⵉⵏⴰ), also spelled Qacentina or Kasantina, is the capital of Constantine Province in northeastern Algeria.
Cyrenaica (Cyrenaica (Provincia), Κυρηναία (ἐπαρχία) Kyrēnaíā (eparkhíā), after the city of Cyrene; برقة) is the eastern coastal region of Libya.
Dahab (دهب,, "gold") is a small town on the southeast coast of the Sinai Peninsula in Egypt, approximately northeast of Sharm el-Sheikh.
Daily News Egypt (DNE) is an English-language daily Egyptian newspaper established in 2005 and relaunched in June 2012.
Al Dawasir (الدواسر, sing. Al Dosari الدوسري) is an Arabian bedouin tribal confederation primarily composed of Azdite, Adnanite, and Hamdanite clans originating from central Arabia.
Dawn Chatty, FBA (born 16 October 1947) is an American social anthropologist and academic, who specialises in the Middle East, nomadic pastoral tribes, and refugees.
Dead Sea Scrolls (also Qumran Caves Scrolls) are ancient Jewish religious, mostly Hebrew, manuscripts found in the Qumran Caves near the Dead Sea.
el-Djerid, al-Jarīd (الجريد; "Palm Leaf", Darija l-Jrīd) is a semi-desert natural region comprising southern Tunisia and adjacent parts of Algeria and Libya.
Doukkala is a natural region of Morocco made of fertile plains and forests.
The dromedary, also called the Arabian camel (Camelus dromedarius), is a large, even-toed ungulate with one hump on its back.
Dulaim or Dulaimi or Al Duliam or Dulaym (الدليم) is an Arab royal tribe, with over seven million members.
The E1 zone (sometimes E-1 zone) or E1 area or E1 (short for East 1) (מְבַשֶּׂרֶת אֲדֻמִּים, Mevaseret Adumim) is an area of the West Bank within the municipal boundary of the Israeli settlement of Ma'ale Adumim.
The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, typically regarded as lasting from the 5th or 6th century to the 10th century CE, marked the start of the Middle Ages of European history.
The Eastern Desert is the part of the Sahara desert that is located east of the Nile river, between the river and the Red Sea.
economic development wikipedia Economic development is the process by which a nation improves the economic, political, and social well-being of its people.
Effendi, Effendy or Efendi (originally from αφέντης; in Persian and Ottoman Turkish language: افندي Efendi, in أفندي, Afandī; in افندی (Afghani), "Afandi") is a title of nobility meaning a Lord or Master.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
The Egyptian revolution of 2011, locally known as the January 25 Revolution (ثورة 25 يناير), and as the Egyptian Revolution of Dignity began on 25 January 2011 and took place across all of Egypt.
The Encyclopaedia Judaica is a 26-volume English-language encyclopedia of the Jewish people and of Judaism.
Encyclopædia Britannica Online is the website of Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. and its Encyclopædia Britannica, with more than 120,000 articles that are updated regularly.
The Fatimid Caliphate was an Islamic caliphate that spanned a large area of North Africa, from the Red Sea in the east to the Atlantic Ocean in the west.
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.
Gabès (قابس), also spelled Cabès, Cabes, Kabes, Gabbs and Gaps, is the capital city of the Gabès Governorate in Tunisia.
Galilee (הגליל, transliteration HaGalil); (الجليل, translit. al-Jalīl) is a region in northern Israel.
Gaza (The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998),, p. 761 "Gaza Strip /'gɑːzə/ a strip of territory in Palestine, on the SE Mediterranean coast including the town of Gaza...". غزة,; Ancient Ġāzā), also referred to as Gaza City, is a Palestinian city in the Gaza Strip, with a population of 515,556, making it the largest city in the State of Palestine.
The Gaza Strip (The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) – p.761 "Gaza Strip /'gɑːzə/ a strip of territory under the control of the Palestinian National Authority and Hamas, on the SE Mediterranean coast including the town of Gaza...". قطاع غزة), or simply Gaza, is a self-governing Palestinian territory on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea, that borders Egypt on the southwest for and Israel on the east and north along a border.
The Ghamd (also transliterated as Ghamid, غامد) is an Arab tribe and one of the largest tribes of Azd tribe in Hejaz Region.
Ghinnawas (literally "little songs") are short, two line emotional lyric poems written by the Bedouins of Egypt, in a fashion similar to haikus, but similar in content to the American blues.
The domestic goat (Capra aegagrus hircus) is a subspecies of goat domesticated from the wild goat of southwest Asia and Eastern Europe.
Haaretz (הארץ) (lit. "The Land ", originally Ḥadashot Ha'aretz – חדשות הארץ, – "News of the Land ") is an Israeli newspaper.
Ḥadīth (or; حديث, pl. Aḥādīth, أحاديث,, also "Traditions") in Islam refers to the record of the words, actions, and the silent approval, of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Hafez al-Assad (حافظ الأسد,; 6 October 1930 – 10 June 2000) was a Syrian politician and field marshal of the Syrian Armed Forces who served as President of Syria from 1971 to 2000.
The Hajj (حَجّ "pilgrimage") is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, the holiest city for Muslims, and a mandatory religious duty for Muslims that must be carried out at least once in their lifetime by all adult Muslims who are physically and financially capable of undertaking the journey, and can support their family during their absence.
Sir Hamilton Alexander Rosskeen Gibb, FBA (2 January 1895 – 22 October 1971), known as H. A. R. Gibb, was a Scottish historian on Orientalism.
Harb (حرب) "War" is a predominantly Sunni tribe in the Arabian peninsula.
The Hashemites (الهاشميون, Al-Hāshimīyūn; also House of Hashim) are the ruling royal family of Jordan.
Hassānīya (حسانية; also known as Hassaniyya, Klem El Bithan, Hasanya, Hassani, Hassaniya) is a variety of Maghrebi Arabic.
The Hautes Plaines (High Plains), also known as Hauts Plateaux, is a steppe-like natural region located in the Atlas Mountains in northern Algeria.
Hejazi Arabic or Hijazi Arabic (حجازي), also known as West Arabian Arabic, is a variety of Arabic spoken in the Hejaz region in Saudi Arabia.
Herding is the act of bringing individual animals together into a group (herd), maintaining the group, and moving the group from place to place—or any combination of those.
Highway 15 in Jordan is also known as the Desert Highway runs in Jordan south to north.
A historian is a person who studies and writes about the past, and is regarded as an authority on it.
Sharaf and ird are Bedouin honor codes.
The Howeitat or Howaytat (الحويطات) are a large tribal confederation of Transjordan, an area in present-day Jordan, Palestinian territories and Saudi Arabia.
Hura, or Houra (חוּרָה, חוּרָא, حورة) is a Bedouin town in the Southern District of Israel.
Ibn Battuta (محمد ابن بطوطة; fully; Arabic: أبو عبد الله محمد بن عبد الله اللواتي الطنجي بن بطوطة) (February 25, 13041368 or 1369) was a Moroccan scholar who widely travelled the medieval world.
Ibn Khaldun (أبو زيد عبد الرحمن بن محمد بن خلدون الحضرمي.,; 27 May 1332 – 17 March 1406) was a fourteenth-century Arab historiographer and historian.
Idan haNegev Industrial Park ("The Negev era", עידן הנגב), is an industrial park being built southeast of the Bedouin city of Rahat, Israel.
Ifriqiya or Ifriqiyah or el-Maghrib el-Adna (Lower West) was the area during medieval history that comprises what is today Tunisia, Tripolitania (western Libya) and the Constantinois (eastern Algeria); all part of what was previously included in the Africa Province of the Roman Empire.
Illegal immigration from Africa to Israel (often also referred to as infiltration by the Israeli media and by Israeli government organizations; however, the use of the term has been criticized) refers to the act of African nationals entering Israel in violation of Israeli law.
The Institute for Palestine Studies (IPS) is the oldest independent nonprofit public service research institute in the Arab world.
Inter Press Service (IPS) is a global news agency.
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
Irbid (إربد), known in ancient times as Arabella or Arbela, is the capital and largest city of the Irbid Governorate.
Ishmael Ἰσμαήλ Ismaēl; Classical/Qur'anic Arabic: إِسْمَٰعِيْل; Modern Arabic: إِسْمَاعِيْل ʾIsmāʿīl; Ismael) is a figure in the Tanakh and the Quran and was Abraham's first son according to Jews, Christians and Muslims. Ishmael was born to Abraham and Sarah's handmaiden Hagar (Hājar).. According to the Genesis account, he died at the age of 137. The Book of Genesis and Islamic traditions consider Ishmael to be the ancestor of the Ishmaelites and patriarch of Qaydār. According to Muslim tradition, Ishmael the Patriarch and his mother Hagar are said to be buried next to the Kaaba in Mecca.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
The Israel Central Bureau of Statistics (הלשכה המרכזית לסטטיסטיקה, HaLishka HaMerkazit LiStatistika), abbreviated CBS, is an Israeli government office established in 1949 to carry out research and publish statistical data on all aspects of Israeli life, including population, society, economy, industry, education, and physical infrastructure.
The Israel Defense Forces (IDF; צְבָא הַהֲגָנָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, lit. "The Army of Defense for Israel"; جيش الدفاع الإسرائيلي), commonly known in Israel by the Hebrew acronym Tzahal, are the military forces of the State of Israel.
Israel Land Authority רשות מקרקעי ישראל إسرائيل سلطة الأراضي ("Raeshoot Mekarka'ei Yisrael") is a governmental body created as a part of a reform of the Israel Land Administration.
The Israeli Declaration of Independence,Hebrew: הכרזת העצמאות, Hakhrazat HaAtzma'ut/מגילת העצמאות Megilat HaAtzma'utArabic: وثيقة إعلان قيام دولة إسرائيل, Wathiqat 'iielan qiam dawlat 'iisrayiyl formally the Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel (הכרזה על הקמת מדינת ישראל), was proclaimed on 14 May 1948 (5 Iyar 5708) by David Ben-Gurion, the Executive Head of the World Zionist OrganizationThen known as the Zionist Organization.
The Jahalin Bedouin are a Palestinian tribe who currently live in the Judean desert of the West Bank.
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
The Jewish Telegraphic Agency (JTA) is an international news agency and wire service serving Jewish community newspapers and media around the world, with about 70 syndication clients listed on its web site.
Joktan was the second of the two sons of Eber (Gen. 10:25; 1 Chr. 1:19) mentioned in the Hebrew Bible.
Jordan (الْأُرْدُنّ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.
The Jordan River (also River Jordan; נְהַר הַיַּרְדֵּן Nahar ha-Yarden, ܢܗܪܐ ܕܝܘܪܕܢܢ, نَهْر الْأُرْدُنّ Nahr al-Urdunn, Ancient Greek: Ιορδάνης, Iordànes) is a -long river in the Middle East that flows roughly north to south through the Sea of Galilee (Hebrew: כנרת Kinneret, Arabic: Bohayrat Tabaraya, meaning Lake of Tiberias) and on to the Dead Sea.
The Journal of Palestine Studies is an academic journal established in 1971.
Judea or Judæa (from יהודה, Standard Yəhuda, Tiberian Yəhûḏāh, Ἰουδαία,; Iūdaea, يهودا, Yahudia) is the ancient Hebrew and Israelite biblical, the exonymic Roman/English, and the modern-day name of the mountainous southern part of Canaan-Israel.
Kairouan (القيروان, also known as al-Qayrawan), is the capital of the Kairouan Governorate in Tunisia.
In linguistics, a koiné language, koiné dialect, or simply koiné (Ancient Greek κοινή, "common ") is a standard language or dialect that has arisen as a result of contact between two or more mutually intelligible varieties (dialects) of the same language.
Kuwait (الكويت, or), officially the State of Kuwait (دولة الكويت), is a country in Western Asia.
A landfill site (also known as a tip, dump, rubbish dump, garbage dump or dumping ground and historically as a midden) is a site for the disposal of waste materials by burial.
The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.
Libya (ليبيا), officially the State of Libya (دولة ليبيا), is a sovereign state in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.
Lie detection is an assessment of a verbal statement with the goal to reveal a possible intentional deceit.
Livestock are domesticated animals raised in an agricultural setting to produce labor and commodities such as meat, eggs, milk, fur, leather, and wool.
The Louisiana Purchase Exposition, informally known as the St.
The Maghreb (al-Maɣréb lit.), also known as the Berber world, Barbary, Berbery, and Northwest Africa, is a major region of North Africa that consists primarily of the countries Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Libya and Mauritania.
Majali (Arabic: المجالي) is a Bedouin East Jordanian family who have resided in the town of Al Karak since at least the 1770s.
The Maqil (المعقل) were an Arabian nomadic tribe that emigrated to the Maghreb region, with the Banu Hillal and Banu Sulaym tribes, in the 11th century.
Marrakesh (or; مراكش Murrākuš; ⴰⵎⵓⵔⴰⴽⵓⵛ Meṛṛakec), also known by the French spelling Marrakech, is a major city of the Kingdom of Morocco.
Mehri (var. al-Mahrah, al-Meheri, al-Mahri or al-Mahra (المهرة), also known as al-Mahrah tribe (قبيلة المهرة), are an ethnic group primarily inhabiting South Arabia and the island of Socotra.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
The Middle East Institute (MEI) is a non-profit, non-partisan think tank and cultural center in Washington, D.C., founded in 1946.
The Ministry of Construction and Housing (מִשְׂרַד הַבִּנּוּי, Misrad HaBinui) is a portfolio in the Israeli cabinet.
The Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs (מִשְׂרַד הַחוּץ, translit. Misrad HaHutz; وزارة الخارجية الإسرائيلية) is one of the most important ministries in the Israeli government.
The Ministry of Interior (משרד הפנים, Misrad HaPnim; وزارة الداخلية) in the State of Israel is one of the government offices that is responsible for local government, citizenship and residency, identity cards, and student and entry visas.
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
The Moulouya River (Berber: iɣẓer en Melwect) is a 520 kilometers long river in Morocco.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
The Society of the Muslim Brothers (جماعة الإخوان المسلمين), better known as the Muslim Brotherhood (الإخوان المسلمون), is a transnational Sunni Islamist organization founded in Egypt by Islamic scholar and schoolteacher Hassan al-Banna in 1928.
Mutayr (also spelled Mutair, Mutir and Mtayr other: Al-Mutairi) is one of the largest predominantly Sunni Arab tribes in the Arabian Peninsula, especially Saudi Arabia and Kuwait.
Muzziena Bedouin Tribe originally from Saudi Arabia, now live between Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Palestine and Sinai.
The Nabataeans, also Nabateans (الأنباط  , compare Ναβαταῖος, Nabataeus), were an Arab people who inhabited northern Arabia and the Southern Levant.
Najd or Nejd (نجد, Najd) is a geographical central region of Saudi Arabia, alone accounting for almost a third of the population of the country.
Najdi Arabic (اللهجة النجدية) is a variety of Arabic spoken in the Najd region of Saudi Arabia.
Najran (نجران) is a region of Saudi Arabia, located in the south of the country along the border with Yemen.
A nature reserve (also called a natural reserve, bioreserve, (natural/nature) preserve, or (national/nature) conserve) is a protected area of importance for wildlife, flora, fauna or features of geological or other special interest, which is reserved and managed for conservation and to provide special opportunities for study or research.
The Negev (הַנֶּגֶב, Tiberian vocalization:; النقب an-Naqab) is a desert and semidesert region of southern Israel.
The Nile River (النيل, Egyptian Arabic en-Nīl, Standard Arabic an-Nīl; ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲱ, P(h)iaro; Ancient Egyptian: Ḥ'pī and Jtrw; Biblical Hebrew:, Ha-Ye'or or, Ha-Shiḥor) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, and is commonly regarded as the longest river in the world, though some sources cite the Amazon River as the longest.
A nomad (νομάς, nomas, plural tribe) is a member of a community of people who live in different locations, moving from one place to another in search of grasslands for their animals.
North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.
Bedawi Arabic (لهجة بدوية, also known as Eastern Egyptian Bedawi Arabic, Bedawi, Levantine Bedawi Arabic) is a variety of Arabic spoken by Bedouins mostly in eastern Egypt, and also in Jordan, Israel, the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, Saudi Arabia and Syria.
A nuclear family, elementary family or conjugal family is a family group consisting of two parents and their children (one or more).
The Old Testament (abbreviated OT) is the first part of Christian Bibles, based primarily upon the Hebrew Bible (or Tanakh), a collection of ancient religious writings by the Israelites believed by most Christians and religious Jews to be the sacred Word of God.
Omani Arabic (also known as Omani Hadari Arabic) is a variety of Arabic spoken in the Al Hajar Mountains of Oman and in a few neighboring coastal regions.
Oral poetry is poetry that is composed and transmitted without the aid of writing.
Oran (وَهران, Wahrān; Berber language: ⵡⴻⵂⵔⴰⵏ, Wehran) is a major coastal city located in the north-west of Algeria.
Oriental studies is the academic field of study that embraces Near Eastern and Far Eastern societies and cultures, languages, peoples, history and archaeology; in recent years the subject has often been turned into the newer terms of Asian studies and Middle Eastern studies.
The Otaiba tribe (also spelled Otaiba, Utaybah) is a tribe originating from Saudi Arabia.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The Overseas Development Institute (ODI) is an independent think tank on international development and humanitarian issues, founded in 1960.
The Palestine Exploration Fund is a British society based in London.
The Persian Gulf (lit), (الخليج الفارسي) is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia.
Petra (Arabic: البتراء, Al-Batrāʾ; Ancient Greek: Πέτρα), originally known to its inhabitants as Raqmu, is a historical and archaeological city in southern Jordan.
The Prawer Commission was set up to implement the recommendations of the Goldberg Commission on resolving outstanding land issues between the Negev Bedouin and the State of Israel.
Not to be confused with the Qahtanite peoples Qahtān (also spelled as to distinguish between the tribe and the Qahtanite peoples, is an Arab tribal confederation. Qahtan is composed of three main tribes: Sanhan, Junb, and Rufaida. Today, members of the tribe and its sub-tribes are based in Saudi Arabia (where most of the tribe is congregated), Kuwait, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates. One must note that the Madh'hiji Qahtan tribe is different from the Qahtanite peoples, because while all members of the Qahtan identify as Qahtanite through their ancestry to Joktan (Qahtan) son of Eber which the tribe is named after, not all Qahtanite tribes (such as Shammar, Shahran, Harb, etc.) trace their ancestry back to the modern tribe known as Qahtan. Qahtan's sheikhdom was unanimously agreed by Western historians to be in the hands of the 'Al Qarmalah' family of the Jahader clan in the 19th century, and as early as 1961, the paramount sheikh of Qahtan was reported to be 'Khalil ibn Nasir ibn Qarmalah' (a descendant of Hadi ibn Qarmalah). However today, this subject of whether the Al Qarmalah family or the Ibn Dulaim family of the Sharif clan are the rightful sheikhs of Qahtan is highly controversial and has led to physical confrontations in high profile tribal Qahtan congregations. Regardless, Abdullah ibn Fahad ibn Dulaim, sheikh of the Ibn Dulaim family, is recognized by the Saudi state as the appointed paramount sheikh of Qahtan and its allied tribe of Wadi'a.
The terms Qahtanite and Qahtani (قَحْطَانِي; transliterated: Qahtani) refers to Arabs who originate from the southern region of the Arabian Peninsula, especially from Yemen.
Qatar (or; قطر; local vernacular pronunciation), officially the State of Qatar (دولة قطر), is a sovereign country located in Western Asia, occupying the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula.
Qays ʿAylān (قيس عيلان), often referred to simply as Qays (also spelled Qais, Kais or Kays) were an Arab tribal confederation that branched from the Mudhar section of the Adnanites.
The Qedarite Kingdom or Qedar (مملكة قيدار, Mamlakat Qaydar), were a largely nomadic, ancient Arab tribal confederation.
Qumran (קומראן; خربة قمران) is an archaeological site in the West Bank managed by Israel's Qumran National Park.
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
Rahat (רַהַט, رهط) is a predominantly Bedouin city in the Southern District of Israel.
The Rashaida, Rashaayda or Bani Rashid (بني رشيد, الرشايدة) is a tribe of ethnic Bedouin Arabs descending from Banu Abs native to the Hejaz region of Saudi Arabia.
The Red Sea (also the Erythraean Sea) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.
Refugees of the Syrian Civil War or Syrian refugees are citizens and permanent residents of Syrian Arab Republic, who have fled from their country since the onset of the Syrian Civil War in 2011 and have sought asylum in other parts of the world. In 2016, from an estimated pre-war population of 22 million, the United Nations (UN) identified 13.5 million Syrians requiring humanitarian assistance, of which more than 6 million are internally displaced within Syria, and around 5 million are refugees outside of Syria. The vast majority of the latter are hosted by countries neighboring Syria. Among countries of the Regional Refugee and Resilience Plan (3RP), a coordination platform including neighboring countries (with the exception of Israel) and Egypt, the UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR) counted 5,165,502 registered refugees, as of August 2017. Turkey is the largest host country of registered refugees with over 3.5 million Syrian refugees. The UNHCR counted almost 1 million asylum applicants in Europe, as of August 2017. Humanitarian aid to internally displaced persons (IDPs) within Syria and Syrian refugees in neighbouring countries is planned largely through the UNHCR. By 2016, various nations had made pledges to the UNHCR to permanently resettle 170,000 registered refugees.
A religious festival is a time of special importance marked by adherents to that religion.
Riyadh (/rɨˈjɑːd/; الرياض ar-Riyāḍ Najdi pronunciation) is the capital and most populous city of Saudi Arabia.
The Rub' al Khali desert Other standardized transliterations include: /. The is the assimilated Arabic definite article,, which can also be transliterated as.
The Ruwallah (الرولة, singular Ruweili/Ruwaili) are a large Arab tribe of northern Arabia and the Syrian Desert, including modern-day Jordan.
The Sahara (الصحراء الكبرى,, 'the Great Desert') is the largest hot desert and the third largest desert in the world after Antarctica and the Arctic.
The Tunisian Sahel (الساحل) is an area of eastern Tunisia.
Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī (صحيح البخاري.), also known as Bukhari Sharif (بخاري شريف), is one of the Kutub al-Sittah (six major hadith collections) of Sunni Islam.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
In cultural anthropology, sedentism (sometimes called sedentariness; compare sedentarism) is the practice of living in one place for a long time.
Shahran is one of the largest tribes in the 'Asir region of Saudi Arabia.
The tribe of Shammar (Arabic: شمّر Šammar) is a tribal Arab Qahtanite confederation, descended from the ancient tribe of Tayy.
Sharm El Sheikh (شرم الشيخ) is a city on the southern tip of the Sinai Peninsula, in South Sinai Governorate, Egypt, on the coastal strip along the Red Sea.
The Sharqiya Sands (formerly known as Wahiba Sands, or Ramlat al-Wahiba) is a region of desert in Oman.
Sheikh (pronounced, or; شيخ, mostly pronounced, plural شيوخ)—also transliterated Sheik, Shykh, Shaik, Shayk, Shaykh, Cheikh, Shekh, and Shaikh—is an honorific title in the Arabic language.
The Sinai Peninsula or simply Sinai (now usually) is a peninsula in Egypt, and the only part of the country located in Asia.
Social control is a concept within the disciplines of the social sciences.
A standard language or standard variety may be defined either as a language variety used by a population for public purposes or as a variety that has undergone standardization.
Subay' (سبيع, also spelled Sbay', Sbei', and Subei) are a Sunni Muslim tribe of central Saudi Arabia.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
The Syrian Civil War (الحرب الأهلية السورية, Al-ḥarb al-ʼahliyyah as-sūriyyah) is an ongoing multi-sided armed conflict in Syria fought primarily between the Ba'athist Syrian Arab Republic led by President Bashar al-Assad, along with its allies, and various forces opposing both the government and each other in varying combinations.
Colonel Thomas Edward Lawrence, (16 August 1888 – 19 May 1935) was a British archaeologist, military officer, diplomat, and writer.
Tamasna (Berber:Tamesna, ⵜⴰⵎⴻⵙⵏⴰ, Arabic: تامسنا) is a historical region between Bou Regreg and Tensift in Morocco.
The Tanzimât (lit) was a period of reform in the Ottoman Empire that began in 1839 and ended with the First Constitutional Era in 1876.
Tapu (also Tabu) was a permanent lease of state-owned arable land to a peasant family in the Ottoman Empire.
The Tarabin Bedouin (תראבין), also known as Al-Tirabin, were the most important Bedouin tribe in the Sinai Peninsula during the 19th century, and the largest inside Negev.
Tayy (طيء/ALA-LC: Ṭayy), also known as Ṭayyi or Taiesʾ, is a large and ancient Arab tribe, whose descendants today are the tribe of Shammar, who continue to live throughout the Middle Eastern states of the Arab world and the rest of the world.
Tel Arad (תל ערד) is an archaeological tel, or mound, located west of the Dead Sea, about west of the modern Israeli city of Arad in an area surrounded by mountain ridges which is known as the Arad Plain.
Tel Sheva (תֵּל שֶׁבַע) or Tel as-Sabi (تل السبع)) is a Bedouin town in the Southern District of Israel, bordering the city of Beersheba. In it had a population of. The first Bedouin township in Israel, Tel as-Sabi was founded in 1967 as part of a government project to settle Bedouins in permanent settlements and became a local council in 1984. It is one of seven Bedouin townships in the Negev desert with approved plans and developed infrastructure.
The Jerusalem Post is a broadsheet newspaper based in Jerusalem, founded in 1932 during the British Mandate of Palestine by Gershon Agron as The Palestine Post.
The Middle East Journal is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal published by the Middle East Institute (Washington, D.C.). It was established in 1947 and covers research on the modern Middle East, including political, economic, and social developments and historical events in North Africa, the Middle East, Caucasus, and Central Asia.
The National is a private English-language daily newspaper published in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Tiyaha or Tiyahah is a Sinai/Negev Bedouin tribe.
Township refers to various kinds of settlements in different countries.
The tribes of Arabia are the clans that originated in the Arabian Peninsula.
Tripolitania or Tripolitana (طرابلس, Berber: Ṭrables, from Vulgar Latin *Trapoletanius, from Latin Regio Tripolitana, from Greek Τριπολιτάνια) is a historic region and former province of Libya.
Tuba-Zangariyye or Tuba az-Zanghariyya (طوبه زنغرية, טוּבָּא-זַנְגָרִיָה) is a Bedouin town in the Northern District of Israel that achieved local council status in 1988.
Tunisia (تونس; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Tunisie), officially the Republic of Tunisia, (الجمهورية التونسية) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe in particular with France and with Italy have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.
Umar, also spelled Omar (عمر بن الخطاب, "Umar, Son of Al-Khattab"; c. 584 CE 3 November 644 CE), was one of the most powerful and influential Muslim caliphs in history.
The United Arab Emirates (UAE; دولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة), sometimes simply called the Emirates (الإمارات), is a federal absolute monarchy sovereign state in Western Asia at the southeast end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the east and Saudi Arabia to the south, as well as sharing maritime borders with Qatar to the west and Iran to the north.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency, is a United Nations programme with the mandate to protect refugees, forcibly displaced communities and stateless people, and assist in their voluntary repatriation, local integration or resettlement to a third country.
Unrecognized Bedouin villages in Israel are rural Bedouin communities in the Negev and the Galilee which the Israeli government does not recognize as legal.
Urbanization refers to the population shift from rural to urban residency, the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas, and the ways in which each society adapts to this change.
There are many varieties of Arabic (dialects or otherwise) in existence.
Wadi Rum (وادي رم) also known as The Valley of the Moon (وادي القمر) is a valley cut into the sandstone and granite rock in southern Jordan to the east of Aqaba; it is the largest wadi in Jordan.
Sir Wilfred Patrick Thesiger (3 June 1910 – 24 August 2003),https://www.theguardian.com/travel/2003/aug/27/booksobituaries.obituaries also called Mubarak bin London (Arabic for "the blessed one of London") was an English explorer and travel writer.
William Osbert Lancaster (born 1938) is a British social anthropologist who has specialised in the study of the Arab world, particularly the bedouin tribes in the Levant and Middle East.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
Yemen (al-Yaman), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (al-Jumhūriyyah al-Yamaniyyah), is an Arab sovereign state in Western Asia at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.
Ynetnews is the online English-language Israeli news website of Yedioth Ahronoth, Israel’s most-read newspaper, and the Hebrew news portal, Ynet.
The Zirid dynasty (ⵜⴰⴳⵍⴷⴰ ⵏ ⴰⵢⵜ ⵣⵉⵔⵉ Tagelda n Ayt Ziri, زيريون /ALA-LC: Zīryūn; Banu Ziri) was a Sanhaja Berber dynasty from modern-day Algeria which ruled the central Maghreb from 972 to 1014 and Ifriqiya (eastern Maghreb) from 972 to 1148.
The Hama massacre (مجزرة حماة) occurred in 2 February 1982, when the Syrian Arab Army and the Defense Companies, under the orders of the country's president Hafez al-Assad, besieged the town of Hama for 27 days in order to quell an uprising by the Muslim Brotherhood against al-Assad's government.