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Index Beef

Beef is the culinary name for meat from cattle, particularly skeletal muscle. [1]

258 relations: Alberta, Alps, Americas, Angus cattle, Ankole-Watusi, Argentina, Argentine beef, Arouquesa, Article 47 of the Constitution of India, Aurochs, Australia, Azores, Backgrounding, Bacteria, Barbecue, Barbecue in the United States, Basting (cooking), Bündnerfleisch, Beef Australia, Beef cattle, Beef hormone controversy, Beef tongue, Beefalo, Belarus, Belgian Blue, Belgian cuisine, Biltong, Blood sausage, Bourbonnais, Bovinae, Bovine spongiform encephalopathy, Brain, Braising, Braunvieh, Brazi, Brazil, Bread crumbs, Bresaola, Brine, Bromelain, Buffalo meat, Cachena, Camargue, Canada, Cancer Research UK, Cantabria, Carne de Ávila, Carnism, Carnitine, Carpaccio, ..., Caste politics, Catholic Church, Cattle, Cattle feeding, Cave painting, Charolais cattle, Chianina, China, Chipped beef, Christmas, Circulation (journal), Collagen, Colombia, Colorectal cancer, Concentrated animal feeding operation, Constitution of India, Cooking, Corned beef, Creatine, Cuba, Culinary name, Culture of India, Deep frying, Delicatessen, Diet (nutrition), Dietary fiber, Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds, Domestication, Eastern Orthodox Church, Economy, Egypt, Entrecôte, Escherichia coli, Ethiopia, European Union, Feedlot, Ficain, Filet mignon, Fodder, Fondue, Food drying, Free range, French cuisine, Gastrointestinal tract, Geographical indications and traditional specialities in the European Union, Germanic languages, Gland, Grain, Grassland, Gravy, Griddle, Grilling, Ground beef, Guinness, Gupta Empire, Halal, Hanger steak, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Heart, Hereford cattle, Hindu, Hinduism, Hoe (food), Hormel, Hormone, Hot pot, Hyōgo Prefecture, Hydrolysis, India, Intensive animal farming, Ireland, Iron, Islam, Italy, Jainism, Japan, Jerky, Jews, Judaism, Kashrut, Kibbeh nayyeh, Kidney, Kitfo, Kobe beef, Korean cuisine, Lascaux, Late Latin, Leather, Lebanese cuisine, Lent, List of beef dishes, List of cattle breeds, List of domesticated meat animals, Liver (food), Lombardy, Maillard reaction, Maine (province), Meat, Meat and bone meal, Meat tenderness, Meat thermometer, Mexican–American War, Mexico, Midwestern United States, Milanesa, Milk, Mincing, Murray Grey cattle, Native Americans in the United States, Nebraska Educational Telecommunications, New York Daily News, New Zealand, Niacin, Nicaragua, Norman conquest of England, Offal, Old World, Oprah Winfrey, Organic beef, Orkney, Oven, Ox, Oxtail, Pakistan, Pancreas, Papain, Paraguay, Pasteurization, Pastrami, Pathogen, Pesticide, Phosphorus, Pickling, Pink slime, Plough, Pork, Pot roast, Potassium nitrate, Poultry, Pressure cooking, Primal cut, Pyrus pyrifolia, Ranch, Ranjit Singh, Reference Daily Intake, Reproduction, Reticulum (anatomy), Rib eye steak, Rib steak, Roast beef, Roasting, Rocky Mountain oysters, Romance languages, Rumen, Rump steak, Russia, Salamanca, Salt-cured meat, Saturated fat, Sauce, Sauerbraten, Sausage, Scotland, Searing, Sewage sludge, Shabu-shabu, Shallow frying, Short ribs, Sierra de Guadarrama, Simmering, Sirloin steak, Skeletal muscle, Slow cooker, Smoked meat, Sous-vide, Soy sauce, Spiced beef, States and union territories of India, Steak, Steak tartare, Stew, Stir frying, Stock (food), Stout, Sweetbread, Switzerland, Syrian cuisine, Testicle, Texas, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Thermostat, Thymus, Tripe, United Kingdom, United States, United States Department of Agriculture, Uruguay, Valtellina, Vitamin B12, Vitamin B6, Wagyu, Wales, White Buffalo Calf Woman, Wok, Working animal, Yukhoe, Zebu, Zinc. Expand index (208 more) »


Alberta is a western province of Canada.

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The Alps (Alpes; Alpen; Alpi; Alps; Alpe) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe,The Caucasus Mountains are higher, and the Urals longer, but both lie partly in Asia.

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The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.

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Angus cattle

The Aberdeen Angus, sometimes simply Angus, is a Scottish breed of small beef cattle.

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The Ankole-Watusi is a modern American breed of domestic cattle.

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Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.

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Argentine beef

Beef is a key component of traditional Argentine cuisine.

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The Arouquesa is a cattle breed from Portugal.

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Article 47 of the Constitution of India

Article 47 of The Constitution of India is one of the Directive Principles which directs the State to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health as among its primary duties and, in particular, the State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of intoxicating drinks and drugs which are injurious to health.

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The aurochs (or; pl. aurochs, or rarely aurochsen, aurochses), also known as urus or ure (Bos primigenius), is an extinct species of large wild cattle that inhabited Europe, Asia, and North Africa.

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Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.

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The Azores (or; Açores), officially the Autonomous Region of the Azores (Região Autónoma dos Açores), is one of the two autonomous regions of Portugal.

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Backgrounding is an intermediate stage sometimes used in cattle production which begins after weaning and ends upon placement in a feedlot.

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Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.

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Barbecue or barbeque (informally BBQ or barbie) is a cooking method, a style of food, and a name for a meal or gathering at which this style of food is cooked and served.

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Barbecue in the United States

In the United States, barbecue refers to a technique of cooking that involves cooking pulled pork outdoors, over a fire; often this is called pit barbecue, and the facility for cooking it is the barbecue pit.

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Basting (cooking)

Basting is a cooking technique that involves cooking meat with either its own juices or some type of preparation such as a sauce or marinade.

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Bündnerfleisch, also known as Bindenfleisch or Viande des Grisons, is an air-dried meat that is produced in the canton of Graubünden, Switzerland.

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Beef Australia

Beef Australia is an international exposition held triennially in Rockhampton, Queensland, Australia.

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Beef cattle

Beef cattle are cattle raised for meat production (as distinguished from dairy cattle, used for milk production).

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Beef hormone controversy

The Beef Hormone Dispute is one of the most intractable agricultural controversies since the establishment of the World Trade Organization.

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Beef tongue

Beef tongue (also known as neat's tongue or ox tongue) is a dish made of the tongue of a cow.

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Beefalo, also referred to as cattalo or the American hybrid, are a fertile hybrid offspring of domestic cattle (Bos taurus), usually a male in managed breeding programs, and the American bison (Bison bison), usually a female in managed breeding programs.

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Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.

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Belgian Blue

The Belgian Blue ('Blanc-Bleu Belge', 'Belgisch Witblauw') is a breed of beef cattle from Belgium.

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Belgian cuisine

Belgian cuisine is widely varied with significant regional variations while also reflecting the cuisines of neighbouring France, Germany and the Netherlands.

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Biltong is a form of dried, cured meat that originated in Botswana, South Africa, Zimbabwe and Namibia.

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Blood sausage

Blood sausages are sausages filled with blood that are cooked or dried and mixed with a filler until they are thick enough to solidify when cooled.

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Bourbonnais was a historic province in the centre of France that corresponded to the modern département of Allier, along with part of the département of Cher.

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The biological subfamily Bovinae includes a diverse group of 10 genera of medium to large-sized ungulates, including domestic cattle, bison, African buffalo, the water buffalo, the yak, and the four-horned and spiral-horned antelopes.

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Bovine spongiform encephalopathy

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), commonly known as mad cow disease, is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy and fatal neurodegenerative disease in cattle that may be passed to humans who have eaten infected flesh.

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The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.

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Braising (from the French word braiser) is a combination-cooking method that uses both lit wet and dry heats: typically, the food is first seared at a high temperature, then finished in a covered pot at a lower temperature while sitting in some (variable) amount of liquid (which may also add flavor).

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Braunvieh (German, "brown cattle") is a breed or group of breeds of domestic cattle originating in Switzerland and distributed throughout the Alpine region.

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Brazi is a commune in Prahova County, Romania.

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Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.

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Bread crumbs

Bread crumbs or breadcrumbs (regional variants: breading, crispies) are sliced residue of dry bread, used for breading or crumbing foods, topping casseroles, stuffing poultry, thickening stews, adding inexpensive bulk to soups, meatloaves and similar foods, and making a crisp and crunchy covering for fried foods, especially breaded cutlets like tonkatsu and schnitzel.

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Bresaola is air-dried, salted beef (but also horse, venison and pork) that has been aged two or three months until it becomes hard and turns a dark red, almost purple colour.

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Brine is a high-concentration solution of salt (usually sodium chloride) in water.

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Bromelain is an enzyme extract derived from the stems of pineapples, although it exists in all parts of the fresh plant and fruit.

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Buffalo meat

Buffalo meat is the meat of the water buffalo, a large bovid, raised for its milk and meat in many countries including India, Nepal, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Bulgaria, Italy, Russia, Czech Republic, Slovakia and Egypt.

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Cachena cattle is a triple-purpose breed from Portugal and Galicia, Spain.

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The Camargue (Provençal Camarga) is a natural region located south of Arles, France, between the Mediterranean Sea and the two arms of the Rhône delta.

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Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.

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Cancer Research UK

Cancer Research UK is a cancer research and awareness charity in the United Kingdom and Isle of Man, formed on 4 February 2002 by the merger of The Cancer Research Campaign and the Imperial Cancer Research Fund.

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Cantabria is a historic Spanish community and autonomous community with Santander as its capital city.

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Carne de Ávila

Carne de Ávila (Beef from Avila) is a protected geographic designation for beef originating from the Province of Ávila in Spain.

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Carnism is a concept used in discussions of humanity's relation to other animals, defined as a prevailing ideology in which people support the use and consumption of animal products, especially meat.

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Carnitine (β-hydroxy-γ-N-trimethylaminobutyric acid, 3-hydroxy-4-N,N,N- trimethylaminobutyrate) is a quaternary ammonium compound involved in metabolism in most mammals, plants and some bacteria. Carnitine may exist in two isomers, labeled D-carnitine and L-carnitine, as they are optically active. At room temperature, pure carnitine is a white powder, and a water-soluble zwitterion with low toxicity. Carnitine only exists in animals as the L-enantiomer, and D-carnitine is toxic because it inhibits the activity of L-carnitine. Carnitine, derived from an amino acid, is found in nearly all organisms and animal tissue. Carnitine is the generic expression for a number of compounds that include L-carnitine, acetyl-L-carnitine, and propionyl-L-carnitine. It is most accumulated in cardiac and skeletal muscles as it accounts for 0.1% of its dry matter. It was first derived from meat extracts in 1905, therefore the name carnitine is derived from Latin "carnus" or flesh. The body synthesizes enough carnitine from lysine side chains to keep up with the needs of energy production in the body as carnitine acts as a transporter of long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondria to be oxidized and produce energy. Some individuals with genetic or medical disorders (like preterm infants) cannot make enough, so this makes carnitine a conditionally essential nutrient for them.

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Carpaccio is a dish of raw meat or fish (such as beef, veal, venison, salmon or tuna), thinly sliced or pounded thin and served mainly as an appetizer.

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Caste politics

Caste in Indian society refers to a social group where membership is decided by birth.

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Catholic Church

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.

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Cattle—colloquially cows—are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates.

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Cattle feeding

Different cattle feeding production systems have separate advantages and disadvantages.

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Cave painting

Cave paintings, also known as parietal art, are painted drawings on cave walls or ceilings, mainly of prehistoric origin, beginning roughly 40,000 years ago (around 38,000 BCE) in Eurasia.

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Charolais cattle

The Charolais is a breed of taurine beef cattle from the Charolais area surrounding Charolles, in Burgundy, in eastern France.

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The Chianina is an Italian breed of cattle, formerly principally a draught breed, now raised mainly for beef.

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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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Chipped beef

Chipped beef is a form of pressed, salted and dried beef that has been sliced into thin pieces.

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Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.

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Circulation (journal)

Circulation is a scientific journal published by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins for the American Heart Association.

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Collagen is the main structural protein in the extracellular space in the various connective tissues in animal bodies.

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Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.

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Colorectal cancer

Colorectal cancer (CRC), also known as bowel cancer and colon cancer, is the development of cancer from the colon or rectum (parts of the large intestine).

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Concentrated animal feeding operation

A concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO), as defined by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) is an animal feeding operation (AFO)—a farm in which animals are raised in confinement—that has over 1000 "animal units" confined for over 45 days a year.

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Constitution of India

The Constitution of India is the supreme law of India.

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Cooking or cookery is the art, technology, science and craft of preparing food for consumption.

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Corned beef

Corned beef is a salt-cured beef product.

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Creatine is a nitrogenous organic acid that occurs naturally in vertebrates.

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Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.

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Culinary name

Culinary names, menu names, or kitchen names are names of foods used in the preparation or selling of food, as opposed to their names in agriculture or in scientific nomenclature.

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Culture of India

The culture of India refers collectively to the thousands of distinct and unique cultures of all religions and communities present in India.

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Deep frying

Deep frying (also referred to as deep fat frying) is a cooking method in which food is submerged in hot fat, most commonly oil, rather than the shallow oil used in conventional frying, done in a frying pan.

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A delicatessen or deli is a retail establishment that sells a selection of unusual or foreign prepared foods.

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Diet (nutrition)

In nutrition, diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism.

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Dietary fiber

Dietary fiber or roughage is the indigestible portion of food derived from plants.

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Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds

Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) are compounds that are highly toxic environmental persistent organic pollutants (POPs).

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Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another group to secure a more predictable supply of resources from that second group.

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Eastern Orthodox Church

The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.

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An economy (from Greek οίκος – "household" and νέμoμαι – "manage") is an area of the production, distribution, or trade, and consumption of goods and services by different agents.

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Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

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In French, the word entrecôte denotes a premium cut of beef used for steaks.

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Escherichia coli

Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).

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Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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A feedlot or feed yard is a type of animal feeding operation (AFO) which is used in intensive animal farming for finishing livestock, notably beef cattle, but also swine, horses, sheep, turkeys, chickens or ducks, prior to slaughter.

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Ficain (ficin, debricin, higueroxyl delabarre) is an enzyme that is derived from figs latex.

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Filet mignon

Filet mignon (French for "tender fillet" or "delicate/fine fillet") is a steak cut of beef taken from the smaller end of the tenderloin, or psoas major of the cow carcass, usually a steer or heifer.

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Fodder, a type of animal feed, is any agricultural foodstuff used specifically to feed domesticated livestock, such as cattle, rabbits, sheep, horses, chickens and pigs.

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Fondue is a Swiss dish of melted cheese served in a communal pot (caquelon or fondue pot) over a portable stove (réchaud) heated with a candle or spirit lamp, and eaten by dipping bread into the cheese using long-stemmed forks.

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Food drying

Food drying is a method of food preservation in which food is dried (dehydrated or desiccated).

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Free range

A small flock of mixed free-range chickens being fed outdoors Free range denotes a method of farming husbandry where the animals, for at least part of the day, can roam freely outdoors, rather than being confined in an enclosure for 24 hours each day.

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French cuisine

French cuisine consists of the cooking traditions and practices from France.

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Gastrointestinal tract

The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.

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Geographical indications and traditional specialities in the European Union

Three European Union schemes of geographical indications and traditional specialties, known as protected designation of origin (PDO), protected geographical indication (PGI), and traditional specialities guaranteed (TSG), promote and protect names of quality agricultural products and foodstuffs.

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Germanic languages

The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.

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A gland is a group of cells in an animal's body that synthesizes substances (such as hormones) for release into the bloodstream (endocrine gland) or into cavities inside the body or its outer surface (exocrine gland).

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A grain is a small, hard, dry seed, with or without an attached hull or fruit layer, harvested for human or animal consumption.

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Grasslands are areas where the vegetation is dominated by grasses (Poaceae); however, sedge (Cyperaceae) and rush (Juncaceae) families can also be found along with variable proportions of legumes, like clover, and other herbs.

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Gravy is a sauce often made from the juices of meats that run naturally during cooking and thickened with wheat flour or cornstarch for added texture.

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A griddle is a cooking device consisting of a broad flat surface heated by gas, electricity, wood, or coal, with both residential and commercial applications.

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Grilling is a form of cooking that involves dry heat applied to the surface of food, commonly from above or below.

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Ground beef

Ground beef, beef mince, minced beef, or minced meat (not to be confused with the mixture of chopped dried fruit, distilled spirits and spices referred to as "mincemeat") is a ground meat made of beef that has been finely chopped with a large knife or a meat grinder.

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Guinness is an Irish dry stout that originated in the brewery of Arthur Guinness (1725–1803) at St. James's Gate brewery in the capital city of Dublin, Ireland.

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Gupta Empire

The Gupta Empire was an ancient Indian empire, existing from approximately 240 to 590 CE.

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Halal (حلال, "permissible"), also spelled hallal or halaal, refers to what is permissible or lawful in traditional Islamic law.

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Hanger steak

A hanger steak also known as butcher's steak is a cut of beef steak prized for its flavor.

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Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health

The Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health (formerly Harvard School of Public Health) is the public health graduate school of Harvard University, located in the Longwood Medical Area of Boston, Massachusetts adjacent Harvard Medical School.

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The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.

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Hereford cattle

The Hereford (pronounced hair-uh-furd in the UK and hur-furd or hur-uh-ford in the US) is a British breed of beef cattle that originated in the county of Herefordshire, in the West Midlands of England.

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Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.

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Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.

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Hoe (food)

Hoe refers to several varieties of raw food dishes in Korean cuisine.

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Hormel Foods Corporation is an American meat-based food products company based in Austin, Minnesota.

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A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.

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Hot pot

Hot pot is a Chinese cooking method, prepared with a simmering pot of soup stock at the dining table, containing a variety of East Asian foodstuffs and ingredients.

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Hyōgo Prefecture

is a prefecture of Japan located in the Kansai region on Honshu island.

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Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.

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India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Intensive animal farming

Intensive animal farming or industrial livestock production, also known as factory farming, is a production approach towards farm animals in order to maximize production output, while minimizing production costs.

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Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.

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Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.

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IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).

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Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.

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Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma, is an ancient Indian religion.

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Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.

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Jerky is lean meat that has been trimmed of fat, cut into strips, and then dried to prevent spoilage.

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Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.

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Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.

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Kashrut (also kashruth or kashrus) is a set of Jewish religious dietary laws.

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Kibbeh nayyeh

No description.

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The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.

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Kitfo (ክትፎ), sometimes spelled ketfo, is a traditional dish found in Ethiopian cuisine.

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Kobe beef

is meat from the Tajima strain of Japanese Black cattle, raised in Japan's Hyōgo Prefecture according to rules set out by the Kobe Beef Marketing and Distribution Promotion Association.

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Korean cuisine

Korean cuisine has evolved through centuries of social and political change.

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Lascaux (Grotte de Lascaux, "Lascaux Cave") is the setting of a complex of caves near the village of Montignac, in the department of Dordogne in southwestern France.

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Late Latin

Late Latin is the scholarly name for the written Latin of Late Antiquity.

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Leather is a durable and flexible material created by tanning animal rawhides, mostly cattle hide.

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Lebanese cuisine

Lebanese cuisine is a Levantine style of cooking that includes an abundance of whole grains, fruits, vegetables, starches, fresh fish and seafood; animal fats are consumed sparingly.

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Lent (Latin: Quadragesima: Fortieth) is a solemn religious observance in the Christian liturgical calendar that begins on Ash Wednesday and ends approximately six weeks later, before Easter Sunday.

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List of beef dishes

This is a list of beef dishes and foods.

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List of cattle breeds

Over 800 breeds of cattle are recognized worldwide, some of which adapted to the local climate, others which were bred by humans for specialized uses.

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List of domesticated meat animals

The following is a list of animals that are or may have been raised in captivity for consumption by people.

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Liver (food)

The liver of mammals, fowl, and fish is commonly eaten as food by humans.

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Lombardy (Lombardia; Lumbardia, pronounced: (Western Lombard), (Eastern Lombard)) is one of the twenty administrative regions of Italy, in the northwest of the country, with an area of.

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Maillard reaction

The Maillard reaction is a chemical reaction between amino acids and reducing sugars that gives browned food its distinctive flavor.

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Maine (province)

Maine is one of the traditional provinces of France (not to be confused with La Maine, the river).

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Meat is animal flesh that is eaten as food.

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Meat and bone meal

Meat and bone meal (MBM) is a product of the rendering industry.

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Meat tenderness

Tenderness is a quality of meat gauging how easily it is chewed or cut.

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Meat thermometer

A meat thermometer with a dial. Notice the markings for each type of meat A meat thermometer or cooking thermometer is a thermometer used to measure the internal temperature of meat, especially roasts and steaks, and other cooked foods.

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Mexican–American War

The Mexican–American War, also known as the Mexican War in the United States and in Mexico as the American intervention in Mexico, was an armed conflict between the United States of America and the United Mexican States (Mexico) from 1846 to 1848.

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Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.

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Midwestern United States

The Midwestern United States, also referred to as the American Midwest, Middle West, or simply the Midwest, is one of four census regions of the United States Census Bureau (also known as "Region 2").

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The milanesa (in Italian "cotoletta alla milanese") is a South American variation of an Italian dish where generic types of breaded meat fillet preparations are known as a milanesa.

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Milk is a white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals.

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Mincing is a food preparation technique in which food ingredients are finely divided into uniform pieces.

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Murray Grey cattle

Murray Grey is a breed of Australian polled beef cattle that was developed in the upper Murray River valley on the New South Wales /Victorian border.

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Native Americans in the United States

Native Americans, also known as American Indians, Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States.

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Nebraska Educational Telecommunications

Nebraska Educational Telecommunications (NET) is a state network of public radio and television stations in the U.S. state of Nebraska and is based in Lincoln.

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New York Daily News

The New York Daily News, officially titled Daily News, is an American newspaper based in New York City.

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New Zealand

New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.

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Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid, is an organic compound and a form of vitamin B3, an essential human nutrient.

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Nicaragua, officially the Republic of Nicaragua, is the largest country in the Central American isthmus, bordered by Honduras to the north, the Caribbean to the east, Costa Rica to the south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.

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Norman conquest of England

The Norman conquest of England (in Britain, often called the Norman Conquest or the Conquest) was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England by an army of Norman, Breton, Flemish and French soldiers led by Duke William II of Normandy, later styled William the Conqueror.

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Offal, also called variety meats, pluck or organ meats, refers to the internal organs and entrails of a butchered animal.

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Old World

The term "Old World" is used in the West to refer to Africa, Asia and Europe (Afro-Eurasia or the World Island), regarded collectively as the part of the world known to its population before contact with the Americas and Oceania (the "New World").

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Oprah Winfrey

Oprah Winfrey (born Orpah Gail Winfrey; January 29, 1954) is an American media proprietor, talk show host, actress, producer, and philanthropist.

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Organic beef

Organic beef is beef grown according to organic food principles.

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Orkney (Orkneyjar), also known as the Orkney Islands, is an archipelago in the Northern Isles of Scotland, situated off the north coast of Great Britain.

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An oven is a thermally insulated chamber used for the heating, baking, or drying of a substance, and most commonly used for cooking.

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An ox (plural oxen), also known as a bullock in Australia and India, is a bovine trained as a draft animal or riding animal.

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Oxtail (occasionally spelled ox tail or ox-tail) is the culinary name for the tail of cattle.

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Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.

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The pancreas is a glandular organ in the digestive system and endocrine system of vertebrates.

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Papain, also known as papaya proteinase I, is a cysteine protease enzyme present in papaya (Carica papaya) and mountain papaya (Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis).

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Paraguay (Paraguái), officially the Republic of Paraguay (República del Paraguay; Tetã Paraguái), is a landlocked country in central South America, bordered by Argentina to the south and southwest, Brazil to the east and northeast, and Bolivia to the northwest.

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Pasteurization or pasteurisation is a process in which packaged and non-packaged foods (such as milk and fruit juice) are treated with mild heat (Today, pasteurization is used widely in the dairy industry and other food processing industries to achieve food preservation and food safety. This process was named after the French scientist Louis Pasteur, whose research in the 1880s demonstrated that thermal processing would inactivate unwanted microorganisms in wine. Spoilage enzymes are also inactivated during pasteurization. Most liquid products are heat treated in a continuous system where heat can be applied using plate heat exchanger and/or direct or indirect use of steam and hot water. Due to the mild heat there are minor changes to the nutritional quality of foods as well as the sensory characteristics. Pascalization or high pressure processing (HPP) and Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) are non-thermal processes that are also used to pasteurize foods.

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Pastrami (pastırma, Romanian: pastramă, Bulgarian: пастърма) is a meat product usually made from beef, and sometimes from pork, mutton, or turkey.

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In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a '''germ''' in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.

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Pesticides are substances that are meant to control pests, including weeds.

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Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.

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Pickling is the process of preserving or expanding the lifespan of food by either anaerobic fermentation in brine or immersion in vinegar.

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Pink slime

"Pink slime" (a derogatory term for lean finely textured beef or LFTB, finely textured beef, and boneless lean beef trimmings or BLBT) is a meat by-product used as a food additive to ground beef and beef-based processed meats, as a filler, or to reduce the overall fat content of ground beef.

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A plough (UK) or plow (US; both) is a tool or farm implement used in farming for initial cultivation of soil in preparation for sowing seed or planting to loosen or turn the soil.

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Pork is the culinary name for meat from a domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus).

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Pot roast

Pot roast is a braised beef dish made by browning a roast-sized piece of beef before slow cooking the meat in a covered dish, sometimes with vegetables, in or over liquid.

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Potassium nitrate

Potassium nitrate is a chemical compound with the chemical formula KNO3.

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Poultry are domesticated birds kept by humans for their eggs, their meat or their feathers.

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Pressure cooking

Pressure cooking is the process of cooking food, using water or other cooking liquid, in a sealed vessel known as a pressure cooker.

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Primal cut

A primal cut or cut of meat is a piece of meat initially separated from the carcass of an animal during butchering.

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Pyrus pyrifolia

Pyrus pyrifolia is a species of pear tree native to East Asia.

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A ranch is an area of land, including various structures, given primarily to the practice of ranching, the practice of raising grazing livestock such as cattle or sheep for meat or wool.

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Ranjit Singh

Maharaja Ranjit Singh (1780 –1839) was the leader of the Sikh Empire, which ruled the northwest Indian subcontinent in the early half of the 19th century.

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Reference Daily Intake

The Reference Daily Intake (RDI) is the daily intake level of a nutrient that is considered to be sufficient to meet the requirements of 97–98% of healthy individuals in every demographic in the United States.

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Reproduction (or procreation or breeding) is the biological process by which new individual organisms – "offspring" – are produced from their "parents".

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Reticulum (anatomy)

The reticulum is the first chamber in the alimentary canal of a ruminant animal.

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Rib eye steak

The rib eye or ribeye is a beef steak from the rib section.

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Rib steak

A rib steak is a beef steak sliced from the rib primal of a beef animal, with rib bone attached.

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Roast beef

Roast beef is a dish of beef which is roasted in an oven.

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Roasting is a cooking method that uses dry heat where hot air envelops the food, cooking it evenly on all sides with temperatures of at least 150 °C (~300 °F) from an open flame, oven, or other heat source.

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Rocky Mountain oysters

Rocky Mountain oysters, also known as prairie oysters in Canada, also calf fries, is a dish made of cattle testicles.

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Romance languages

The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.

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The rumen, also known as a paunch, forms the larger part of the reticulorumen, which is the first chamber in the alimentary canal of ruminant animals.

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Rump steak

Rump steak is a cut of beef.

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Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

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Salamanca is a city in northwestern Spain that is the capital of the Province of Salamanca in the community of Castile and León.

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Salt-cured meat

Salt-cured meat or salted meat is meat or fish preserved or cured with salt.

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Saturated fat

A saturated fat is a type of fat in which the fatty acid chains have all or predominantly single bonds.

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In cooking a sauce is a liquid, cream, or semi-solid food served on or used in preparing other foods.

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Sauerbraten (German: "sour roast" from sauer for "sour" or "pickled" and Braten for "roast meat") is a German pot roast that can be prepared with a variety of meats—most often beef, but also from venison, lamb, mutton, pork, and traditionally, horse.

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A sausage is a cylindrical meat product usually made from ground meat, often pork, beef, or veal, along with salt, spices and other flavourings, and breadcrumbs, encased by a skin.

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Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.

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Searing (or pan searing) is a technique used in grilling, baking, braising, roasting, sautéing, etc., in which the surface of the food (usually meat, poultry or fish) is cooked at high temperature until a caramelized crust forms.

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Sewage sludge

Sewage sludge refers to the residual, semi-solid material that is produced as a by-product during sewage treatment of industrial or municipal wastewater.

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is a Chinese-Japanese nabemono hotpot dish of thinly sliced meat and vegetables boiled in water.

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Shallow frying

Shallow frying is an oil-based cooking technique.

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Short ribs

Short ribs are a cut of beef taken from the brisket, chuck, plate, or rib areas of beef cattle.

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Sierra de Guadarrama

The Sierra de Guadarrama (Guadarrama Mountains) is a mountain range forming the main eastern section of the Sistema Central, the system of mountain ranges along the centre of the Iberian Peninsula.

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Simmering is a food preparation technique in which foods are cooked in hot liquids kept just below the boiling point of water (which is 100 °C or 212 °F at average sea level air pressure), but higher than poaching temperature.

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Sirloin steak

The sirloin steak is cut from the back of the animal.

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Skeletal muscle

Skeletal muscle is one of three major muscle types, the others being cardiac muscle and smooth muscle.

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Slow cooker

A slow cooker, also known as a crock-pot (after a trademark owned by Sunbeam Products but sometimes used generically in Australia, South Africa, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States), is a countertop electrical cooking appliance used to simmer at a lower temperature than other cooking methods, such as baking, boiling, and frying.

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Smoked meat

Smoked meat is a method of preparing red meat (and fish) which originates in prehistory.

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Sous-vide (French for "under vacuum") is a method of cooking in which food is placed in a plastic pouch or a glass jar and then placed in a water bath or steam environment for longer than normal cooking times (usually 1 to 7 hours, up to 48 or more in some cases) at an accurately regulated temperature.

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Soy sauce

Soy sauce (also called soya sauce in British English) is a liquid condiment of Chinese origin, made from a fermented paste of soybeans, roasted grain, brine, and Aspergillus oryzae or Aspergillus sojae molds.

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Spiced beef

Spiced beef is a cured and salted joint of rump or silverside beef, which is traditionally served at Christmas or the New Year in Ireland, especially County Cork.

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States and union territories of India

India is a federal union comprising 29 states and 7 union territories, for a total of 36 entities.

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A steak is a meat generally sliced across the muscle fibers, potentially including a bone.

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Steak tartare

Steak tartare is a meat dish made from raw ground meat (beef or horsemeat).

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A stew is a combination of solid food ingredients that have been cooked in liquid and served in the resultant gravy.

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Stir frying

Stir frying is a Chinese cooking technique in which ingredients are fried in a small amount of very hot oil while being stirred in a wok.

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Stock (food)

Stock is a flavored liquid preparation.

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Stout is a dark beer that includes roasted malt or roasted barley, hops, water and yeast.

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Sweetbread is a culinary name for the thymus (also called throat, gullet, or neck sweetbread) or the pancreas (also called heart, stomach, or belly sweetbread), especially of calf (ris de veau) and lamb (ris d'agneau), and, less commonly, of beef and pork.

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Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.

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Syrian cuisine

Syrian cuisine may refer to the cooking traditions and practices in modern-day Syria (as opposed to Greater Syria), merging the habits of people who settled in Syria throughout its history.

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The testicle or testis is the male reproductive gland in all animals, including humans.

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Texas (Texas or Tejas) is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population.

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The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition is a monthly peer-reviewed biomedical journal in the field of clinical nutrition.

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A thermostat is a component which senses the temperature of a physical system and performs actions so that the system's temperature is maintained near a desired setpoint.

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The thymus is a specialized primary lymphoid organ of the immune system.

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Tripe is a type of edible lining from the stomachs of various farm animals.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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United States Department of Agriculture

The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), also known as the Agriculture Department, is the U.S. federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming, forestry, and food.

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Uruguay, officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay (República Oriental del Uruguay), is a sovereign state in the southeastern region of South America.

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Valtellina or the Valtelline (occasionally spelled as two words in English: Val Telline; Vuclina, Valtelina); Veltlin, Valtellina, Valtulina, Vuclina, is a valley in the Lombardy region of northern Italy, bordering Switzerland.

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Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12, also called cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin that is involved in the metabolism of every cell of the human body: it is a cofactor in DNA synthesis, and in both fatty acid and amino acid metabolism.

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Vitamin B6

Vitamin B6 refers to a group of chemically similar compounds which can be interconverted in biological systems.

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is any of four Japanese breeds of beef cattle.

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Wales (Cymru) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain.

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White Buffalo Calf Woman

White Buffalo Calf Woman (Lakȟótiyapi: Ptesáŋwiŋ)Ullrich, Jan.

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A wok (from Cantonese: 鑊) is a versatile round-bottomed cooking vessel, originating from China.

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Working animal

A working animal is an animal, usually domesticated, that is kept by humans and trained to perform tasks.

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Yukhoe is a raw dish in Korean cuisine, usually made from raw beef seasoned with various spices or sauces.

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A zebu (Bos primigenius indicus or Bos indicus or Bos taurus indicus), sometimes known as indicine cattle or humped cattle, is a species or subspecies of domestic cattle originating in the Indian Subcontinent.

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Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beef

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