77 relations: Absorbance, Absorption (electromagnetic radiation), Absorption spectroscopy, Aerosol, Air mass (astronomy), Analyte, Analytical chemistry, Applied spectroscopy, Atmospheric sciences, Atomic absorption spectroscopy, Attenuation coefficient, August Beer, Avogadro constant, Bhatnagar–Gross–Krook operator, Bilirubin, Carbon dioxide, Carbonyl group, Cavity ring-down spectroscopy, Celestial coordinate system, Concentration, Cramer's rule, Cross section (physics), Differential optical absorption spectroscopy, Electromagnetic absorption by water, Food, Formaldehyde, Glyoxal, Infrared spectroscopy, Integrating factor, Job plot, Johann Heinrich Lambert, Laser absorption spectrometry, Light, Linear differential equation, Linear least squares (mathematics), List of scientific laws named after people, Logarithm, Mathematical physics, Maxwell's equations, Molar attenuation coefficient, Molar concentration, Molecule, Monochrome, Near-infrared spectroscopy, Neutron, Nitrogen, Nitrogen dioxide, Nitrous acid, Nonlinear optics, Nucleic acid quantitation, ..., Number density, Optical depth, Oxygen, Ozone, Photometria, Photon, Physical optics, Pierre Bouguer, Polymer, Polymer degradation, Prentice Hall, Product rule, Radiant flux, Radiation protection, Raman scattering, Rayleigh scattering, Redox, Scattering, Spectrophotometry, Tetraoxygen, Transfer-matrix method (optics), Transmittance, Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy, Turbidity, Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, Water vapor, Zenith. Expand index (27 more) » « Shrink index
In chemistry, absorbance or decadic absorbance is the common logarithm of the ratio of incident to transmitted radiant power through a material, and spectral absorbance or spectral decadic absorbance is the common logarithm of the ratio of incident to transmitted spectral radiant power through a material.
In physics, absorption of electromagnetic radiation is the way in which the energy of a photon is taken up by matter, typically the electrons of an atom.
Absorption spectroscopy refers to spectroscopic techniques that measure the absorption of radiation, as a function of frequency or wavelength, due to its interaction with a sample.
An aerosol is a suspension of fine solid particles or liquid droplets, in air or another gas.
In astronomy, air mass (airmass, or AM) is the path length for light from a celestial source to pass through the atmosphere.
An analyte, component (in clinical chemistry), or chemical species is a substance or chemical constituent that is of interest in an analytical procedure.
Analytical chemistry studies and uses instruments and methods used to separate, identify, and quantify matter.
Applied spectroscopy is the application of various spectroscopic methods for detection and identification of different elements/compounds in solving problems in the fields of forensics, medicine, oil industry, atmospheric chemistry, pharmacology, etc.
Atmospheric science is the study of the Earth's atmosphere, its processes, the effects other systems have on the atmosphere, and the effects of the atmosphere on these other systems.
Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) is a spectroanalytical procedure for the quantitative determination of chemical elements using the absorption of optical radiation (light) by free atoms in the gaseous state.
Attenuation coefficient or narrow beam attenuation coefficient of the volume of a material characterizes how easily it can be penetrated by a beam of light, sound, particles, or other energy or matter.
August Beer (31 July 1825 – 18 November 1863) was a German physicist, chemist, and mathematician of Jewish descent.
In chemistry and physics, the Avogadro constant (named after scientist Amedeo Avogadro) is the number of constituent particles, usually atoms or molecules, that are contained in the amount of substance given by one mole.
The Bhatnagar–Gross–Krook operator (abbreviated BGK operator) term refers to a collision operator used in the Boltzmann Equation and in the Lattice Boltzmann method, a Computational fluid dynamics technique.
Bilirubin is a yellow compound that occurs in the normal catabolic pathway that breaks down heme in vertebrates.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
In organic chemistry, a carbonyl group is a functional group composed of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom: C.
Cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) is a highly sensitive optical spectroscopic technique that enables measurement of absolute optical extinction by samples that scatter and absorb light.
In astronomy, a celestial coordinate system is a system for specifying positions of celestial objects: satellites, planets, stars, galaxies, and so on.
In chemistry, concentration is the abundance of a constituent divided by the total volume of a mixture.
In linear algebra, Cramer's rule is an explicit formula for the solution of a system of linear equations with as many equations as unknowns, valid whenever the system has a unique solution.
When two particles interact, their mutual cross section is the area transverse to their relative motion within which they must meet in order to scatter from each other.
In atmospheric chemistry, differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) is used to measure concentrations of trace gases.
The absorption of electromagnetic radiation by water depends on the state of the water.
Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for an organism.
Glyoxal is an organic compound with the chemical formula OCHCHO.
Infrared spectroscopy (IR spectroscopy or vibrational spectroscopy) involves the interaction of infrared radiation with matter.
In mathematics, an integrating factor is a function that is chosen to facilitate the solving of a given equation involving differentials.
A Job plot, otherwise known as the method of continuous variation or Job's method, is a method used in analytical chemistry to determine the stoichiometry of a binding event.
Johann Heinrich Lambert (Jean-Henri Lambert in French; 26 August 1728 – 25 September 1777) was a Swiss polymath who made important contributions to the subjects of mathematics, physics (particularly optics), philosophy, astronomy and map projections.
Laser absorption spectrometry (LAS) refers to techniques that use lasers to assess the concentration or amount of a species in gas phase by absorption spectrometry (AS).
Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
In mathematics, a linear differential equation is a differential equation that is defined by a linear polynomial in the unknown function and its derivatives, that is an equation of the form where,..., and are arbitrary differentiable functions that do not need to be linear, and are the successive derivatives of an unknown function of the variable.
In statistics and mathematics, linear least squares is an approach to fitting a mathematical or statistical model to data in cases where the idealized value provided by the model for any data point is expressed linearly in terms of the unknown parameters of the model.
This is a list of scientific laws named after people (eponymous laws).
In mathematics, the logarithm is the inverse function to exponentiation.
Mathematical physics refers to the development of mathematical methods for application to problems in physics.
Maxwell's equations are a set of partial differential equations that, together with the Lorentz force law, form the foundation of classical electromagnetism, classical optics, and electric circuits.
The molar attenuation coefficient is a measurement of how strongly a chemical species attenuates light at a given wavelength.
Molar concentration (also called molarity, amount concentration or substance concentration) is a measure of the concentration of a chemical species, in particular of a solute in a solution, in terms of amount of substance per unit volume of solution.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
Monochrome describes paintings, drawings, design, or photographs in one color or values of one color.
Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a spectroscopic method that uses the near-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum (from 780 nm to 2500 nm).
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
Nitrogen dioxide is the chemical compound with the formula.
Nitrous acid (molecular formula HNO2) is a weak and monobasic acid known only in solution and in the form of nitrite salts.
Nonlinear optics (NLO) is the branch of optics that describes the behavior of light in nonlinear media, that is, media in which the dielectric polarization P responds nonlinearly to the electric field E of the light.
In molecular biology, quantitation of nucleic acids is commonly performed to determine the average concentrations of DNA or RNA present in a mixture, as well as their purity.
In physics, astronomy, chemistry, biology and geography, number density (symbol: n or ρN) is an intensive quantity used to describe the degree of concentration of countable objects (particles, molecules, phonons, cells, galaxies, etc.) in physical space: three-dimensional volumetric number density, two-dimensional areal number density, or one-dimensional line number density.
In physics, optical depth or optical thickness, is the natural logarithm of the ratio of incident to transmitted radiant power through a material, and spectral optical depth or spectral optical thickness is the natural logarithm of the ratio of incident to transmitted spectral radiant power through a material.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Ozone, or trioxygen, is an inorganic molecule with the chemical formula.
Photometria is a book on the measurement of light by Johann Heinrich Lambert published in 1760.
The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).
In physics, physical optics, or wave optics, is the branch of optics that studies interference, diffraction, polarization, and other phenomena for which the ray approximation of geometric optics is not valid.
Pierre Bouguer (16 February 1698, Croisic – 15 August 1758, Paris) was a French mathematician, geophysicist, geodesist, and astronomer.
A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.
Polymer degradation is a change in the properties—tensile strength, color, shape, etc.—of a polymer or polymer-based product under the influence of one or more environmental factors such as heat, light or chemicals such as acids, alkalis and some salts.
Prentice Hall is a major educational publisher owned by Pearson plc.
In calculus, the product rule is a formula used to find the derivatives of products of two or more functions.
In radiometry, radiant flux or radiant power is the radiant energy emitted, reflected, transmitted or received, per unit time, and spectral flux or spectral power is the radiant flux per unit frequency or wavelength, depending on whether the spectrum is taken as a function of frequency or of wavelength.
Radiation protection, sometimes known as radiological protection, is defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as "The protection of people from harmful effects of exposure to ionizing radiation, and the means for achieving this".
Raman scattering or the Raman effect is the inelastic scattering of a photon by molecules which are excited to higher vibrational or rotational energy levels.
Rayleigh scattering (pronounced), named after the British physicist Lord Rayleigh (John William Strutt), is the (dominantly) elastic scattering of light or other electromagnetic radiation by particles much smaller than the wavelength of the radiation.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
Scattering is a general physical process where some forms of radiation, such as light, sound, or moving particles, are forced to deviate from a straight trajectory by one or more paths due to localized non-uniformities in the medium through which they pass.
In chemistry, spectrophotometry is the quantitative measurement of the reflection or transmission properties of a material as a function of wavelength.
The tetraoxygen molecule (O4), also called oxozone, was first predicted in 1924 by Gilbert N. Lewis, who proposed it as an explanation for the failure of liquid oxygen to obey Curie's law.
The transfer-matrix method is a method used in optics and acoustics to analyze the propagation of electromagnetic or acoustic waves through a stratified medium.
Transmittance of the surface of a material is its effectiveness in transmitting radiant energy.
Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) is a technique for measuring the concentration of certain species such as methane, water vapor and many more, in a gaseous mixture using tunable diode lasers and laser absorption spectrometry.
Turbidity is the cloudiness or haziness of a fluid caused by large numbers of individual particles that are generally invisible to the naked eye, similar to smoke in air.
Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy or ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry (UV–Vis or UV/Vis) refers to absorption spectroscopy or reflectance spectroscopy in the ultraviolet-visible spectral region.
The zenith is an imaginary point directly "above" a particular location, on the imaginary celestial sphere.
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