171 relations: Acquittal, Adolf Hühnlein, Adolf Hitler, Adolf Wagner, Albrecht von Graefe (politician), Alfred Rosenberg, Allied Commission, Alter Kämpfer, Antechamber, Apostolic Nunciature to Bavaria, Aschaffenburg, Austria, Bavaria, Bavarian Army, Bayreuth, Bürgerbräukeller, Beer hall, Beer Hall Putsch, Benito Mussolini, Blood Order, Blutfahne, Bremen, Bund Reichskriegsflagge, Cabinet (government), Catholic Church, Circus Krone Building, Claudia Koonz, Coup d'état, Cremation, Der Spiegel, Dietrich Eckart, Early timeline of Nazism, Edmund Heines, Eduard Dietl, Ehrentempel, Eleonore Baur, Emil Maurice, Emminger Reform, Erich Ludendorff, Ernst Hanfstaengl, Ernst Pöhner, Ernst Röhm, Ernst Rüdiger Starhemberg, Eugen von Knilling, Führer, Feldherrnhalle, Franz Matt, Franz Pfeffer von Salomon, Franz von Papen, Freikorps, ..., Freikorps Oberland, Friedrich Freiherr Kress von Kressenstein, Friedrich Weber (veterinarian), Gau (territory), Georg Elser, Gerhard Roßbach, German language, German Workers' Party, Gottfried Feder, Gregor Strasser, Gustav Adolf Lenk, Gustav Ritter von Kahr, Hamburg Uprising, Hans Frank, Hans Ritter von Seisser, Hans Ulrich Klintzsch, Heinrich Himmler, Heinrich Hoffmann (photographer), Heinz Pernet, Herbert Norkus, Hermann Esser, Hermann Göring, Hermann Kriebel, High treason, Horst Wessel, Hostage, Hyperinflation in the Weimar Republic, Jakob Grimminger, Jakob Ritter von Danner, John Toland (author), Joseph Berchtold, Judas Iscariot, Judge, Judiciary of Germany, Julius Schaub, Julius Schreck, Julius Streicher, Jury, Kampfbund, Kapp Putsch, Karl Fischer von Treuenfeld, Karl Mayr, Königsplatz, Munich, Kristallnacht, Landsberg Prison, Lay judge, Löwenbräu Brewery, Löwenbräukeller, Leipzig, Loden cape, Louis Leo Snyder, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Machine gun, March on Rome, Marienplatz, Marxism, Max Amann, Max Erwin von Scheubner-Richter, Mein Kampf, Michael von Faulhaber, Michigan Law Review, Modern Law Review, Monarchism in Bavaria after 1918, Morphine, Munich, Nazi Party, Nazi salute, Night of the Long Knives, November 9 in German history, Odeonsplatz, Oschatz, Otto Ballerstedt, Otto von Lossow, People's Court (Bavaria), Peter Balakian, Philipp Bouhler, Piława Górna, Piers Brendon, Pope Pius XII, Propaganda, Propaganda in Nazi Germany, Quartermaster general, Regensburg, Reichsmark, Reichswehr, Revanchism, Riga, Robert Heinrich Wagner, Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Munich and Freising, Rudolf Buttmann, Rudolf Hess, Rudolf Jung, Rupprecht, Crown Prince of Bavaria, Sepp Dietrich, Siemens-Schuckert, Sigmund von Imhoff, Slouch hat, Stab-in-the-back myth, Stoßtrupp-Hitler, Sturmabteilung, The Encyclopedia of the Third Reich, The Journal of Legal Studies, The Journal of Modern History, The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich, Theodor Oberländer, Timeline of the Weimar Republic, Treason, Treaty of Versailles, Trench coat, Trier of fact, Ulrich Graf, Völkischer Beobachter, W. W. Norton & Company, Walther Hewel, Weimar Republic, Wilhelm Adam, Wilhelm Brückner, Wilhelm Frick, Wilhelm Gustloff, William L. Shirer, World War I. Expand index (121 more) » « Shrink index
In common law jurisdictions, an acquittal certifies that the accused is free from the charge of an offense, as far as the criminal law is concerned.
Adolf Hühnlein (12 November 1881 Neustädtlein, Upper Franconia – 18 June 1942, Munich) was a German soldier and Nazi Party (NSDAP) official.
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
Adolf Wagner (1 October 1890 in Algrange, Alsace-Lorraine – 12 April 1944 in Bad Reichenhall) was a German soldier and high-ranking Nazi Party official born in Algrange, Alsace-Lorraine.
Albrecht von Gräfe, often Anglicized as Graefe (1 January 1868 – 18 April 1933), was a German landowner and right-wing politician active both during the German Empire and the Weimar Republic.
Alfred Ernst Rosenberg (12 January 1893 – 16 October 1946) was a German theorist and an influential ideologue of the Nazi Party.
Following the termination of hostilities in World War II, the Allied Powers were in control of the defeated Axis countries.
Alter Kämpfer (German for "Old Fighter"; plural: Alte Kämpfer) is a term referring to the earliest members of the Nazi Party, i.e. those who joined it before the Reichstag elections of September 1930, with many belonging to the Party as early as its first foundation in 1919–1923.
An antechamber (also known as an anteroom or ante-room) is a smaller room or vestibule serving as an entryway into a larger one.
The Apostolic Nunciature to Bavaria was an ecclesiastical office of the Roman Catholic Church in Bavaria.
Aschaffenburg is a town in northwest Bavaria, Germany.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
Bavaria (Bavarian and Bayern), officially the Free State of Bavaria (Freistaat Bayern), is a landlocked federal state of Germany, occupying its southeastern corner.
The Bavarian Army was the army of the Electorate (1682–1806) and then Kingdom (1806–1919) of Bavaria.
Bayreuth (Bavarian: Bareid) is a medium-sized town in northern Bavaria, Germany, on the Red Main river in a valley between the Franconian Jura and the Fichtelgebirge Mountains.
The Bürgerbräukeller was a large beer hall in Munich, Germany.
A beer hall is a large pub that specializes in beer.
The Beer Hall Putsch, also known as the Munich Putsch,Dan Moorhouse, ed.
Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (29 July 1883 – 28 April 1945) was an Italian politician and journalist who was the leader of the National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF).
The Blood Order (Blutorden), officially known as the Decoration in Memory (of the Munich putsch) of 9 November 1923 (Medaille zur Erinnerung an den 9.), was one of the most prestigious decorations in the Nazi Party.
The Blutfahne, or Blood Flag, is a Nazi German hakenkreuz (swastika) flag that was carried during the failed Beer Hall Putsch in Munich, Germany on 9 November 1923, during which it became soaked in the blood of one of the SA men who died.
The City Municipality of Bremen (Stadtgemeinde Bremen) is a Hanseatic city in northwestern Germany, which belongs to the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen (also called just "Bremen" for short), a federal state of Germany.
The Bund Reichskriegsflagge (Imperial War Flag Society) or the Verband Reichskriegsflagge (Imperial War Flag Union) was a paramilitary organization founded by Ernst Röhm in 1923.
A cabinet is a body of high-ranking state officials, typically consisting of the top leaders of the executive branch.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
The Circus Krone Building is the headquarters and main winter venue for Circus Krone in Munich, Germany.
Claudia Ann Koonz (born 1940) is an American historian of Nazi Germany.
A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.
Cremation is the combustion, vaporization, and oxidation of cadavers to basic chemical compounds, such as gases, ashes and mineral fragments retaining the appearance of dry bone.
Der Spiegel (lit. "The Mirror") is a German weekly news magazine published in Hamburg.
Dietrich Eckart (23 March 1868 – 26 December 1923) was a German journalist, playwright, poet, and politician who was one of the founders of the Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (German Workers' Party - DAP), which later evolved into the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
The early timeline of Nazism begins with its origins and continues until Hitler's rise to power.
Edmund Heines (21 July 1897 – 30 June 1934) was a Nazi Party leader and Ernst Röhm's deputy in the Sturmabteilung or SA.
Eduard Dietl (21 July 1890 – 23 June 1944) was a German general during World War II who commanded the 20th Mountain Army.
The Honor Temples (Ehrentempel) were two structures in Munich, erected by the Nazis in 1935, housing the sarcophagi of the sixteen members of the party who had been killed in the failed Beer hall putsch (the Blutzeugen, "blood witnesses").
Eleonore Baur (7 September 1885 – 18 May 1981), also known as Sister Pia, was a senior Nazi Party figure and the only woman known to have participated in the Munich Beer Hall Putsch.
Emil Maurice (19 January 1897, Westermoor – 6 February 1972, Munich) was an early member of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party) and a founding member of the Schutzstaffel (SS).
The Emminger Decree or Emminger Reform (Emminger Verordnung, Lex Emminger, or Emmingersche Justizreform; formally the Verordnung über Gerichtsverfassung und Strafrechtspflege) was an emergency decree in the democratic Weimar Republic by Justice Minister Erich Emminger (BVP) on 4 January 1924 that among other things abolished the jury as trier of fact and replaced it with a mixed system of judges and lay judges in Germany's judiciary which still exists today.
Erich Friedrich Wilhelm Ludendorff (9 April 1865 – 20 December 1937) was a German general, the victor of the Battle of Liège and the Battle of Tannenberg.
Ernst Franz Sedgwick Hanfstaengl (2 February 1887 – 6 November 1975) was a German-American businessman and intimate friend of Adolf Hitler.
Ernst Pöhner (January 11, 1870, Hof, Bavaria – April 11, 1925) was Munich's Chief of Police ('Green' Police President) from 1919 to 1922.
Ernst Julius Günther Röhm (28 November 1887 – 1 July 1934) was a German military officer and an early member of the Nazi Party.
Ernst Rüdiger Camillo Starhemberg (Eferding, 10 May 1899 – Schruns, 15 March 1956; His Serene Highness Ernst Rüdiger Camillo 6. Fürst von Starhemberg until the 1919 abolition of nobility) was an Austrian nationalist and conservative politician prior to World War II, a leader of the Heimwehr and later of the Christian Social Party/Fatherland Front.
Eugen Ritter von Knilling (1 August 1856 – 20 October 1927 in Munich) was the Prime Minister of Bavaria from 1922 to 1924.
Führer (These are also cognates of the Latin peritus ("experienced"), Sanskrit piparti "brings over" and the Greek poros "passage, way".-->, spelled Fuehrer when the umlaut is not available) is a German word meaning "leader" or "guide".
The Feldherrnhalle (Field Marshals' Hall) is a monumental loggia on the Odeonsplatz in Munich, Germany.
Franz Matt (September 9, 1860 in Offenbach an der Queich, Palatinate, Germany – August 4, 1929 in Munich) was a German lawyer, politician and minister, who belonged to the Bavarian People's Party (BVP).
Franz Pfeffer von Salomon (19 February 1888 in Düsseldorf – 12 April 1968 in Munich), also known as Franz von Pfeffer, was the first commander of the SA upon its re-establishment in 1925, following its temporary abolition in 1923 after the abortive Beer Hall Putsch.
Franz von Papen (29 October 18792 May 1969) was a German nobleman, General Staff officer and politician.
Freikorps ("Free Corps") were German volunteer units that existed from the 18th to the early 20th centuries, which effectively fought as mercenary or private armies, regardless of their own nationality.
The Freikorps Oberland (also Bund Oberland or Kameradschaft Freikorps und Bund Oberland) was a free corps in the early years of the Weimar Republic, fighting against Communist and Polish insurgents.
Friedrich Freiherr Kress von Kressenstein (24 April 1870 – 16 October 1948) was a German general from Nuremberg.
Friedrich Weber, Dr.
Gau (Dutch: gouw, Frisian: gea or goa) is a Germanic term for a region within a country, often a former or actual province.
Johann Georg Elser (4 January 1903 – 9 April 1945) was a German worker who planned and carried out an elaborate assassination attempt on Adolf Hitler and other high-ranking Nazi leaders on 8 November 1939 at the Bürgerbräukeller in Munich.
Gerhard Roßbach (28 February 1893 – 30 August 1967), also spelt Rossbach, was a German Freikorps leader and organizer of nationalist groups after World War I. He is generally credited with inventing the brown uniforms of the Nazi Party after supplying surplus tropical khaki shirts to early troops of the Sturmabteilung (SA).
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
The German Workers' Party (Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, DAP) was a short-lived political party established in Weimar Germany after World War I. It was the precursor of the Nazi Party, which was officially known as the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, NSDAP).
Gottfried Feder (27 January 1883 – 24 September 1941) was a German civil engineer, a self-taught economist and one of the early key members of the Nazi Party.
Gregor Strasser (also Straßer, see ß; 31 May 1892 – 30 June 1934) was an early prominent German Nazi official and politician who was murdered during the Night of the Long Knives in 1934.
Gustav Adolf Lenk (October 15, 1903 - 1987) was a German political activist.
Gustav Ritter von Kahr (29 November 1862 – 30 June 1934) was a German right-wing politician, active in the state of Bavaria.
The Hamburg Uprising (German: Hamburger Aufstand) was an insurrection during the Weimar Republic in Germany.
Hans Michael Frank (23 May 1900 – 16 October 1946) was a German war criminal and lawyer who worked for the Nazi Party during the 1920s and 1930s, and later became Adolf Hitler's personal lawyer.
Colonel Hans Ritter von Seisser (German Seißer; 9 December 1874 – 14 April 1973) was the head of the Bavarian State Police in 1923.
Hans Ulrich Klintzsch (4 November 1898 in Lübbenau – 17 August 1959) was an ex-naval lieutenant from the Erhardt Brigade who served as Oberster SA-Führer, supreme commander of the Sturmabteilung (SA), from 1921 until February 1923, when he returned to his former unit and ceded control to Hermann Göring.
Heinrich Luitpold Himmler (7 October 1900 – 23 May 1945) was Reichsführer of the Schutzstaffel (Protection Squadron; SS), and a leading member of the Nazi Party (NSDAP) of Germany.
Heinrich Hoffmann (12 September 188515 December 1957) was Adolf Hitler's official photographer, and a Nazi politician and publisher, who was a member of Hitler's intimate circle.
Heinz Pernet (September 5, 1896 – June 30, 1973) was a former lieutenant and Erich Ludendorff's stepson.
Herbert Norkus (26 July 1916 – 24 January 1932, in Berlin) was a Hitler Youth member who was murdered by German Communists.
Hermann Esser (29 July 1900 – 7 February 1981) was a very early member of the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Hermann Wilhelm Göring (or Goering;; 12 January 1893 – 15 October 1946) was a German political and military leader as well as one of the most powerful figures in the Nazi Party (NSDAP) that ruled Germany from 1933 to 1945.
Hermann Kriebel (20 January 1876 in Germersheim – 16 February 1941 in Munich) was a retired lieutenant colonel and former Bavarian staff officer.
Treason is criminal disloyalty.
Horst Ludwig Georg Erich Wessel (9 October 1907 – 23 February 1930) was a Berlin leader of the Nazi Party's "stormtroopers" – the Sturmabteilung or "SA" – who is best known for being made into a martyr for the Nazi cause by Joseph Goebbels after Wessel's murder in 1930.
A hostage is a person or entity which is held by one of two belligerent parties to the other or seized as security for the carrying out of an agreement, or as a preventive measure against war.
During a period between 1918 and January 1924, the German mark suffered hyperinflation.
Jakob Grimminger (25 April 1892 – 28 January 1969) was a member of the Schutzstaffel (SS) known for carrying the Blutfahne, the ceremonial Nazi flag.
Jakob Ritter von Danner (7 August 1865 – 28 December 1942) was a Bavarian general in the Imperial German Army and the Reichswehr.
John Willard Toland (June 29, 1912 – January 4, 2004) was an American writer and historian.
Joseph Berchtold (6 March 1897 – 23 August 1962) was an early senior Nazi Party member and a co-founder of both the Sturmabteilung (SA) and Schutzstaffel (SS).
Judas Iscariot (died AD) was a disciple and one of the original Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ.
A judge is a person who presides over court proceedings, either alone or as a part of a panel of judges.
The judiciary of Germany is the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in Germany.
Julius Schaub (20 August 1898 – 27 December 1967) was the chief aide and adjutant to German dictator Adolf Hitler until the dictator's suicide on 30 April 1945.
Julius Schreck (13 July 1898 – 16 May 1936) was a senior Nazi official and close confidant of Adolf Hitler.
Julius Streicher (12 February 1885 – 16 October 1946) was a prominent member of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers' Party, or NSDAP).
A jury is a sworn body of people convened to render an impartial verdict (a finding of fact on a question) officially submitted to them by a court, or to set a penalty or judgment.
The Kampfbund ("Battle-league") was a league of patriotic fighting societies and the German National Socialist party in Bavaria, Germany, in the 1920s.
The Kapp Putsch, also known as the Kapp-Lüttwitz Putsch after its leaders Wolfgang Kapp and Walther von Lüttwitz, was an attempted coup on 13 March 1920 which aimed to undo the German Revolution of 1918–1919, overthrow the Weimar Republic and establish a right-wing autocratic government in its place.
Karl von Fischer-Treuenfeld (31 March 1885 – 7 June 1946) was a Nazi German war criminal.
Captain Karl Mayr (5 January 1883 in Mindelheim – 9 February 1945 in Buchenwald concentration camp) was a General Staff officer and Adolf Hitler's immediate superior in an army Intelligence Division in the Reichswehr, 1919–1920.
Königsplatz (King's Square) is a square in Munich, Germany.
Kristallnacht (lit. "Crystal Night") or Reichskristallnacht, also referred to as the Night of Broken Glass, Reichspogromnacht or simply Pogromnacht, and Novemberpogrome (Yiddish: קרישטאָל נאַכט krishtol nakt), was a pogrom against Jews throughout Nazi Germany on 9–10 November 1938, carried out by SA paramilitary forces and German civilians.
Landsberg Prison is a penal facility located in the town of Landsberg am Lech in the southwest of the German state of Bavaria, about west of Munich and south of Augsburg.
A lay judge is a person assisting a judge in a trial and as such are sometimes called lay assessors.
Löwenbräu is a brewery in Munich owned by Anheuser-Busch InBev.
Löwenbräukeller is located in Maxvorstadt, Munich, Bavaria, Germany.
Leipzig is the most populous city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany.
A Loden cape is a coat of Tyrolean origin, made of a thick, water-resistant woolen material with a short pile, first produced by peasants in Austria.
Louis Leo Snyder (4 July 1907 – 25 November 1993) was an American scholar, who witnessed first hand the Nazi mass rallies held from 1923 on in Germany; and wrote about them from New York in his Hitlerism: The Iron Fist in Germany published in 1932 under the pseudonym Nordicus.
Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich (also referred to as LMU or the University of Munich, in German: Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München) is a public research university located in Munich, Germany.
A machine gun is a fully automatic mounted or portable firearm designed to fire bullets in rapid succession from an ammunition belt or magazine, typically at a rate of 300 rounds per minute or higher.
The March on Rome (Marcia su Roma) was an organized mass demonstration in October 1922, which resulted in Benito Mussolini's National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, or PNF) acceding to power in the Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia).
Marienplatz (en: Mary's Square, i.e. St. Mary, Our Lady's Square) is a central square in the city centre of Munich, Germany.
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.
Max Amann (24 November 1891 – 30 March 1957) was a German politician, businessman and a member of the Nazi Party.
Ludwig Maximilian Erwin von Scheubner-Richter or Max Scheubner-Richter, born Ludwig Maximilian Erwin Richter (21 January 1884 – 9 November 1923) was a Russian-born German officer and activist who was an early member of the Nazi Party.
Mein Kampf (My Struggle) is a 1925 autobiographical book by Nazi Party leader Adolf Hitler.
Michael von Faulhaber (5 March 1869 – 12 June 1952) was a Roman Catholic Cardinal who was Archbishop of Munich for 35 years, from 1917 to his death in 1952.
The Michigan Law Review is an American law review that was established in 1902 and is completely run by law students.
The Modern Law Review is a peer-reviewed academic journal published by John Wiley & Sons on behalf of Modern Law Review Ltd.
Monarchism in Bavaria after 1918 was driven by the belief that a monarchy would be the best form of government for the German state of Bavaria, despite the abolition of the Bavarian monarchy in 1918.
Morphine is a pain medication of the opiate variety which is found naturally in a number of plants and animals.
Munich (München; Minga) is the capital and the most populated city in the German state of Bavaria, on the banks of the River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps.
The National Socialist German Workers' Party (abbreviated NSDAP), commonly referred to in English as the Nazi Party, was a far-right political party in Germany that was active between 1920 and 1945 and supported the ideology of Nazism.
The Nazi salute, or Hitler salute (Hitler Greeting), is a gesture that was used as a greeting in Nazi Germany.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
The Night of the Long Knives (German), also called Operation Hummingbird (German: Unternehmen Kolibri) or, in Germany, the Röhm Putsch, was a purge that took place in Nazi Germany from June 30 to July 2, 1934, when the National Socialist German Workers Party, or Nazis, carried out a series of political extrajudicial executions intended to consolidate Adolf Hitler's absolute hold on power in Germany.
9 November has been the date of several important events in German history.
The Odeonsplatz is a large square in central Munich which was developed in the early 19th century by Leo von Klenze and is at the southern end of the Ludwigstraße, developed at the same time.
Oschatz is a town in the district Nordsachsen, in the Free State of Saxony, Germany.
Otto Ballerstedt (April 1, 1887 –) was a German engineer, writer and politician.
General Otto Hermann von Lossow (15 January 1868 – 25 November 1938) was a Bavarian Army and then German Army officer who played a prominent role in the events surrounding the attempted Beer Hall Putsch by Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party in November 1923.
The People's Courts of Bavaria (Volksgerichte) were Sondergerichte (special courts) established by Kurt Eisner during the German Revolution in November 1918 and part of the Ordnungszelle that lasted until May 1924 after handing out more than 31,000 sentences.
Peter Balakian (Փիթըր Պալաքեան, born June 13, 1951) is an Armenian American poet, writer and academic, the Donald M. and Constance H. Rebar Professor of Humanities at Colgate University.
Philipp Bouhler (11 September 1899 – 19 May 1945) was a senior Nazi Party functionary who was both a Reichsleiter (National Leader) and Chief of the Chancellery of the Führer of the NSDAP.
Piława Górna (before 1928: Ober-Peilau, then Gnadenfrei) is a town in Dzierżoniów County, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in south-western Poland, in the western part of the Wzgórza Strzelińskie hills.
Piers Brendon (born 21 December 1940, Stratton, Cornwall) is a British writer, known for historical and biographical works.
Pope Pius XII (Pio XII), born Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli (2 March 18769 October 1958), was the Pope of the Catholic Church from 2 March 1939 to his death.
Propaganda is information that is not objective and is used primarily to influence an audience and further an agenda, often by presenting facts selectively to encourage a particular synthesis or perception, or using loaded language to produce an emotional rather than a rational response to the information that is presented.
The propaganda used by the German Nazi Party in the years leading up to and during Adolf Hitler's leadership of Germany (1933–1945) was a crucial instrument for acquiring and maintaining power, and for the implementation of Nazi policies.
A quartermaster general is the staff officer in charge of supplies for a whole army.
Regensburg (Castra-Regina;; Řezno; Ratisbonne; older English: Ratisbon; Bavarian: Rengschburg or Rengschburch) is a city in south-east Germany, at the confluence of the Danube, Naab and Regen rivers.
The Reichsmark (sign: ℛℳ) was the currency in Germany from 1924 until 20 June 1948 in West Germany, where it was replaced with the Deutsche Mark, and until 23 June in East Germany when it was replaced by the East German mark.
The Reichswehr (English: Realm Defence) formed the military organisation of Germany from 1919 until 1935, when it was united with the new Wehrmacht (Defence Force).
Revanchism (from revanche, "revenge") is the political manifestation of the will to reverse territorial losses incurred by a country, often following a war or social movement.
Riga (Rīga) is the capital and largest city of Latvia.
Robert Heinrich Wagner, born as Robert Heinrich Backfisch (13 October 1895 – 14 August 1946) was Gauleiter of Baden, and Gauleiter of Alsace and Head of the Civil Government of Alsace during the German occupation of France in World War II.
The Archdiocese of Munich and Freising (Erzbistum München und Freising, Archidioecesis Monacensis et Frisingensis) is an ecclesiastical territory or diocese of the Roman Catholic Church in Bavaria, Germany.
Rudolf Buttmann (4 July 1885, in Marktbreit, Bavaria – 25 January 1947) was a German politician and diplomat.
Rudolf Walter Richard Hess (Heß in German; 26 April 1894 – 17 August 1987), was a prominent politician in Nazi Germany.
Rudolf Jung (16 April 1882 – 11 December 1945) was an instrumental figure and agitator in the German Bohemian National Socialist movement, and later became a member of the Nazi Party.
Rupprecht, Crown Prince of Bavaria (Rupprecht Maria Luitpold Ferdinand; 18 May 1869 – 2 August 1955) was the last heir apparent to the Bavarian throne.
Josef Dietrich (28 May 1892 – 21 April 1966) was an Oberst-Gruppenführer in the Waffen-SS, the armed paramilitary branch of the Schutzstaffel (SS), who commanded units up to army level during World War II.
Siemens-Schuckert (or Siemens-Schuckertwerke) was a German electrical engineering company headquartered in Berlin, Erlangen and Nuremberg that was incorporated into the Siemens AG in 1966.
Sigmund von Imhoff (30 June 1881 – 7 July 1967) was a Generalmajor in the Luftwaffe during World War II.
A slouch hat is a wide-brimmed felt or cloth hat most commonly worn as part of a military uniform, often, although not always, with a chinstrap.
The stab-in-the-back myth (Dolchstoßlegende) was the notion, widely believed and promulgated in right-wing circles in Germany after 1918, that the German Army did not lose World War I on the battlefield but was instead betrayed by the civilians on the home front, especially the republicans who overthrew the monarchy in the German Revolution of 1918–19.
Stoßtrupp-Hitler or Stosstrupp-Hitler ("Shock Troop-Hitler") was a small short-lived bodyguard unit set up specifically for Adolf Hitler in 1923.
The Sturmabteilung (SA), literally Storm Detachment, functioned as the original paramilitary wing of the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
The Encyclopedia of the Third Reich is a two-volume text edited by and.
The Journal of Legal Studies is a law journal published by the University of Chicago Press focusing on interdisciplinary academic research in law and legal institutions.
The Journal of Modern History is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal covering European intellectual, political, and cultural history, published by the University of Chicago Press in cooperation with the Modern European History Section of the American Historical Association.
The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich: A History of Nazi Germany is a book by William L. Shirer chronicling the rise and fall of Nazi Germany from the birth of Adolf Hitler in 1889 to the end of World War II in 1945.
Theodor Oberländer (1 May 1905 – 4 May 1998) was a German politician after Second World War who served as Federal Minister for Displaced Persons, Refugees and Victims of War in West Germany from 1953 to 1960, and as a Member of the Bundestag from 1953 to 1961 and from 1963 to 1965.
This Weimar Timeline charts the chronology of the Weimar Republic, dating the pre-history before the adoption of the actual Weimar constitution.
In law, treason is the crime that covers some of the more extreme acts against one's nation or sovereign.
The Treaty of Versailles (Traité de Versailles) was the most important of the peace treaties that brought World War I to an end.
A trench coat or trenchcoat is a raincoat made of waterproof heavy-duty cotton gabardine drill, leather, or poplin.
A trier of fact, or finder of fact, is a person, or group of persons, who determines facts in a legal proceeding, usually a trial.
Ulrich Graf (6 July 1878 – 3 March 1950) was one of the earliest members of the Nazi Party and of Adolf Hitler's inner circle.
The Völkischer Beobachter ("Völkisch Observer") was the newspaper of the National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP or Nazi Party) from 25 December 1920.
Walther Hewel (2 January 1904 – 2 May 1945) was a German diplomat before and during World War II, an early and active member of the Nazi Party, and one of German dictator Adolf Hitler's few personal friends.
The Weimar Republic (Weimarer Republik) is an unofficial, historical designation for the German state during the years 1919 to 1933.
Wilhelm Adam (28 March 1893 – 24 November 1978) was an officer in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany during World War II.
Wilhelm Brückner (11 December 1884 – 18 August 1954) was Adolf Hitler's chief adjutant until October 1940.
Wilhelm Frick (12 March 1877 – 16 October 1946) was a prominent German politician of the NSDAP, who served as Reich Minister of the Interior in the Hitler Cabinet from 1933 to 1943 and as the last governor of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia.
Wilhelm Gustloff (30 January 1895 – 4 February 1936) was the founder of the Swiss NSDAP/AO (the Nazi Party organisation for German citizens abroad) at Davos.
William Lawrence Shirer (February 23, 1904 – December 28, 1993) was an American journalist and war correspondent.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
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