444 relations: Abdomen, Academic Press, Acetate, Acid, Actaeon beetle, Adenosine triphosphate, Adephaga, Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Alabama, Aldehyde, Aleocharinae, Alfred Russel Wallace, Amateur Entomologists' Society, Amblytelus, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Ambrosia beetle, American Institute of Biological Sciences, Amino acid, Amphibian, Anatomy, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greek, Animal coloration, Annals of Botany, Anobiidae, Ant, Antenna (biology), Anthia, Anti-predator adaptation, Antifreeze protein, Antoninus Liberalis, Aphid, Aposematism, Apparent death, Appendage, Archostemata, Aristotle, Arthropod, Arthropod leg, Asian long-horned beetle, Asilidae, Asphyxia, Attelabidae, Australia, Australian Dung Beetle Project, Australian Journal of Entomology, Austroplatypus incompertus, Avocado, Bark beetle, Barycnemis blediator, ..., Bat, Batesian mimicry, Beaver, Beaver beetle, Beetlewing, Behavioral Ecology (journal), Behaviour (journal), Big five game, Biological immortality, Biological life cycle, Bioluminescence, Biomimetics, Birch, Bird, Bledius spectabilis, Blister beetle, Boll weevil, Bombardier beetle, Bostrichoidea, British Columbia, Brontispa longissima, Brownsville, Texas, Buprestidae, Buprestis aurulenta, Buprestoidea, Burying beetle, Butterfly, Byrrhoidea, Calopteron discrepans, Cambridge University Press, Camouflage, Capsicum, Carbon dioxide, Carboniferous, Carl Linnaeus, Catalase, Caterpillar, Ceará, Cecum, Cerambus, Cerambyx, Chestnut, Chiang Mai, Chicago Tribune, Chondropyga dorsalis, Chrysomelinae, Chrysomeloidea, Cicindela, Cicindela togata, Circadian rhythm, Circulatory system, Clade, Cladistics (journal), Cladogram, Cleroidea, Click beetle, Coccinella septempunctata, Coccinellidae, Cockchafer, Coconut, Coevolution, Colorado potato beetle, Competition (biology), Compound eye, Coprophagia, Coptoclavidae, CRC Press, Cretaceous, Cryoprotectant, Cucujoidea, Cucujus, Cupedidae, Curculionidae, Cyborg, Cycad, Darkling beetle, DARPA, Dascilloidea, David Grimaldi (entomologist), Deathwatch beetle, Dermestidae, Derodontidae, Diapause, Dicheirotrichus gustavi, Dragonfly, Dung beetle, Dutch elm disease, Dutch language, Dynastinae, Dytiscidae, Early Triassic, Eburia quadrigeminata, Ecdysis, Ecosystem, Ecotourism, Egg, Eggplant, Egyptian faience, Elateroidea, Elephant beetle, Elm, Elsevier, Elytron, Endopterygota, Entomological Society of America, Entomological warfare, Entomophagy, Epicauta vittata, Epithelium, Ester, Eucalyptus, Eupompha, Euramerica, Eusociality, Exoskeleton, Eye, Family (biology), Fatty acid, Fatty acid synthesis, Feces, Fertilisation, Firefly, Firefly luciferin, Fish, Flea beetle, Flowering plant, Fog collection, Formic acid, Fossorial, Frankfurt, Fungus, Gastrointestinal tract, Gizzard, Glossary of entomology terms, Glowworm, Goliathus, Grasshopper, Greek Magical Papyri, Ground beetle, Guinness World Records, Habroscelimorpha dorsalis, Haematobia exigua, Haliplidae, Hardwood, Harmonia axyridis, Hawaii, Heilipus apiatus, Hemolymph, Herbicide, Hercules beetle, Hezekiah, Histeridae, Histeroidea, Holocene, Honey bee, Honeydew (secretion), Human digestive system, Hydrocarbon, Hydrogen peroxide, Hydrophile, Hydrophilidae, Hydrophiloidea, Hydrophobe, Hydroquinone, Hydroscaphidae, Hymenoptera, Hypermetamorphosis, Hypoxia (environmental), Imago, Inquiline, Insect, Insect fighting, Insect flight, Insect mouthparts, Insect wing, Insects in culture, Instar, Invertebrate, Ivory, J. B. S. Haldane, Japan, John Wiley & Sons, Journal of Biological Chemistry, Journal of Natural History, Journal of Paleontology, Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, Jurassic, Kazakhstan, Khepri, KwaZulu-Natal, Lamprima aurata, Larva, Larviform female, Las Hoyas, Late Miocene, Leaf, Leaf beetle, Liaoning, Linnaean taxonomy, List of subgroups of the order Coleoptera, Living brooch, Lizard, LMLK seal, Loeb Classical Library, Longhorn beetle, Lucanus cervus, Luciferase, Luciferin, Luciola cruciata, Lycidae, Lymexylidae, Malpighian tubule system, Mammal, Mandible (insect mouthpart), Mass provisioning, Max Barclay, Mazon Creek fossil beds, Mealworm, Mealybug, Mecynorhina torquata, Meligethes aeneus, Melolonthinae, Metamorphosis, Mexico, Michael S. Engel, Micrometre, Middle English, Middle Jurassic, Midgut, Mimicry, Miridae, Mississippi State University, Mongolia, Monophyly, Montsec Range, Moralia, Mordellidae, Morphology (biology), Mountain pine beetle, Musca vetustissima, Mutualism (biology), Mycangium, Myrmecophily, Myrmecophily in Staphylinidae, Myxophaga, Namib, Natural History (Pliny), Natural Resources Canada, Nature (journal), Nectar, Nervous system, Nicander, North Carolina State University, Oak, Old English, Omaliinae, Omnivore, Onymacris unguicularis, Order (biology), Ovipositor, Ovoviviparity, Oxygen, Paleontological Journal, Paleontology, Papua New Guinea, Parasitism, Parasitoid, Parthenium hysterophorus, Passalidae, Pennsylvanian (geology), Permian, Permian–Triassic extinction event, Pest (organism), Pet, Phanerota fasciata, Pharynx, Phengodidae, Phenol, Pheromone, Philippines, Pinophyta, Pinus contorta, Planidium, Pliny the Elder, PLOS One, Plutarch, Poikilotherm, Polar regions of Earth, Pollination trap, Polyphaga, Predation, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Prothorax, Protocoleoptera, Ptiliidae, Pupa, Quaternary, Quaternary glaciation, Quinone, Reduviidae, Resonance chamber, Rhinotia hemistictus, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, Rio Grande, Ripiphoridae, Rodent, Rove beetle, Russia, Rutelinae, Salt marsh, Scale insect, Scarab (artifact), Scarabaeidae, Scarabaeoidea, Scarabaeus sacer, Scavenger, Science (journal), Scirtoidea, Sclerite, Sclerotin, Scydosella, Seedling, Segmentation (biology), Sexual dimorphism, Silphidae, Simple eye in invertebrates, Small hive beetle, Solanaceae, Soldier beetle, Solnhofen, South Gippsland, South Korea, Southern California, Spermatozoon, Sphaerius, Spider, Spiracle, Stag beetle, Stenocara gracilipes, Strepsiptera, Stridulation, Sugar, Sun, Symbiosis, Tansy beetle, Tarsal formula, Taxidermy, Taxonomic rank, Tel Aviv University, Telephone-pole beetle, Tenebrionoidea, Territory (animal), Testicle, The Canadian Entomologist, The Journal of Experimental Biology, The Malay Archipelago, The Science of Nature, Threitol, Thrips, Tide, Tiger beetle, Titan beetle, Tomato, Trachea, Tree of Life Web Project, Triassic, Tympanal organ, United Kingdom, University of California Press, University of Chicago Press, University of Exeter, University of Florida, University of Minnesota, University of Oxford, Upis ceramboides, Vending machine, Vertex (anatomy), Victorian era, Wasp, Water beetle, Weed, Weevil, Whirligig beetle, Whitefly, World War II, Xylomannan, Xylotrupes, ZooKeys, Zoologica Scripta, Zootaxa, Zopherus, Zophobas morio, Zygogramma, 10th edition of Systema Naturae. Expand index (394 more) » « Shrink index
The abdomen (less formally called the belly, stomach, tummy or midriff) constitutes the part of the body between the thorax (chest) and pelvis, in humans and in other vertebrates.
Academic Press is an academic book publisher.
An acetate is a salt formed by the combination of acetic acid with an alkaline, earthy, metallic or nonmetallic and other base.
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).
Actaeon beetle (Megasoma actaeon) is a rhinoceros beetle belonging to the Scarabaeidae family.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.
The Adephaga (from Greek ἀδηφάγος, adephagos, "gluttonous"), with more than 40,000 recorded species in 10 families, are a suborder of highly specialized beetles and the second-largest suborder of the order Coleoptera.
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published eighteen times per year by Elsevier.
Alabama is a state in the southeastern region of the United States.
An aldehyde or alkanal is an organic compound containing a functional group with the structure −CHO, consisting of a carbonyl center (a carbon double-bonded to oxygen) with the carbon atom also bonded to hydrogen and to an R group, which is any generic alkyl or side chain.
The Aleocharinae are one of the largest subfamilies of rove beetles, containing over 12,000 species.
Alfred Russel Wallace (8 January 18237 November 1913) was an English naturalist, explorer, geographer, anthropologist, and biologist.
The Amateur Entomologists' Society (AES) is a UK organisation for people interested in insects.
Amblytelus is a genus of ground beetle including 47 species distributed through southern Australia, including the Southwest and along the east coast up to North Queensland.
Ambrosia artemisiifolia, with the common names common ragweed, annual ragweed, and low ragweed, is a species of the genus Ambrosia native to regions of the Americas.
Ambrosia beetles are beetles of the weevil subfamilies Scolytinae and Platypodinae (Coleoptera, Curculionidae), which live in nutritional symbiosis with ambrosia fungi.
The American Institute of Biological Sciences (AIBS) is a non-profit scientific association that is dedicated to advancing biological research and education.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the class Amphibia.
Anatomy (Greek anatomē, “dissection”) is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Animal coloration is the general appearance of an animal resulting from the reflection or emission of light from its surfaces.
Annals of Botany is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal, founded in 1887, that publishes research articles, brief communications, and reviews in all areas of botany.
Anobiidae is a family of beetles.
Ants are eusocial insects of the family Formicidae and, along with the related wasps and bees, belong to the order Hymenoptera.
Antennae (singular: antenna), sometimes referred to as "feelers," are paired appendages used for sensing in arthropods.
Anthia, common name Saber-toothed ground beetle, it's a genus of the ground beetle family, the Carabidae.
Anti-predator adaptations are mechanisms developed through evolution that assist prey organisms in their constant struggle against predators.
Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) or ice structuring proteins (ISPs) refer to a class of polypeptides produced by certain vertebrates, plants, fungi and bacteria that permit their survival in subzero environments.
Antoninus Liberalis (Ἀντωνῖνος Λιβεράλις) was an Ancient Greek grammarian who probably flourished between AD 100 and 300.
Aphids are small sap-sucking insects and members of the superfamily Aphidoidea.
Aposematism (from Greek ἀπό apo away, σῆμα sema sign) is a term coined by Edward Bagnall PoultonPoulton, 1890.
Apparent death, colloquially known as playing dead, feigning death, or playing possum, is a behavior in which animals take on the appearance of being dead.
In invertebrate biology, an appendage (or outgrowth) is an external body part, or natural prolongation, that protrudes from an organism's body (in vertebrate biology, an example would be a vertebrate's limbs).
The Archostemata are the smallest suborder of beetles, consisting of fewer than 50 known species organised into five families.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
An arthropod (from Greek ἄρθρον arthron, "joint" and πούς pous, "foot") is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton), a segmented body, and paired jointed appendages.
The arthropod leg is a form of jointed appendage of arthropods, usually used for walking.
The Asian long-horned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis), also known as the starry sky, sky beetle, or ALB, is native to eastern China, Japan, and Korea.
The Asilidae are the robber fly family, also called assassin flies.
Asphyxia or asphyxiation is a condition of severely deficient supply of oxygen to the body that arises from abnormal breathing.
The Attelabidae is a widespread family of weevils.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
The Australian Dung Beetle Project (1965–1985), conceived and led by Dr George Bornemissza of the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), was an international scientific research and biological control project with the primary goal to control the polluting effects of cattle dung.
The Austral Entomology (formerly Australian Journal of Entomology) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Wiley on behalf of the Australian Entomological Society.
Austroplatypus incompertus is a species of ambrosia beetle belonging to the weevil family, native to Australia, with a verified distribution in New South Wales and Victoria.
The avocado (Persea americana) is a tree, long thought to have originated in South Central Mexico, classified as a member of the flowering plant family Lauraceae.
A bark beetle is one of about 220 genera with 6,000 species of beetles in the subfamily Scolytinae.
Barycnemis blediator is a small parasitic wasp.
Bats are mammals of the order Chiroptera; with their forelimbs adapted as wings, they are the only mammals naturally capable of true and sustained flight.
Batesian mimicry is a form of mimicry where a harmless species has evolved to imitate the warning signals of a harmful species directed at a predator of them both.
The beaver (genus Castor) is a large, primarily nocturnal, semiaquatic rodent.
The Beaver beetle (Platypsyllus castoris) is an ectoparasitic beetle that only hosts on beavers.
Beetlewing, or beetlewing art, is an ancient craft technique using iridescent beetle wings practiced traditionally in Thailand, Myanmar, India, China and Japan.
Behavioral Ecology is a bimonthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology.
Behaviour is a double-blind peer-reviewed scientific journal covering all aspects of ethology.
In Africa, the big five game animals are the lion, leopard, rhinoceros (both black and white species), elephant, and Cape buffalo.
Biological immortality (sometimes referred to bio-indefinite mortality) is a state in which the rate of mortality from senescence is stable or decreasing, thus decoupling it from chronological age.
In biology, a biological life cycle (or just life cycle when the biological context is clear) is a series of changes in form that an organism undergoes, returning to the starting state.
Bioluminescence is the production and emission of light by a living organism.
Biomimetics or biomimicry is the imitation of the models, systems, and elements of nature for the purpose of solving complex human problems.
A birch is a thin-leaved deciduous hardwood tree of the genus Betula, in the family Betulaceae, which also includes alders, hazels, and hornbeams.
Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.
Bledius spectabilis, commonly known as the magnificent salt beetle, is a species of small rove beetle.
Blister beetles are beetles of the family Meloidae, so called for their defensive secretion of a blistering agent, cantharidin.
The boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) is a beetle which feeds on cotton buds and flowers.
Bombardier beetles are ground beetles (Carabidae) in the tribes Brachinini, Paussini, Ozaenini, or Metriini—more than 500 species altogether—which are most notable for the defense mechanism that gives them their name: when disturbed, they eject a hot noxious chemical spray from the tip of the abdomen with a popping sound.
Bostrichoidea is a superfamily of beetles.
British Columbia (BC; Colombie-Britannique) is the westernmost province of Canada, located between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains.
Brontispa longissima (known as the coconut leaf beetle, the two-coloured coconut leaf beetle, or the coconut hispine beetle) is a leaf beetle that feeds on young leaves and damages seedlings and mature coconut palms.
Brownsville is the county seat of Cameron County, Texas, United States.
Buprestidae is a family of beetles known as jewel beetles or metallic wood-boring beetles because of their glossy iridescent colors.
Buprestis aurulenta, commonly known as the golden jewel beetle or golden buprestid, is a species of beetle in the genus Buprestis.
Buprestoidea is a superfamily of beetles.
Burying beetles or sexton beetles (genus Nicrophorus) are the best-known members of the family Silphidae (carrion beetles).
Butterflies are insects in the macrolepidopteran clade Rhopalocera from the order Lepidoptera, which also includes moths.
The superfamily Byrrhoidea includes a number of beetle families, most of which are either aquatic or associated with a semi-aquatic habitat.
Calopteron discrepans, the banded net-winged beetle, is a species of net-winged beetle in the family Lycidae.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Camouflage is the use of any combination of materials, coloration, or illumination for concealment, either by making animals or objects hard to see (crypsis), or by disguising them as something else (mimesis).
Capsicum (also known as peppers) is a genus of flowering plants in the nightshade family Solanaceae.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
The Carboniferous is a geologic period and system that spans 60 million years from the end of the Devonian Period million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Permian Period, Mya.
Carl Linnaeus (23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von LinnéBlunt (2004), p. 171.
Catalase is a common enzyme found in nearly all living organisms exposed to oxygen (such as bacteria, plants, and animals).
Caterpillars are the larval stage of members of the order Lepidoptera (the insect order comprising butterflies and moths).
Ceará (locally in Ceará or in Northeast Region of Brazil the pronunciation is) is one of the 27 states of Brazil, located in the northeastern part of the country, on the Atlantic coast.
The cecum or caecum (plural ceca; from the Latin caecus meaning blind) is an intraperitoneal pouch that is considered to be the beginning of the large intestine.
In Greek mythology, Cerambus, son of Euseiros (himself son of Poseidon) and the nymph Eidothea, was a survivor of Deucalion's flood: he was said to have been raised above the water by the nymphs, thus escaping death.
Cerambyx is a genus of beetles in the family Cerambycidae (longhorn beetles).
The chestnut (Castanea) group is a genus of eight or nine species of deciduous trees and shrubs in the beech family Fagaceae, native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere.
Chiang Mai (from เชียงใหม่, ᨩ᩠ᨿᨦ ᩲᩉ᩠ᨾ᩵) sometimes written as "Chiengmai" or "Chiangmai", is the largest city in northern Thailand.
The Chicago Tribune is a daily newspaper based in Chicago, Illinois, United States, owned by Tronc, Inc., formerly Tribune Publishing.
Chondropyga dorsalis is a large Australian beetle commonly known as the "cowboy beetle".
The Chrysomelinae are a subfamily of leaf beetles (Chrysomelidae).
The Chrysomeloidea are an enormous superfamily of beetles, with tens of thousands of species, mostly in the families Cerambycidae (the long-horned beetles) and Chrysomelidae, the leaf beetles.
Cicindela, commonly known as common tiger beetles are generally brightly colored and metallic beetles, often with some sort of patterning of ivory or cream-colored markings.
Cicindela togata, also known as Eunota togata, is a species of tiger beetles in the Carabidae family.
A circadian rhythm is any biological process that displays an endogenous, entrainable oscillation of about 24 hours.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
A clade (from κλάδος, klados, "branch"), also known as monophyletic group, is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life".
Cladistics is a bimonthly peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing research in cladistics.
A cladogram (from Greek clados "branch" and gramma "character") is a diagram used in cladistics to show relations among organisms.
Cleroidea is a small superfamily of beetles.
Insects in the family Elateridae are commonly called click beetles (or "typical click beetles" to distinguish them from the related families Cerophytidae, Eucnemidae, and Plastoceridae).
Coccinella septempunctata, the seven-spot ladybird (or, in North America, seven-spotted ladybug or "C-7"), is the most common ladybird in Europe.
Coccinellidae is a widespread family of small beetles ranging in size from 0.8 to 18 mm (0.03 to 0.71 inches).
The cockchafer, colloquially called May bug or doodlebug, is a European beetle of the genus Melolontha, in the family Scarabaeidae.
The coconut tree (Cocos nucifera) is a member of the family Arecaceae (palm family) and the only species of the genus Cocos.
In biology, coevolution occurs when two or more species reciprocally affect each other's evolution.
The Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata), also known as the Colorado beetle, the ten-striped spearman, the ten-lined potato beetle or the potato bug, is a major pest of potato crops.
Competition is an interaction between organisms or species in which both the organisms or species are harmed.
A compound eye is a visual organ found in arthropods such as insects and crustaceans.
Coprophagia or coprophagy is the consumption of feces.
Coptoclavidae is an extinct family of beetles in the suborder Adephaga.
The CRC Press, LLC is a publishing group based in the United States that specializes in producing technical books.
The Cretaceous is a geologic period and system that spans 79 million years from the end of the Jurassic Period million years ago (mya) to the beginning of the Paleogene Period mya.
A cryoprotectant is a substance used to protect biological tissue from freezing damage (i.e. that due to ice formation).
Cucujoidea is a superfamily of beetles.
Cucujus is a genus of beetles in the family Cucujidae, the flat bark beetles.
The Cupedidae are a small family of beetles, notable for the square pattern of "windows" on their elytra (hard forewings), which give the family their common name of reticulated beetles.
The Curculionidae are the family of the "true" weevils (or "snout beetles").
A cyborg (short for "'''cyb'''ernetic '''org'''anism") is a being with both organic and biomechatronic body parts.
Cycads are seed plants with a long fossil history that were formerly more abundant and more diverse than they are today.
Darkling beetle is the common name of the large family of beetles, Tenebrionidae.
The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is an agency of the United States Department of Defense responsible for the development of emerging technologies for use by the military.
Dascilloidea is a superfamily of polyphagan beetles, comprising two families: Dascillidae (soft bodied plant beetles) and Rhipiceridae (cicada beetle and cicada parasite beetles).
David A. Grimaldi (born September 22, 1957) is an entomologist and Curator of Invertebrate Zoology at the American Museum of Natural History in New York.
The deathwatch beetle, Xestobium rufovillosum, is a woodboring beetle.
Dermestidae are a family of Coleoptera that are commonly referred to as skin beetles.
Derodontidae is a family of beetles, in its own superfamily, Derodontoidea, sometimes known as the tooth-necked fungus beetles.
Diapause, when referencing animal dormancy, is the delay in development in response to regularly and recurring periods of adverse environmental conditions.
Dicheirotrichus gustavi is a ground beetle which emerges from cracks or holes to feed on tidal salt marshes after dusk.
A dragonfly is an insect belonging to the order Odonata, infraorder Anisoptera (from Greek ἄνισος anisos, "uneven" and πτερόν pteron, "wing", because the hindwing is broader than the forewing).
Dung beetles are beetles that feed partly or exclusively on feces (dung).
Dutch elm disease (DED) is caused by a member of the sac fungi (Ascomycota) affecting elm trees, and is spread by elm bark beetles.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
Dynastinae or rhinoceros beetles are a subfamily of the scarab beetle family (Scarabaeidae).
The Dytiscidae – based on the Greek dytikos (δυτικός), "able to dive" – are the predaceous diving beetles, a family of water beetles.
The Early Triassic is the first of three epochs of the Triassic Period of the geologic timescale.
Eburia quadrigeminata, the ivory-marked beetle or ivory-marked borer, is a species of beetle in the family Cerambycidae.
Ecdysis is the moulting of the cuticle in many invertebrates of the clade Ecdysozoa.
An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.
Ecotourism is a form of tourism involving visiting fragile, pristine, and relatively undisturbed natural areas, intended as a low-impact and often small scale alternative to standard commercial mass tourism.
An egg is the organic vessel containing the zygote in which an animal embryo develops until it can survive on its own; at which point the animal hatches.
Eggplant (Solanum melongena) or aubergine is a species of nightshade grown for its edible fruit.
Egyptian faience is a sintered-quartz ceramic displaying surface vitrification which creates a bright lustre of various colours, with blue-green being the most common.
The Elateroidea are a large superfamily of beetles.
The elephant beetle (Megasoma elephas) is a member of the family Scarabaeidae and the subfamily Dynastinae.
Elms are deciduous and semi-deciduous trees comprising the flowering plant genus Ulmus in the plant family Ulmaceae.
Elsevier is an information and analytics company and one of the world's major providers of scientific, technical, and medical information.
An elytron (from Greek ἔλυτρον "sheath, cover"; plural: elytra) is a modified, hardened forewing of certain insect orders, notably beetles (Coleoptera) and a few of the true bugs (Hemiptera); in most true bugs, the forewings are instead called hemelytra (sometimes misspelled as "hemielytra"), as only the basal half is thickened while the apex is membranous.
Endopterygota, also known as Holometabola, is a superorder of insects within the infraclass Neoptera that go through distinctive larval, pupal, and adult stages.
The Entomological Society of America (ESA) was founded in 1889 and today has more than 6,000 members, including educators, extension personnel, consultants, students, researchers, and scientists from agricultural departments, health agencies, private industries, colleges and universities, and state and federal governments.
Entomological warfare (EW) is a type of biological warfare that uses insects to attack the enemy.
Entomophagy (from Greek ἔντομον éntomon, "insect", and φᾰγεῖν phagein, "to eat") is the human use of insects as food.
Epicauta vittata is a species of beetle in the family Meloidae, the blister beetles.
Epithelium is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue.
In chemistry, an ester is a chemical compound derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one –OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an –O–alkyl (alkoxy) group.
Eucalyptus L'Héritier 1789 (plural eucalypti, eucalyptuses or eucalypts) is a diverse genus of flowering trees and shrubs (including a distinct group with a multiple-stem mallee growth habit) in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae.
Eupompha is a genus of blister beetles in the family Meloidae.
Euramerica (also known as Laurussia – not to be confused with Laurasia, – the Old Red Continent or the Old Red Sandstone Continent) was a minor supercontinent created in the Devonian as the result of a collision between the Laurentian, Baltica, and Avalonia cratons during the Caledonian orogeny, about 410 million years ago.
Eusociality (from Greek εὖ eu "good" and social), the highest level of organization of animal sociality, is defined by the following characteristics: cooperative brood care (including care of offspring from other individuals), overlapping generations within a colony of adults, and a division of labor into reproductive and non-reproductive groups.
An exoskeleton (from Greek έξω, éxō "outer" and σκελετός, skeletós "skeleton") is the external skeleton that supports and protects an animal's body, in contrast to the internal skeleton (endoskeleton) of, for example, a human.
Eyes are organs of the visual system.
In biological classification, family (familia, plural familiae) is one of the eight major taxonomic ranks; it is classified between order and genus.
In chemistry, particularly in biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated.
Fatty acid synthesis is the creation of fatty acids from acetyl-CoA and NADPH through the action of enzymes called fatty acid synthases.
Feces (or faeces) are the solid or semisolid remains of the food that could not be digested in the small intestine.
Fertilisation or fertilization (see spelling differences), also known as generative fertilisation, conception, fecundation, syngamy and impregnation, is the fusion of gametes to initiate the development of a new individual organism.
The Lampyridae are a family of insects in the beetle order Coleoptera.
Firefly luciferin is the luciferin, or light-emitting compound, found in many firefly (Lampyridae) species.
Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.
The flea beetle is a small, jumping beetle of the leaf beetle family (Chrysomelidae), that makes up the tribe Alticini which is a part of the subfamily Galerucinae.
The flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with 416 families, approximately 13,164 known genera and c. 295,383 known species.
"Atrapanieblas" or fog collection in Alto Patache, Atacama Desert, Chile. Fog collection refers to the collection of water from fog using large pieces of vertical canvas to make the fog-droplets flow down towards a trough below the canvas, known as a fog fence.
Formic acid, systematically named methanoic acid, is the simplest carboxylic acid.
Cape ground squirrel. A fossorial (from Latin fossor, "digger") is an animal adapted to digging and lives primarily, but not solely, underground.
Frankfurt, officially the City of Frankfurt am Main ("Frankfurt on the Main"), is a metropolis and the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
The gizzard, also referred to as the ventriculus, gastric mill, and gigerium, is an organ found in the digestive tract of some animals, including archosaurs (pterosaurs, crocodiles, alligators, and dinosaurs, including birds), earthworms, some gastropods, some fish, and some crustaceans.
This glossary of entomology describes terms used in the formal study of insect species by entomologists.
Glowworm or glow-worm is the common name for various groups of insect larvae and adult larviform females that glow through bioluminescence.
The Goliath beetles (named after the biblical giant Goliath) are any of the five species in the genus Goliathus.
Grasshoppers are insects of the suborder Caelifera within the order Orthoptera, which includes crickets and their allies in the other suborder Ensifera.
The Greek Magical Papyri (Latin Papyri Graecae Magicae, abbreviated PGM) is the name given by scholars to a body of papyri from Graeco-Roman Egypt, which each contain a number of magical spells, formulae, hymns, and rituals.
Ground beetles are a large, cosmopolitan family of beetles, Carabidae, with more than 40,000 species worldwide, around 2,000 of which are found in North America and 2,700 in Europe.
Guinness World Records, known from its inception in 1955 until 2000 as The Guinness Book of Records and in previous United States editions as The Guinness Book of World Records, is a reference book published annually, listing world records both of human achievements and the extremes of the natural world.
Habroscelimorpha dorsalis, the eastern beach tiger beetle, is a species of flashy tiger beetle in the family Carabidae.
Haematobia exigua or buffalo fly is a pest fly from the family Muscidae.
The Haliplidae are a family of water beetles who swim using an alternating motion of the legs.
Hardwood is wood from dicot trees.
Harmonia axyridis, most commonly known as the harlequin, multicolored Asian, or simply Asian ladybeetle, is a large coccinellid beetle.
Hawaii (Hawaii) is the 50th and most recent state to have joined the United States, having received statehood on August 21, 1959.
Heilipus apiatus, the avocado weevil, is a species of pine weevil in the family of beetles known as Curculionidae.
Hemolymph, or haemolymph, is a fluid, analogous to the blood in vertebrates, that circulates in the interior of the arthropod body remaining in direct contact with the animal's tissues.
Herbicides, also commonly known as weedkillers, are chemical substances used to control unwanted plants.
The Hercules beetle (Dynastes hercules, Dynastinae) is a species of rhinoceros beetle native to the rainforests of Central America, South America, and the Lesser Antilles, and is the longest extant species of beetle in the world, and is also one of the largest flying insects in the world.
Hezekiah was, according to the Hebrew Bible, the son of Ahaz and the 13th king of Judah.
Histeridae is a family of beetles commonly known as Clown beetles or Hister beetles.
Histeroidea is a superfamily of beetles in the infraorder Staphyliniformia.
The Holocene is the current geological epoch.
A honey bee (or honeybee) is any member of the genus Apis, primarily distinguished by the production and storage of honey and the construction of perennial, colonial nests from wax.
Honeydew is a sugar-rich sticky liquid, secreted by aphids and some scale insects as they feed on plant sap.
The human digestive system consists of the gastrointestinal tract plus the accessory organs of digestion (the tongue, salivary glands, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder).
In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.
Hydrogen peroxide is a chemical compound with the formula.
A hydrophile is a molecule or other molecular entity that is attracted to water molecules and tends to be dissolved by water.
Hydrophilidae, also called water scavenger beetles, is a family of chiefly aquatic beetles.
Hydrophiloidea is a superfamily of beetles.
In chemistry, hydrophobicity is the physical property of a molecule (known as a hydrophobe) that is seemingly repelled from a mass of water.
Hydroquinone, also benzene-1,4-diol or quinol, is an aromatic organic compound that is a type of phenol, a derivative of benzene, having the chemical formula C6H4(OH)2.
The Hydroscaphidae are a small family of water beetles known commonly as skiff beetles.
Hymenoptera is a large order of insects, comprising the sawflies, wasps, bees, and ants.
Hypermetamorphosis is a term used in entomology that refers to a class of variants of holometabolism, that is to say, complete insect metamorphosis, but where some larval instars are distinct from each other.
Hypoxia refers to low oxygen conditions.
In biology, the imago is the last stage an insect attains during its metamorphosis, its process of growth and development; it also is called the imaginal stage, the stage in which the insect attains maturity.
In zoology, an inquiline (from Latin inquilinus, "lodger" or "tenant") is an animal that lives commensally in the nest, burrow, or dwelling place of an animal of another species.
Insects or Insecta (from Latin insectum) are hexapod invertebrates and the largest group within the arthropod phylum.
Insect fighting is a range of competitive sporting activity, commonly associated with gambling, in which insects are pitted against each other.
Insects are the only group of invertebrates that have evolved wings and flight.
Insects have a range of mouthparts, adapted to particular modes of feeding.
Insect wings are adult outgrowths of the insect exoskeleton that enable insects to fly.
The roles of insects in culture span different aspects of human life, whether analysed academically or more generally.
An instar (from the Latin "form", "likeness") is a developmental stage of arthropods, such as insects, between each moult (ecdysis), until sexual maturity is reached.
Invertebrates are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column (commonly known as a backbone or spine), derived from the notochord.
Ivory is a hard, white material from the tusks (traditionally elephants') and teeth of animals, that can be used in art or manufacturing.
John Burdon Sanderson Haldane (5 November 18921 December 1964) was an English scientist known for his work in the study of physiology, genetics, evolutionary biology, and in mathematics, where he made innovative contributions to the fields of statistics and biostatistics.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.
The Journal of Biological Chemistry is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 1905.
The Journal of Natural History is a scientific journal published by Taylor & Francis focusing on entomology and zoology.
The Journal of Paleontology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering the field of paleontology.
The Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society is a quarterly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Kansas Entomological Society.
The Jurassic (from Jura Mountains) was a geologic period and system that spanned 56 million years from the end of the Triassic Period million years ago (Mya) to the beginning of the Cretaceous Period Mya.
Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.
Khepri (Egyptian: ḫprj, also transliterated Khepera, Kheper, Khepra, Chepri) is a god in the ancient Egyptian religion.
KwaZulu-Natal (also referred to as KZN and known as "the garden province") is a province of South Africa that was created in 1994 when the Zulu bantustan of KwaZulu ("Place of the Zulu" in Zulu) and Natal Province were merged.
The golden stag beetle (Lamprima aurata) is a species of beetles in the family Lucanidae.
A larva (plural: larvae) is a distinct juvenile form many animals undergo before metamorphosis into adults.
Larviform female is biological phenomenon occurring in some species, where the females in the adult stage of metamorphosis resemble the larvae to various degrees.
Las Hoyas is a Cretaceous Konservat-Lagerstätten located near the city of Cuenca, Spain.
The Late Miocene (also known as Upper Miocene) is a sub-epoch of the Miocene Epoch made up of two stages.
A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant and is the principal lateral appendage of the stem.
The insects of the beetle family Chrysomelidae are commonly known as leaf beetles, and include over 37,000 (and probably at least 50,000) species in more than 2,500 genera, making up one of the largest and most commonly encountered of all beetle families.
Liaoning is a province of China, located in the northeast of the country.
Linnaean taxonomy can mean either of two related concepts.
This article classifies the subgroups of the order Coleoptera (beetles) down to the level of families, following the system in Volume 2 of American Beetles (2002) for all North American families (there were changes in the system between Vols. 1 & 2), and following Lawrence & Newton (1995) for extralimital taxa.
A living brooch, also known as a ma'kech, makech, and maquech, is a brooch made from a living beetle of the Zopherus genus, particularly Zopherus chilensis, which has been decorated with paste gemstones, bric-à-brac, and imitation gold and is tethered to a woman's blouse by a small chain.
Lizards are a widespread group of squamate reptiles, with over 6,000 species, ranging across all continents except Antarctica, as well as most oceanic island chains.
LMLK seals are ancient Hebrew seals stamped on the handles of large storage jars dating from reign of King Hezekiah (circa 700 BC) discovered mostly in and around Jerusalem.
The Loeb Classical Library (LCL; named after James Loeb) is a series of books, today published by Harvard University Press, which presents important works of ancient Greek and Latin literature in a way designed to make the text accessible to the broadest possible audience, by presenting the original Greek or Latin text on each left-hand page, and a fairly literal translation on the facing page.
The longhorn beetles (Cerambycidae; also known as long-horned or longhorn beetles or longicorns) are a cosmopolitan family of beetles, typically characterized by extremely long antennae, which are often as long as or longer than the beetle's body.
Lucanus cervus is the best-known species of stag beetle (family Lucanidae) in Western Europe, and is the eponymous example of the genus.
Luciferase is a generic term for the class of oxidative enzymes that produce bioluminescence, and is usually distinguished from a photoprotein.
Luciferin (from the Latin lucifer, "light-bringer") is a generic term for the light-emitting compound found in organisms that generate bioluminescence.
Luciola cruciata, known as "genji-botaru" in Japanese, is a species of firefly found in Japan.
The Lycidae are a family in the beetle order Coleoptera, members of which are commonly called net-winged beetles.
The Lymexylidae (historically often spelled Lymexylonidae), also known as ship-timber beetles, are a family of wood-boring beetles.
The Malpighian tubule system is a type of excretory and osmoregulatory system found in some insects, myriapods, arachnids, and tardigrades.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
Insect mandibles are a pair of appendages near the insect’s mouth, and the most anterior of the three pairs of oral appendages (the labrum is more anterior, but is a single fused structure).
Mass provisioning is a form of parental investment in which an adult insect, most commonly a hymenopteran such as a bee or wasp, stocks all the food for each of her offspring in a small chamber (a "cell") before she lays the egg.
Maxwell V L Barclay, usually known as Max Barclay, is a British entomologist, and Curator and Collections Manager of Coleoptera and Hemiptera at the Natural History Museum in London.
The Mazon Creek fossil beds are a conservation lagerstätte found near Morris, in Grundy County, Illinois.
Mealworms are the larval form of the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor, a species of darkling beetle.
Mealybugs are insects in the family Pseudococcidae, unarmored scale insects found in moist, warm climates.
Mecynorhina torquata is a beetle from the subfamily Cetoniinae, tribe Goliathini.
Meligethes aeneus is an abundant pollen beetle in Eurasia.
Melolonthinae is a subfamily of the scarab beetles (family Scarabaeidae).
Metamorphosis is a biological process by which an animal physically develops after birth or hatching, involving a conspicuous and relatively abrupt change in the animal's body structure through cell growth and differentiation.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
Michael S. Engel, FLS (born September 24, 1971) is an American paleontologist and entomologist, notable for contributions to insect evolutionary biology and classification.
The micrometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: μm) or micrometer (American spelling), also commonly known as a micron, is an SI derived unit of length equaling (SI standard prefix "micro-".
Middle English (ME) is collectively the varieties of the English language spoken after the Norman Conquest (1066) until the late 15th century; scholarly opinion varies but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies the period of 1150 to 1500.
The Middle Jurassic is the second epoch of the Jurassic Period.
The midgut is the portion of the embryo from which most of the intestines develop.
In evolutionary biology, mimicry is a similarity of one organism, usually an animal, to another that has evolved because the resemblance is selectively favoured by the behaviour of a shared signal receiver that can respond to both.
The Miridae are a large and diverse insect family at one time known by the taxonomic synonym Capsidae.
The Mississippi State University for Agriculture and Applied Science, commonly known as Mississippi State University (MSU), is a comprehensive land-grant and public research university located adjacent to the city of Starkville in an unincorporated area of Oktibbeha County, Mississippi.
Mongolia (Monggol Ulus in Mongolian; in Mongolian Cyrillic) is a landlocked unitary sovereign state in East Asia.
In cladistics, a monophyletic group, or clade, is a group of organisms that consists of all the descendants of a common ancestor.
The Montsec Range (Serra del Montsec,; Sierra del Montsec) is a mountain system of the Pre-Pyrenees.
The Moralia (Ἠθικά Ethika; loosely translated as "Morals" or "Matters relating to customs and mores") of the 1st-century Greek scholar Plutarch of Chaeronea is an eclectic collection of 78 essays and transcribed speeches.
The Mordellidae are a family of beetles commonly known as tumbling flower beetles for the typical irregular movements they make when escaping predators, or as pintail beetles due to their abdominal tip which aids them in performing these tumbling movements.
Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.
The mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) is a species of bark beetle native to the forests of western North America from Mexico to central British Columbia.
Musca vetustissima, commonly known as the Australian bush fly, is a species of fly found in Australia.
Mutualism or interspecific cooperation is the way two organisms of different species exist in a relationship in which each individual benefits from the activity of the other.
The term mycangium (pl., mycangia) is used in biology for special structures on the body of an animal that are adapted for the transport of symbiotic fungi (usually in spore form).
Myrmecophily (literally "ant-love") is the term applied to positive interspecies associations between ants and a variety of other organisms such as plants, other arthropods, and fungi.
Many species of Staphylinidae (commonly known as “rove beetles”) have developed complex interspecies relationships with ants, known as myrmecophily.
Myxophaga is the second smallest suborder of the Coleoptera after Archostemata, consisting of roughly 65 species of small to minute beetles in four families.
The Namib is a coastal desert in southern Africa.
The Natural History (Naturalis Historia) is a book about the whole of the natural world in Latin by Pliny the Elder, a Roman author and naval commander who died in 79 AD.
The Department of Natural Resources (Ministère des Ressources naturelles), operating under the FIP applied title Natural Resources Canada (NRCan), is the ministry of the government of Canada responsible for natural resources, energy, minerals and metals, forests, earth sciences, mapping and remote sensing.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
Nectar is a sugar-rich liquid produced by plants in glands called nectaries, either within the flowers with which it attracts pollinating animals, or by extrafloral nectaries, which provide a nutrient source to animal mutualists, which in turn provide antiherbivore protection.
The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.
Nicander of Colophon (Níkandros ho Kolophṓnios; fl. 2nd century BC), Greek poet, physician and grammarian, was born at Claros (Ahmetbeyli in modern Turkey), near Colophon, where his family held the hereditary priesthood of Apollo.
North Carolina State University (also referred to as NCSU, NC State, or just State) is a public research university located in Raleigh, North Carolina, United States.
An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus (Latin "oak tree") of the beech family, Fagaceae.
Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
The Omaliinae are a subfamily of the Staphylinidae, rove beetles.
Omnivore is a consumption classification for animals that have the capability to obtain chemical energy and nutrients from materials originating from plant and animal origin.
The head-stander beetle (Onymacris unguicularis) is a species of fog basking beetle that is native to the Namib Desert of southern Africa.
In biological classification, the order (ordo) is.
The ovipositor is an organ used by some animals for the laying of eggs.
Ovoviviparity, ovovivipary, or ovivipary, is a mode of reproduction in animals in which embryos that develop inside eggs remain in the mother's body until they are ready to hatch.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Paleontological Journal (Russian: Paleontologicheskii Zhurnal) is a monthly peer-reviewed Russian journal of paleontology established in 1959.
Paleontology or palaeontology is the scientific study of life that existed prior to, and sometimes including, the start of the Holocene Epoch (roughly 11,700 years before present).
Papua New Guinea (PNG;,; Papua Niugini; Hiri Motu: Papua Niu Gini), officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, is an Oceanian country that occupies the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and its offshore islands in Melanesia, a region of the southwestern Pacific Ocean north of Australia.
In evolutionary biology, parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, and is adapted structurally to this way of life.
A parasitoid is an organism that lives in close association with its host and at the host's expense, and which sooner or later kills it.
Parthenium hysterophorus is a species of flowering plant in the aster family, Asteraceae.
Passalidae is a family of beetles known variously as "bessbugs", "bess beetles", "betsy beetles" or "horned passalus beetles".
The Pennsylvanian (also known as Upper Carboniferous or Late Carboniferous) is, in the ICS geologic timescale, the younger of two subperiods (or upper of two subsystems) of the Carboniferous Period.
The Permian is a geologic period and system which spans 47 million years from the end of the Carboniferous Period million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Triassic period 251.902 Mya.
The Permian–Triassic (P–Tr or P–T) extinction event, colloquially known as the Great Dying, the End-Permian Extinction or the Great Permian Extinction, occurred about 252 Ma (million years) ago, forming the boundary between the Permian and Triassic geologic periods, as well as the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras.
A pest is a plant or animal detrimental to humans or human concerns including crops, livestock, and forestry.
A pet or companion animal is an animal kept primarily for a person's company, protection, or entertainment rather than as a working animal, livestock, or laboratory animal.
Phanerota fasciata is a species of rove beetle in the family Staphylinidae.
The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the throat that is behind the mouth and nasal cavity and above the esophagus and the larynx, or the tubes going down to the stomach and the lungs.
The beetle family Phengodidae is known also as glowworm beetles, whose larvae are known as glowworms.
Phenol, also known as phenolic acid, is an aromatic organic compound with the molecular formula C6H5OH.
A pheromone (from Ancient Greek φέρω phero "to bear" and hormone, from Ancient Greek ὁρμή "impetus") is a secreted or excreted chemical factor that triggers a social response in members of the same species.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
The Pinophyta, also known as Coniferophyta or Coniferae, or commonly as conifers, are a division of vascular land plants containing a single extant class, Pinopsida.
Pinus contorta, with the common names lodgepole pine and shore pine, and also known as twisted pine, and contorta pine, is a common tree in western North America.
A planidium is a specialized form of first-instar insect larva, seen in a few families of insect species that have parasitoidal ways of life.
Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.
PLOS One (stylized PLOS ONE, and formerly PLoS ONE) is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal published by the Public Library of Science (PLOS) since 2006.
Plutarch (Πλούταρχος, Ploútarkhos,; c. CE 46 – CE 120), later named, upon becoming a Roman citizen, Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus, (Λούκιος Μέστριος Πλούταρχος) was a Greek biographer and essayist, known primarily for his Parallel Lives and Moralia.
A poikilotherm is an animal whose internal temperature varies considerably.
The polar regions, also called the frigid zones, of Earth are the regions of the planet that surround its geographical poles (the North and South Poles), lying within the polar circles.
Pollination traps or trap-flowers are plant flower structures that aid the trapping of insects, mainly flies, so as to enhance their effectiveness in pollination.
Polyphaga is the largest and most diverse suborder of beetles.
Predation is a biological interaction where a predator (a hunting animal) kills and eats its prey (the organism that is attacked).
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) is the official scientific journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915.
The prothorax is the foremost of the three segments in the thorax of an insect, and bears the first pair of legs.
The Protocoleoptera are an extinct suborder of beetles.
Ptiliidae is a family of very tiny beetles with a cosmopolitan distribution.
A pupa (pūpa, "doll"; plural: pūpae) is the life stage of some insects undergoing transformation between immature and mature stages.
Quaternary is the current and most recent of the three periods of the Cenozoic Era in the geologic time scale of the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS).
The Quaternary glaciation, also known as the Quaternary Ice Age or Pleistocene glaciation, is a series of glacial events separated by interglacial events during the Quaternary period from 2.58 Ma (million years ago) to present.
The quinones are a class of organic compounds that are formally "derived from aromatic compounds by conversion of an even number of –CH.
The Reduviidae are a large cosmopolitan family of the order Hemiptera (true bugs).
A resonance chamber uses resonance to enhance the transfer of energy from a sound source (e.g. a vibrating string) to the air.
Rhinotia hemistictus is a species of beetle in the genus Rhinotia of the family Belidae, commonly referred to as the long-nosed weevil, or long nosed weevil.
The palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus is one of two species of snout beetle known as the red palm weevil, Asian palm weevil or sago palm weevil.
The Rio Grande (or; Río Bravo del Norte, or simply Río Bravo) is one of the principal rivers in the southwest United States and northern Mexico (the other being the Colorado River).
The Ripiphoridae (formerly spelled Rhipiphoridae) are a cosmopolitan family of some 450 described species of beetles.
Rodents (from Latin rodere, "to gnaw") are mammals of the order Rodentia, which are characterized by a single pair of continuously growing incisors in each of the upper and lower jaws.
The rove beetles are a family (Staphylinidae) of beetles, primarily distinguished by their short elytra (wing covers) that typically leave more than half of their abdomens exposed.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Rutelinae is a subfamily of the scarab beetles (family Scarabaeidae).
A salt marsh or saltmarsh, also known as a coastal salt marsh or a tidal marsh, is a coastal ecosystem in the upper coastal intertidal zone between land and open saltwater or brackish water that is regularly flooded by the tides.
The scale insects are small insects of the order Hemiptera, suborder Sternorrhyncha.
Scarabs were popular amulets and impression seals in Ancient Egypt.
The family Scarabaeidae as currently defined consists of over 30,000 species of beetles worldwide, often called scarabs or scarab beetles.
Scarabaeoidea is a superfamily of beetles, the only subgroup of the infraorder Scarabaeiformia.
Scarabaeus sacer, common name Sacred scarab, is a species of dung beetle belonging to the family Scarabaeidae.
Scavenging is both a carnivorous and a herbivorous feeding behavior in which the scavenger feeds on dead animal and plant material present in its habitat.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
Scirtoidea is a superfamily of beetles in the suborder Polyphaga.
A sclerite (Greek σκληρός, sklēros, meaning "hard") is a hardened body part.
Sclerotin is a component of the cuticles of various Arthropoda, most familiarly insects.
Scydosella is a genus of beetles that consists of only one species Scydosella musawasensis.
A seedling is a young plant sporophyte developing out of a plant embryo from a seed.
Segmentation in biology is the division of some animal and plant body plans into a series of repetitive segments.
Sexual dimorphism is the condition where the two sexes of the same species exhibit different characteristics beyond the differences in their sexual organs.
Silphidae is a family of beetles that are known commonly as large carrion beetles, carrion beetles or burying beetles.
A simple eye (sometimes called a pigment pit) refers to a type of eye form or optical arrangement that contains a single lens.
The small hive beetle (Aethina tumida) is a beekeeping pest.
The Solanaceae, or nightshades, are an economically important family of flowering plants.
The soldier beetles (Cantharidae) are relatively soft-bodied, straight-sided beetles.
Solnhofen is a municipality in the district of Weißenburg-Gunzenhausen in the region of Middle Franconia in the Land of Bavaria in Germany.
South Gippsland, a region of Gippsland in Victoria, Australia, is a well-watered region consisting of low, rolling hills descending to the coast in the south and the Latrobe Valley in the north.
South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국; Hanja: 大韓民國; Daehan Minguk,; lit. "The Great Country of the Han People"), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland.
Southern California (colloquially known as SoCal) is a geographic and cultural region that generally comprises California's southernmost counties.
A spermatozoon (pronounced, alternate spelling spermatozoön; plural spermatozoa; from σπέρμα "seed" and ζῷον "living being") is a motile sperm cell, or moving form of the haploid cell that is the male gamete.
Sphaerius is a genus of beetles, comprising 23 species, which are the only members of the family Sphaeriusidae.
Spiders (order Araneae) are air-breathing arthropods that have eight legs and chelicerae with fangs that inject venom.
Spiracles are openings on the surface of some animals, which usually lead to respiratory systems.
Stag beetles are a group of about 1,200 species of beetles in the family Lucanidae, presently classified in four subfamilies.
Stenocara gracilipes, also known as the fogstand beetle, is a species of beetle that is native to the Namib Desert of southern Africa.
The Strepsiptera (translation: "twisted wing"', giving rise to the insects' common name, twisted-wing parasites) are an endopterygote order of insects with nine extant families making up about 600 species.
Stridulation is the act of producing sound by rubbing together certain body parts.
Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.
Symbiosis (from Greek συμβίωσις "living together", from σύν "together" and βίωσις "living") is any type of a close and long-term biological interaction between two different biological organisms, be it mutualistic, commensalistic, or parasitic.
The tansy beetle (Chrysolina graminis) is a species of leaf beetle.
Tarsal formula is the number of segments of the tarsi, which has 3 numbers a-b-c, starting with the fore leg (a), then the middle leg (b), then the hind leg (c).
Taxidermy is the preserving of an animal's body via stuffing and mounting for the purpose of display or study.
In biological classification, taxonomic rank is the relative level of a group of organisms (a taxon) in a taxonomic hierarchy.
Tel Aviv University (TAU) (אוּנִיבֶרְסִיטַת תֵּל-אָבִיב Universitat Tel Aviv) is a public research university in the neighborhood of Ramat Aviv in Tel Aviv, Israel.
The telephone-pole beetle (Micromalthus debilis) is a beetle native to the eastern United States, and the only living representative of the otherwise extinct family Micromalthidae (i.e., a "living fossil").
The Tenebrionoidea are a very large and diverse superfamily of beetles.
In ethology, territory is the sociographical area that an animal of a particular species consistently defends against conspecifics (or, occasionally, animals of other species).
The testicle or testis is the male reproductive gland in all animals, including humans.
The Canadian Entomologist is a bimonthly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering all aspects of entomology.
The Journal of Experimental Biology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal in the field of comparative physiology and integrative biology.
The Malay Archipelago is a book by the British naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace which chronicles his scientific exploration, during the eight-year period 1854 to 1862, of the southern portion of the Malay Archipelago including Malaysia, Singapore, the islands of Indonesia, then known as the Dutch East Indies, and the island of New Guinea.
The Science of Nature, formerly Naturwissenschaften, is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Springer Science+Business Media covering all aspects of the natural sciences relating to questions of biological significance.
Threitol is a four-carbon sugar alcohol with the molecular formula C4H10O4.
Thrips (order Thysanoptera) are minute (most are 1 mm long or less), slender insects with fringed wings and unique asymmetrical mouthparts.
Tides are the rise and fall of sea levels caused by the combined effects of the gravitational forces exerted by the Moon and the Sun and the rotation of Earth.
Tiger beetles are a large group of beetles, from the Cicindelinae subfamily, known for their aggressive predatory habits and running speed.
The titan beetle (Titanus giganteus) is a neotropical longhorn beetle, the only one in the genus Titanus, and one of the largest known beetles.
The tomato (see pronunciation) is the edible, often red, fruit/berry of the plant Solanum lycopersicum, commonly known as a tomato plant.
The trachea, colloquially called the windpipe, is a cartilaginous tube that connects the pharynx and larynx to the lungs, allowing the passage of air, and so is present in almost all air-breathing animals with lungs.
The Tree of Life Web Project is an Internet project providing information about the diversity and phylogeny of life on Earth.
The Triassic is a geologic period and system which spans 50.6 million years from the end of the Permian Period 251.9 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Jurassic Period Mya.
A tympanal organ is a hearing organ in insects, consisting of a membrane (tympanum) stretched across a frame backed by an air sac and associated sensory neurons.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.
The University of Exeter is a public research university in Exeter, Devon, South West England, United Kingdom.
The University of Florida (commonly referred to as Florida or UF) is an American public land-grant, sea-grant, and space-grant research university on a campus in Gainesville, Florida.
The University of Minnesota, Twin Cities (often referred to as the University of Minnesota, Minnesota, the U of M, UMN, or simply the U) is a public research university in Minneapolis and Saint Paul, Minnesota.
The University of Oxford (formally The Chancellor Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.
Upis ceramboides is a species of beetle, one of many wood-living insects that benefit from forest fires.
A vending machine is an automated machine that provides items such as snacks, beverages, cigarettes and lottery tickets to consumers after money, a credit card, or specially designed card is inserted into the machine.
In arthropod and vertebrate anatomy, the vertex (or cranial vertex) is the upper surface of the head.
In the history of the United Kingdom, the Victorian era was the period of Queen Victoria's reign, from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901.
A wasp is any insect of the order Hymenoptera and suborder Apocrita that is neither a bee nor an ant.
A water beetle is a generalized name for any beetle that is adapted to living in water at any point in its life cycle.
A weed is a plant considered undesirable in a particular situation, "a plant in the wrong place".
A weevil is a type of beetle from the Curculionoidea superfamily.
The whirligig beetles are a family (Gyrinidae) of water beetles that usually swim on the surface of the water if undisturbed, though they swim underwater when threatened.
Whiteflies are small Hemipterans that typically feed on the undersides of plant leaves.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Xylomannan is an antifreeze molecule, found in the freeze-tolerant Alaskan beetle Upis ceramboides.
Xylotrupes is a genus of rhinoceros beetles.
ZooKeys is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal covering zoological taxonomy, phylogeny, and biogeography.
Zoologica Scripta is a bimonthly peer-reviewed scientific journal on systematic zoology, published by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters and the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
Zootaxa is a peer-reviewed scientific mega journal for animal taxonomists.
Zopherus is a genus of beetles comprising 19 species.
Zophobas morio is a species of darkling beetle, whose larvae are known by the common name Superworms, King Worms, Morio Worms or simply Zophobas.
Zygogramma is a large genus of leaf beetles in the subfamily Chrysomelinae, which includes approximately 100 species.
The 10th edition of Systema Naturae is a book written by Carl Linnaeus and published in two volumes in 1758 and 1759, which marks the starting point of zoological nomenclature.