30 relations: Beira, Mozambique, Blockade, Chiefs of Staff Committee, Edward Heath, Foreign and Commonwealth Office, Greece, Harold Wilson, History of Zimbabwe, HMS Rhyl (F129), Ian Smith, Joint Intelligence Committee (United Kingdom), Mahajanga, Malagasy Republic, Military organization, Mozambique Channel, MV Joanna V, Oil embargo, Petroleum, Portugal, Pound sterling, Prime Minister of Rhodesia, Rhodesia, Rhodesia's Unilateral Declaration of Independence, Royal Air Force, Royal Navy, United Nations Security Council, United Nations Security Council Resolution 217, United Nations Security Council Resolution 221, United Nations Security Council Resolution 232, Zimbabwe.
Beira is the third largest city in Mozambique.
A blockade is an effort to cut off supplies, war material or communications from a particular area by force, either in part or totally.
The Chiefs of Staff Committee (CSC) is composed of the most senior military personnel in the British Armed Forces who advise on operational military matters and the preparation and conduct of military operations.
Sir Edward Richard George Heath (9 July 1916 – 17 July 2005), often known as Ted Heath, was a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1970 to 1974 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1965 to 1975.
The Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO), commonly called the Foreign Office, is a department of the Government of the United Kingdom.
James Harold Wilson, Baron Wilson of Rievaulx, (11 March 1916 – 24 May 1995) was a British Labour politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1964 to 1970 and from 1974 to 1976.
Following the Lancaster House Agreement of 1979 there was a transition to internationally recognized majority rule in 1980; the United Kingdom ceremonially granted Zimbabwe independence on 18 April that year.
HMS Rhyl was a ''Rothesay'' or Type 12I class anti-submarine frigate of the British Royal Navy, launched by Lady Macmillan on 23 February 1959 and commissioned in October 1960.
Ian Douglas Smith (8 April 1919 – 20 November 2007) was a politician, farmer and fighter pilot who served as Prime Minister of Rhodesia (or Southern Rhodesia; today Zimbabwe) from 1964 to 1979.
The Joint Intelligence Committee (JIC) is an interagency deliberative body responsible for intelligence assessment, coordination and oversight of the Secret Intelligence Service, Security Service, GCHQ and Defence Intelligence.
Mahajanga (French: Majunga) is a city and an administrative district on the northwest coast of Madagascar.
The Malagasy Republic (Repoblika Malagasy, République malgache) was a state situated in Southeast Africa.
Military organization or military organisation is the structuring of the armed forces of a state so as to offer military capability required by the national defense policy.
The Mozambique Channel (Canal du Mozambique, Lakandranon'i Mozambika, Canal de Moçambique) is an arm of the Indian Ocean located between the Southeast African countries of Madagascar and Mozambique.
MV Joanna V (previously Arietta Venezelos) was a Greek oil tanker which in 1966 the British Navy threatened to intercept on the High Seas when it was heading towards Beira, from which an oil pipeline would enable the oil to be sent to Rhodesia.
An oil embargo is an economic situation wherein entities engage in an embargo to limit the transport of petroleum to or from an area, in order to exact some desired outcome.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
The pound sterling (symbol: £; ISO code: GBP), commonly known as the pound and less commonly referred to as Sterling, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, Jersey, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, the British Antarctic Territory, and Tristan da Cunha.
The Prime Minister of Rhodesia (before 1964, of Southern Rhodesia) was the head of government in Rhodesia.
Rhodesia was an unrecognised state in southern Africa from 1965 to 1979, equivalent in territory to modern Zimbabwe.
The Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI) was a statement adopted by the Cabinet of Rhodesia on 11 November 1965, announcing that Rhodesia, a British territory in southern Africa that had governed itself since 1923, now regarded itself as an independent sovereign state.
The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 217, adopted unanimously on November 20, 1965, determined that the situation resulting from the Unilateral Declaration of Independence was extremely grave and that the Government of the United Kingdom should put an end to it as it constitutes a threat to international peace and security.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 221, adopted on April 9, 1966, after recalling previous resolutions on the topic (including the provision for an oil embargo), the Council was gravely concerned that Southern Rhodesia might receive a large supply of oil as the Joanna V, an oil tanker, had already arrived at Beira.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 232, adopted on December 16, 1966, noted with concern that the efforts to break off international economic activity with Southern Rhodesia had failed to bring the rebellion to an end, the Council decided that all member states would prevent the importation of an asbestos, iron ore, chrome, pig-iron, sugar, tobacco, copper, or animal-products that had originated in Southern Rhodesia.
Zimbabwe, officially the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country located in southern Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers, bordered by South Africa, Botswana, Zambia and Mozambique. The capital and largest city is Harare. A country of roughly million people, Zimbabwe has 16 official languages, with English, Shona, and Ndebele the most commonly used. Since the 11th century, present-day Zimbabwe has been the site of several organised states and kingdoms as well as a major route for migration and trade. The British South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes first demarcated the present territory during the 1890s; it became the self-governing British colony of Southern Rhodesia in 1923. In 1965, the conservative white minority government unilaterally declared independence as Rhodesia. The state endured international isolation and a 15-year guerrilla war with black nationalist forces; this culminated in a peace agreement that established universal enfranchisement and de jure sovereignty as Zimbabwe in April 1980. Zimbabwe then joined the Commonwealth of Nations, from which it was suspended in 2002 for breaches of international law by its then government and from which it withdrew from in December 2003. It is a member of the United Nations, the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the African Union (AU), and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). It was once known as the "Jewel of Africa" for its prosperity. Robert Mugabe became Prime Minister of Zimbabwe in 1980, when his ZANU-PF party won the elections following the end of white minority rule; he was the President of Zimbabwe from 1987 until his resignation in 2017. Under Mugabe's authoritarian regime, the state security apparatus dominated the country and was responsible for widespread human rights violations. Mugabe maintained the revolutionary socialist rhetoric of the Cold War era, blaming Zimbabwe's economic woes on conspiring Western capitalist countries. Contemporary African political leaders were reluctant to criticise Mugabe, who was burnished by his anti-imperialist credentials, though Archbishop Desmond Tutu called him "a cartoon figure of an archetypal African dictator". The country has been in economic decline since the 1990s, experiencing several crashes and hyperinflation along the way. On 15 November 2017, in the wake of over a year of protests against his government as well as Zimbabwe's rapidly declining economy, Mugabe was placed under house arrest by the country's national army in a coup d'état. On 19 November 2017, ZANU-PF sacked Robert Mugabe as party leader and appointed former Vice President Emmerson Mnangagwa in his place. On 21 November 2017, Mugabe tendered his resignation prior to impeachment proceedings being completed.