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Index Beirut

Beirut (بيروت, Beyrouth) is the capital and largest city of Lebanon. [1]

413 relations: Abdullah Pasha ibn Ali, Abed Mahfouz, Acheulean, Achrafieh, Acre, Israel, Ad-Diyar, Adonis, Aemilius Papinianus, AFC Asian Cup, Africa, Al Akhbar (Lebanon), Al Jadeed, Al Joumhouria, Al Sharq, Al-Balad (newspaper), Al-Mustaqbal (newspaper), Albert Londres Prize, Aldus Manutius, Aleppo, Amarna, Amarna letters, American Community School Beirut, American University of Beirut, American University of Science and Technology, Americas, Amman, Ammunira, An-Nahar, Anchor, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Rome, Anno Domini, Antiochus VII Sidetes, Apostolic vicariate, Arab Air Carriers Organization, Arab League, Arab world, Arabesque, Archaeological Museum of the American University of Beirut, Archaeology, Armenian Apostolic Church, Armenian Catholic Church, Armenian Evangelical Central High School, Armenian Evangelical Church, Armenians in Lebanon, As-Safir, Ashkal Alwan, Assassination of Mohamad Chatah, Assyrian Church of the East, Athens, ..., Auguste Bergy, Avenue de Paris, Avenue des Français, Avenue General de Gaulle, Axe, École supérieure des affaires (Beirut), Baalbek, Badaro, Baghdad, Banque du Liban, Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, Beirut Arab University, Beirut Art Center, Beirut Central District, Beirut Governorate, Beirut Hippodrome, Beirut International Exhibition & Leisure Center, Beirut Marathon, Beirut Municipal Stadium, Beirut River, Beirut Souks, Beirut Stock Exchange, Beirut–Rafic Hariri International Airport, Beqaa Valley, Beroe (mythology), Berytus, BLOM Bank, Bohemian, Breccia, Bronze Age, Byblos, Byzantine Empire, Camille Chamoun Sports City Stadium, Canaanean blade, Canaanite languages, Canada, Car bomb, Catholic Church in Lebanon, Cedar Revolution, Census, Central bank, Chalcolithic, Chaldean Catholic Church, Christianity in Lebanon, Civil authority, Civil marriage, Claudius, Collège Louise Wegmann, Collège Notre Dame de Jamhour, Collège Protestant Français, Colonia (Roman), Colonnaded Street, Condé Nast Traveler, Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, Corniche Beirut, Cosmopolitanism, Crusades, Culture minister, Cuneiform script, Damascus, Diana Kirkbride, Digest (Roman law), Diodotus Tryphon, Directorate General of Antiquities, Discalced Carmelites, Doha, Doha Agreement, Dubai, Durban, Eastern European Summer Time, Eastern European Time, Economy, Economy of Lebanon, Education in Lebanon, Elie Saab, Encyclopaedia Biblica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Europe, Fairfax Media, Fakhr-al-Din II, Fête de la Musique, FIBA Asia Challenge, FIBA Asia Champions Cup, Flint, Fluvial terrace, French Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon, Future TV, Gaby Layoun, Garden of Forgiveness, Georges Chakra, German School Beirut, Ghobeiry, Global city, Global University, Globalization and World Cities Research Network, Godefroy Zumoffen, Golf Club of Lebanon, Governorates of Lebanon, Grand Lycée Franco-Libanais, Grand Serail, Greater Beirut, Green Line (Lebanon), Gully, Haigazian University, Hamra Street, Hamra, Beirut, Hand axe, Harbor, Harissa-Daraoun, Havana, Hekmeh, Hellenistic period, Henri Fleisch, Henri Philippe Pharaoun, Herod the Great, Hezbollah, Hippodrome of Berytus, History of ancient Lebanon, History of Lebanon, History of the Jews in Lebanon, Homenetmen Beirut B.C., Horsh Beirut, House of Ibelin, Hundred Days' War, Hut circle, Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt, Industry (archaeology), Internal Security Forces, International College, Beirut, International Labour Organization, International Monetary Fund, Islam in Lebanon, Islamic art, Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, Israel, Istanbul, Javelin, Jazzar Pasha, Jeux de la Francophonie, John of Ibelin, the Old Lord of Beirut, Justinian I, Köppen climate classification, Kibibyte, Kingdom of Jerusalem, Koolaids: The Art of War, Kuala Lumpur, Kuwait City, L'Orient-Le Jour, La Paz, Laodice of Macedonia, Latin, Latin Church, Law school of Beirut, Lebanese American University, Lebanese Armed Forces, Lebanese Basketball League, Lebanese Broadcasting Corporation International, Lebanese Civil War, Lebanese Forces, Lebanese International University, Lebanese people (Druze followers), Lebanese people (Greek Orthodox Christians), Lebanese people (Maronite Christians), Lebanese people (Melkite Christians), Lebanese people (Protestant Christians), Lebanese people (Shia Muslims), Lebanese people (Sunni Muslims), Lebanese University, Lebanon, Lebanon men's national ice hockey team, Legio III Gallica, Legio V Macedonica, Levallois technique, Levant, Limestone, List of cities and towns in Lebanon, List of cities in Syria, List of countries by GNI (nominal, Atlas method) per capita, List of oldest continuously inhabited cities, Lonely Planet, Lorraine Copeland, Los Angeles, Louis Burkhalter, Lustre (mineralogy), Lycée Abdel Kader, Lycée Franco-Libanais Verdun, Maghen Abraham Synagogue, Mamluk, Mar Elias refugee camp, Mar Mikhaël, March 14 Alliance, Marseille, Martyrs' Square, Beirut, Mayor, Mediterranean climate, Mediterranean Games, Mediterranean Sea, Mercer (consulting firm), Metres above sea level, Metropolitan area, Mexico City, Middle Ages, Middle East, Middle East Airlines, Middle Paleolithic, Millet (Ottoman Empire), Mim Museum, Mineral, Minorities (Lebanon), Miss Europe, Missionary, Mohamad Chatah, Mohammad Al-Amin Mosque, Montreal, Morus (plant), Mosaic, Moscow, Moshe Sharon, Mount Lebanon, Mousterian, MTV (Lebanon), Museum of Fine Arts of Lyon, Museum of Lebanese Prehistory, National Museum of Beirut, Neolithic, New7Wonders Cities, Nicolas Sursock, No man's land, Notre Dame University – Louaize, OCFTC, October 2012 Beirut bombing, Orchard, Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, Ottoman architecture, Ottoman Empire, OTV (Lebanon), Palestinian refugee camps, Pan Arab Games, Panorama, Paris Chamber of Commerce, Parliament of Lebanon, Patron saint, Paul Bovier-Lapierre, Paul Dahdah, Peninsula, People's Television Network, Persian Gulf, Peter Wescombe, Pharaoh, Phoenicia, Phoenician port of Beirut, Pine Residence, Pompey, Port of Beirut, Prehistory, Quaternary, Quebec City, Rabih Alameddine, Rabih Kayrouz, Rafic Hariri, Ramlet al-Baida, Raouché, Raoul Desribes, Ras Beirut, Reem Acra, Religion in Lebanon, Rib-Hadda, Richard Talbert, River mouth, Robert Mouawad Private Museum, Roman Baths, Beirut, Roman Empire, Roman legion, Roman province, Romanization (cultural), Rome, Rotana Group, Rue Gouraud, Rue Monnot, Rue Verdun, Rugby league in Lebanon, Saifi Village, Saint George, Saint George Bay, Saint George Greek Orthodox Cathedral, Saint Joseph University, Saladin, Salim Ali Salam, Samir Kassir, Sand, Sanjak, São Paulo, Seat of government, Seleucid Empire, Selim I, Severan dynasty, Shatila refugee camp, Sidon, Sin el Fil, Sister city, Society of Jesus, Solidere, Sporting Al Riyadi Beirut, St. George Maronite Cathedral, Beirut, St. Georges Hotel, Beirut, Stone tool, Street art, Sursock family, Sursock Museum, Syria, Syriac Catholic Church, Syriac Orthodox Church, Télé Liban, Télé Lumière, Tel Aviv, Tell (archaeology), Terrorism, The Daily Star (Lebanon), The New York Times, Travel + Leisure, Tripoli, Tripoli, Lebanon, Tunis, Tyche, Ulpian, UNESCO, Union of Arab Banks, United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia, United Nations General Assembly, Université La Sagesse, University of Balamand, University of Marburg, UNRWA, Upper Paleolithic, Vassals of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, Venetian Gothic architecture, Venice, Vigan, Wilayah, Wissam al-Hassan, Yammoune, Yazan Halwani, Yerevan, Zuhair Murad, Zuqaq al-Blat, 1860 Mount Lebanon civil war, 1957 Pan Arab Games, 1959 Mediterranean Games, 1982 Lebanon War, 1983 Beirut barracks bombings, 1997 Pan Arab Games, 1999 ABC Champions Cup, 2000 ABC Champions Cup, 2000 AFC Asian Cup, 2006 Lebanon War, 2008 conflict in Lebanon, 2009 Jeux de la Francophonie, 2010 FIBA Asia Stanković Cup, 2012 FIBA Asia Champions Cup, 2015 Beirut bombings, 2015–16 Lebanese protests, 2017 FIBA Asia Cup, 551 Beirut earthquake. Expand index (363 more) »

Abdullah Pasha ibn Ali

Abdullah Pasha ibn Ali (commonly referred to simply as Abdullah Pasha; 1801–?) was the Ottoman governor (wali) of Sidon Eyalet between May 1820 and May 1832, with a nine-month interruption in 1822–23.

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Abed Mahfouz

Abed Mahfouz (born 1956) is a Lebanese fashion designer.

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Acheulean (also Acheulian and Mode II), from the French acheuléen, is an archaeological industry of stone tool manufacture characterized by distinctive oval and pear-shaped "hand-axes" associated with Homo erectus and derived species such as Homo heidelbergensis.

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Achrafieh (الأشرفية; Achrafieh; Աշրաֆիեհ) also spelled Ashrafieh and Ashrafiyeh, is one of the oldest districts of Beirut, Lebanon.

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Acre, Israel

Acre (or, עַכּוֹ, ʻAko, most commonly spelled as Akko; عكّا, ʻAkkā) is a city in the coastal plain region of Israel's Northern District at the extremity of Haifa Bay.

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Ad-Diyar (الديار meaning The Home) is an Arabic-language daily newspaper published in Beirut, Lebanon.

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Adonis was the mortal lover of the goddess Aphrodite in Greek mythology.

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Aemilius Papinianus

Aemilius Papinianus (Αιμίλιος Παπινιανός) (142–212), also known as Papinian, was a celebrated Roman jurist, magister libellorum, attorney general (advocatus fisci) and, after the death of Gaius Fulvius Plautianus in 205, praetorian prefect.

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AFC Asian Cup

The AFC Asian Cup is an international association football tournament run by the Asian Football Confederation (AFC).

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Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).

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Al Akhbar (Lebanon)

Al Akhbar (الأخبار, literally "The News") is a daily Arabic language newspaper published in a semi tabloid format in Beirut.

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Al Jadeed

Al Jadeed (الجديد) Formerly known as NewTV privately owned 24-hour pan-Arab TV station.

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Al Joumhouria

Al Joumhouria (الجمهورية) (literally The Republic) is a Lebanese daily newspaper founded in 1924, and according to IPSOS NRS 2017, Al Joumhouria became the number 1 newspaper in Lebanon.

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Al Sharq

Al Sharq (in Arabic الشرق meaning The Orient) is an Arabic and pro-government daily newspaper published in Doha, Qatar.

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Al-Balad (newspaper)

Al-Balad (البلد) meaning The country, officially Sada Al-Balad (صدى البلد) meaning The echo of the country) is an Arabic-language daily newspaper in Lebanon. Its headquarters is in Beirut. It is a tabloid commercial paper.

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Al-Mustaqbal (newspaper)

Al-Mustaqbal (المستقبل in Arabic) (English translation: The Future) is an Arabic language daily newspaper in Lebanon, headquartered in Beirut.

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Albert Londres Prize

The Albert Londres Prize is the highest French journalism award, named in honor of journalist Albert Londres.

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Aldus Manutius

Aldus Pius Manutius (Aldo Pio Manuzio; 1449/14526 February 1515) was a Venetian humanist, scholar, and educator.

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Aleppo (ﺣﻠﺐ / ALA-LC) is a city in Syria, serving as the capital of the Aleppo Governorate, the most-populous Syrian governorate.

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Amarna (al-ʿamārnah) is an extensive Egyptian archaeological site that represents the remains of the capital city newly established and built by the Pharaoh Akhenaten of the late Eighteenth Dynasty, and abandoned shortly after his death (1332 BC).

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Amarna letters

The Amarna letters (sometimes referred to as the Amarna correspondence or Amarna tablets, and cited with the abbreviation EA) are an archive, written on clay tablets, primarily consisting of diplomatic correspondence between the Egyptian administration and its representatives in Canaan and Amurru during the New Kingdom.

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American Community School Beirut

The American Community School Beirut, (مدرسة الجالية الأميركية في بيروت), also known as ACS Beirut, is an elite, private school located in Beirut, Lebanon, founded in 1905, traditionally attached to the American University of Beirut.

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American University of Beirut

The American University of Beirut (AUB); الجامعة الأمريكية في بيروت) is a private, secular and independent university in Beirut, Lebanon. Degrees awarded at the American University of Beirut (AUB) are officially registered with the New York Board of Regents. The university is ranked number 1 in the Arab region and 235 in the world in the 2018 QS World University Rankings. The American University of Beirut is governed by a private, autonomous Board of Trustees and offers programs leading to bachelor's, master's, MD, and PhD degrees. It collaborates with many universities around the world, notably with Columbia University, George Washington University School of Medicine & Health Sciences in Washington, DC; Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, and the University of Paris. The current president is Fadlo R. Khuri, MD. The American University of Beirut (AUB) boasts an operating budget of $380 million with an endowment of approximately $500 million. The campus is composed of 64 buildings, including the American University of Beirut Medical Center (AUBMC, formerly known as AUH – American University Hospital) (420 beds), four libraries, three museums and seven dormitories. Almost one-fifth of AUB's students attended secondary school or university outside Lebanon before coming to AUB. AUB graduates reside in more than 120 countries worldwide. The language of instruction is English.

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American University of Science and Technology

The American University of Science and Technology (AUST), (Université américaine de sciences et technologie or الجامعة الأميركية للعلوم والتكنولوجيا), is a private, non-sectarian and co-educational American university in Lebanon.

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The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.

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Amman (عمّان) is the capital and most populous city of Jordan, and the country's economic, political and cultural centre.

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Ammunira was a king of Beirut in the mid-fourteenth century BCE.

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An-Nahar (النهار) (English translation: The Morning or The Day) is a leading Arabic-language daily newspaper published in Lebanon.

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An anchor is a device, normally made of metal, used to connect a vessel to the bed of a body of water to prevent the craft from drifting due to wind or current.

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Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.

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Ancient Rome

In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.

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Anno Domini

The terms anno Domini (AD) and before Christ (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars.

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Antiochus VII Sidetes

Antiochus VII Euergetes (Ἀντίοχος Ζ΄ Ευεργέτης), nicknamed Sidetes (Σιδήτης) (from Side, a city in Asia Minor), ruler of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire, reigned from 138 to 129 BC.

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Apostolic vicariate

An apostolic vicariate is a form of territorial jurisdiction of the Roman Catholic Church centered in missionary regions and countries where a diocese has not yet been established.

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Arab Air Carriers Organization

The Arab Air Carriers Organization (AACO; lit), headquartered in Beirut, Lebanon, was established in 1965 upon the recommendation of the Transport Committee of the League of Arab States and the endorsement of the Arab transport ministers.

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Arab League

The Arab League (الجامعة العربية), formally the League of Arab States (جامعة الدول العربية), is a regional organization of Arab states in and around North Africa, the Horn of Africa and Arabia.

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Arab world

The Arab world (العالم العربي; formally: Arab homeland, الوطن العربي), also known as the Arab nation (الأمة العربية) or the Arab states, currently consists of the 22 Arab countries of the Arab League.

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The arabesque is a form of artistic decoration consisting of "surface decorations based on rhythmic linear patterns of scrolling and interlacing foliage, tendrils" or plain lines, often combined with other elements.

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Archaeological Museum of the American University of Beirut

The Archaeology Museum of the American University of Beirut in Beirut, Lebanon is the third oldest museum in the Near East after Cairo and Constantinople.

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Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.

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Armenian Apostolic Church

The Armenian Apostolic Church (translit) is the national church of the Armenian people.

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Armenian Catholic Church

The Armenian Catholic Church (translit; Ecclesia armeno-catholica), improperly referred to as the Armenian Uniate Church, is one of the Eastern particular churches sui iuris of the Catholic Church.

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Armenian Evangelical Central High School

The Armenian Evangelical Central High School (Հայ Աւետարանական Կեդրոնական Բարձրագոյն Վարժարան) is one of the oldest and most-well established Armenian schools in Lebanon.

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Armenian Evangelical Church

The Armenian Evangelical Church (Հայաստանեայց Աւետարանական Եկեղեցի) was established on July 1, 1846, by thirty-seven men and three women in Constantinople.

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Armenians in Lebanon

The Armenians in Lebanon (Լիբանանահայեր lipananahayer, اللبنانيون الأرمن) (Libano-Arméniens) are Lebanese citizens of Armenian descent.

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As-Safir (السفير), meaning The Ambassador, was a leading Arabic-language daily newspaper in Lebanon.

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Ashkal Alwan

Ashkal Alwan, The Lebanese Association for Plastic Arts is an association promoting and producing contemporary art practices in Lebanon.

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Assassination of Mohamad Chatah

The assassination of Mohamad Chatah occurred on 27 December 2013 when a car bomb targeting a convoy detonated in Beirut Central District killing Chatah, his bodyguard, and four others.

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Assyrian Church of the East

The Assyrian Church of the East (ܥܕܬܐ ܕܡܕܢܚܐ ܕܐܬܘܖ̈ܝܐ ʻĒdtā d-Madenḥā d-Ātorāyē), officially the Holy Apostolic Catholic Assyrian Church of the East (ʻEdtā Qaddīštā wa-Šlīḥāitā Qātolīqī d-Madenḥā d-Ātorāyē), is an Eastern Christian Church that follows the traditional christology and ecclesiology of the historical Church of the East.

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Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.

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Auguste Bergy

Reverend Father Auguste Bergy (1873 – 31 August 1955) was a French Jesuit archaeologist known for his work on prehistory in Lebanon.

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Avenue de Paris

Avenue de Paris is a seaside, palm-lined street in Beirut, Lebanon.

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Avenue des Français

Avenue des Français was a wide, palm-lined, seaside street in Beirut, Lebanon, and now part of the pedestrian promenade, the Shoreline Walk.

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Avenue General de Gaulle

Avenue Général de Gaulle is a seaside, palm-lined street in Beirut, Lebanon.

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An axe (British English or ax (American English; see spelling differences) is an implement that has been used for millennia to shape, split and cut wood; to harvest timber; as a weapon; and as a ceremonial or heraldic symbol. The axe has many forms and specialised uses but generally consists of an axe head with a handle, or helve. Before the modern axe, the stone-age hand axe was used from 1.5 million years BP without a handle. It was later fastened to a wooden handle. The earliest examples of handled axes have heads of stone with some form of wooden handle attached (hafted) in a method to suit the available materials and use. Axes made of copper, bronze, iron and steel appeared as these technologies developed. Axes are usually composed of a head and a handle. The axe is an example of a simple machine, as it is a type of wedge, or dual inclined plane. This reduces the effort needed by the wood chopper. It splits the wood into two parts by the pressure concentration at the blade. The handle of the axe also acts as a lever allowing the user to increase the force at the cutting edge—not using the full length of the handle is known as choking the axe. For fine chopping using a side axe this sometimes is a positive effect, but for felling with a double bitted axe it reduces efficiency. Generally, cutting axes have a shallow wedge angle, whereas splitting axes have a deeper angle. Most axes are double bevelled, i.e. symmetrical about the axis of the blade, but some specialist broadaxes have a single bevel blade, and usually an offset handle that allows them to be used for finishing work without putting the user's knuckles at risk of injury. Less common today, they were once an integral part of a joiner and carpenter's tool kit, not just a tool for use in forestry. A tool of similar origin is the billhook. However, in France and Holland, the billhook often replaced the axe as a joiner's bench tool. Most modern axes have steel heads and wooden handles, typically hickory in the US and ash in Europe and Asia, although plastic or fibreglass handles are also common. Modern axes are specialised by use, size and form. Hafted axes with short handles designed for use with one hand are often called hand axes but the term hand axe refers to axes without handles as well. Hatchets tend to be small hafted axes often with a hammer on the back side (the poll). As easy-to-make weapons, axes have frequently been used in combat.

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École supérieure des affaires (Beirut)

Established in 1996 following an intergovernmental agreement between France and Lebanon, the École supérieure des affaires (ESA) is a business school in Beirut, Lebanon dedicated to the education of executives and managers in Lebanon and the Middle East and managed by the Paris Île-de-France Regional Chamber of Commerce and Industry.

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Baalbek, properly Baʿalbek (بعلبك) and also known as Balbec, Baalbec or Baalbeck, is a city in the Anti-Lebanon foothills east of the Litani River in Lebanon's Beqaa Valley, about northeast of Beirut and about north of Damascus.

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Badaro is a well-known mostly Christian residential neighbourhood and business hub in the heart of Beirut.

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Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.

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Banque du Liban

Bank of Lebanon officially Banque du Liban (BDL, مصرف لبنان) is the central bank of Lebanon.

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Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World

The Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World is a large-format English language atlas of ancient Europe, Asia, and North Africa, edited by Richard J. A. Talbert.

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Beirut Arab University

Beirut Arab University (BAU) (جـامعة بيروت العربية) is a Lebanese private university located in Beirut, Lebanon.

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Beirut Art Center

Beirut Art Center is a space for exhibiting contemporary art in Beirut, Lebanon.

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Beirut Central District

The Beirut Central District (BCD) or Centre Ville is the name given to Beirut’s historical and geographical core, the “vibrant financial, commercial, and administrative hub of the country.” At the heart of Lebanon’s capital, Beirut Central District (BCD) is an area thousands of years old, traditionally a focus of business, finance, culture and leisure.

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Beirut Governorate

Beirut Governorate (Arabic) is a Lebanese governorate that consists of one district and one city, Beirut, which is also its capital, and the capital of Lebanon.

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Beirut Hippodrome

Beirut, the capital of Lebanon, is home to two hippodromes, a historic one from the Roman era and a modern one that was built in the late 19th century.

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Beirut International Exhibition & Leisure Center

The Beirut International Exhibition & Leisure Center (commonly BIEL) is a large multi-purpose facility, in Tohwitta, Fern el Cheback, Emile Lahoud highway Beirut.

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Beirut Marathon

The Beirut Marathon, known also as the Beirut International Marathon (BIM), is an annual event that takes place in Beirut, Lebanon.

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Beirut Municipal Stadium

Beirut Municipal Stadium is an 18,000 capacity multi-purpose stadium in Beirut, Lebanon.

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Beirut River

Beirut River (نهر بيروت, Nahr Bayrūt) is a river in Lebanon.

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Beirut Souks

Beirut Souks is a major commercial district in Beirut Central District.

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Beirut Stock Exchange

The Beirut Stock Exchange (or BSE) is the principal stock exchange of Lebanon.

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Beirut–Rafic Hariri International Airport

Beirut–Rafic Hariri International Airport (مطار بيروت رفيق الحريري الدولي, Maṭār Bayrūt Rafīq al-Ḥarīrī ad-Dwaliyy) (Aéroport international de Beyrouth.), formerly Beirut International Airport, is located from the city center in the southern suburbs of Beirut, Lebanon, and is the only operational commercial airport in the country.

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Beqaa Valley

The Beqaa Valley (وادي البقاع,, Lebanese; Բեքայի դաշտավայր), also transliterated as Bekaa, Biqâ and Becaa and known in Classical antiquity as Coele-Syria, is a fertile valley in eastern Lebanon.

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Beroe (mythology)

Beroe (Greek: Βερόη) in Greek mythology is a nymph of Beirut, the daughter of Aphrodite and Adonis, and sister of Golgos.

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Berytus (Colonia Iulia Augusta Felix Berytus) was a Roman colonia that was the center of Roman presence in the eastern Mediterranean shores south of Anatolia.

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BLOM Bank (Banque du Liban et D’Outre Mer; بنك لبنان والمهجر) is a Lebanese bank established in 1951 and has been repeatedly selected as the Best Bank in Lebanon by several financial institutions such as Euromoney and The Banker.

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A Bohemian is a resident of Bohemia, a region of the Czech Republic or the former Kingdom of Bohemia, a region of the former Crown of Bohemia (lands of the Bohemian Crown).

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Breccia is a rock composed of broken fragments of minerals or rock cemented together by a fine-grained matrix that can be similar to or different from the composition of the fragments.

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Bronze Age

The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.

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Byblos, in Arabic Jbail (جبيل Lebanese Arabic pronunciation:; Phoenician: 𐤂𐤁𐤋 Gebal), is a Middle Eastern city on Levant coast in the Mount Lebanon Governorate, Lebanon.

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Byzantine Empire

The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).

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Camille Chamoun Sports City Stadium

Camille Chamoun Sports City Stadium (Arabic: ملعب مدينة كميل شمعون الرياضية) is a multi-purpose stadium with a capacity of 48,837 seats, located in the Bir Hassan area of Beirut, Lebanon.

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Canaanean blade

A Canaanean blade is an archaeological term for a long, wide blade made out of stone or flint, predominantly found at sites in Israel and Lebanon (ancient Canaan).

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Canaanite languages

The Canaanite languages, or Canaanite dialects, are one of the three subgroups of the Northwest Semitic languages, the others being Aramaic and Amorite.

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Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.

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Car bomb

A car bomb, lorry bomb, or truck bomb, also known as a vehicle-borne improvised explosive device (VBIED), is an improvised explosive device placed inside a car or other vehicle and detonated.

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Catholic Church in Lebanon

The Catholic Church in Lebanon is part of the worldwide Catholic Church under the spiritual leadership of the Pope in Rome.

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Cedar Revolution

The Cedar Revolution (Arabic: ثورة الأرز - thawrat al-arz) or Independence Intifada (Arabic: انتفاضة الاستقلال - intifāḍat al-istiqlāl) was a chain of demonstrations in Lebanon (especially in the capital Beirut) triggered by the assassination of former Lebanese Prime Minister, Rafik Hariri.

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A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population.

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Central bank

A central bank, reserve bank, or monetary authority is an institution that manages a state's currency, money supply, and interest rates.

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The Chalcolithic (The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998), p. 301: "Chalcolithic /,kælkəl'lɪθɪk/ adjective Archaeology of, relating to, or denoting a period in the 4th and 3rd millennium BCE, chiefly in the Near East and SE Europe, during which some weapons and tools were made of copper. This period was still largely Neolithic in character. Also called Eneolithic... Also called Copper Age - Origin early 20th cent.: from Greek khalkos 'copper' + lithos 'stone' + -ic". χαλκός khalkós, "copper" and λίθος líthos, "stone") period or Copper Age, in particular for eastern Europe often named Eneolithic or Æneolithic (from Latin aeneus "of copper"), was a period in the development of human technology, before it was discovered that adding tin to copper formed the harder bronze, leading to the Bronze Age.

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Chaldean Catholic Church

The Chaldean Catholic Church (ܥܕܬܐ ܟܠܕܝܬܐ ܩܬܘܠܝܩܝܬܐ, ʿīdtha kaldetha qāthuliqetha; Arabic: الكنيسة الكلدانية al-Kanīsa al-kaldāniyya; translation) is an Eastern Catholic particular church (sui juris) in full communion with the Holy See and the rest of the Catholic Church, with the Chaldean Patriarchate having been originally formed out of the Church of the East in 1552.

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Christianity in Lebanon


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Civil authority

Civil authority or civilian authority, also known as civilian government, is the practical implementation of a State, other than its military units, that enforces law and order.

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Civil marriage

A civil marriage is a marriage performed, recorded and recognised by a government official.

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Claudius (Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 1 August 10 BC – 13 October 54 AD) was Roman emperor from 41 to 54.

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Collège Louise Wegmann

Established in 1965, Collège Louise Wegmann is a non-denominational school serving students in kindergarten through high school in Lebanon.

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Collège Notre Dame de Jamhour

Collège Notre-Dame de Jamhour is a private, French-language, Jesuit, Catholic educational institution set in Jamhour (eastern suburb of Beirut, Lebanon).

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Collège Protestant Français

Collège Protestant Français (CPF) is a French international school in Chouran, Beirut, Lebanon.

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Colonia (Roman)

A Roman colonia (plural coloniae) was originally a Roman outpost established in conquered territory to secure it.

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Colonnaded Street

Colonnaded Street is located in downtown Beirut, Lebanon.

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Condé Nast Traveler

Condé Nast Traveler is a luxury and lifestyle travel magazine published by Condé Nast.

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Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria

The Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria (Coptic: Ϯⲉⲕ̀ⲕⲗⲏⲥⲓⲁ ̀ⲛⲣⲉⲙ̀ⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲛⲟⲣⲑⲟⲇⲟⲝⲟⲥ, ti.eklyseya en.remenkimi en.orthodoxos, literally: the Egyptian Orthodox Church) is an Oriental Orthodox Christian church based in Egypt, Northeast Africa and the Middle East.

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Corniche Beirut

The Corniche Beirut is a seaside promenade in Beirut Central District, in Beirut, Lebanon.

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Cosmopolitanism is the ideology that all human beings belong to a single community, based on a shared morality.

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The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.

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Culture minister

A culture minister is a Cabinet position in governments.

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Cuneiform script

Cuneiform script, one of the earliest systems of writing, was invented by the Sumerians.

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Damascus (دمشق, Syrian) is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic; it is also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the battle for the city.

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Diana Kirkbride

Diana Victoria Warcup Kirkbride-Helbæk, (22 October 1915 – 13 August 1997) was a British archaeologist who specialised in the prehistory of the Near East.

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Digest (Roman law)

The Digest, also known as the Pandects (Digesta seu Pandectae, adapted from πανδέκτης pandéktēs, "all-containing"), is a name given to a compendium or digest of juristic writings on Roman law compiled by order of the Eastern Roman emperor Justinian I in the 6th century CE (530–533).

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Diodotus Tryphon

Diodotus Tryphon (Διόδοτος Τρύφων) was a king of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire who initially acted as regent and tutor for the son of Alexander Balas, but soon declared himself king in 142 BC after the death of his charge, Antiochus VI Dionysus, and reigned until his own death in 138 BC.

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Directorate General of Antiquities

The Directorate General of Antiquities (DGA) or La Direction Générale des Antiquités et des Musées is a Lebanese government directorate, technical unit of the Ministry of Culture and is responsible for the protection, promotion and excavation activities in all sites of national heritage in Lebanon.

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Discalced Carmelites

The Discalced Carmelites or Barefoot Carmelites is a Catholic mendicant order with roots in the eremitic tradition of the Desert Fathers and Mothers.

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Doha (الدوحة, or ad-Dōḥa) is the capital and most populous city of the State of Qatar.

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Doha Agreement

The Doha Agreement was an agreement reached by rival Lebanese factions on 21 May 2008 in Doha, Qatar.

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Dubai (دبي) is the largest and most populous city in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).

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Durban (eThekwini, from itheku meaning "bay/lagoon") is the largest city in the South African province of KwaZulu-Natal and the third most populous in South Africa after Johannesburg and Cape Town.

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Eastern European Summer Time

Eastern European Summer Time (EEST) is one of the names of UTC+3 time zone, 3 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time.

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Eastern European Time

Eastern European Time (EET) is one of the names of UTC+02:00 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time.

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An economy (from Greek οίκος – "household" and νέμoμαι – "manage") is an area of the production, distribution, or trade, and consumption of goods and services by different agents.

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Economy of Lebanon

The economy of Lebanon is a developing economy, with a private sector that contributes to 75% of aggregate demand and a large banking sector that supports this demand.

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Education in Lebanon

Education in Lebanon is regulated by the Ministry of Education and Higher Education (MEHE).

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Elie Saab

Elie Saab (Arabic: إيلي صعب) (born 4 July 1964) is a Lebanese fashion designer.

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Encyclopaedia Biblica

Encyclopaedia Biblica: A Critical Dictionary of the Literary, Political and Religion History, the Archeology, Geography and Natural History of the Bible (1899), edited by Thomas Kelly Cheyne and J. Sutherland Black, is a critical encyclopedia of the Bible.

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Encyclopædia Britannica

The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.

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Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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Fairfax Media

Fairfax Media Limited (formerly John Fairfax and Sons) is one of the largest media companies in Australia and New Zealand, with investments in newspaper, magazines, radio and digital properties.

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Fakhr-al-Din II

Fakhr-al-Din ibn Maan (August 6, 1572 – April 13, 1635) (الامير فخر الدين بن معن), also known as Fakhreddine and Fakhr-ad-Din II, was a Druze Ma'ani Emir and an early leader of the Mount Lebanon Emirate, a self-governed area under the Ottoman Empire.

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Fête de la Musique

The Fête de la Musique, also known as Music Day, Make Music Day or World Music Day, is an annual music celebration that takes place on 21 June.

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FIBA Asia Challenge

The FIBA Asia Challenge, previously known as the FIBA Asia Stanković Cup between 2004 and 2010 and FIBA Asia Cup from 2012 to 2014, is a basketball tournament which takes place every two years between teams from Asia.

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FIBA Asia Champions Cup

The FIBA Asia Champions Cup, previously known as the Asian Basketball Confederation (ABC) Champions Cup until 2002, is the Asian club championship for professional basketball.

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Flint is a hard, sedimentary cryptocrystalline form of the mineral quartz, categorized as a variety of chert.

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Fluvial terrace

Fluvial terraces are elongated terraces that flank the sides of floodplains and fluvial valleys all over the world.

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French Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon

The Mandate for Syria and Lebanon (Mandat français pour la Syrie et le Liban; الانتداب الفرنسي على سوريا ولبنان) (1923−1946) was a League of Nations mandate founded after the First World War and the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire concerning Syria and Lebanon.

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Future TV

Future Television (تلفزيون المستقبل, Televiziyon al-Mustaqbal) is a television station broadcasting from Lebanon.

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Gaby Layoun

Gaby Leon Capi Emile Layoun (born 1 November 1964, Zahle) was the Lebanese Minister of Culture, announced as part of the cabinet led by Najib Mikati.

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Garden of Forgiveness

The Garden of Forgiveness, (also known as Hadiqat As-Samah in Arabic), lies close to Martyrs’ Square and the wartime Green Line.

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Georges Chakra

Georges Chakra is a Beirut-based Lebanese haute couture fashion designer.

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German School Beirut

German School Beirut (Deutsche Schule Beirut, DSB; المدرسة الألمانيّة – بيروت) is a German international school in Lebanon, with campuses in Manara Bliss, Beirut and Khalde Naemeh, Doha.

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Ghobeiry (غبيري; also spelled Ghbayreh or Ghabariyeh) is a municipality in the Baabda District of Mount Lebanon Governorate, Lebanon.

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Global city

A global city, also called world city or sometimes alpha city or world center, is a city which is a primary node in the global economic network.

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Global University

Global University (GU; الجامعة العالمية) is an educational institution established in 1992.

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Globalization and World Cities Research Network

The Globalization and World Cities Research Network, commonly abbreviated to GaWC, is a think tank that studies the relationships between world cities in the context of globalization.

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Godefroy Zumoffen

Reverend Father Godefroy Zumoffen (1848 in France – 1928) was a French Jesuit archaeologist and geologist notable for his work on prehistory in Lebanon.

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Golf Club of Lebanon

Golf Club of Lebanon is a country club and golf course founded in 1923 and is located in Beirut, Lebanon.

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Governorates of Lebanon

Lebanon is divided into eight governorates (muhafazah): All of the governorates except for Beirut and Akkar are divided into districts, and then subdivided into municipalities.

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Grand Lycée Franco-Libanais

The Grand Lycée Franco-Libanais (GLFL), is a French lycée in the Achrafieh district of Beirut, founded in 1909 by the Mission laïque française.

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Grand Serail

The Grand Serail (السراي الكبير (Al-Sarāy al-Kabir)(Le Grand Serail); also known as the Government Palace) is the headquarters of the Prime Minister of Lebanon.

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Greater Beirut

Greater Beirut (بيروت الكبرى; Grand Beyrouth) is the urban agglomeration comprising the city of Beirut (Beirut Governorate) and the adjacent (municipalities) over the Mount Lebanon Governorate.

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Green Line (Lebanon)

The Green Line was a line of demarcation in Beirut, Lebanon, during the Lebanese Civil War from 1975 to 1990.

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A gully is a landform created by running water, eroding sharply into soil, typically on a hillside.

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Haigazian University

Haigazian University (Հայկազեան Համալսարան, pronounced Haygazyan Hamalsaran; جامعة هايكازيان) is a higher education institution founded in 1955 in Beirut, Lebanon as Haigazian College.

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Hamra Street

Hamra Street or Rue Hamra (شارع الحمراء) is one of the main streets of the city of Beirut, Lebanon, and one of the main economic and diplomatic hubs of Beirut.

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Hamra, Beirut

Hamra (الحمرا in Arabic) is a neighborhood (sector 34) located in Beirut (quarter Ras Beirut), Lebanon.

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Hand axe

A hand axe (or handaxe) is a prehistoric stone tool with two faces that is the longest-used tool in human history.

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A harbor or harbour (see spelling differences; synonyms: wharves, haven) is a sheltered body of water where ships, boats, and barges can be docked.

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Harissa-Daraoun (حريصا–درعون) is a municipality that consists of two villages, Harissa and Daraoun, in the Keserwan District of the Mount Lebanon Governorate of Lebanon.

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Havana (Spanish: La Habana) is the capital city, largest city, province, major port, and leading commercial center of Cuba.

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Hekmeh SC, or Hekmeh Sports Club (in Arabic نادي الحكمة الرياضي) also known by its French synonym Sagesse (French translation of the name) or Club Sagesse or Club Sportif Sagesse (SC Sagesse) is a multi-sports club in Lebanon.

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Hellenistic period

The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.

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Henri Fleisch

Reverend Father Henri Fleisch (1 January 1904 – 10 February 1985) was a French archaeologist, missionary and Orientalist, known for his work on classical Arabic language and Lebanese dialect and prehistory in Lebanon.

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Henri Philippe Pharaoun

Henri Philippe Pharaon (or Henry Pharon) (1901 – August 6, 1993), was a Lebanese art collector, sportsman, politician and businessman.

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Herod the Great

Herod (Greek:, Hērōdēs; 74/73 BCE – c. 4 BCE/1 CE), also known as Herod the Great and Herod I, was a Roman client king of Judea, referred to as the Herodian kingdom.

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Hezbollah (pronounced; حزب الله, literally "Party of Allah" or "Party of God")—also transliterated Hizbullah, Hizballah, etc.

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Hippodrome of Berytus

The hippodrome of Berytus was a circus in the Roman colony of Berytus (modern-day Beirut).

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History of ancient Lebanon

The history of ancient Lebanon traces the course of events in what is now known as Lebanon from the beginning of history to the beginning of Arab rule.

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History of Lebanon

The history of Lebanon covers the history of the modern Republic of Lebanon and the earlier emergence of Greater Lebanon under the French Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon, as well as the previous history of the region, covered by the modern state.

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History of the Jews in Lebanon

The history of the Jews in Lebanon encompasses the presence of Jews in present-day Lebanon stretching back to Biblical times.

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Homenetmen Beirut B.C.

Homenetmen Beirut Basketball Club (نادي الهومنتمن standing for "Armenian General Athletic Union and Scouts") is the basketball department of Homenetmen, a Lebanese-Armenian multi-sports club based in Beirut.

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Horsh Beirut

Horsh Beirut (Arabic: حرش بيروت) is an urban park in Beirut, Lebanon.

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House of Ibelin

The House of Ibelin was a noble family in the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem in the 12th century.

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Hundred Days' War

The Hundred Days War (Arabic: حرب المئة يوم | Harb Al-Mia'at Yaoum), also known as 'La Guerre des Cent Jours' in French was a subconflict within the 1977–82 phase of the Lebanese Civil War which occurred at the Lebanese Capital Beirut.

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Hut circle

In archeology, a hut circle is a circular or oval depression in the ground with evidence of a low stone wall around it that used to be the foundation of a round house.

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Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt

Ibrahim Pasha (Kavalalı İbrahim Paşa, 1789 – November 10, 1848) was the eldest son of Muhammad Ali, the Wāli and unrecognised Khedive of Egypt and Sudan.

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Industry (archaeology)

In the archaeology of the Stone Age, an industry or technocomplex is a typological classification of stone tools.

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Internal Security Forces

The Internal Security Forces Directorate (al-Mudiriyya al-'aamma li-Qiwa al-Amn al-Dakhili; Forces de Sécurité Intérieure; abbreviated ISF) is the national police and security force of Lebanon.

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International College, Beirut

International College, Beirut, Lebanon, is a private co-educational preparatory school affiliated with the American University of Beirut.

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International Labour Organization

The International Labour Organization (ILO) is a United Nations agency dealing with labour problems, particularly international labour standards, social protection, and work opportunities for all.

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International Monetary Fund

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.

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Islam in Lebanon


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Islamic art

Islamic art encompasses the visual arts produced from the 7th century onward by people who lived within the territory that was inhabited by or ruled by culturally Islamic populations.

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Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant

The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria or Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS), Islamic State (IS) and by its Arabic language acronym Daesh (داعش dāʿish), is a Salafi jihadist terrorist organisation and former unrecognised proto-state that follows a fundamentalist, Salafi/Wahhabi doctrine of Sunni Islam.

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Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.

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Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.

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A javelin is a light spear designed primarily to be thrown, historically as a ranged weapon, but today predominantly for sport.

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Jazzar Pasha

Ahmad Pasha al-Jazzar (أحمد الجزار; Cezzar Ahmet Paşa; ca. 1720–30s7 May 1804) was the Acre-based Ottoman governor of Sidon from 1776 until his death in 1804.

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Jeux de la Francophonie

The Jeux de la Francophonie (Canadian English: Francophonie Games; British English: Francophone Games) are a combination of artistic and sporting events for the Francophonie, mostly French-speaking nations, held every four years since 1989.

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John of Ibelin, the Old Lord of Beirut

John of Ibelin (c. 1179 – 1236), called the Old Lord of Beirut, was a powerful crusader noble in the 13th century, one of the best known representatives of the influential Ibelin family.

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Justinian I

Justinian I (Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus; Flávios Pétros Sabbátios Ioustinianós; 482 14 November 565), traditionally known as Justinian the Great and also Saint Justinian the Great in the Eastern Orthodox Church, was the Eastern Roman emperor from 527 to 565.

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Köppen climate classification

The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.

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The kibibyte is a multiple of the unit byte for quantities of digital information.

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Kingdom of Jerusalem

The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem was a crusader state established in the Southern Levant by Godfrey of Bouillon in 1099 after the First Crusade.

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Koolaids: The Art of War

Koolaids: The Art of War is a novel by Rabih Alameddine, an author and painter who lives in both San Francisco and Beirut.

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Kuala Lumpur

Kuala Lumpur, officially the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur (Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur), or commonly known as KL, is the national capital of Malaysia as well as its largest city in the country.

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Kuwait City

Kuwait City (مدينة الكويت) is the capital and largest city of Kuwait.

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L'Orient-Le Jour

L'Orient-Le Jour meaning The Orient-The Day is a leading French-language daily newspaper in Lebanon.

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La Paz

La Paz, officially known as Nuestra Señora de La Paz (Our Lady of Peace), also named Chuqi Yapu (Chuquiago) in Aymara, is the seat of government and the de facto national capital of the Plurinational State of Bolivia (the constitutional capital of Bolivia is Sucre).

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Laodice of Macedonia

Laodice (in Greek Λαοδίκη) was a Greek noblewoman and wife of Antiochus (fl. 4th century BC), a general of distinction in the service of Philip II of Macedon.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Latin Church

The Latin Church, sometimes called the Western Church, is the largest particular church sui iuris in full communion with the Pope and the rest of the Catholic Church, tracing its history to the earliest days of Christianity.

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Law school of Beirut

The law school of Beirut (also known as the law school of Berytus and the school of Roman law at Berytus) was a center for the study of Roman law in classical antiquity located in Beirut.

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Lebanese American University

The Lebanese American University (الجامعة اللبنانية الأميركية) is a secular and private American university located in Lebanon.

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Lebanese Armed Forces

The Lebanese Armed Forces (LAF) (Arabic: القوات المسلحة اللبنانية | Al-Quwwāt al-Musallaḥa al-Lubnāniyya) or Forces Armées Libanaises (FAL) in French, also known as the Lebanese Army (Arabic: الجيش اللبناني or "Armée libanaise" in French), is the military of the Lebanese Republic.

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Lebanese Basketball League

The Lebanese Basketball League or 'FLB League' or 'XXL Lebanese Basketball League' (formerly known as 'Pepsi Lebanese Basketball League') is the top-tier professional men's basketball league in Lebanon and one of the top leagues in Asia.

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Lebanese Broadcasting Corporation International

The Lebanese Broadcasting Corporation International (المؤسسة اللبنانية للإرسال انترناسيونال), widely known as LBCI, is a private television station in Lebanon.

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Lebanese Civil War

The Lebanese Civil War (الحرب الأهلية اللبنانية – Al-Ḥarb al-Ahliyyah al-Libnāniyyah) was a multifaceted civil war in Lebanon, lasting from 1975 to 1990 and resulting in an estimated 120,000 fatalities.

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Lebanese Forces

The Lebanese Forces (القوات اللبنانية) is a Lebanese Christian based political party and former militia during the Lebanese Civil War.

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Lebanese International University

The Lebanese International University (LIU; الجامعة اللبنانية الدولية) is a private university established by the philanthropist and former Lebanese defense and education minister Abdul Rahim Mourad.

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Lebanese people (Druze followers)

Lebanese Druze refers to Lebanese people who are adherents of the Druze faith, an ethnoreligious esoteric group originating from the Near East who self identify as unitarians (Muwahhideen).

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Lebanese people (Greek Orthodox Christians)

Lebanese Greek Orthodox Christians (Arabic: المسيحية الأرثوذكسية اليونانية في لبنان) refers to Lebanese people who are adherents of the Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch in Lebanon, which is an autocephalous Greek Orthodox Church within the wider communion of Eastern Orthodox Christianity, and is the second largest Christian denomination in Lebanon after the Maronite Christians.

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Lebanese people (Maronite Christians)

Lebanese Maronite Christians (Arabic: المسيحية المارونية في لبنان) refers to Lebanese people who are adherents of the Maronite Church in Lebanon, which is the largest Christian denomination in the country.

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Lebanese people (Melkite Christians)

Lebanese Melkite Christians refers to Lebanese people who are adherents of the Melkite Greek Catholic Church in Lebanon, which is the third largest Christian denomination in the country after the Maronite Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church.

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Lebanese people (Protestant Christians)

Lebanese Protestant Christians refers to Lebanese people who are adherents of Protestantism in Lebanon and is a Christian minority in an overwhelmingly Muslim (27% Shia and 27% Sunni) and Christian (22% Maronite and 8% Eastern Orthodox) country.

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Lebanese people (Shia Muslims)

Lebanese people refers to Lebanese people who are adherents of the Shia branch of Islam in Lebanon, which is the largest Muslim denomination in the country tied with Sunni Muslims.

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Lebanese people (Sunni Muslims)

Lebanese Sunni Muslims refers to Lebanese people who are adherents of the Sunni branch of Islam in Lebanon, which is the largest denomination in Lebanon tied with Shia Muslims.

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Lebanese University

The Lebanese University (Université libanaise, الجامعة اللبنانية) is the only public institution for higher learning in Lebanon.

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Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.

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Lebanon men's national ice hockey team

The Lebanese national ice hockey team (Équipe du Liban de hockey sur glace) is the national ice hockey team of Lebanon.

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Legio III Gallica

Legio tertia Gallica ("Gallic Third Legion") was a legion of the Imperial Roman army founded around 49 BC by Gaius Julius Caesar for his civil war against The Republicans led by Pompey.

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Legio V Macedonica

Legio quinta Macedonica (the Fifth Macedonian Legion) was a Roman legion.

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Levallois technique

The Levallois technique is a name given by archaeologists to a distinctive type of stone knapping developed by precursors to modern humans during the Palaeolithic period.

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The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.

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Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.

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List of cities and towns in Lebanon

This is a list of cities and towns in Lebanon distributed according to district.

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List of cities in Syria

The country of Syria is administratively subdivided into 14 governorates, which are sub-divided into 65 districts, which are further divided into 284 sub-districts.

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List of countries by GNI (nominal, Atlas method) per capita

This is a list of countries by Gross National Income per capita in 2017 at nominal values, according to the Atlas method, an indicator of income developed by the World Bank.

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List of oldest continuously inhabited cities

This is a list of present-day cities by the time period over which they have been continuously inhabited.

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Lonely Planet

Lonely Planet is the largest travel guide book publisher in the world.

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Lorraine Copeland

Lorraine Copeland (born Elizabeth Lorraine Adie, 1921, died 27 April 2013) was an archaeologist specialising in the Palaeolithic period of the Near East.

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Los Angeles

Los Angeles (Spanish for "The Angels";; officially: the City of Los Angeles; colloquially: by its initials L.A.) is the second-most populous city in the United States, after New York City.

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Louis Burkhalter

Louis Burkhalter was a French Archaeologist and former delegate of the Société préhistorique française (French Prehistoric Society).

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Lustre (mineralogy)

Lustre or luster is the way light interacts with the surface of a crystal, rock, or mineral.

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Lycée Abdel Kader

Lycée Abdel-Kader (or LAK, لیسیه عبد القادر) is a coed private school in the Batrakieh district of Beirut, Lebanon.

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Lycée Franco-Libanais Verdun

The Lycée Franco-Libanais Verdun (اللیسیه الفرنسیة اللبنانیة - فردان), commonly known as the Lycée Verdun, is a French lycée located in the upscale Rue Verdun in Beirut, Lebanon.

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Maghen Abraham Synagogue

The Maghen Abraham Synagogue (كنيس ماغين أبراهام - "Kanīs Mā'ghīn Abrā'hām"; בית הכנסת מגן אברהם - "Beth HaKenesset Magen Avraham") is one of the main synagogues in Lebanon.

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Mamluk (Arabic: مملوك mamlūk (singular), مماليك mamālīk (plural), meaning "property", also transliterated as mamlouk, mamluq, mamluke, mameluk, mameluke, mamaluke or marmeluke) is an Arabic designation for slaves.

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Mar Elias refugee camp

Mar Elias (مار الياس) was a Palestinian refugee camp in the southwestern part of Beirut, Lebanon.

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Mar Mikhaël

Mar Mikhaël is a residential and commercial neighborhood (sector 75) in the Medawar district of Beirut, Lebanon.

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March 14 Alliance

The March 14 Alliance (taḥāluf 14 adhār), named after the date of the Cedar Revolution, is a coalition of political parties and independents in Lebanon formed in 2005 that are united by their anti-Syrian regime stance and their opposition to the March 8 Alliance.

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Marseille (Provençal: Marselha), is the second-largest city of France and the largest city of the Provence historical region.

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Martyrs' Square, Beirut

Martyrs' Square is a square in the heart of downtown Beirut, Lebanon.

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In many countries, a mayor (from the Latin maior, meaning "bigger") is the highest-ranking official in a municipal government such as that of a city or a town.

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Mediterranean climate

A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by rainy winters and dry summers.

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Mediterranean Games

The Mediterranean Games are a multi-sport games held usually every four years, between nations around or very close to the Mediterranean Sea, where Europe, Africa, and Asia meet.

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Mediterranean Sea

The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.

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Mercer (consulting firm)

Mercer is the world's largest human resources consulting firm.

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Metres above sea level

Metres above mean sea level (MAMSL) or simply metres above sea level (MASL or m a.s.l.) is a standard metric measurement in metres of the elevation or altitude of a location in reference to a historic mean sea level.

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Metropolitan area

A metropolitan area, sometimes referred to as a metro area or commuter belt, is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry, infrastructure, and housing.

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Mexico City

Mexico City, or the City of Mexico (Ciudad de México,; abbreviated as CDMX), is the capital of Mexico and the most populous city in North America.

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Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Middle East

The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).

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Middle East Airlines

Middle East Airlines – Air Liban S.A.L. (طيران الشرق الأوسط ـ الخطوط الجوية اللبنانية Ṭayyarān al-Sharq al-Awsaṭ - al-Khuṭūṭ al-jawiyyah al-lubnāniyyah), more commonly known as Middle East Airlines (MEA) (طيران الشرق الأوسط Ṭayyarān al-Sharq al-Awsaṭ), is the national flag-carrier airline of Lebanon, with its head office in Beirut, near Beirut–Rafic Hariri International Airport.

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Middle Paleolithic

The Middle Paleolithic (or Middle Palaeolithic) is the second subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Millet (Ottoman Empire)

In the Ottoman Empire, a millet was a separate court of law pertaining to "personal law" under which a confessional community (a group abiding by the laws of Muslim Sharia, Christian Canon law, or Jewish Halakha) was allowed to rule itself under its own laws.

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Mim Museum

The Mim Museum is a private museum in Beirut, Lebanon.

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A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.

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Minorities (Lebanon)

In Lebanese politics Minorities (أقليات ’Aqaliyāt) is a term that includes six different Christian sects; Syriac Orthodox, Syriac Catholics, Latin Catholics, Assyrian Catholics, Chaldean Catholics and Coptic Orthodox.

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Miss Europe

Miss Europe is a beauty pageant with female contestants from all over Europe.

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A missionary is a member of a religious group sent into an area to proselytize and/or perform ministries of service, such as education, literacy, social justice, health care, and economic development.

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Mohamad Chatah

Mohamad Bahaa Chatah (محمد بهاء شطح; 27 March 1951 – 27 December 2013) was a Lebanese economist and diplomat.

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Mohammad Al-Amin Mosque

The Mohammad Al-Amin Mosque, also referred to as the Blue Mosque, is a Sunni Muslim mosque located in downtown Beirut, Lebanon.

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Montreal (officially Montréal) is the most populous municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec and the second-most populous municipality in Canada.

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Morus (plant)

Morus, a genus of flowering plants in the family Moraceae, comprises 10–16 species of deciduous trees commonly known as mulberries, growing wild and under cultivation in many temperate world regions.

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A mosaic is a piece of art or image made from the assemblage of small pieces of colored glass, stone, or other materials.

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Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.

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Moshe Sharon

Moshe Sharon (משה שָׁרוֹן; born December 18, 1937) is an Israeli historian of Islam who has been called "Israel's greatest Middle East scholar." He is currently Professor Emeritus of Islamic and Middle Eastern Studies at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem where he serves as Chair in Bahá'í Studies.

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Mount Lebanon

Mount Lebanon (جَبَل لُبْنَان, jabal lubnān, Lebanese Arabic pronunciation; ܛܘܪ ܠܒܢܢ) is a mountain range in Lebanon.

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The Mousterian (or Mode III) is a techno-complex (archaeological industry) of flint lithic tools associated primarily with Neanderthals, as well as with the earliest anatomically modern humans in Eurasia.

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MTV (Lebanon)

Murr Television (marketed and widely known as MTV Lebanon) is a leading Lebanese television station based in Naccache, Metn District.

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Museum of Fine Arts of Lyon

The Museum of Fine Arts of Lyon (Musée des beaux-arts de Lyon) is a municipal museum of fine arts in the French city of Lyon.

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Museum of Lebanese Prehistory

The Museum of Lebanese Prehistory (Musée de Préhistoire Libanaise) is a museum of prehistory and archaeology in Beirut, Lebanon.

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National Museum of Beirut

The National Museum of Beirut (متحف بيروت الوطنيّ, Matḥaf Bayrūt al-waṭanī) is the principal museum of archaeology in Lebanon.

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The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.

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New7Wonders Cities

New7Wonders Cities is the third in a series of Internet-based polls operated by the New7Wonders Foundation which is started by businessman Bernard Weber based in San Francisco, United States.

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Nicolas Sursock

Nicolas Sursock was a Lebanese art collector and a prominent member of one of the aristocratic families of Beirut.

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No man's land

No man's land is land that is unoccupied or is under dispute between parties who leave it unoccupied due to fear or uncertainty.

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Notre Dame University – Louaize

Notre Dame University–Louaize (NDU); جامعة سيدة اللويزة) is a private Catholic university in Zouk Mosbeh, Lebanon, founded as Louaize College for Higher Education in 1978 in cooperation with Beirut University College. The name was changed to Notre Dame University – Louaize on August 14, 1987, when the President of the Lebanese Republic issued a decree (number 4116), granting the right to operate an independent university. NDU is currently ranked 6th in Lebanon, according to its presence on the Web by the Webometrics Ranking of World Universities.

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right O.C.F.T.C (Office des Chemins de Fer et des Transports en Commun, French for Railway and Public Transportation Authority) is the Lebanese government authority which operates public transportation in Lebanon.

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October 2012 Beirut bombing

On 19 October 2012, Wissam al-Hassan, a brigadier general of the Lebanese Internal Security Forces (ISF) and the head of its intelligence-oriented information branch, died along with several others killed by a car bomb in the Achrafieh district of Beirut.

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An orchard is an intentional planting of trees or shrubs that is maintained for food production.

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Organisation internationale de la Francophonie

Flag of the Francophonie The Organisation internationale de la Francophonie (OIF), generally known as the Francophonie (La Francophonie), but also called International Organisation of La Francophonie in English language context, is an international organization representing countries and regions where French is a lingua franca or customary language, where a significant proportion of the population are francophones (French speakers), or where there is a notable affiliation with French culture.

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Ottoman architecture

Ottoman architecture is the architecture of the Ottoman Empire which emerged in Bursa and Edirne in 14th and 15th centuries.

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Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.

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OTV (Lebanon)

OTV (أو تي في) is a publicly traded television station in Lebanon.

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Palestinian refugee camps

Palestinian refugee camps were established after the 1948 Arab–Israeli War to accommodate the Palestinian refugees who fled or were expelled during the 1948 Palestinian exodus.

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Pan Arab Games

The Arab Games (الألعاب العربية), also called the Pan Arab Games, are a regional multi-sport event held between nations from the Arab world.

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A panorama (formed from Greek πᾶν "all" + ὅραμα "sight") is any wide-angle view or representation of a physical space, whether in painting, drawing, photography, film, seismic images or a three-dimensional model.

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Paris Chamber of Commerce

The Paris Chamber of Commerce (Chambre de commerce et d'industrie de Paris or CCIP) is a chamber of commerce of the Paris region.

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Parliament of Lebanon

The Parliament of Lebanon (مجلس النواب Majlis an-Nuwwab; Chambre des députés) is the national parliament of Lebanon.

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Patron saint

A patron saint, patroness saint, patron hallow or heavenly protector is a saint who in Roman Catholicism, Anglicanism, Eastern Orthodoxy, or particular branches of Islam, is regarded as the heavenly advocate of a nation, place, craft, activity, class, clan, family or person.

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Paul Bovier-Lapierre

Reverend Father Paul Bovier-Lapierre (1873–1950) was a French Jesuit archaeologist, notable for his work on prehistory in Egypt and surveys in southern Lebanon.

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Paul Dahdah

Paul Dahdah, O.C.D. (born on 8 January 1941 in Zgharta, Lebanon) is the current bishop of the Apostolic Vicariate of Beirut.

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A peninsula (paeninsula from paene "almost” and insula "island") is a piece of land surrounded by water on the majority of its border, while being connected to a mainland from which it extends.

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People's Television Network

People's Television Network, Inc. (abbreviated PTV / PTNI) is the flagship government television network owned by the Philippine Government under the helm of the Presidential Communications Operations Office.

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Persian Gulf

The Persian Gulf (lit), (الخليج الفارسي) is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia.

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Peter Wescombe

Peter Wescombe (4 January 1932 – 25 November 2014) was a British diplomat, amateur archaeologist, historian and founding member of the Bletchley Park Trust.

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Pharaoh (ⲡⲣ̅ⲣⲟ Prro) is the common title of the monarchs of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty (c. 3150 BCE) until the annexation of Egypt by the Roman Empire in 30 BCE, although the actual term "Pharaoh" was not used contemporaneously for a ruler until circa 1200 BCE.

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Phoenicia (or; from the Φοινίκη, meaning "purple country") was a thalassocratic ancient Semitic civilization that originated in the Eastern Mediterranean and in the west of the Fertile Crescent.

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Phoenician port of Beirut

The Phoenician port of Beirut, also known as the Phoenician Harbour of Beirut and archaeological site BEY039 is located between Rue Allenby and Rue Foch in Beirut, Lebanon.

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Pine Residence

The Pine Residence (قصر الصنوبر, Qasr al-snawbar, literally "the palace of the Pines"), located in the Horsh district of Beirut, is the official residence of the French ambassador to Lebanon.

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Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (29 September 106 BC – 28 September 48 BC), usually known in English as Pompey or Pompey the Great, was a military and political leader of the late Roman Republic.

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Port of Beirut

The Port of Beirut (مرفأ بيروت) is the main port in Lebanon located on the eastern part of the Saint George Bay on Beirut's northern Mediterranean coast, west of the Beirut River.

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Human prehistory is the period between the use of the first stone tools 3.3 million years ago by hominins and the invention of writing systems.

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Quaternary is the current and most recent of the three periods of the Cenozoic Era in the geologic time scale of the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS).

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Quebec City

Quebec City (pronounced or; Québec); Ville de Québec), officially Québec, is the capital city of the Canadian province of Quebec. The city had a population estimate of 531,902 in July 2016, (an increase of 3.0% from 2011) and the metropolitan area had a population of 800,296 in July 2016, (an increase of 4.3% from 2011) making it the second largest city in Quebec, after Montreal, and the seventh-largest metropolitan area in Canada. It is situated north-east of Montreal. The narrowing of the Saint Lawrence River proximate to the city's promontory, Cap-Diamant (Cape Diamond), and Lévis, on the opposite bank, provided the name given to the city, Kébec, an Algonquin word meaning "where the river narrows". Founded in 1608 by Samuel de Champlain, Quebec City is one of the oldest cities in North America. The ramparts surrounding Old Quebec (Vieux-Québec) are the only fortified city walls remaining in the Americas north of Mexico, and were declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1985 as the 'Historic District of Old Québec'. The city's landmarks include the Château Frontenac, a hotel which dominates the skyline, and the Citadelle of Quebec, an intact fortress that forms the centrepiece of the ramparts surrounding the old city and includes a secondary royal residence. The National Assembly of Quebec (provincial legislature), the Musée national des beaux-arts du Québec (National Museum of Fine Arts of Quebec), and the Musée de la civilisation (Museum of Civilization) are found within or near Vieux-Québec.

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Rabih Alameddine

Rabih Alameddine ('''ربيع علم الدين'''.) (born 1959) is a Lebanese-American painter and writer.

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Rabih Kayrouz

Rabih Kayrouz (born 1973) is a Lebanese fashion designer, creator and founder of the fashion house Maison Rabih Kayrouz, established in Paris in 2008.

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Rafic Hariri

Rafic Baha El Deen Al Hariri (رفيق بهاء الدين الحريري; 1 November 1944 – 14 February 2005) was a Lebanese business tycoon and the Prime Minister of Lebanon from 1992 to 1998 and again from 2000 until his resignation on.

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Ramlet al-Baida

Ramlet al-Baida is a public beach in Beirut, Lebanon.

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Raouché is a residential and commercial neighborhood in Beirut, Lebanon.

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Raoul Desribes

Reverend Father Raoul Desribes (born in 1856, died in 1940) was a French Jesuit archaeologist notable for his work on prehistory in Lebanon, particularly the archaeological site of Minet Dalieh at Ras Beirut.

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Ras Beirut

Ras Beirut ("Tip of Beirut") is an upscale residential neighborhood of Beirut.

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Reem Acra

Reem Acra (Arabic: ريم عكرا) is a fashion designer born in Beirut, Lebanon, known for her eponymous bridal gown line and her ready-to-wear collection.

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Religion in Lebanon

Lebanon has several different main religions.

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Rib-Hadda (also rendered Rib-Addi, Rib-Addu, Rib-Adda) was king of Byblos during the mid fourteenth century BCE.

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Richard Talbert

Richard John Alexander Talbert (born April 26, 1947) is a British-American contemporary ancient historian and classicist on the faculty of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, where he is William Rand Kenan, Jr., Professor of Ancient History and Classics.

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River mouth

A river mouth is the part of a river where the river flows into another river, a lake, a reservoir, a sea, or an ocean.

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Robert Mouawad Private Museum

The Robert Mouawad Private Museum (متحف روبير معوض الخاص) is a private residence in Beirut's Zokak el-Blat quarter that was turned into a museum by the Lebanese businessman Robert Mouawad.

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Roman Baths, Beirut

Roman Berytus (Roman Baths) are located in the middle of downtown Beirut, Lebanon between Banks Street and Capuchin Street.

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Roman legion

A Roman legion (from Latin legio "military levy, conscription", from legere "to choose") was a large unit of the Roman army.

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Roman province

In Ancient Rome, a province (Latin: provincia, pl. provinciae) was the basic and, until the Tetrarchy (from 293 AD), the largest territorial and administrative unit of the empire's territorial possessions outside Italy.

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Romanization (cultural)

Romanization or Latinization (or Romanisation or Latinisation), in the historical and cultural meanings of both terms, indicate different historical processes, such as acculturation, integration and assimilation of newly incorporated and peripheral populations by the Roman Republic and the later Roman Empire.

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Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).

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Rotana Group

Rotana Group (روتانا), also known simply as Rotana, is the Arab World's largest entertainment company.

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Rue Gouraud

Rue Gouraud is a mixed residential and commercial street in Gemmayzeh, a neighborhood in the Rmeil district of Beirut in Lebanon.

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Rue Monnot

Rue Monnot (شارع مونو), is a street in Beirut, Lebanon.

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Rue Verdun

Rue Verdun, or Verdun Street, is an upscale commercial and residential street in Beirut, Lebanon.

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Rugby league in Lebanon

The seeds of rugby league in Lebanon lie in Australia.

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Saifi Village

Saifi Village is a residential upscale neighbourhood in Beirut, Lebanon.

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Saint George

Saint George (Γεώργιος, Geṓrgios; Georgius;; to 23 April 303), according to legend, was a Roman soldier of Greek origin and a member of the Praetorian Guard for Roman emperor Diocletian, who was sentenced to death for refusing to recant his Christian faith.

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Saint George Bay

The Saint George Bay (Golfe de Saint-Georges), also known as the Bay of Beirut, is located on the northern coast of the city of Beirut in Lebanon.

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Saint George Greek Orthodox Cathedral

Saint George Greek Orthodox Cathedral (كاتدرائية القديس جاورجيوس للروم الارثودكس) is the seat of the Greek Orthodox Metropolitan bishop of the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of Beirut and its dependencies.

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Saint Joseph University

Saint Joseph University (French: Université Saint-Joseph de Beyrouth, "USJ") is a private Catholic research university in Beirut, Lebanon, founded in 1875 by the Jesuits.

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An-Nasir Salah ad-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub (صلاح الدين يوسف بن أيوب / ALA-LC: Ṣalāḥ ad-Dīn Yūsuf ibn Ayyūb; سەلاحەدینی ئەییووبی / ALA-LC: Selahedînê Eyûbî), known as Salah ad-Din or Saladin (11374 March 1193), was the first sultan of Egypt and Syria and the founder of the Ayyubid dynasty.

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Salim Ali Salam

Salim Ali Salam (سليم علي سلام, Selim Ali Selam, also known as Abu Ali Salam; 1868–1938) was a prominent figure in Beirut at the turn of the 20th century who held numerous public positions, including deputy from Beirut to the Ottoman Parliament, President of the Municipality of Beirut, and President of the Muslim Society of Benevolent Intentions (al-Makassed).

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Samir Kassir

Samir Kassir (سمير قصير, May 1960 – 2 June 2005) was a Lebanese-French professor of history at Saint-Joseph University and journalist.

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Sand is a naturally occurring granular material composed of finely divided rock and mineral particles.

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Sanjaks (سنجاق, modern: Sancak) were administrative divisions of the Ottoman Empire.

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São Paulo

São Paulo is a municipality in the southeast region of Brazil.

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Seat of government

The seat of government is (as defined by Brewer's Politics) "the building, complex of buildings or the city from which a government exercises its authority".

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Seleucid Empire

The Seleucid Empire (Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, Basileía tōn Seleukidōn) was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty, which existed from 312 BC to 63 BC; Seleucus I Nicator founded it following the division of the Macedonian empire vastly expanded by Alexander the Great.

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Selim I

Selim I (Ottoman Turkish: سليم اول, Modern Turkish: Birinci Selim; 1470/1 – September 1520), known as Selim the Grim or Selim the Resolute (Yavuz Sultan Selim), was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1512 to 1520.

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Severan dynasty

The Severan dynasty was a Roman imperial dynasty, which ruled the Roman Empire between 193 and 235.

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Shatila refugee camp

The Shatila refugee camp (مخيم شاتيلا), also known as the Chatila refugee camp, is a refugee camp, originally set-up for Palestinian refugees in 1949.

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Sidon (صيدا, صيدون,; French: Saida; Phoenician: 𐤑𐤃𐤍, Ṣīdūn; Biblical Hebrew:, Ṣīḏōn; Σιδών), translated to 'fishery' or 'fishing-town', is the third-largest city in Lebanon.

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Sin el Fil

Sin el-Fil (سنّ الفيل / ALA-LC: Sinn al-Fīl) is a suburb east of Beirut in the Matn District of the Mount Lebanon Governorate, Lebanon.

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Sister city

Twin towns or sister cities are a form of legal or social agreement between towns, cities, counties, oblasts, prefectures, provinces, regions, states, and even countries in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.

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Society of Jesus

The Society of Jesus (SJ – from Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain.

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Solidere s.a.l. is a Lebanese joint-stock company in charge of planning and redeveloping Beirut Central District following the conclusion, in 1990, of the devastating Lebanese Civil War.

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Sporting Al Riyadi Beirut

Al Riyadi, also known as Riyadi Club and Sporting Club (النادي الرياضي بيروت An-Nadi Al Riyadi Beirut) is a Lebanese basketball club based in Manara, Beirut where men's and women's tournaments are held every year.

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St. George Maronite Cathedral, Beirut

Saint George Maronite Cathedral (كاتدرائية مار جرجس للموارنة) is the cathedral of the Maronite Catholic Archeparchy of Beirut, Archdiocese of the city of Beirut, Lebanon.

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St. Georges Hotel, Beirut


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Stone tool

A stone tool is, in the most general sense, any tool made either partially or entirely out of stone.

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Street art

Street art is visual art created in public locations, usually unsanctioned artwork executed outside of the context of traditional art venues.

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Sursock family

The Sursock family (also Sursuq) is a Greek Orthodox Christian family from Lebanon, and one of the “Seven Families”” of Beirut.

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Sursock Museum

Sursock Museum, which is officially known as Nicolas Ibrahim Sursock Museum, is a modern art and contemporary art museum in Beirut, Lebanon.

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Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.

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Syriac Catholic Church

The Syriac Catholic Church (or Syrian Catholic Church) (ʿĪṯo Suryoyṯo Qaṯolīqayṯo), (also known as Syriac Catholic Patriarchate of Antioch or Aramean Catholic Church), is an Eastern Catholic Christian Church in the Levant that uses the West Syriac Rite liturgy and has many practices and rites in common with the Syriac Orthodox Church.

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Syriac Orthodox Church

The Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch (ʿĪṯo Suryoyṯo Trišaṯ Šubḥo; الكنيسة السريانية الأرثوذكسية), or Syriac Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch and All the East, is an Oriental Orthodox Church with autocephalous patriarchate established in Antioch in 518, tracing its founding to St. Peter and St. Paul in the 1st century, according to its tradition.

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Télé Liban

Télé Liban (TL) (تلفزيون لبنان) is the first Lebanese public television network, owned by the Lebanese government.

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Télé Lumière

Télé Lumière is the first Christian television station in Lebanon and the Arab world and was founded in 1991.

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Tel Aviv

Tel Aviv (תֵּל אָבִיב,, تل أَبيب) is the second most populous city in Israel – after Jerusalem – and the most populous city in the conurbation of Gush Dan, Israel's largest metropolitan area.

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Tell (archaeology)

In archaeology, a tell, or tel (derived from تَل,, 'hill' or 'mound'), is an artificial mound formed from the accumulated refuse of people living on the same site for hundreds or thousands of years.

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Terrorism is, in the broadest sense, the use of intentionally indiscriminate violence as a means to create terror among masses of people; or fear to achieve a financial, political, religious or ideological aim.

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The Daily Star (Lebanon)

The Daily Star is a pan–Middle East newspaper in English that is edited in Beirut, Lebanon but deals with the whole Middle East.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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Travel + Leisure

Travel + Leisure is a travel magazine based in New York City, New York.

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Tripoli (طرابلس,; Berber: Oea, or Wy't) is the capital city and the largest city of Libya, with a population of about 1.1 million people in 2015.

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Tripoli, Lebanon

Tripoli (طرابلس / ALA-LC: Ṭarābulus; Lebanese Arabic: Ṭrāblos; Trablusşam) is the largest city in northern Lebanon and the second-largest city in the country.

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Tunis (تونس) is the capital and the largest city of Tunisia.

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Tyche (from Τύχη, Túkhē, meaning "luck"; Roman equivalent: Fortuna) was the presiding tutelary deity who governed the fortune and prosperity of a city, its destiny.

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Ulpian (Gnaeus Domitius Annius Ulpianus; c. 170223) was a prominent Roman jurist of Tyrian ancestry.

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The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.

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Union of Arab Banks

Union of Arab Banks (UAB) is an organization responsible for fostering cooperation between Arab banks, developing of Arab financial business, and enhancing the financing role of Arab banks in the Arab World.

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United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia

The United Nations Economic and Social Commission for West Asia (ESCWA):, headquartered in Beirut, Lebanon, is one of five regional commissions under the administrative direction of the United Nations Economic and Social Council.

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United Nations General Assembly

The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; Assemblée Générale AG) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), the only one in which all member nations have equal representation, and the main deliberative, policy-making and representative organ of the UN.

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Université La Sagesse

The Université La Sagesse (in Arabic جامعة الحكمة), also known by the accronym ULS is an established academic institute in Lebanon.

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University of Balamand

The University of Balamand (UOB; جامعة البلمند) is a private institution, secular in its policies and approach to education.

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University of Marburg

The Philipps University of Marburg (Philipps-Universität Marburg) was founded in 1527 by Philip I, Landgrave of Hesse, which makes it one of Germany's oldest universities and the oldest Protestant university in the world.

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Created in December 1949, the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) is a relief and human development agency which supports more than 5 million registered Palestinian refugees, and their descendants, who fled or were expelled from their homes during the 1948 Palestine war as well as those who fled or were expelled during and following the 1967 Six Day war.

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Upper Paleolithic

The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic, Late Stone Age) is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age.

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Vassals of the Kingdom of Jerusalem

The Crusader state of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, created in 1099, was divided into a number of smaller seigneuries.

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Venetian Gothic architecture

Venetian Gothic is an architectural style combining use of the Gothic lancet arch with Byzantine and Moorish influences.

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Venice (Venezia,; Venesia) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.

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(Siudad ti Vigan; Lungsod ng Vigan.; Local pronunciation), officially the, is a component settlement_text and capital of the province of,. According to the, it has a population of people.

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A wilayah (ولاية; Urdu and ولایت; vilayet) is an administrative division, usually translated as "state", "province", or occasionally as "governorate".

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Wissam al-Hassan

Wissam Adnan al-Hassan (Wisām ‘Adnān al-Ḥasan; 11 April 1965 – 19 October 2012) was a brigadier general at the Lebanese Internal Security Forces (ISF) and the head of its intelligence-oriented information branch.

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Yammoune is a lake, nature reserve, village and municipality situated northwest of Baalbek in Baalbek District, Baalbek-Hermel Governorate, Lebanon.

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Yazan Halwani

Yazan Halwani was born in Beirut, Lebanon.

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Yerevan (Երևան, sometimes spelled Erevan) is the capital and largest city of Armenia as well as one of the world's oldest continuously inhabited cities.

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Zuhair Murad

Zuhair Murad (زهير مراد) (born in 1971) is a Lebanese fashion designer.

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Zuqaq al-Blat

Zuqaq al-Blat (زقاق البلاط) is one of the twelve quarters of Beirut.

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1860 Mount Lebanon civil war

The 1860 Mount Lebanon civil war (also called the 1860 Civil War in Syria) was the culmination of a peasant uprising, which began in the north of Mount Lebanon as a rebellion of Maronite peasants against their Druze overlords and culminated in a massacre in Damascus.

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1957 Pan Arab Games

The 2nd Pan Arab Games were held in Beirut, Lebanon between October 12 and October 28, 1957.

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1959 Mediterranean Games

The III Mediterranean Games – Beirut 1959 (ألعاب البحر الأبيض المتوسط 1959), commonly known as the 1959 Mediterranean Games, were the 3rd Mediterranean Games.

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1982 Lebanon War

The 1982 Lebanon War, dubbed Operation Peace for Galilee (מבצע שלום הגליל, or מבצע של"ג Mivtsa Shlom HaGalil or Mivtsa Sheleg) by the Israeli government, later known in Israel as the Lebanon War or the First Lebanon War (מלחמת לבנון הראשונה, Milhemet Levanon Harishona), and known in Lebanon as "the invasion" (الاجتياح, Al-ijtiyāḥ), began on 6 June 1982, when the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) invaded southern Lebanon, after repeated attacks and counter-attacks between the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) operating in southern Lebanon and the IDF that had caused civilian casualties on both sides of the border.

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1983 Beirut barracks bombings

The 1983 Beirut barracks bombing was a suicide attack that occurred on October 23, 1983, in Beirut, Lebanon, during the Lebanese Civil War.

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1997 Pan Arab Games

The 8th Pan Arab Games were held in Beirut, Lebanon between July 12 and July 27, 1997.

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1999 ABC Champions Cup

The ABC Champions Cup 1999 was the 10th staging of the ABC Champions Cup, the basketball club tournament of Asian Basketball Confederation.

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2000 ABC Champions Cup

The ABC Champions Cup 2000 was the 11th staging of the ABC Champions Cup, the basketball club tournament of Asian Basketball Confederation.

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2000 AFC Asian Cup

The 2000 AFC Asian Cup was the 12th edition of the men's AFC Asian Cup, a quadrennial international football tournament organised by the Asian Football Confederation (AFC).

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2006 Lebanon War

The 2006 Lebanon War, also called the 2006 Israel–Hezbollah War and known in Lebanon as the July War (حرب تموز, Ḥarb Tammūz) and in Israel as the Second Lebanon War (מלחמת לבנון השנייה, Milhemet Levanon HaShniya), was a 34-day military conflict in Lebanon, Northern Israel and the Golan Heights.

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2008 conflict in Lebanon

The 2008 conflict in Lebanon began on May 7, after Lebanon's 17-month-long political crisis spiraled out of control.

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2009 Jeux de la Francophonie

The 2009 Jeux de la Francophonie, also known as VIèmes Jeux de la Francophonie (French for 6th Francophone Games), were held from September 27 to October 6 in Beirut, Lebanon.

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2010 FIBA Asia Stanković Cup

2010 FIBA Asia Stanković Cup was the 3rd FIBA Asia Stankovic Cup.

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2012 FIBA Asia Champions Cup

The FIBA Asia Champions Cup 2012 was the 23rd staging of the FIBA Asia Champions Cup, the international basketball club tournament of FIBA Asia.

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2015 Beirut bombings

On 12 November 2015, two suicide bombers detonated explosives in Bourj el-Barajneh, a southern suburb of Beirut, Lebanon, that is inhabited mostly by Shia Muslims.

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2015–16 Lebanese protests

2015 Lebanese protests were a series of protests in response to the government's failure to find solutions to a waste crisis caused by the (south of Beirut) in July 2015.

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2017 FIBA Asia Cup

The 2017 FIBA Asia Cup (formerly known as the FIBA Asia Championship) was the 29th continental basketball championship in Asia.

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551 Beirut earthquake

The 551 Beirut earthquake occurred on 9 July with an estimated magnitude of about 7.6 on the moment magnitude scale and a maximum felt intensity of X (Violent) on the Mercalli intensity scale.

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Redirects here:

BEIRUT, Bairut, Bayrut, Bayrût, Bayrūt, Beiroût, Beiruit, Beirut District, Beirut IV, Beirut V, Beirut VI, Beirut VII, Beirut west, Beirut, Lebanon, Beirute, Beiruth, Beiruti, Beroth, Beruit, Beyreuth, Beyrout, Beyrouth, Beyrut, Biruta, Bkirki, Byblos Cinema, Capital of Lebanon, East Beirut, East beirut, Furn esh Shebbak, Furn esh Shebbak (river banks), Galerie Semaan, Geography of Beirut, History of Beirut, Laodicea in Phoenicia, Minet el Hosn, Paris of the Middle East, Pigeon's Rock, Plateau Tabet, Rmeil, Um el Khatib, West Beirut, West Beirut lebanon, Western Beirut, بيروت.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beirut

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