173 relations: Abbasid Caliphate, Abdul Hamid II, African Plate, Al-Maqdisi, Amihai Mazar, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greek, Arab Christians, Arabian Plate, Arabs, Aulus Gabinius, Basalt, Battle of Ain Jalut, Bedouin, Beisan Subdistrict, Mandatory Palestine, Beit She'an railway station, Belvoir Fortress, British Mandate for Palestine (legal instrument), Bronze Age, Byzantine Empire, Cairo, Calcium oxide, Canaan, Cardo, Cleveland, County of Flanders, Crusader states, Crusades, Cyril of Scythopolis, Damascus, Date palm, David, David Levy (Israeli politician), Dead Sea Transform, Decapolis, Demetrius II Nicator, Demographics of Israel, Development town, Diocese, Earthquake, Eilat, Ein HaNetziv, Emek HaMaayanot Regional Council, Encyclopædia Britannica, Epiphanius of Salamis, Fault (geology), Galilee, Galilee earthquake of 363, Haaretz, Haifa, ..., Hapoel Beit She'an F.C., Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Hejaz railway, Hellenistic period, Herod the Great, Highway 90 (Israel), Hippodrome, Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik, House of Bethune, Indigo, Iron Age, Ishtori Haparchi, Israel, Israel Central Bureau of Statistics, Israel Museum, Israeli Declaration of Independence, Jackie Levy, Jericho, Jerusalem, Jewish state, Jewish Virtual Library, Jews, Jezreel Valley, Jezreel Valley railway, Johann Ludwig Burckhardt, Jonathan (1 Samuel), Jonathan Apphus, Jordan, Jordan River, Jordan River Crossing, Joseph of Tiberias, Josephus, Journal of Palestine Studies, Judea, Jund al-Urdunn, Karnak, Katyusha rocket launcher, Kibbutz, Kingdom of Israel (united monarchy), Kingdom of Jerusalem, Kiryat Shmona, Liga Bet, Lignages d'Outremer, Likud, List of Arab towns and villages depopulated during the 1948 Palestinian exodus, Ma'abarot, Maariv, Maccabees, Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo), Mandatory Palestine, Marble, Mizrahi Jews, Mortar (weapon), Mosaic of Rehob, Mosque, Mount Gilboa, National parks and nature reserves of Israel, Nazareth, Neo-Assyrian Empire, Neolithic, Northern District (Israel), Nymphaeum, Operation Gideon, Orde Wingate, Orly Levy, Ottoman Empire, Palaestina Secunda, Palestine Exploration Fund, Pax Romana, Philadelphia, Plan Dalet, Pompey, Principality of Galilee, Procopius of Scythopolis, Ptolemaic Kingdom, Ramesses II, Rashidun army, Regional council (Israel), Rockefeller Museum, Safed, Saladin, Samaria, Sarcophagus, Saul, Scythians, Scythopolis (see), Sea Peoples, Second Intifada, Seleucid Empire, Seti I, Sister city, Solomon, Stele, Sugarcane, Syrian Wars, T. E. Lawrence, Tanakh, Tell (archaeology), The New York Times, Thutmose III, Tiberias, Tiglath-Pileser III, Topography, Transform fault, Umar, United Nations, United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine, United States, University of Pennsylvania, University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Vassals of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, Walid Khalidi, Yiftach Brigade, Yishuv, Yosef Weitz, 1922 census of Palestine, 1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine, 1948 Arab–Israeli War, 1948 Palestinian exodus, 1974 Beit She'an attack, 2002 Beit She'an attack, 5th millennium BC, 749 Galilee earthquake. Expand index (123 more) » « Shrink index
The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Abdul Hamid II (عبد الحميد ثانی, `Abdü’l-Ḥamīd-i sânî; İkinci Abdülhamit; 21 September 184210 February 1918) was the 34th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and the last Sultan to exert effective control over the fracturing state.
The African Plate is a major tectonic plate straddling the equator as well as the prime meridian.
Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad Shams al-Dīn al-Maqdisī (محمد بن أحمد شمس الدين المقدسي), also transliterated as al-Maqdisī or el-Mukaddasi, (c. 945/946 - 991) was a medieval Arab geographer, author of Aḥsan al-taqāsīm fī maʿrifat al-aqālīm (The Best Divisions in the Knowledge of the Regions), as well as author of the book, Description of Syria (Including Palestine).
Amihai "Ami" Mazar (עמיחי מזר; born 1942) is an Israeli archaeologist.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Arab Christians (مسيحيون عرب Masīḥiyyūn ʿArab) are Arabs of the Christian faith.
The Arabian Plate is a tectonic plate in the northern and eastern hemispheres.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
Aulus Gabinius (?-48 or 47 BC) was a Roman statesman, general and supporter of Pompey.
Basalt is a common extrusive igneous (volcanic) rock formed from the rapid cooling of basaltic lava exposed at or very near the surface of a planet or moon.
The Battle of Ain Jalut (Ayn Jalut, in Arabic: عين جالوت, the "Spring of Goliath", or Harod Spring, in Hebrew: מעין חרוד) took place in September 1260 between Muslim Mamluks and the Mongols in the southeastern Galilee, in the Jezreel Valley, in the vicinity of Nazareth, not far from the site of Zir'in.
The Bedouin (badawī) are a grouping of nomadic Arab peoples who have historically inhabited the desert regions in North Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, Iraq and the Levant.
The Beisan Subdistrict (قضاء بيسان, נפת ביסאן) was one of the subdistricts of Mandatory Palestine.
The Beit She'an railway station is an Israel Railways terminal situated at the eastern end of the Beit She'an – Atlit line, serving Beit She'an and the surrounding communities.
Belvoir Fortress (כוכב הירדן, Kochav HaYarden "Star of the Jordan"; كوكب الهوا, Kawkab al-Hawa "Star of the Wind") is a Crusader fortress in northern Israel, on a hill south of the Sea of Galilee.
The British Mandate for Palestine (valid 29 September 1923 - 15 May 1948), also known as the Mandate for Palestine or the Palestine Mandate, was a "Class A" League of Nations mandate for the territories of Mandatory Palestine – in which the Balfour Declaration's "national home for the Jewish people" was to be established – and a separate Arab Emirate of Transjordan, both of which were conceded by the Ottoman Empire under the 1923 Treaty of Lausanne.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.
Calcium oxide (CaO), commonly known as quicklime or burnt lime, is a widely used chemical compound.
Canaan (Northwest Semitic:; Phoenician: 𐤊𐤍𐤏𐤍 Kenā‘an; Hebrew) was a Semitic-speaking region in the Ancient Near East during the late 2nd millennium BC.
A cardo was the Latin name given to a north-south street in Ancient Roman cities and military camps as an integral component of city planning.
Cleveland is a city in the U.S. state of Ohio, and the county seat of Cuyahoga County.
The County of Flanders (Graafschap Vlaanderen, Comté de Flandre) was a historic territory in the Low Countries.
The Crusader states, also known as Outremer, were a number of mostly 12th- and 13th-century feudal Christian states created by Western European crusaders in Asia Minor, Greece and the Holy Land, and during the Northern Crusades in the eastern Baltic area.
The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.
Cyril of Scythopolis (ca. 525–559 CE), also known as Cyrillus Scythopolitanus (Greek: Κύριλλος ὁ Σκυθοπολίτης, Kyrillos ho Skythopolitēs), was a Christian monk, priest and Greek hagiographer or historian of monastic life in Palestine in the early years of Christianity (6th century CE).
Damascus (دمشق, Syrian) is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic; it is also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the battle for the city.
Phoenix dactylifera, commonly known as date or date palm, is a flowering plant species in the palm family, Arecaceae, cultivated for its edible sweet fruit.
David is described in the Hebrew Bible as the second king of the United Kingdom of Israel and Judah.
David Levy (דוד לוי, born 21 December 1937) is an Israeli politician who served as a member of the Knesset between 1969 and 2006, as well as Deputy Prime Minister, Minister of Foreign Affairs, Minister of Immigrant Absorption, Minister of Housing and Construction and as a Minister without Portfolio.
The Dead Sea Transform (DST) fault system, also sometimes referred to as the Dead Sea Rift, is a series of faults that run from the Maras Triple Junction (a junction with the East Anatolian Fault in southeastern Turkey) to the northern end of the Red Sea Rift (just offshore of the southern tip of the Sinai Peninsula).
The Decapolis (Greek: Δεκάπολις Dekápolis, Ten Cities) was a group of ten cities on the eastern frontier of the Roman Empire in the southeastern Levant.
Demetrius II (Δημήτριος Β`, Dēmḗtrios B; died 125 BC), called Nicator (Νικάτωρ, Nikátōr, "the Victor"), was one of the sons of Demetrius I Soter possibly by Laodice V, as was his brother Antiochus VII Sidetes.
The demographics of Israel are monitored by the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics.
Development town (עיירת פיתוח, Ayarat Pitu'ah) is a term used to refer to the new settlements that were built in Israel during the 1950s in order to provide permanent housing to a large influx of Jewish immigrants from Arab countries, Holocaust survivors from Europe and other new immigrants (Olim), who arrived to the newly established State of Israel.
The word diocese is derived from the Greek term διοίκησις meaning "administration".
An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor or temblor) is the shaking of the surface of the Earth, resulting from the sudden release of energy in the Earth's lithosphere that creates seismic waves.
Eilat (help; 'aylaat or 'aylat, also 'Um 'al-Rashrash) is Israel's southernmost city, a busy port and popular resort at the northern tip of the Red Sea, on the Gulf of Aqaba.
Ein HaNetziv (עֵין הַנְּצִי"ב, lit. Spring of the Netziv) is a kibbutz in the Beit She'an Valley in northern Israel.
Emek HaMaayanot Regional Council (מועצה אזורית עמק המעיינות, Mo'atza Azorit Emek Hamaayanot) (lit. Valley of the Springs) is a regional council in the Northern District of Israel that encompasses most of the settlements in the Beit She'an Valley.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
Epiphanius of Salamis (Ἐπιφάνιος; c. 310–320 – 403) was bishop of Salamis, Cyprus, at the end of the 4th century.
In geology, a fault is a planar fracture or discontinuity in a volume of rock, across which there has been significant displacement as a result of rock-mass movement.
Galilee (הגליל, transliteration HaGalil); (الجليل, translit. al-Jalīl) is a region in northern Israel.
The Galilee earthquake of 363 was a pair of severe earthquakes that shook the Galilee and nearby regions on May 18 and 19.
Haaretz (הארץ) (lit. "The Land ", originally Ḥadashot Ha'aretz – חדשות הארץ, – "News of the Land ") is an Israeli newspaper.
Haifa (חֵיפָה; حيفا) is the third-largest city in Israel – after Jerusalem and Tel Aviv– with a population of in.
Hapoel Beit She'an (הפועל בית שאן) is an Israeli football club based in Beit She'an.
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (האוניברסיטה העברית בירושלים, Ha-Universita ha-Ivrit bi-Yerushalayim; الجامعة العبرية في القدس, Al-Jami'ah al-Ibriyyah fi al-Quds; abbreviated HUJI) is Israel's second oldest university, established in 1918, 30 years before the establishment of the State of Israel.
The Hejaz (or Hedjaz) railway (Hicaz Demiryolu) was a narrow-gauge railway (track gauge) that ran from Damascus to Medina, through the Hejaz region of Saudi Arabia, with a branch line to Haifa on the Mediterranean Sea.
The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.
Herod (Greek:, Hērōdēs; 74/73 BCE – c. 4 BCE/1 CE), also known as Herod the Great and Herod I, was a Roman client king of Judea, referred to as the Herodian kingdom.
Route 90 is the longest Israeli road, at about, and stretches from Metula and the northern border with Lebanon, along the western side of the Sea of Galilee, through the Jordan River Valley, along the western bank of the Dead Sea (making it the world's lowest road), through the Arabah valley, and until Eilat and the southern border with Egypt on the Red Sea.
The hippodrome (ἱππόδρομος) was an ancient Grecian stadium for horse racing and chariot racing.
Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik (691 – 6 February 743) (هشام بن عبد الملك) was the 10th Umayyad caliph who ruled from 724 until his death in 743.
The House of Bethune (Maison de Béthune) is a French noble house dating back to about 1000 CE.
Indigo is a deep and rich color close to the color wheel blue (a primary color in the RGB color space), as well as to some variants of ultramarine.
The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.
Ishtori Haparchi (1280-1355) (also Estori Haparchi, Ashtori ha-Parhi) (אשתורי הפרחי) is the pen name of the 14th century Jewish physician, topographer, and traveler, Isaac HaKohen Ben Moses.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
The Israel Central Bureau of Statistics (הלשכה המרכזית לסטטיסטיקה, HaLishka HaMerkazit LiStatistika), abbreviated CBS, is an Israeli government office established in 1949 to carry out research and publish statistical data on all aspects of Israeli life, including population, society, economy, industry, education, and physical infrastructure.
The Israel Museum (מוזיאון ישראל, Muze'on Yisrael) was established in 1965 as Israel's national museum.
The Israeli Declaration of Independence,Hebrew: הכרזת העצמאות, Hakhrazat HaAtzma'ut/מגילת העצמאות Megilat HaAtzma'utArabic: وثيقة إعلان قيام دولة إسرائيل, Wathiqat 'iielan qiam dawlat 'iisrayiyl formally the Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel (הכרזה על הקמת מדינת ישראל), was proclaimed on 14 May 1948 (5 Iyar 5708) by David Ben-Gurion, the Executive Head of the World Zionist OrganizationThen known as the Zionist Organization.
Jackie Levy (ז'קי לוי, born 28 October 1960) is an Israeli politician who currently serves as a member of the Knesset for Likud and as the Deputy Minister of Construction.
Jericho (יְרִיחוֹ; أريحا) is a city in the Palestinian Territories and is located near the Jordan River in the West Bank.
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
The "Jewish state" is a political term used to describe the nation state of Israel.
The Jewish Virtual Library ("JVL", formerly known as JSOURCE) is an online encyclopedia published by the American–Israeli Cooperative Enterprise (AICE).
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
The Jezreel Valley (עמק יזרעאל, translit. Emek Yizra'el), (Marj Ibn Āmir) is a large fertile plain and inland valley south of the Lower Galilee region in Israel.
The Jezreel Valley railway, or the Valley Train (רַכֶּבֶת הָעֵמֶק, Rakevet HaEmek; خط سكك حديد مرج بن عامر) is a railroad that existed in Ottoman and British Palestine, as well as a modern railway in Israel built in the 21st century.
Johann Ludwig (also known as John Lewis, Jean Louis) Burckhardt (24 November 1784 – 15 October 1817) was a Swiss traveller, geographer and orientalist.
Jonathan (Hebrew: Yəhōnāṯān or Yehonatan; or Yonatan) is a heroic figure in 1 Samuel in the Hebrew Bible.
Jonathan Apphus (Hebrew: יונתן אפפוס Yōnāṯān 'Apefūs, Ancient Greek: Ἰωνάθαν Ἀπφοῦς Iōnáthan Apphoûs) was leader of the Hasmonean dynasty of Judea from 161 to 143 BCE.
Jordan (الْأُرْدُنّ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.
The Jordan River (also River Jordan; נְהַר הַיַּרְדֵּן Nahar ha-Yarden, ܢܗܪܐ ܕܝܘܪܕܢܢ, نَهْر الْأُرْدُنّ Nahr al-Urdunn, Ancient Greek: Ιορδάνης, Iordànes) is a -long river in the Middle East that flows roughly north to south through the Sea of Galilee (Hebrew: כנרת Kinneret, Arabic: Bohayrat Tabaraya, meaning Lake of Tiberias) and on to the Dead Sea.
The Jordan River Crossing (מסוף נהר ירדן, معبر نهر الأردن) or Sheikh Hussein Bridge is an international border crossing between Irbid, Jordan and Beit She'an, Israel.
Joseph of Tiberias (c. 285 – c. 356) was a Christian convert from Judaism.
Titus Flavius Josephus (Φλάβιος Ἰώσηπος; 37 – 100), born Yosef ben Matityahu (יוסף בן מתתיהו, Yosef ben Matityahu; Ἰώσηπος Ματθίου παῖς), was a first-century Romano-Jewish scholar, historian and hagiographer, who was born in Jerusalem—then part of Roman Judea—to a father of priestly descent and a mother who claimed royal ancestry.
The Journal of Palestine Studies is an academic journal established in 1971.
Judea or Judæa (from יהודה, Standard Yəhuda, Tiberian Yəhûḏāh, Ἰουδαία,; Iūdaea, يهودا, Yahudia) is the ancient Hebrew and Israelite biblical, the exonymic Roman/English, and the modern-day name of the mountainous southern part of Canaan-Israel.
Jund al-Urdunn (جُـنْـد الْأُرْدُنّ, translation: "Military district of Jordan") was one of the five districts of Bilad ash-Sham during the period of the Arab Caliphates.
The Karnak Temple Complex, commonly known as Karnak (from Arabic Ka-Ranak meaning "fortified village"), comprises a vast mix of decayed temples, chapels, pylons, and other buildings in Egypt.
The Katyusha multiple rocket launcher (a) is a type of rocket artillery first built and fielded by the Soviet Union in World War II.
A kibbutz (קִבּוּץ /, lit. "gathering, clustering"; regular plural kibbutzim /) is a collective community in Israel that was traditionally based on agriculture.
The United Monarchy is the name given to the Israelite kingdom of Israel and Judah, during the reigns of Saul, David and Solomon, as depicted in the Hebrew Bible.
The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem was a crusader state established in the Southern Levant by Godfrey of Bouillon in 1099 after the First Crusade.
Kiryat Shmona (קִרְיַת שְׁמוֹנָה, lit. Town of the Eight) is a city located in the Northern District of Israel on the western slopes of the Hula Valley near the Lebanese border.
Liga Bet (ליגה ב', lit. B League) is the fourth tier of the Israeli football league system.
The Lignages d'Outremer ("Lineages of Outremer") describe the pedigrees of the most important Crusader families.
Likud (הַלִּיכּוּד, translit. HaLikud, lit., The Consolidation), officially, the Likud-National Liberal Movement, is a centre-right to right-wing political party in Israel.
Around 400 Arab towns and villages were depopulated during the 1948 Palestinian exodus.
Ma'abarot (מַעְבָּרוֹת) were refugee absorption camps in Israel in the 1950s.
Maariv or Ma'ariv, also known as Arvit, is a Jewish prayer service held in the evening or night.
The Maccabees, also spelled Machabees (מכבים or, Maqabim; or Maccabaei; Μακκαβαῖοι, Makkabaioi), were a group of Jewish rebel warriors who took control of Judea, which at the time was part of the Seleucid Empire.
The Mamluk Sultanate (سلطنة المماليك Salṭanat al-Mamālīk) was a medieval realm spanning Egypt, the Levant, and Hejaz.
Mandatory Palestine (فلسطين; פָּלֶשְׂתִּינָה (א"י), where "EY" indicates "Eretz Yisrael", Land of Israel) was a geopolitical entity under British administration, carved out of Ottoman Syria after World War I. British civil administration in Palestine operated from 1920 until 1948.
Marble is a metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals, most commonly calcite or dolomite.
Mizrahi Jews, Mizrahim (מִזְרָחִים), also referred to as Edot HaMizrach ("Communities of the East"; Mizrahi Hebrew), ("Sons of the East"), or Oriental Jews, are descendants of local Jewish communities in the Middle East from biblical times into the modern era.
A mortar is usually a simple, lightweight, man portable, muzzle-loaded weapon, consisting of a smooth-bore metal tube fixed to a base plate (to absorb recoil) with a lightweight bipod mount.
The Mosaic of Reḥob (also known as the Tel Rehov inscription and Baraita of the Boundaries) is a mosaic discovered in 1973, inlaid in the floor of the foyer or narthex of an ancient synagogue near Tel Rehov, south of Beit She'an and about west of the Jordan River, containing the longest written text hitherto discovered in any mosaic in the Land of Israel, and also the oldest known Talmudic text.
A mosque (from masjid) is a place of worship for Muslims.
Mount Gilboa (הַר הַגִּלְבֹּעַ, הר הגלבוע, Har HaGilboa), sometimes called the Mountains of Gelboe, is a mountain range overlooking the Jezreel Valley in northern Israel.
National parks of Israel are declared historic sites or nature reserves, which are mostly operated and maintained by the National Nature and Parks Authority.
Nazareth (נָצְרַת, Natzrat; النَّاصِرَة, an-Nāṣira; ܢܨܪܬ, Naṣrath) is the capital and the largest city in the Northern District of Israel.
The Neo-Assyrian Empire was an Iron Age Mesopotamian empire, in existence between 911 and 609 BC, and became the largest empire of the world up till that time.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
The Northern District (מחוז הצפון, Mehoz HaTzafon; منطقة الشمال, Minṭaqat ash-Shamal) is one of Israel's six administrative districts.
A nymphaeum or nymphaion (νυμφαῖον), in ancient Greece and Rome, was a monument consecrated to the nymphs, especially those of springs.
Operation Gideon was a Haganah offensive launched in the closing days of the British Mandate in Palestine, as part of the 1947–48 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine.
Orde Charles Wingate & Two Bars (26 February 1903 – 24 March 1944) was a senior British Army officer, known for his creation of the Chindit deep-penetration missions in Japanese-held territory during the Burma Campaign of World War II.
Orly Levy-Abekasis (אורלי לוי-אבקסיס, born 11 November 1973) is an Israeli politician who currently serves as an independent member of the Knesset, having resigned from the Yisrael Beiteinu party in 2016.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Palæstina Secunda or Palaestina II was a Byzantine province from 390, until its conquest by the Muslim armies in 634–636.
The Palestine Exploration Fund is a British society based in London.
The Pax Romana (Latin for "Roman Peace") was a long period of relative peace and stability experienced by the Roman Empire between the accession of Caesar Augustus, founder of the Roman principate, and the death of Marcus Aurelius, last of the "good emperors".
Philadelphia is the largest city in the U.S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and the sixth-most populous U.S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863.
Plan Dalet (תוכנית ד', Tokhnit dalet) was a plan worked out by the Haganah in Mandatory Palestine in March 1948.
Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (29 September 106 BC – 28 September 48 BC), usually known in English as Pompey or Pompey the Great, was a military and political leader of the late Roman Republic.
The Principality of Galilee was one of the four major seigneuries of the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem, according to 13th-century commentator John of Ibelin.
Procopius of Scythopolis (died 7 July AD 303) is venerated as a martyr and saint.
The Ptolemaic Kingdom (Πτολεμαϊκὴ βασιλεία, Ptolemaïkḕ basileía) was a Hellenistic kingdom based in Egypt.
Ramesses II (variously also spelt Rameses or Ramses; born; died July or August 1213 BC; reigned 1279–1213 BC), also known as Ramesses the Great, was the third pharaoh of the 19th Dynasty of Egypt.
The Rashidun army was the core of the Rashidun Caliphate's armed forces during the Muslim conquests of the 7th century, serving alongside the Rashidun navy.
Regional councils (plural: מוֹעָצוֹת אֵזוֹרִיּוֹת, Mo'atzot Azoriot / singular: מוֹעָצָה אֵזוֹרִית, Mo'atza Azorit) are one of the three types of local government entities found in Israel and the West Bank, with the other two being cities and local councils.
The Rockefeller Museum, formerly the Palestine Archaeological Museum, is an archaeology museum located in East Jerusalem that houses a large collection of artifacts unearthed in the excavations conducted in Mandate Palestine, in the 1920s and 1930s.
Safed (צְפַת Tsfat, Ashkenazi: Tzfas, Biblical: Ṣ'fath; صفد, Ṣafad) is a city in the Northern District of Israel.
An-Nasir Salah ad-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub (صلاح الدين يوسف بن أيوب / ALA-LC: Ṣalāḥ ad-Dīn Yūsuf ibn Ayyūb; سەلاحەدینی ئەییووبی / ALA-LC: Selahedînê Eyûbî), known as Salah ad-Din or Saladin (11374 March 1193), was the first sultan of Egypt and Syria and the founder of the Ayyubid dynasty.
Samaria (שֹׁמְרוֹן, Standard, Tiberian Šōmərôn; السامرة, – also known as, "Nablus Mountains") is a historical and biblical name used for the central region of ancient Land of Israel, also known as Palestine, bordered by Galilee to the north and Judaea to the south.
A sarcophagus (plural, sarcophagi) is a box-like funeral receptacle for a corpse, most commonly carved in stone, and usually displayed above ground, though it may also be buried.
Saul (meaning "asked for, prayed for"; Saul; طالوت, Ṭālūt or شاؤل, Ša'ūl), according to the Hebrew Bible, was the first king of the Kingdom of Israel and Judah.
or Scyths (from Greek Σκύθαι, in Indo-Persian context also Saka), were a group of Iranian people, known as the Eurasian nomads, who inhabited the western and central Eurasian steppes from about the 9th century BC until about the 1st century BC.
The Diocese of Scythopolis is a titular see in Israel/Jordan and was the Metropolitan of the Roman province of Palestina II.
The Sea Peoples are a purported seafaring confederation that attacked ancient Egypt and other regions of the East Mediterranean prior to and during the Late Bronze Age collapse (1200–900 BC).
The Second Intifada, also known as the Al-Aqsa Intifada (انتفاضة الأقصى; אינתיפאדת אל-אקצה Intifādat El-Aqtzah), was the second Palestinian uprising against Israel – a period of intensified Israeli–Palestinian violence.
The Seleucid Empire (Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, Basileía tōn Seleukidōn) was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty, which existed from 312 BC to 63 BC; Seleucus I Nicator founded it following the division of the Macedonian empire vastly expanded by Alexander the Great.
Menmaatre Seti I (or Sethos I as in Greek) was a pharaoh of the New Kingdom Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt, the son of Ramesses I and Sitre, and the father of Ramesses II.
Twin towns or sister cities are a form of legal or social agreement between towns, cities, counties, oblasts, prefectures, provinces, regions, states, and even countries in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.
Solomon (שְׁלֹמֹה, Shlomoh), also called Jedidiah (Hebrew Yədidya), was, according to the Hebrew Bible, Quran, Hadith and Hidden Words, a fabulously wealthy and wise king of Israel who succeeded his father, King David. The conventional dates of Solomon's reign are circa 970 to 931 BCE, normally given in alignment with the dates of David's reign. He is described as the third king of the United Monarchy, which would break apart into the northern Kingdom of Israel and the southern Kingdom of Judah shortly after his death. Following the split, his patrilineal descendants ruled over Judah alone. According to the Talmud, Solomon is one of the 48 prophets. In the Quran, he is considered a major prophet, and Muslims generally refer to him by the Arabic variant Sulayman, son of David. The Hebrew Bible credits him as the builder of the First Temple in Jerusalem, beginning in the fourth year of his reign, using the vast wealth he had accumulated. He dedicated the temple to Yahweh, the God of Israel. He is portrayed as great in wisdom, wealth and power beyond either of the previous kings of the country, but also as a king who sinned. His sins included idolatry, marrying foreign women and, ultimately, turning away from Yahweh, and they led to the kingdom's being torn in two during the reign of his son Rehoboam. Solomon is the subject of many other later references and legends, most notably in the 1st-century apocryphal work known as the Testament of Solomon. In the New Testament, he is portrayed as a teacher of wisdom excelled by Jesus, and as arrayed in glory, but excelled by "the lilies of the field". In later years, in mostly non-biblical circles, Solomon also came to be known as a magician and an exorcist, with numerous amulets and medallion seals dating from the Hellenistic period invoking his name.
A steleAnglicized plural steles; Greek plural stelai, from Greek στήλη, stēlē.
Sugarcane, or sugar cane, are several species of tall perennial true grasses of the genus Saccharum, tribe Andropogoneae, native to the warm temperate to tropical regions of South and Southeast Asia, Polynesia and Melanesia, and used for sugar production.
The Syrian Wars were a series of six wars between the Seleucid Empire and the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, successor states to Alexander the Great's empire, during the 3rd and 2nd centuries BC over the region then called Coele-Syria, one of the few avenues into Egypt.
Colonel Thomas Edward Lawrence, (16 August 1888 – 19 May 1935) was a British archaeologist, military officer, diplomat, and writer.
The Tanakh (or; also Tenakh, Tenak, Tanach), also called the Mikra or Hebrew Bible, is the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is also a textual source for the Christian Old Testament.
In archaeology, a tell, or tel (derived from تَل,, 'hill' or 'mound'), is an artificial mound formed from the accumulated refuse of people living on the same site for hundreds or thousands of years.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
Thutmose III (sometimes read as Thutmosis or Tuthmosis III, Thothmes in older history works, and meaning "Thoth is born") was the sixth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty.
Tiberias (טְבֶרְיָה, Tverya,; طبرية, Ṭabariyyah) is an Israeli city on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee.
Tiglath-Pileser III (cuneiform: TUKUL.TI.A.É.ŠÁR.RA; Akkadian: Tukultī-apil-Ešarra, "my trust is in the son of the Ešarra") was a prominent king of Assyria in the eighth century BCE (ruled 745–727 BCE) who introduced advanced civil, military, and political systems into the Neo-Assyrian Empire.
Topography is the study of the shape and features of the surface of the Earth and other observable astronomical objects including planets, moons, and asteroids.
A transform fault or transform boundary is a plate boundary where the motion is predominantly horizontal.
Umar, also spelled Omar (عمر بن الخطاب, "Umar, Son of Al-Khattab"; c. 584 CE 3 November 644 CE), was one of the most powerful and influential Muslim caliphs in history.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine was a proposal by the United Nations, which recommended a partition of Mandatory Palestine at the end of the British Mandate. On 29 November 1947, the UN General Assembly adopted the Plan as Resolution 181 (II). The resolution recommended the creation of independent Arab and Jewish States and a Special International Regime for the city of Jerusalem. The Partition Plan, a four-part document attached to the resolution, provided for the termination of the Mandate, the progressive withdrawal of British armed forces and the delineation of boundaries between the two States and Jerusalem. Part I of the Plan stipulated that the Mandate would be terminated as soon as possible and the United Kingdom would withdraw no later than 1 August 1948. The new states would come into existence two months after the withdrawal, but no later than 1 October 1948. The Plan sought to address the conflicting objectives and claims of two competing movements, Palestinian nationalism and Jewish nationalism, or Zionism. Molinaro, Enrico The Holy Places of Jerusalem in Middle East Peace Agreements Page 78 The Plan also called for Economic Union between the proposed states, and for the protection of religious and minority rights. The Plan was accepted by the Jewish Agency for Palestine, despite its perceived limitations. Arab leaders and governments rejected it and indicated an unwillingness to accept any form of territorial division, arguing that it violated the principles of national self-determination in the UN Charter which granted people the right to decide their own destiny.Sami Hadawi, Olive Branch Press, (1989)1991 p.76. Immediately after adoption of the Resolution by the General Assembly, a civil war broke out and the plan was not implemented.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The University of Pennsylvania (commonly known as Penn or UPenn) is a private Ivy League research university located in University City section of West Philadelphia.
The University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology—commonly called the Penn Museum—is an archaeology and anthropology museum that is part of the University of Pennsylvania.
The Crusader state of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, created in 1099, was divided into a number of smaller seigneuries.
Walid Khalidi (وليد خالدي, born 1925 in Jerusalem) is an Oxford University-educated Palestinian historian who has written extensively on the Palestinian exodus.
The Yiftach Brigade (also known as the Yiftah Brigade, the 11th Brigade in the 1948 Arab–Israeli War) was an Israeli infantry brigade.
The Yishuv (ישוב, literally "settlement") or Ha-Yishuv (the Yishuv, הישוב) or Ha-Yishuv Ha-Ivri (the Hebrew Yishuv, הישוב העברי) is the term referring to the body of Jewish residents in the land of Israel (corresponding to Ottoman Syria until 1917, OETA South 1917–1920 and later Mandatory Palestine 1920–1948) prior to the establishment of the State of Israel.
Yosef Weitz (יוסף ויץ; 1890–1972) was the director of the Land and Afforestation Department of the Jewish National Fund (JNF).
The 1922 census of Palestine was the first census carried out by the authorities of the British Mandate of Palestine, on 23 October 1922.
The 1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine, later came to be known as "The Great Revolt", was a nationalist uprising by Palestinian Arabs in Mandatory Palestine against the British administration of the Palestine Mandate, demanding Arab independence and the end of the policy of open-ended Jewish immigration and land purchases with the stated goal of establishing a "Jewish National Home". The dissent was directly influenced by the Qassamite rebellion, following the killing of Sheikh Izz ad-Din al-Qassam in 1935, as well as the declaration by Hajj Amin al-Husseini of 16 May 1936 as 'Palestine Day' and calling for a General Strike. The revolt was branded by many in the Jewish Yishuv as "immoral and terroristic", often comparing it to fascism and nazism. Ben Gurion however described Arab causes as fear of growing Jewish economic power, opposition to mass Jewish immigration and fear of the English identification with Zionism.Morris, 1999, p. 136. The general strike lasted from April to October 1936, initiating the violent revolt. The revolt consisted of two distinct phases.Norris, 2008, pp. 25, 45. The first phase was directed primarily by the urban and elitist Higher Arab Committee (HAC) and was focused mainly on strikes and other forms of political protest. By October 1936, this phase had been defeated by the British civil administration using a combination of political concessions, international diplomacy (involving the rulers of Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Transjordan and Yemen) and the threat of martial law. The second phase, which began late in 1937, was a violent and peasant-led resistance movement provoked by British repression in 1936 that increasingly targeted British forces. During this phase, the rebellion was brutally suppressed by the British Army and the Palestine Police Force using repressive measures that were intended to intimidate the Arab population and undermine popular support for the revolt. During this phase, a more dominant role on the Arab side was taken by the Nashashibi clan, whose NDP party quickly withdrew from the rebel Arab Higher Committee, led by the radical faction of Amin al-Husseini, and instead sided with the British – dispatching "Fasail al-Salam" (the "Peace Bands") in coordination with the British Army against nationalist and Jihadist Arab "Fasail" units (literally "bands"). According to official British figures covering the whole revolt, the army and police killed more than 2,000 Arabs in combat, 108 were hanged, and 961 died because of what they described as "gang and terrorist activities". In an analysis of the British statistics, Walid Khalidi estimates 19,792 casualties for the Arabs, with 5,032 dead: 3,832 killed by the British and 1,200 dead because of "terrorism", and 14,760 wounded. Over ten percent of the adult male Palestinian Arab population between 20 and 60 was killed, wounded, imprisoned or exiled. Estimates of the number of Palestinian Jews killed range from 91 to several hundred.Morris, 1999, p. 160. The Arab revolt in Mandatory Palestine was unsuccessful, and its consequences affected the outcome of the 1948 Palestine war.Morris, 1999, p. 159. It caused the British Mandate to give crucial support to pre-state Zionist militias like the Haganah, whereas on the Palestinian Arab side, the revolt forced the flight into exile of the main Palestinian Arab leader of the period, the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem – Haj Amin al-Husseini.
The 1948 Arab–Israeli War, or the First Arab–Israeli War, was fought between the State of Israel and a military coalition of Arab states over the control of Palestine, forming the second stage of the 1948 Palestine war.
The 1948 Palestinian exodus, also known as the Nakba (النكبة, al-Nakbah, literally "disaster", "catastrophe", or "cataclysm"), occurred when more than 700,000 Palestinian Arabs fled or were expelled from their homes, during the 1948 Palestine war.
The 1974 Beit She'an attack, which took place during November 19, 1974, was a raid by a squad of three Palestinian militants, belonging to the Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine militant organization, on the Israeli city of Beit She'an.
The 2002 Beit She'an attack, which took place during November 28, 2002, was a terrorist attack carried out by members of the Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades in the city of Beit She'an, Israel.
The 5th millennium BC spanned the years 5000 through 4001 BC.
A devastating earthquake known in the scientific literature as the Earthquake of 749 struck on January 18, 749 in areas of the Umayyad Caliphate, the worst affected being parts of Palestine and western Transjordan.
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