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Belarus

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Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest. [1]

405 relations: Afghanistan, Agrarian Party (Belarus), Alaksandar Milinkievič, Aleksander Gieysztor, Ales Adamovich, Ales Bialiatski, Alexander III of Russia, Alexander Lukashenko, All Belarusian People's Assembly, Alyaksandr Kazulin, Amnesty International, Anatoly Bogatyrev, Andrei Arlovski, Andrei Kobyakov, Andrei Ravkov, Andrei Sannikov, Annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation, Association football, Australian Open, Authoritarianism, Avant-garde, Źmitrok Biadula, Żeligowski's Mutiny, Babruysk, Baku Initiative, Balts, Battle of Grunwald, BBC News Online, Belarus (tractor), Belarus Democracy Act of 2004, Belarus men's national ice hockey team, Belarus national football team, Belarus–European Union relations, Belarusian cuisine, Belarusian Governorate, Belarusian Greek Catholic Church, Belarusian language, Belarusian Orthodox Church, Belarusian parliamentary election, 2012, Belarusian People's Republic, Belarusian Popular Front, Belarusian presidential election, 2001, Belarusian presidential election, 2006, Belarusian presidential election, 2010, Belarusian presidential election, 2015, Belarusian referendum, 1995, Belarusian referendum, 1996, Belarusian referendum, 2004, Belarusian ruble, Belarusian Socialist Sporting Party, ..., Belarusian Telegraph Agency, Belarusians, Belavezha Accords, BelAZ, Belsat TV, Białowieża Forest, Białystok, Biathlon, Bicameralism, Black Ruthenia, Black Sea, Boris Yeltsin, BPF Party, Bread and salt, Brest Fortress, Brest Region, Brest, Belarus, Buffer state, Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, Caesium, Caesium-137, Capital punishment, Capital punishment in Belarus, Catherine the Great, Catholic Church in Belarus, Central Intelligence Agency, Chernobyl disaster, Cimmerians, Collective Security Treaty Organization, Collectivism, Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe, Commonwealth of Independent States, Communist Party of Belarus, Condoleezza Rice, Conscription, Conservative Christian Party – BPF, Constitution of 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Nazi Germany, Neman, Nesvizh Castle, Net migration rate, Nicholas I of Russia, Nightingale (ballet), Nikita Khrushchev, Nobel Prize in Literature, Non-Aligned Movement, November Uprising, Nuclear fallout, Oblast, Oceanic climate, October Revolution, Ombudsman, Operation Barbarossa, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, Outline of Belarus, Outposts of tyranny, Oxford University Press, Pannonian Avars, Partitions of Poland, Peace of Riga, Peat, People's Coalition 5 Plus, Personal union, Poland, Poles, Poles in Belarus, Polish Land Forces, Polish language, Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Polish–Soviet War, Polonization, Polotsk, Pope Pius VI, Prague, President of Belarus, Presidential system, Press Freedom Index, Prime Minister of Russia, Principality of Polotsk, Pripyat River, Prix Benois de la Danse, Prussia, Public holidays in Belarus, Purchasing power parity, Raion, Rapeseed, Redenomination, Reporters Without Borders, Republic, Republic of Central Lithuania, Republic of Central Lithuania general election, 1922, Republican Party of Labour and Justice, Republics of the Soviet Union, Reuters, Rice University, Rostelecom, Routledge, Russia, Russian Empire, Russian language, Russian military intervention in Ukraine (2014–present), Russian Orthodox Church, Russian Revolution, Russian ruble, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, Russians, Russians in Belarus, Russification, Ruthenia, Ruthenian language, Rye, Samogitia, Scythians, Second Polish Republic, Serfdom, Slavianski Bazaar in Vitebsk, Slavs, Socialist Soviet Republic of Byelorussia, Society of Jesus, Sovereignty, Soviet Armed Forces, Soviet invasion of Poland, Soviet ruble, Soviet Union, Sovietization, Spoken language, Stanisław Moniuszko, Stanislav Shushkevich, State ownership, Statutes of Lithuania, Stew, Struve Geodetic Arc, Sub-replacement fertility, Supreme Court of Belarus, Supreme Soviet, Supreme Soviet of Belarus, Svetlana Alexievich, Syria, Tata Communications, Tatars, Telephone 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Snyder, Total fertility rate, Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, Tsar, Types of tennis match, Uładzimir Žyłka, UEFA Champions League, Ukraine, Ukrainian language, Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, Ukrainians, Uladzimir Karatkievich, Ultimate Fighting Championship, UNESCO, Union of Brest, Union of Krewo, Union of Lublin, Union State, Unitary state, United Civic Party of Belarus, United Nations, United Nations Charter, United States Department of State, United States Secretary of State, United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, Vasil Bykaŭ, Vasil Kiryienka, Viasna Human Rights Centre, Victoria Azarenka, Victory Day (9 May), Viktar Hanchar, Vilnius, Vintsent Dunin-Martsinkyevich, Vitebsk, Vitebsk Region, Vladimir Putin, VSNL International Canada, Vyacheslav Kebich, Władysław II Jagiełło, Western Belorussia, Western world, Westview Press, Wheat, Whistleblower, White Ruthenia, Wool, World Bank, World Heritage site, World Trade Organization, World War I, World War II, World War II casualties of the Soviet Union, Yakub Kolas, Yanka Kupala, Yiddish dialects, Zianon Pazniak, .by, .бел, 1994 Winter Olympics, 1st Lithuanian–Belarusian Division, 2007 Russia–Belarus energy dispute, 2008 Summer Olympics, 2012 Summer Olympics, 2014 Winter Olympics, 2015 UCI Road World Championships – Men's time trial, 2015 World Championships in Athletics – Women's 800 metres, 23rd meridian east, 33rd meridian east, 51st parallel north, 57th parallel north. 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Afghanistan

Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.

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Agrarian Party (Belarus)

The Agrarian Party (Agrarnaya partiya; Ahrarnaja partyja) is a left-wing agrarian political party in Belarus.

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Alaksandar Milinkievič

Alaksandar Uładzimieravič Milinkievič (Аляксандар Уладзімеравіч Мілінкевіч or Аляксандр Уладзіміравіч Мілінкевіч, Alaksandar Uładzimiravič Milinkievič (in Belarusian Łacinka), Александр Владимирович Милинкевич Aleksandr Vładimirovich Milinkievich, born 25 July 1947 in Grodno) is a Belarusian politician.

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Aleksander Gieysztor

Aleksander Gieysztor (17 July 1916, Moscow, Russian Empire – 9 February 1999, Warsaw, Poland) was a Polish medievalist historian.

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Ales Adamovich

Ales Adamovich (Алесь Адамовіч, Алесь Адамович, full name: Александр Михайлович Адамович; September 3, 1927 in Hlusha Minsk Voblast, Belarus, USSR – January 26, 1994 in Moscow, Russia) was a Belarusian Soviet writer and a critic, Professor and Corresponding Member of the Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Doctor of Philosophy in philology, Doctorate in 1962 (a degree in Russia corresponding to Habilitation); member of the Supreme Soviet (1989–92).

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Ales Bialiatski

Ales Bialiatski (Алесь Бяляцкі/Aleś Bialacki, sometimes transliterated as Ales Bialacki, Ales Byalyatski, Alies Bialiacki and Alex Belyatsky) is a Belarusian political activist known for his work with Viasna Human Rights Centre, of which he is currently the head and the founding of the BPF Party.

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Alexander III of Russia

Alexander III (r; 1845 1894) was the Emperor of Russia, King of Poland, and Grand Duke of Finland from until his death on.

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Alexander Lukashenko

Aleksandr Grigoryevich Lukashenko (translit,; ɐlʲɪˈksandr ɡrʲɪˈɡorʲjɪvʲɪtɕ ɫʊkɐˈʂɛnkə; born 30 August 1954) is a Belarusian politician serving as President of Belarus since the office was created on 20 July 1994.

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All Belarusian People's Assembly

The All Belarusian People's Assembly (Усебеларускі народны сход, Всебелорусское народное собрание) is a general meeting of the Belarusian Government with industry leaders and other top officials from every sector of the government.

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Alyaksandr Kazulin

Alyaksandr Kazulin (Аляксандр Уладзіслававіч Казулін, Александр Владиславович Козулин, born 25 November 1955 in Minsk) is the former leader of the Belarusian Social Democratic Party and one of the candidates who ran for the office of President of Belarus on 19 March 2006.

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Amnesty International

Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a London-based non-governmental organization focused on human rights.

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Anatoly Bogatyrev

Anatoly Vasilyevich Bogatyrev (Анатоль Васільевіч Багатыроў; – September 19, 2003) was a Belarusian composer and music teacher, seen as one of the leaders of the national school of Belarusian music.

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Andrei Arlovski

Andrei Valeryevich Arlovski (Андрэй Валер'евіч Арлоўскі,, born February 4, 1979), nicknamed The Pitbull, is a Belarusian mixed martial artist, actor and former UFC Heavyweight Champion.

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Andrei Kobyakov

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Andrei Ravkov

Lieutenant General Andrei Alekseyevich Ravkov (Андрэй Аляксеевіч Раўкоў, born on 25 June 1967 in Revyaki, Vitebsk Region) has been the Defence Minister of Belarus since 27 November 2014.

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Andrei Sannikov

Andréi Olégovich Sánnikov (or Andrei Sannikau, Андрэй Алегавіч Саннікаў, Андрей Олегович Санников, born 8 March 1954) is a Belarusian politician and activist.

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Annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation

The Crimean peninsula was annexed from Ukraine by the Russian Federation in February–March 2014.

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Association football

Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.

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Australian Open

The Australian Open is a tennis tournament held annually over the last fortnight of January in Melbourne, Australia.

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Authoritarianism

Authoritarianism is a form of government characterized by strong central power and limited political freedoms.

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Avant-garde

The avant-garde (from French, "advance guard" or "vanguard", literally "fore-guard") are people or works that are experimental, radical, or unorthodox with respect to art, culture, or society.

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Źmitrok Biadula

Shmuel Yefimovich Plavnik (Самуіл Яфімавіч Плаўнік; Łacinka: Samuił Jafimavič Płaŭnik; April 23, 1886 – November 3, 1941), better known by the pen name Źmitrok Biadula (Змітрок Бядуля), was a Jewish Belarusian poet, prose writer, cultural worker, and political activist in the Belarusian independence movement.

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Żeligowski's Mutiny

Żeligowski's Mutiny (bunt Żeligowskiego also żeligiada, Želigovskio maištas) was a Polish military operation led by General Lucjan Żeligowski in October 1920, which resulted in the creation of the Republic of Central Lithuania.

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Babruysk

Babruysk, Babrujsk, or Bobruisk (Бабру́йск, Łacinka: Babrujsk, Бобру́йск, Bobrujsk, באברויסק) is a city in the Mogilev Region of eastern Belarus on the Berezina river.

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Baku Initiative

The Baku Initiative is an international initiative of the European Union.

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Balts

The Balts or Baltic people (baltai, balti) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the Baltic languages, a branch of the Indo-European language family, which was originally spoken by tribes living in the area east of Jutland peninsula in the west and in the Moscow, Oka and Volga rivers basins in the east.

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Battle of Grunwald

The Battle of Grunwald, First Battle of Tannenberg or Battle of Žalgiris, was fought on 15 July 1410 during the Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War.

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BBC News Online

BBC News Online is the website of BBC News, the division of the BBC responsible for newsgathering and production.

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Belarus (tractor)

Belarus («Белару́с», earlier «Белару́сь») is a series of four-wheeled tractors produced since 1950 at Minsk Tractor Works, MTZ (Мінскі трактарны завод; Ми́нский тра́кторный заво́д, МТЗ) in Minsk, Belarus.

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Belarus Democracy Act of 2004

The Belarus Democracy Act of 2004 is a United States federal law that authorizes assistance for political parties, non-governmental organizations, and independent media working for democracy and human rights in Belarus.

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Belarus men's national ice hockey team

The Belarusian national ice hockey team (Зборная Беларусі па хакеі з шайбай; Сборная Белоруссии по хоккею с шайбой) is currently ranked 11th in the world by the IIHF in their 2018 World Ranking.

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Belarus national football team

Belarus national football team (Нацыянальная зборная Беларусі па футболе, Natsyyanalnaya zbornaya Bielarusi pa futbolie) represents Belarus in association football and is controlled by the Football Federation of Belarus, the governing body for football in Belarus.

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Belarus–European Union relations

Euro-Belarusian relations refers to relations between the Republic of Belarus and the European Union (EU).

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Belarusian cuisine

Belarusian cuisine shares many similarities with cuisines of other Eastern, Central and Northeastern European countries, basing predominantly based on meat and various vegetables typical for the region.

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Belarusian Governorate

The Belarusian Governorate (Белорусская губерния) was an administrative division of the Russian Empire established on December 12, 1796.It included the lands acquired after the Second Partition of Poland.

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Belarusian Greek Catholic Church

The Belarusian Greek Catholic Church (Беларуская грэка-каталіцкая царква, BHKC), sometimes called, in reference to its Byzantine Rite, the Belarusian Byzantine Catholic Church, is the heir within Belarus of the Union of Brest.

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Belarusian language

Belarusian (беларуская мова) is an official language of Belarus, along with Russian, and is spoken abroad, mainly in Ukraine and Russia.

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Belarusian Orthodox Church

Belarusian Orthodox Church (Беларуская праваслаўная царква, Белорусская православная церковь) is the official name of the Belarusian Exarchate (Беларускі экзархат, Белорусский экзархат) of the Russian Orthodox Church in Belarus.

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Belarusian parliamentary election, 2012

Parliamentary elections were held in Belarus on 23 September 2012.

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Belarusian People's Republic

The Belarusian People's Republic (Белару́ская Наро́дная Рэспу́бліка,, transliterated as Bielarúskaja Naródnaja Respúblika, BNR), (Белорусская народная республика) (transliterated as Belorusskaya narodnaya respublika), historically referred to as the White Ruthenian Democratic Republic (Weißruthenische Volksrepublik) was a failed attempt to create a Belarusian state on the territory controlled by the German Imperial Army during World War I. The BNR existed from 1918 to 1919.

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Belarusian Popular Front

The Belarusian Popular Front "Renaissance" (BPF, Беларускі Народны Фронт "Адраджэньне", БНФ) was a social and political movement in Belarus in late 1980s and the 1990s which led Belarus to its independence from the Soviet Union.

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Belarusian presidential election, 2001

Presidential elections were held in Belarus on 9 September 2001.

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Belarusian presidential election, 2006

The Belarusian presidential election of 2006 was held on 19 March.

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Belarusian presidential election, 2010

A presidential election was held in Belarus on 19 December 2010.

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Belarusian presidential election, 2015

Presidential elections were held in Belarus on 11 October 2015.

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Belarusian referendum, 1995

A four-question referendum was held in Belarus on 14 May 1995, alongside parliamentary elections.

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Belarusian referendum, 1996

A seven-question referendum was held in Belarus on 24 November 1996.

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Belarusian referendum, 2004

A referendum on allowing President Lukashenko to stand in further elections was held in Belarus on 17 October 2004, alongside parliamentary elections.

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Belarusian ruble

The Belarusian ruble or rouble (рубель rubieĺ, plural: рублі rubli, genitive plural: рублёў rublioŭ) is the official currency of Belarus.

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Belarusian Socialist Sporting Party

The Belarusian Socialist Sporting Party (Беларуская сацыяльна-спартыўная партыя) is a political party in Belarus, that supports the government of president Alexander Lukashenko.

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Belarusian Telegraph Agency

The Belarusian Telegraph Agency or BelTA (Беларускае Тэлеграфнае Агенцтва, Белорусское Телеграфное Агентство, БелТА) is the state-owned national news agency of the Republic of Belarus.

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Belarusians

Belarusians (беларусы, biełarusy, or Byelorussians (from the Byelorussian SSR), are an East Slavic ethnic group who are native to modern-day Belarus and the immediate region. There are over 9.5 million people who proclaim Belarusian ethnicity worldwide, with the overwhelming majority residing either in Belarus or the adjacent countries where they are an autochthonous minority.

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Belavezha Accords

The Belavezha Accords (Беловежские соглашения, Белавежскае пагадненне, Біловезькі угоди) is the agreement that declared the Soviet Union effectively dissolved and established the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) in its place.

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BelAZ

BelAZ (lit, Белорусский автомобильный завод or БелАЗ), is a Belarusian manufacturer of haulage and earthmoving equipment based in Zhodzina.

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Belsat TV

Belsat TV (Belarusian: Белсат, Biełsat, English: Belsat) is a satellite television channel aimed at Belarus.

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Białowieża Forest

Białowieża Forest (Белавежская пушча, Biełaviežskaja Pušča; Baltvyžio giria; Puszcza Białowieska) is one of the last and largest remaining parts of the immense primeval forest that once stretched across the European Plain.

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Białystok

Białystok (Bielastok, Balstogė, Belostok, Byalistok) is the largest city in northeastern Poland and the capital of the Podlaskie Voivodeship.

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Biathlon

The biathlon is a winter sport that combines cross-country skiing and rifle shooting.

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Bicameralism

A bicameral legislature divides the legislators into two separate assemblies, chambers, or houses.

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Black Ruthenia

Black Ruthenia (Ruthenia Nigra), Black Rus' (Чорная Русь / Čornaja Ruś, Ruś Czarna, Juodoji Rusia) identified a historic region around Navahrudak (Novgorodok), in the western part of contemporary Belarus on the upper reaches of the Neman River.

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Black Sea

The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.

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Boris Yeltsin

Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin (p; 1 February 1931 – 23 April 2007) was a Soviet and Russian politician and the first President of the Russian Federation, serving from 1991 to 1999.

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BPF Party

The BPF Party (Partyja BNF or ПБНФ PBNF), is a political party in Belarus.

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Bread and salt

Bread and salt is a welcome greeting ceremony in Slavic and other European cultures and in Middle Eastern cultures.

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Brest Fortress

Brest Fortress (Брэсцкая крэпасць,; Брестская крепость,; Twierdza brzeska), formerly known as Brest-Litovsk Fortress, is a 19th-century Russian fortress in Brest, Belarus, the former Byelorussian SSR.

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Brest Region

Brest Region or Brest Oblast or Brest Voblast (Брэ́сцкая во́бласць; Bresckaja vobłasć; Бре́стская о́бласть; Brestskaya Oblast) is one of the regions of Belarus.

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Brest, Belarus

Brest (Брэст There is also the name "Berestye", but it is found only in the Old Russian language and Tarashkevich., Брест Brest, Берестя Berestia, בריסק Brisk), formerly Brest-Litoŭsk (Брэст-Лiтоўск) (Brest-on-the-Bug), is a city (population 340,141 in 2016) in Belarus at the border with Poland opposite the Polish city of Terespol, where the Bug and Mukhavets rivers meet.

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Buffer state

A buffer state is a country lying between two rival or potentially hostile greater powers.

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Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic

The Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (BSSR, or Byelorussian SSR; Bielaruskaja Savieckaja Sacyjalistyčnaja Respublika; Belorusskaya SSR.), also commonly referred to in English as Byelorussia, was a federal unit of the Soviet Union (USSR).

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Caesium

Caesium (British spelling and IUPAC spelling) or cesium (American spelling) is a chemical element with symbol Cs and atomic number 55.

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Caesium-137

Caesium-137 (Cs-137), cesium-137, or radiocaesium, is a radioactive isotope of caesium which is formed as one of the more common fission products by the nuclear fission of uranium-235 and other fissionable isotopes in nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons.

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Capital punishment

Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is a government-sanctioned practice whereby a person is put to death by the state as a punishment for a crime.

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Capital punishment in Belarus

Capital punishment is a legal penalty in Belarus.

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Catherine the Great

Catherine II (Russian: Екатерина Алексеевна Yekaterina Alekseyevna; –), also known as Catherine the Great (Екатери́на Вели́кая, Yekaterina Velikaya), born Princess Sophie of Anhalt-Zerbst, was Empress of Russia from 1762 until 1796, the country's longest-ruling female leader.

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Catholic Church in Belarus

The Catholic Church in Belarus is part of the worldwide Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope in Rome.

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Central Intelligence Agency

The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).

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Chernobyl disaster

The Chernobyl disaster, also referred to as the Chernobyl accident, was a catastrophic nuclear accident.

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Cimmerians

The Cimmerians (also Kimmerians; Greek: Κιμμέριοι, Kimmérioi) were an ancient people, who appeared about 1000 BC and are mentioned later in 8th century BC in Assyrian records.

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Collective Security Treaty Organization

The Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO; Организация Договора о Коллективной Безопасности, Organizacija Dogovora o Kollektivnoj Bezopasnosti, ODKB) is an intergovernmental military alliance that was signed on 15 May 1992.

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Collectivism

Collectivism is a cultural value that is characterized by emphasis on cohesiveness among individuals and prioritization of the group over self.

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Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe

The Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE), also known as the U.S. Helsinki Commission, is an independent U.S. government agency created by Congress in 1975 to monitor and encourage compliance with the Helsinki Final Act and other Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) commitments.

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Commonwealth of Independent States

The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS; r), also nicknamed the Russian Commonwealth (in order to distinguish it from the Commonwealth of Nations), is a political and economic intergovernmental organization of nine member states and one associate member, all of which are former Soviet Republics located in Eurasia (primarily in Central to North Asia), formed following the dissolution of the Soviet Union.

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Communist Party of Belarus

The Communist Party of Belarus (Kamunistychnaya Partyia Belarusi; Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Belarusi) is a communist and Marxist–Leninist political party in Belarus.

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Condoleezza Rice

Condoleezza Rice (born November 14, 1954) is an American political scientist and diplomat.

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Conscription

Conscription, sometimes called the draft, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.

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Conservative Christian Party – BPF

The Conservative Christian Party of the Belarusian People's Front (Kanservatyŭna-Chryścijanskaja Partyja BNF; Консервативно-христианская партия — БНФ) is a political party in Belarus, that opposes the government of president Alexander Lukashenko.

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Constitution of Belarus

The Constitution of the Republic of Belarus (Канстытуцыя Рэспублікі Беларусь, Конституция Республики Беларусь) is the ultimate law of Belarus.

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Constitutional Court of Belarus

The Constitutional Court of Belarus is one of the top-tier courts in the Eastern European country.

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Continental climate

Continental climates are defined in the Köppen climate classification as having the coldest month with the temperature never rising above 0.0° C (32°F) all month long.

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Cornell University Press

The Cornell University Press is a division of Cornell University housed in Sage House, the former residence of Henry William Sage.

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Council of Europe

The Council of Europe (CoE; Conseil de l'Europe) is an international organisation whose stated aim is to uphold human rights, democracy and the rule of law in Europe.

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Council of the European Union

The Council of the European Union, referred to in the treaties and other official documents simply as the Council is the third of the seven Institutions of the European Union (EU) as listed in the Treaty on European Union.

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Council of the Republic of Belarus

The Council of the Republic (Савет Рэспублікі, Savyet Respubliki; Совет Республики, Sovet Respubliki) is the upper house in Belarus' bicameral parliament, the National Assembly.

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Cultural hegemony

In Marxist philosophy, cultural hegemony is the domination of a culturally diverse society by the ruling class who manipulate the culture of that society—the beliefs, explanations, perceptions, values, and mores—so that their imposed, ruling-class worldview becomes the accepted cultural norm; the universally valid dominant ideology, which justifies the social, political, and economic status quo as natural and inevitable, perpetual and beneficial for everyone, rather than as artificial social constructs that benefit only the ruling class.

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Curzon Line

The history of the Curzon Line, with minor variations, goes back to the period following World War I. It was drawn for the first time by the Supreme War Council as the demarcation line between the newly emerging states, the Second Polish Republic, and the Soviet Union.

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Cyrillic script

The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia (particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia).

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Darya Domracheva

Dárya Vladímirovna Dómracheva (Дар’я Уладзіміраўна Домрачава; Darja Uładzimiraŭna Domračava; born 3 August 1986) is a retired Belarusian biathlete who has been competing in the Biathlon World Cup from 2006 to 2018.

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Declaration of State Sovereignty of the Belarusian Soviet Socialist Republic

The Declaration of State Sovereignty of the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic was a formal document issued by the Supreme Soviet of Belarus to assert their independence from the Soviet Union.

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Democracy Index

The Democracy Index is an index compiled by the UK-based company the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) that intends to measure the state of democracy in 167 countries, of which 166 are sovereign states and 165 are UN member states.

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Dissolution of the Soviet Union

The dissolution of the Soviet Union occurred on December 26, 1991, officially granting self-governing independence to the Republics of the Soviet Union.

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Dnieper

The Dnieper River, known in Russian as: Dnepr, and in Ukrainian as Dnipro is one of the major rivers of Europe, rising near Smolensk, Russia and flowing through Russia, Belarus and Ukraine to the Black Sea.

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Dnieper–Donets culture

The Dnieper–Donets culture (ca. 5th—4th millennium BC) was a Mesolithic culture in the area north of the Black Sea/Sea of Azov between the Dnieper and Donets River, and bordering the European Neolithic area.

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Drang nach Osten

Drang nach Osten ("Drive to the East",Ulrich Best, Transgression as a Rule: German–Polish cross-border cooperation, border discourse and EU-enlargement, 2008, p. 58,, "push eastward",Jerzy Jan Lerski, Piotr Wróbel, Richard J. Kozicki, Historical Dictionary of Poland, 966–1945, 1996, p. 118,, "drive toward the East"Edmund Jan Osmańczyk, Anthony Mango, Encyclopedia of the United Nations and International Agreements, 2003, p. 579,, or "desire to push East") was a term coined in the 19th century to designate German expansion into Slavic lands.

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Duchy of Samogitia

The Duchy of Samogitia (Žemaičių seniūnija, Žemaitėjės seniūnėjė, Księstwo żmudzkie)Grzegorz Błaszczyk, Żmudź w XVII i XVIII wieku: zaludnienie i struktura społeczna, Uniwersytet im.

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Dutch language

The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.

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Dzyarzhynskaya Hara

Dzyarzhynskaya Hara (Belarusian Дзяржынская гара Dziaržynskaja hara) is the highest point in Belarus.

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Eastern Catholic Churches

The Eastern Catholic Churches or Oriental Catholic Churches, also called the Eastern-rite Catholic Churches, and in some historical cases Uniate Churches, are twenty-three Eastern Christian particular churches sui iuris in full communion with the Pope in Rome, as part of the worldwide Catholic Church.

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Eastern Europe

Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.

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Eastern Orthodox Church

The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.

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Eastern Partnership

The Eastern Partnership (EaP) is an initiative of the European External Action Service of the European Union (EU) governing its relationship with the post-Soviet states of Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, and Ukraine, intended to provide an avenue for discussions of trade, economic strategy, travel agreements, and other issues between the EU and its Eastern European neighbours.

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Economy of Belarus

The economy of Belarus is world's 72nd largest economy by GDP based on purchasing power parity (PPP), which in 2017 stood at $175.9 billion, or $18,600 per capita.

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Elections in Belarus

Belarus elects on national level a head of state - the president - and a legislature.

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Eurasian Economic Community

The Eurasian Economic Community (EAEC or EurAsEC) was a regional organisation between 2000 and 2014 which aimed for the economic integration of its member states.

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Eurasian Economic Union

The Eurasian Economic Union (officially EAEU, but sometimes called EEU or EAU)The acronym is used in the.

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European Neighbourhood Policy

The European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) is a foreign relations instrument of the European Union (EU) which seeks to tie those countries to the east and south of the European territory of the EU to the Union.

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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Eurovision Song Contest

The Eurovision Song Contest (Concours Eurovision de la chanson), often simply called Eurovision, is an international song competition held primarily among the member countries of the European Broadcasting Union.

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FC BATE Borisov

FC BATE Borisov (ФК БАТЭ Барысаў,; ФК БАТЭ Борисов, FK BATE Borisov) is a Belarusian football team from the city of Barysaw.

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Five-year plans for the national economy of the Soviet Union

The five-year plans for the development of the national economy of the Soviet Union (USSR) (Пятиле́тние пла́ны разви́тия наро́дного хозя́йства СССР, Pjatiletnije plany razvitiya narodnogo khozyaystva SSSR) consisted of a series of nationwide centralized economic plans in the Soviet Union, beginning in the late 1920s.

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Flag of Belarus

The national flag of Belarus (Сцяг Беларусі, Sciah Biełarusi; Флаг Беларуси, Flag Belarusi) is a red and green flag with a white and red ornament pattern placed at the staff (hoist) end.

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Flax

Flax (Linum usitatissimum), also known as common flax or linseed, is a member of the genus Linum in the family Linaceae.

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Francysk Skaryna

Francysk Skaryna or Francisk Skorina (pronounced; Franciscus Scorina, 985-11-0108-7) Скарына; Franciszek Skaryna; ca.

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Freedom House

Freedom House is a U.S.-based 501(c)(3) U.S. government-funded non-governmental organization (NGO) that conducts research and advocacy on democracy, political freedom, and human rights.

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Freedom of religion

Freedom of religion is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or community, in public or private, to manifest religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship, and observance without government influence or intervention.

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Freedom of the press

Freedom of the press or freedom of the media is the principle that communication and expression through various media, including printed and electronic media, especially published materials, should be considered a right to be exercised freely.

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Further-eastern European Time

Further-eastern European Time (FET) is a time zone defined as three hours ahead of UTC (UTC+03:00) without daylight saving time.

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Generalized System of Preferences

The Generalized System of Preferences, or GSP, is a preferential tariff system which provides for a formal system of exemption from the more general rules of the World Trade Organization (WTO), (formerly, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade or GATT).

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Generalplan Ost

The Generalplan Ost (Master Plan for the East), abbreviated GPO, was the German government's plan for the genocide and ethnic cleansing on a vast scale, and colonization of Central and Eastern Europe by Germans.

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German Empire

The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.

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German occupation of Byelorussia during World War II

The occupation of Belarus by Nazi Germany started with the German invasion of the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941 (Operation Barbarossa) and ended in August 1944 with the Soviet Operation Bagration.

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Global Voices (NGO)

Global Voices is an international community of writers, bloggers and digital activists that aim to translate and report on what is being said in citizen media worldwide.

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Gomel

Gomel (also Homieĺ, Homiel, Homel or Homyel’; Belarusian: Го́мель, Łacinka: Homiel,, Russian: Го́мель) is the administrative centre of Gomel Region and with 526,872 inhabitants (2015 census) the second-most populous city of Belarus.

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Gomel Region

Gomel Region or Homyel’ Voblasc’ (Го́мельская во́бласць, Homielskaja vobłasć, Гомельская область) is one of the regions of Belarus.

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Government in exile

A government in exile is a political group which claims to be a country or semi-sovereign state's legitimate government, but is unable to exercise legal power and instead resides in another state or foreign country.

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Grand Duchy of Lithuania

The Grand Duchy of Lithuania was a European state that lasted from the 13th century up to 1795, when the territory was partitioned among the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia, and Austria.

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Grand Duchy of Moscow

The Grand Duchy or Grand Principality of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское, Velikoye Knyazhestvo Moskovskoye), also known in English simply as Muscovy from the Moscovia, was a late medieval Russian principality centered on Moscow and the predecessor state of the early modern Tsardom of Russia.

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Grand Slam (tennis)

The Grand Slam tournaments, also called majors, are the four most important annual tennis events.

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Granite

Granite is a common type of felsic intrusive igneous rock that is granular and phaneritic in texture.

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Great Russia

Great Russia, sometimes Great Rus' (Великая Русь, Velikaya Rus', Великая Россия, Velikaya Rossiya, Великороссия, Velikorossiya), is an obsolete name formerly applied to the territories of "Russia proper", the land that formed the core of Muscovy and later, Russia.

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Greenwood Publishing Group

ABC-CLIO/Greenwood is an educational and academic publisher (middle school through university level) which is today part of ABC-CLIO.

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Grodno

Grodno or Hrodna (Гродна, Hrodna; ˈɡrodnə, see also other names) is a city in western Belarus.

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Grodno Region

Grodno/Hrodna Region (Гродзенская вобласць, Hrodzienskaja vobłasć; Гродненская область, Grodnenskaya oblast) is one of the regions of Belarus.

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Habsburg Monarchy

The Habsburg Monarchy (Habsburgermonarchie) or Empire is an unofficial appellation among historians for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg between 1521 and 1780 and then by the successor branch of Habsburg-Lorraine until 1918.

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HC Dinamo Minsk

Hockey Club Dinamo Minsk (Дина́мо-Минск; Дынама-Мінск, Dynama-Minsk) is an ice hockey team based in Minsk, Belarus.

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History of Belarus

This article describes the history of Belarus.

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History of the Jews in Belarus

The Jews in Belarus were the third largest ethnic group in the country in the first half of the 20th century.

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History of the Soviet Union (1927–1953)

The history of the Soviet Union between 1927 and 1953 covers the period in Soviet history from establishment of Stalinism through victory in the Second World War and down to the death of Joseph Stalin in 1953.

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House of Representatives of Belarus

Under the 1996 Constitution, the House of Representatives (Palata Pradstawnikow,, Palata Predstaviteley) is the lower house of the parliament of Belarus.

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Human rights in the United States

Human rights in the United States comprise and very focused of a series of rights which are legally protected by the Constitution of the United States, including the amendments, state constitutions, conferred by treaty and customary international law, and enacted legislatively through Congress, state legislatures, and state referenda and citizen's initiatives.

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Human Rights Watch

Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights.

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Huns

The Huns were a nomadic people who lived in Central Asia, the Caucasus, and Eastern Europe, between the 4th and 6th century AD.

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Ice hockey

Ice hockey is a contact team sport played on ice, usually in a rink, in which two teams of skaters use their sticks to shoot a vulcanized rubber puck into their opponent's net to score points.

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Ice hockey at the 2002 Winter Olympics

Ice hockey at the 2002 Winter Olympics was held at the E Center in West Valley City and Peaks Ice Arena in Provo, Utah.

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Ice Hockey World Championships

The Ice Hockey World Championships are an annual international men's ice hockey tournament organized by the International Ice Hockey Federation (IIHF).

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Index of Economic Freedom

The Index of Economic Freedom is an annual index and ranking created by The Heritage Foundation and The Wall Street Journal in 1995 to measure the degree of economic freedom in the world's nations.

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Inna Zhukova

Inna Zhukova (Іна Іванаўна Жукава; Инна Ивановна Жукова: Inna Ivanovna Zhukova, born on September 6, 1986 in Krasnodar, Soviet Union) is a Belarusian individual rhythmic gymnast.

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International Federation for Human Rights

The International Federation for Human Rights (Fédération internationale des ligues des droits de l'homme; FIDH) is a non-governmental federation for human rights organizations.

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International Institute for Strategic Studies

The International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) is a British research institute (or think tank) in the area of international affairs.

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International Monetary Fund

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.

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International Security Assistance Force

The International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) was a NATO-led security mission in Afghanistan, established by the United Nations Security Council in December 2001 by Resolution 1386, as envisaged by the Bonn Agreement.

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Irreligion

Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion.

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Islam in Belarus

Islam in Belarus has a long history.

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ISO 4217

ISO 4217 is a standard first published by International Organization for Standardization in 1978, which delineates currency designators, country codes (alpha and numeric), and references to minor units in three tables.

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Ivan III of Russia

Ivan III Vasilyevich (Иван III Васильевич; 22 January 1440, Moscow – 27 October 1505, Moscow), also known as Ivan the Great, was a Grand Prince of Moscow and Grand Prince of all Rus'.

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Jan of Czarnków

Jan(ko) of Czarnków (Jan(ko) z Czarnkowa) (ca. 1320–1387), of Nałęcz coat of arms, was a Polish chronicler, Deputy Chancellor of the Crown and Archdeacon of Gniezno.

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January Uprising

The January Uprising (Polish: powstanie styczniowe, Lithuanian: 1863 m. sukilimas, Belarusian: Паўстанне 1863-1864 гадоў, Польське повстання) was an insurrection instigated principally in the Russian Partition of the former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth against its occupation by the Russian Empire.

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Jerome Horsey

Sir Jerome Horsey (c. 1550 – 1626), of Great Kimble, Buckinghamshire, was an English explorer, diplomat and politician in the 16th and 17th centuries.

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Joseph Stalin

Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.

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Kievan Rus'

Kievan Rus' (Рѹ́сь, Рѹ́сьскаѧ землѧ, Rus(s)ia, Ruscia, Ruzzia, Rut(h)enia) was a loose federationJohn Channon & Robert Hudson, Penguin Historical Atlas of Russia (Penguin, 1995), p.16.

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Kingdom of Poland (1025–1385)

The Kingdom of Poland (Polish: Królestwo Polskie; Latin: Regnum Poloniae) was the Polish state from the coronation of the first King Bolesław I the Brave in 1025 to the union with Lithuania and the rule of the Jagiellon dynasty in 1385.

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Kirill of Turov

Cyril of Turov (alternately Kirill of Turov, Cyril of Turaŭ) (Church Slavonic Кѷриллъ, Кірыла Тураўскі); 1130–1182) was a bishop and saint. He was one of the first and finest theologians of Kievan Rus'; he lived in Turov, now southern Belarus. His feast day in the Orthodox Church is on 28 April. He was added to the Roman Catholic Church calendar by Pope Paul VI in 1969.

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Kolkhoz

A kolkhoz (p) was a form of collective farm in the Soviet Union.

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Komsomolskaya Pravda

Komsomolskaya Pravda (Комсомо́льская пра́вда; lit. "Komsomol Truth") is a daily Russian tabloid newspaper, founded on 13 March 1925.

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Kontinental Hockey League

The Kontinental Hockey League (KHL) (Континентальная хоккейная лига (КХЛ), Kontinental'naya hokkeynaya liga) is an international professional ice hockey league founded in 2008.

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Kurapaty

Kurapaty (Курапаты) is a wooded area on the outskirts of Minsk, Belarus, in which a vast number of people were executed between 1937 and 1941 during the Great Purge by the Soviet secret police, the NKVD.

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Kyiv Post

The Kyiv Post is Ukraine's oldest English language newspaper.

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Landlocked country

A landlocked state or landlocked country is a sovereign state entirely enclosed by land, or whose only coastlines lie on closed seas.

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Latvia

Latvia (or; Latvija), officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika), is a sovereign state in the Baltic region of Northern Europe.

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Lebensraum

The German concept of Lebensraum ("living space") comprises policies and practices of settler colonialism which proliferated in Germany from the 1890s to the 1940s.

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Leonid Kravchuk

Leonid Makarovych Kravchuk (Леонід Макарович Кравчук; born 10 January 1934) is a former Ukrainian politician and the first President of Ukraine, who served from 5 December 1991, until his resignation on 19 July 1994.

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Library of Congress

The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.

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Limestone

Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.

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Linear Pottery culture

The Linear Pottery culture is a major archaeological horizon of the European Neolithic, flourishing 5500–4500 BC.

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Lipka Tatars

The Lipka Tatars (also known as Lithuanian Tatars, Polish Tatars, Lipkowie, Lipcani or Muślimi) are a group of Tatars who originally settled in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania at the beginning of the 14th century.

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List of Belarus-related topics

The location of Belarus An enlargeable map of the Republic of Belarus This is a list of topics related to Belarus.

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List of countries and dependencies by area

This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area.

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List of national independence days

An Independence Day is an annual event commemorating the anniversary of a nation's independence or statehood, usually after ceasing to be a group or part of another nation or state; more rarely after the end of a military occupation; and in the unique case of Singapore, expulsion from Malaysia.

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List of Prime Ministers of Belarus

This is a list of heads of government of Belarus from 1918 until present.

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List of UFC champions

Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC) champions are fighters who have won UFC championships.

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Literacy

Literacy is traditionally meant as the ability to read and write.

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Lithuania

Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.

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Lithuanian–Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic

The Lithuanian–Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (LBSSR; Lietuvos–Baltarusijos Tarybinė Socialistinė Respublika; Літоўска–Беларуская Савецкая Сацыялістычная Рэспубліка; Литовско–Белорусская ССР; Litewsko–Białoruska Republika Radziecka) or Litbel (Lit-Bel) was a Soviet socialist republic that existed within the territories of modern Belarus and eastern Lithuania for approximately five months during 1919.

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Lithuanians

Lithuanians (lietuviai, singular lietuvis/lietuvė) are a Baltic ethnic group, native to Lithuania, where they number around 2,561,300 people.

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Little Russia

Little Russia, sometimes Little Rus' (Малая Русь, Malaya Rus', Малая Россия, Malaya Rossiya, Малороссия, Malorossiya; Мала Русь, Mala Rus'; or Rus' Minor from Μικρὰ Ῥωσία, Mikrá Rosía), is a geographical and historical term first used by Galician ruler Bolesław-Jerzy II who in 1335 signed his decrees as Dux totius Russiæ minoris.

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Liubov Charkashyna

Liubov Viktorovna Charkashyna (Любоў Віктараўна Чаркашына; Любовь Викторовна Черкашина, born December 23, 1987) is a retired Belarusian individual rhythmic gymnast.

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Lucjan Żeligowski

Lucjan Żeligowski (1865–1947) was a Polish general, politician, military commander and veteran of World War I, the Polish-Soviet War and World War II.

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Maksim Haretski

Maksim Harecki (18 February 1893 – 10 February 1938) was a Belarusian prose writer, journalist, activist of the Belarusian national-democratic renewal, folklorist, lexicographer, professor.

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Marc Chagall

Marc Zakharovich Chagall (born Moishe Zakharovich Shagal; 28 March 1985) was a Russian-French artist of Belarusian Jewish origin.

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Marl

Marl or marlstone is a calcium carbonate or lime-rich mud or mudstone which contains variable amounts of clays and silt.

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Marsh

A marsh is a wetland that is dominated by herbaceous rather than woody plant species.

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Maryna Arzamasova

Maryna Aliaksandrauna Arzamasova (née Katowich, Марына Аляксандраўна Арзамасава (Катовіч), Марина Александровна Арзамасова; born 17 December 1987) is a Belarusian middle-distance runner.

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Mass grave

A mass grave is a grave containing multiple human corpses, which may or may not be identified prior to burial.

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Max Mirnyi

Maksim "Max" Mirnyi (Максім Мікалаевіч Мірны,; Максим Николаевич Мирный,; born 6 July 1977 in Minsk) is a Belarusian professional tennis player.

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Medieval German literature

Medieval German literature refers to literature written in Germany, stretching from the Carolingian dynasty; various dates have been given for the end of the German literary Middle Ages, the Reformation (1517) being the last possible cut-off point.

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Medieval Latin

Medieval Latin was the form of Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange, as the liturgical language of Chalcedonian Christianity and the Roman Catholic Church, and as a language of science, literature, law, and administration.

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Medieval literature

Medieval literature is a broad subject, encompassing essentially all written works available in Europe and beyond during the Middle Ages (that is, the one thousand years from the fall of the Western Roman Empire ca. AD 500 to the beginning of the Florentine Renaissance in the late 15th century).

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Melitina Staniouta

Melitina Dmitryevna Staniouta (Меліціна Дзмітрыеўна Станюта, Мелитина Дмитриевна Станюта; born 15 November 1993) is a Belarusian retired individual rhythmic gymnast.

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Metres above sea level

Metres above mean sea level (MAMSL) or simply metres above sea level (MASL or m a.s.l.) is a standard metric measurement in metres of the elevation or altitude of a location in reference to a historic mean sea level.

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Minsk

Minsk (Мінск,; Минск) is the capital and largest city of Belarus, situated on the Svislach and the Nyamiha Rivers.

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Minsk Region

Minsk Region or Minsk Voblasć or Minsk Oblast (Мі́нская во́бласць, Minskaja voblasć; Минская о́бласть, Minskaja oblastj) is one of the regions of Belarus.

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Mir Castle Complex

The Mir Castle Complex (Мірскі замак, Łacinka: Mirski zamak, Myriaus pilis, Zamek w Mirze) is a UNESCO World Heritage site in Belarus.

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Mogilev

Mogilev (or Mahilyow; Магілёў,; Łacinka: Mahiloŭ; Могилёв,; מאָליעוו, Molyev) is a city in eastern Belarus, about from the border with Russia's Smolensk Oblast and from the border with Russia's Bryansk Oblast.

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Mogilev Region

Mogilev Region, also Mahilyow Voblasts (Province) or Mogilyov Oblast (Магілёўская во́бласць; Mahilioŭskaja voblasć; Могилёвская о́бласть; Mogilyovskaya Oblast), is a region (voblast) of Belarus with its administrative center at Mogilev (Mahilyow).

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Mongol invasion of Rus'

As part of the Mongol invasion of Europe, the Mongol Empire invaded Kievan Rus' in the 13th century, destroying numerous cities, including Ryazan, Kolomna, Moscow, Vladimir and Kiev.

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Most favoured nation

In international economic relations and international politics, "most favoured nation" (MFN) is a status or level of treatment accorded by one state to another in international trade.

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Motion of no confidence

A motion of no confidence (alternatively vote of no confidence, no-confidence motion, or (unsuccessful) confidence motion) is a statement or vote which states that a person(s) in a position of responsibility (government, managerial, etc.) is no longer deemed fit to hold that position, perhaps because they are inadequate in some respect, are failing to carry out obligations, or are making decisions that other members feel are detrimental.

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Music of Belarus

Belarus is an Eastern European country with a rich tradition of folk and religious music.

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My Belarusy

"My Biełarusy" (Мы, беларусы; My, belarusy; "We Belarusians") is the unofficial title of the national anthem of Belarus and the first line of its lyrics.

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Nasha Niva

Nasha Niva (Naša Niva, lit. "Our field") is one of the oldest Belarusian weekly newspapers, founded in 1906 and re-established in 1991.

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National Assembly of Belarus

The National Assembly of the Republic of Belarus (Нацыянальны сход Рэспублікі Беларусь, Nacyjanalny schod Respubliki Biełaruś; Национальное собрание Республики Беларусь, Natsionalnoye sobran'ye Respubliki Belarus) is the bicameral parliament that governs Belarus.

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National Bank of the Republic of Belarus

The National Bank of the Republic of Belarus (Нацыянальны банк Рэспублікі Беларусь; Национальный банк Республики Беларусь) is the central bank of Belarus, located in the capital city, Minsk.

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National Hockey League

The National Hockey League (NHL; Ligue nationale de hockey—LNH) is a professional ice hockey league in North America, currently comprising 31 teams: 24 in the United States and 7 in Canada.

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National Olympic Committee

A National Olympic Committee (NOC) is a national constituent of the worldwide Olympic movement.

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NATO

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.

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Nazi Germany

Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).

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Neman

The Neman, Nemunas, Nyoman, Niemen or Memel, a major Eastern European river.

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Nesvizh Castle

Niasviž Castle or Nesvizh Castle (Нясьвіскі замак, Niasvižski zamak, zamek w Nieświeżu, Nesvyžius) is a residential castle of the Radziwiłł family in Niasviž, Belarus.

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Net migration rate

The net migration rate is the difference between the number of immigrants (people coming into an area) and the number of emigrants (people leaving an area) throughout the year.

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Nicholas I of Russia

Nicholas I (r; –) was the Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855.

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Nightingale (ballet)

Nightingale is a ballet created in 1939 by Aleksey Yermolayev and Fedor Lopukhov to music by Mikhail Kroshner.

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Nikita Khrushchev

Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (15 April 1894 – 11 September 1971) was a Soviet statesman who led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964, and as Chairman of the Council of Ministers, or Premier, from 1958 to 1964.

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Nobel Prize in Literature

The Nobel Prize in Literature (Nobelpriset i litteratur) is a Swedish literature prize that has been awarded annually, since 1901, to an author from any country who has, in the words of the will of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel, produced "in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction" (original Swedish: "den som inom litteraturen har producerat det mest framstående verket i en idealisk riktning").

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Non-Aligned Movement

The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is a group of states that are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc.

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November Uprising

The November Uprising (1830–31), also known as the Polish–Russian War 1830–31 or the Cadet Revolution, was an armed rebellion in the heartland of partitioned Poland against the Russian Empire.

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Nuclear fallout

Nuclear fallout, or simply fallout, is the residual radioactive material propelled into the upper atmosphere following a nuclear blast, so called because it "falls out" of the sky after the explosion and the shock wave have passed.

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Oblast

An oblast is a type of administrative division of Belarus, Bulgaria, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Ukraine, and the former Soviet Union and Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.

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Oceanic climate

An oceanic or highland climate, also known as a marine or maritime climate, is the Köppen classification of climate typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, and generally features cool summers (relative to their latitude) and cool winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range and few extremes of temperature, with the exception for transitional areas to continental, subarctic and highland climates.

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October Revolution

The October Revolution (p), officially known in Soviet literature as the Great October Socialist Revolution (Вели́кая Октя́брьская социалисти́ческая револю́ция), and commonly referred to as Red October, the October Uprising, the Bolshevik Revolution, or the Bolshevik Coup, was a revolution in Russia led by the Bolsheviks and Vladimir Lenin that was instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917.

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Ombudsman

An ombudsman, ombud, or public advocate is an official who is charged with representing the interests of the public by investigating and addressing complaints of maladministration or a violation of rights.

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Operation Barbarossa

Operation Barbarossa (German: Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the code name for the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, which started on Sunday, 22 June 1941, during World War II.

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Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe

The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is the world's largest security-oriented intergovernmental organization.

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Outline of Belarus

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Belarus: Belarus is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe.

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Outposts of tyranny

"Outposts of tyranny" was a term used in 2005 by United States Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice and subsequently by others in the U.S. government to characterize the governments of certain countries as being totalitarian regimes or dictatorships.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Pannonian Avars

The Pannonian Avars (also known as the Obri in chronicles of Rus, the Abaroi or Varchonitai at the Encyclopedia of Ukraine (Varchonites) or Pseudo-Avars in Byzantine sources) were a group of Eurasian nomads of unknown origin: "...

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Partitions of Poland

The Partitions of Poland were three partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth that took place toward the end of the 18th century and ended the existence of the state, resulting in the elimination of sovereign Poland and Lithuania for 123 years.

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Peace of Riga

The Peace of Riga, also known as the Treaty of Riga (Traktat Ryski), was signed in Riga on 18 March 1921, between Poland, Soviet Russia (acting also on behalf of Soviet Belarus) and Soviet Ukraine.

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Peat

Peat, also called turf, is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetation or organic matter that is unique to natural areas called peatlands, bogs, mires, moors, or muskegs.

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People's Coalition 5 Plus

The People's Coalition 5 Plus (Narodnaja Kaalicyja Piaciorka Plus) was a political alliance in Belarus, that opposed the regime of president Alexander Lukashenko.

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Personal union

A personal union is the combination of two or more states that have the same monarch while their boundaries, laws, and interests remain distinct.

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Poland

Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.

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Poles

The Poles (Polacy,; singular masculine: Polak, singular feminine: Polka), commonly referred to as the Polish people, are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Poland in Central Europe who share a common ancestry, culture, history and are native speakers of the Polish language.

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Poles in Belarus

The Polish minority in Belarus numbers officially about 294,549 according to 2009 census.

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Polish Land Forces

The Land Forces (Wojska Lądowe) are a military branch of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Poland.

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Polish language

Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.

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Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth

The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, after 1791 the Commonwealth of Poland, was a dualistic state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithuania.

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Polish–Soviet War

The Polish–Soviet War (February 1919 – March 1921) was fought by the Second Polish Republic, Ukrainian People's Republic and the proto-Soviet Union (Soviet Russia and Soviet Ukraine) for control of an area equivalent to today's western Ukraine and parts of modern Belarus.

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Polonization

Polonization (or Polonisation; polonizacja)In Polish historiography, particularly pre-WWII (e.g., L. Wasilewski. As noted in Смалянчук А. Ф. (Smalyanchuk 2001) Паміж краёвасцю і нацыянальнай ідэяй. Польскі рух на беларускіх і літоўскіх землях. 1864–1917 г. / Пад рэд. С. Куль-Сяльверставай. – Гродна: ГрДУ, 2001. – 322 с. (2004). Pp.24, 28.), an additional distinction between the Polonization (polonizacja) and self-Polonization (polszczenie się) has been being made, however, most modern Polish researchers don't use the term polszczenie się.

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Polotsk

Polack (official transliteration), Polotsk or Polatsk (translit, translit, Połock, Polockas, Polotsk) is a historical city in Belarus, situated on the Dvina River.

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Pope Pius VI

Pope Pius VI (25 December 1717 – 29 August 1799), born Count Giovanni Angelo Braschi, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 15 February 1775 to his death in 1799.

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Prague

Prague (Praha, Prag) is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic, the 14th largest city in the European Union and also the historical capital of Bohemia.

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President of Belarus

The President of the Republic of Belarus (Прэзідэнт Рэспублікі Беларусь, Президент Республики Беларусь) is the head of state of Belarus.

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Presidential system

A presidential system is a democratic and republican system of government where a head of government leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch.

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Press Freedom Index

The Press Freedom Index is an annual ranking of countries compiled and published by Reporters Without Borders based upon the organisation's own assessment of the countries' press freedom records in the previous year.

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Prime Minister of Russia

The Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation (translit), colloquially referred to as the Prime Minister (translit) is the head of the Russian government and the second most powerful figure of the Russian Federation.

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Principality of Polotsk

The Principality of Polotsk (По́лацкае кня́ства; По́лоцкое кня́жество), also known as the Kingdom of Polotsk or the Duchy of Polotsk, was a medieval principality of the Early East Slavs.

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Pripyat River

The Pripyat River or Prypiat River (Прип’ять Prypyat′,; Прыпяць Prypiać,; Prypeć,; Припять Pripyat′) is a river in Eastern Europe, approximately long.

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Prix Benois de la Danse

The Benois de la Danse is one of the most prestigious ballet competitions.

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Prussia

Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.

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Public holidays in Belarus

National holidays in Belarus are classified into state holidays and other holidays and commemorative days, including religious holidays.

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Purchasing power parity

Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a neoclassical economic theory that states that the exchange rate between two countries is equal to the ratio of the currencies' respective purchasing power.

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Raion

A raion (also rayon) is a type of administrative unit of several post-Soviet states (such as part of an oblast).

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Rapeseed

Rapeseed (Brassica napus), also known as rape, oilseed rape, (and, in the case of one particular group of cultivars, canola), is a bright-yellow flowering member of the family Brassicaceae (mustard or cabbage family), cultivated mainly for its oil-rich seed.

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Redenomination

Redenomination is the process of changing the face value of banknotes or coins used in circulating currency.

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Reporters Without Borders

Reporters Without Borders (RWB), or Reporters Sans Frontières (RSF), is an international non-profit, non-governmental organization that promotes and defends freedom of information and freedom of the press.

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Republic

A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.

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Republic of Central Lithuania

The Republic of Central Lithuania or Middle Lithuania (Republika Litwy Środkowej, Vidurio Lietuvos Respublika, Рэспубліка Сярэдняе Літвы / Respublika Siaredniaje Litvy), or Central Lithuania (Litwa Środkowa, Vidurio Lietuva or Vidurinė Lietuva, Сярэдняя Літва / Siaredniaja Litva), was a short-lived political entity, which did not gain international recognition.

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Republic of Central Lithuania general election, 1922

The general election in the Republic of Central Lithuania was an election to the Vilnius Sejm (parliament) of the Polish-dominated Republic of Central Lithuania on 8 January 1922.

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Republican Party of Labour and Justice

The Republican Party of Labour and Justice is a social democratic political party in Belarus created in 1993.

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Republics of the Soviet Union

The Republics of the Soviet Union or the Union Republics (r) of the Soviet Union were ethnically based proto-states that were subordinated directly to the Government of the Soviet Union.

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Reuters

Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.

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Rice University

William Marsh Rice University, commonly known as Rice University, is a private research university located on a 300-acre (121 ha) campus in Houston, Texas, United States.

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Rostelecom

Rostelecom (ОАО «Ростелеком») is Russia's leading long-distance telephony provider.

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Routledge

Routledge is a British multinational publisher.

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Russia

Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

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Russian Empire

The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.

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Russian language

Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.

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Russian military intervention in Ukraine (2014–present)

In February 2014, Russia made several military incursions into Ukrainian territory.

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Russian Orthodox Church

The Russian Orthodox Church (ROC; Rússkaya pravoslávnaya tsérkov), alternatively legally known as the Moscow Patriarchate (Moskóvskiy patriarkhát), is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches, in full communion with other Eastern Orthodox patriarchates.

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Russian Revolution

The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union.

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Russian ruble

The Russian ruble or rouble (рубль rublʹ, plural: рубли́ rubli; sign: ₽, руб; code: RUB) is the currency of the Russian Federation, the two partially recognized republics of Abkhazia and South Ossetia and the two unrecognized republics of Donetsk and Luhansk.

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Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic

The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; Ru-Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика.ogg), also unofficially known as the Russian Federation, Soviet Russia,Declaration of Rights of the laboring and exploited people, article I or Russia (rɐˈsʲijə; from the Ρωσία Rōsía — Rus'), was an independent state from 1917 to 1922, and afterwards the largest, most populous, and most economically developed union republic of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1991 and then a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with priority of Russian laws over Union-level legislation in 1990 and 1991.

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Russians

Russians (русские, russkiye) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Eastern Europe. The majority of Russians inhabit the nation state of Russia, while notable minorities exist in other former Soviet states such as Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Ukraine and the Baltic states. A large Russian diaspora also exists all over the world, with notable numbers in the United States, Germany, Israel, and Canada. Russians are the most numerous ethnic group in Europe. The Russians share many cultural traits with their fellow East Slavic counterparts, specifically Belarusians and Ukrainians. They are predominantly Orthodox Christians by religion. The Russian language is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan, and also spoken as a secondary language in many former Soviet states.

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Russians in Belarus

According to the 2009 census, there are around 785,000 ethnic Russians in Belarus, which accounts for approximately 8.3 percent of the population of Belarus.

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Russification

Russification (Русификация), or Russianization, is a form of cultural assimilation process during which non-Russian communities, voluntarily or not, give up their culture and language in favor of the Russian one.

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Ruthenia

Ruthenia (Рѹ́сь (Rus) and Рѹ́сьскаѧ землѧ (Rus'kaya zemlya), Ῥωσία, Rus(s)ia, Ruscia, Ruzzia, Rut(h)enia, Roxolania, Garðaríki) is a proper geographical exonym for Kievan Rus' and other, more local, historical states.

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Ruthenian language

Ruthenian or Old Ruthenian (see other names) was the group of varieties of East Slavic spoken in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and later in the East Slavic territories of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.

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Rye

Rye (Secale cereale) is a grass grown extensively as a grain, a cover crop and a forage crop.

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Samogitia

Samogitia or Žemaitija (Samogitian: Žemaitėjė; Žemaitija; see below for alternate and historical names) is one of the five ethnographic regions of Lithuania. Žemaitija is located in northwestern Lithuania. Its largest city is Šiauliai. Žemaitija has a long and distinct cultural history, reflected in the existence of the Samogitian dialect.

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Scythians

or Scyths (from Greek Σκύθαι, in Indo-Persian context also Saka), were a group of Iranian people, known as the Eurasian nomads, who inhabited the western and central Eurasian steppes from about the 9th century BC until about the 1st century BC.

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Second Polish Republic

The Second Polish Republic, commonly known as interwar Poland, refers to the country of Poland between the First and Second World Wars (1918–1939).

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Serfdom

Serfdom is the status of many peasants under feudalism, specifically relating to manorialism.

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Slavianski Bazaar in Vitebsk

The International Festival of Arts "Slavic Bazaar in Vitebsk" (Міжнародны фестываль мастацтваў «Славянскі базар у Віцебску», Міжнародний фестиваль мистецтв «Слов'янський базар у Вітебську», Международный фестиваль искусств "Славянский базар в Витебске") is an annual festival held in Vitebsk, Belarus under the auspices of the Belarusian Government since 1992.

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Slavs

Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group.

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Socialist Soviet Republic of Byelorussia

The Socialist Soviet Republic of Byelorussia or Soviet Socialist Republic of Belarus (SSRB; Савецкая Сацыялістычная Рэспубліка Беларусь, Savieckaja Sacyjalistyčnaja Respublika; Социалистическая Советская Республика Белоруссия / ССРБ, Socialističeskaja Sovetskaja Respublika Belorussija / SSRB) was an early republic in the historical territory of Belarus after the collapse of the Russian Empire as a result of the October Revolution.

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Society of Jesus

The Society of Jesus (SJ – from Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain.

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Sovereignty

Sovereignty is the full right and power of a governing body over itself, without any interference from outside sources or bodies.

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Soviet Armed Forces

The Soviet Armed Forces, also called the Armed Forces of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and Armed Forces of the Soviet Union (Russian: Вооружённые Силы Союза Советских Социалистических Республик Vooruzhonnyye Sily Soyuza Sovetskikh Sotsialisticheskikh Respublik, Вооружённые Силы Советского Союза) refers to the armed forces of the Russian SFSR (1917–1922), the Soviet Union (1922–1991) and the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1912–1991) from their beginnings in the aftermath of the Russian Civil War to its dissolution on 26 December 1991.

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Soviet invasion of Poland

The Soviet invasion of Poland was a Soviet Union military operation that started without a formal declaration of war on 17 September 1939.

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Soviet ruble

The Soviet ruble (рубль; see below for other languages of the USSR) was the currency of the Soviet Union.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Sovietization

Sovietization is the adoption of a political system based on the model of soviets (workers' councils) or the adoption of a way of life and mentality modelled after the Soviet Union.

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Spoken language

A spoken language is a language produced by articulate sounds, as opposed to a written language.

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Stanisław Moniuszko

Stanisław Moniuszko (May 5, 1819, Ubiel, Minsk Governorate – June 4, 1872, Warsaw, Congress Poland) was a Polish composer, conductor and teacher.

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Stanislav Shushkevich

Stanislau Stanislavavich Shushkevich (Станісла́ў Станісла́вавіч Шушке́віч, Łacinka: Stanisłaŭ Stanisłavavič Šuškievič; Станисла́в Станисла́вович Шушке́вич; born December 15, 1934 in Minsk) is a Belarusian politician and scientist.

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State ownership

State ownership (also called public ownership and government ownership) is the ownership of an industry, asset, or enterprise by the state or a public body representing a community as opposed to an individual or private party.

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Statutes of Lithuania

The Statutes of Lithuania, originally known as the Statutes of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania were a 16th-century codification of all the legislation of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and its successor, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.

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Stew

A stew is a combination of solid food ingredients that have been cooked in liquid and served in the resultant gravy.

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Struve Geodetic Arc

The Struve Geodetic Arc is a chain of survey triangulations stretching from Hammerfest in Norway to the Black Sea, through ten countries and over 2,820 km, which yielded the first accurate measurement of a meridian.

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Sub-replacement fertility

Sub-replacement fertility is a total fertility rate (TFR) that (if sustained) leads to each new generation being less populous than the older, previous one in a given area.

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Supreme Court of Belarus

The Supreme Court of the Republic of Belarus is the highest-tier court inside of Belarus and acts as the final "court of review." Its general tasks include the oversight of lower-tier courts and can render justice in areas of general civil and criminal law.

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Supreme Soviet

The Supreme Soviet (Верховный Совет, Verkhóvnyj Sovét, literally "Supreme Council") was the common name for the legislative bodies (parliaments) of the Soviet socialist republics (SSR) in the Soviet Union.

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Supreme Soviet of Belarus

The Supreme Council of Belarus (1991–1996) was the immediate continuation of the Supreme Soviet of the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (BSSR Supreme Soviet) (1938–1991), which in its turn was the successor of the Central Executive Committee of Byelorussian SSR (1920–1938), and all of them were the highest organs of state power in Belarus during 1920–1990.

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Svetlana Alexievich

Svetlana Alexandrovna Alexievich (born 31 May 1948) is a Belarusian investigative journalist and non-fiction prose writer who writes in Russian.

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Syria

Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.

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Tata Communications

Tata Communications formerly called VSNL is a global provider of telecommunications solutions and services.

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Tatars

The Tatars (татарлар, татары) are a Turkic-speaking peoples living mainly in Russia and other Post-Soviet countries.

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Telephone numbers in Belarus

Belarus began using its own country code +375 in 1995.

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Tennis

Tennis is a racket sport that can be played individually against a single opponent (singles) or between two teams of two players each (doubles).

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Tennis at the 2012 Summer Olympics

The tennis tournaments at the 2012 Summer Olympics in London were staged at the All England Club in Wimbledon, from 28 July to 5 August.

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Term of office

A term of office is the length of time a person serves in a particular elected office.

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Territories of Poland annexed by the Soviet Union

17 days after the German invasion of Poland in 1939, which marked the beginning of World War II, the Soviet Union invaded the eastern regions of the Second Polish Republic, which Poland re-established during the Polish–Soviet War and referred to as the "Kresy", and annexed territories totaling with a population of 13,299,000 inhabitants including Lithuanians,Russians, Belarusians, Ukrainians, Poles, Jews, Czechs and others.

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Teutonic Order

The Order of Brothers of the German House of Saint Mary in Jerusalem (official names: Ordo domus Sanctæ Mariæ Theutonicorum Hierosolymitanorum, Orden der Brüder vom Deutschen Haus der Heiligen Maria in Jerusalem), commonly the Teutonic Order (Deutscher Orden, Deutschherrenorden or Deutschritterorden), is a Catholic religious order founded as a military order c. 1190 in Acre, Kingdom of Jerusalem.

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The Holocaust

The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered approximately 6 million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.

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The World Factbook

The World Factbook, also known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.

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Timothy D. Snyder

Timothy David Snyder (born 1969) is an American author and historian specializing in the history of Central and Eastern Europe, and the Holocaust.

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Total fertility rate

The total fertility rate (TFR), sometimes also called the fertility rate, absolute/potential natality, period total fertility rate (PTFR), or total period fertility rate (TPFR) of a population is the average number of children that would be born to a woman over her lifetime if.

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Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on 3 March 1918 between the new Bolshevik government of Soviet Russia and the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire), that ended Russia's participation in World War I. The treaty was signed at Brest-Litovsk (Brześć Litewski; since 1945 Brest), after two months of negotiations.

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Tsar

Tsar (Old Bulgarian / Old Church Slavonic: ц︢рь or цар, цaрь), also spelled csar, or czar, is a title used to designate East and South Slavic monarchs or supreme rulers of Eastern Europe.

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Types of tennis match

Traditionally, tennis is played between two people in a singles match, or two pairs in a doubles match.

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Uładzimir Žyłka

Uladzimir Zhylka (27 May 1900 in Makaszy near Nesvizh, Belarus (then Russian Empire) – 1 March 1933; Уладзімір Жылка) was a Belarusian poet.

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UEFA Champions League

The UEFA Champions League is an annual continental club football competition organised by the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) and contested by top-division European clubs.

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Ukraine

Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.

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Ukrainian language

No description.

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Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic

The Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (Ukrainian SSR or UkrSSR or UkSSR; Украї́нська Радя́нська Соціалісти́чна Респу́бліка, Украї́нська РСР, УРСР; Украи́нская Сове́тская Социалисти́ческая Респу́блика, Украи́нская ССР, УССР; see "Name" section below), also known as the Soviet Ukraine, was one of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union from the Union's inception in 1922 to its breakup in 1991. The republic was governed by the Communist Party of Ukraine as a unitary one-party socialist soviet republic. The Ukrainian SSR was a founding member of the United Nations, although it was legally represented by the All-Union state in its affairs with countries outside of the Soviet Union. Upon the Soviet Union's dissolution and perestroika, the Ukrainian SSR was transformed into the modern nation-state and renamed itself to Ukraine. Throughout its 72-year history, the republic's borders changed many times, with a significant portion of what is now Western Ukraine being annexed by Soviet forces in 1939 from the Republic of Poland, and the addition of Zakarpattia in 1946. From the start, the eastern city of Kharkiv served as the republic's capital. However, in 1934, the seat of government was subsequently moved to the city of Kiev, Ukraine's historic capital. Kiev remained the capital for the rest of the Ukrainian SSR's existence, and remained the capital of independent Ukraine after the breakup of the Soviet Union. Geographically, the Ukrainian SSR was situated in Eastern Europe to the north of the Black Sea, bordered by the Soviet republics of Moldavia, Byelorussia, and the Russian SFSR. The Ukrainian SSR's border with Czechoslovakia formed the Soviet Union's western-most border point. According to the Soviet Census of 1989 the republic had a population of 51,706,746 inhabitants, which fell sharply after the breakup of the Soviet Union. For most of its existence, it ranked second only to the Russian SFSR in population, economic and political power.

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Ukrainians

Ukrainians (українці, ukrayintsi) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Ukraine, which is by total population the sixth-largest nation in Europe.

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Uladzimir Karatkievich

Uładzimir Karatkievič (Уладзімір Сямёнавіч Караткевіч) (November 26, 1930 – July 25, 1984) was a Belarusian romantic writer.

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Ultimate Fighting Championship

The Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC) is an American mixed martial arts organization based in Las Vegas, Nevada, that is owned and operated by parent company William Morris Endeavor.

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UNESCO

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.

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Union of Brest

The Union of Brest, or Union of Brześć, was the 1595-96 decision of the Ruthenian Orthodox Church eparchies (dioceses) in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth to break relations with the Eastern Orthodox Church and to enter into communion with, and place itself under the authority of the Pope of Rome.

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Union of Krewo

In a strict sense, the Union of Krewo or "Act of Krėva" (also spelled "Union of Krevo", "Act of Kreva"; Krėvos sutartis) was a set of prenuptial promises made in the Kreva Castle on 14 August 1385 by Jogaila, Grand Duke of Lithuania, in exchange for marriage to the underage reigning Queen Jadwiga of Poland.

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Union of Lublin

The Union of Lublin (unia lubelska; Liublino unija) was signed on 1 July 1569, in Lublin, Poland, and created a single state, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.

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Union State

The Union State (p; Саюзная дзяржава), also referred to as the Union State of Russia and Belarus (p; Саюзная дзяржава Расіі і Беларусі), is a supranational union consisting of the Russian Federation and the Republic of Belarus.

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Unitary state

A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.

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United Civic Party of Belarus

The United Civic Party of Belarus (Объединенная гражданская партия, Abjadnanaja hramadzianskaja partyja Biełarusi) is a liberal-conservative political party in Belarus.

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United Nations

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.

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United Nations Charter

The Charter of the United Nations (also known as the UN Charter) of 1945 is the foundational treaty of the United Nations, an intergovernmental organization.

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United States Department of State

The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.

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United States Secretary of State

The Secretary of State is a senior official of the federal government of the United States of America, and as head of the U.S. Department of State, is principally concerned with foreign policy and is considered to be the U.S. government's equivalent of a Minister for Foreign Affairs.

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United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations

The United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations is a standing committee of the United States Senate.

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Vasil Bykaŭ

Vasíl Uładzímiravič Býkaŭ (often spelled Vasil Bykov, Васі́ль Уладзі́міравіч Бы́каў, Василь Влади́мирович Быков) (June 19, 1924 – June 22, 2003) was a prolific author of novels and novellas about World War II and a significant figure in Belarusian literature and civic thought.

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Vasil Kiryienka

Vasili Vasilyevich Kiryienka (Васіль Васілевіч Кірыенка; Łacinka: Vasil Vasilevič Kiryjenka) (born 28 June 1981) is a Belarusian racing cyclist, racing for UCI ProTeam.

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Viasna Human Rights Centre

The Viasna Human Rights Centre is a human rights organization based in Minsk, Belarus.

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Victoria Azarenka

Victória Fyódorovna Azárenka (Вікторыя Фёдараўна Азаранка; Russian: Виктория Фёдоровна Азаренко; born 31 July 1989) is a Belarusian professional tennis player.

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Victory Day (9 May)

Victory DayДень Победы, Den' Pobedy День Перемоги, Den' Peremohy Дзень Перамогі, Dzień Pieramohi Gʻalaba kuni, Ғалаба куни Жеңіс Күні, Jeñis Küni გამარჯვების დღე, gamarjvebis dghe Qələbə Günü Ziua Victoriei, Зиуа Викторией Uzvaras diena Жеңиш майрамы, Jengish Mayramy Рӯзи Ғалаба, Rūzi Ghalaba Հաղթանակի օրը, Haght’anaki ory Ýeňişlar Harçlaarsiň, Йеңишлар Харчлаарсиң Võidupüha ("Victory Holiday") Ciñü köne Dan pobjede/pobede, Дан победе/побједе יום הניצחון, Yóm HaNicaħón عيد النصر, ʿīd al-Naṣir is a holiday that commemorates the surrender of Nazi Germany in 1945.

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Viktar Hanchar

Viktar Hanchar (Віктар Ганчар, Виктор Гончар, Viktor Gonchar, born September 7, 1957) was a Belarusian politician who disappeared and was presumably killed in 1999.

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Vilnius

Vilnius (see also other names) is the capital of Lithuania and its largest city, with a population of 574,221.

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Vintsent Dunin-Martsinkyevich

Vincent Dunin-Marcinkievič (Вінцэнт (Вінцук) Дунін-Марцінкевіч; Wincenty Dunin-Marcinkiewicz; c. 1808–1884) was a Belarusian writer, poet, dramatist and social activist and is considered as one of the founders of the modern Belarusian literary tradition and national school theatre.

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Vitebsk

Vitebsk, or Vitsebsk (Ві́цебск, Łacinka: Viciebsk,; Витебск,, Vitebskas), is a city in Belarus.

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Vitebsk Region

Vitebsk Region, Vitsebsk Voblast, or Vitebsk Oblast (Ві́цебская во́бласць, Viciebskaja Vobłasć,; ˈvʲitʲɪpskəjə ˈobləsʲtʲ) is a region (voblast) of Belarus with its administrative center being Vitebsk (Vitsebsk).

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Vladimir Putin

Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (a; born 7 October 1952) is a Russian statesman and former intelligence officer serving as President of Russia since 2012, previously holding the position from 2000 until 2008.

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VSNL International Canada

VSNL International Canada or Tata Communications (Canada) ULC (formerly Teleglobe) is an international telco carrier.

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Vyacheslav Kebich

Vyacheslav Frantsevich Kebich (Вячаслаў Францавіч Кебіч, Вячесла́в Фра́нцевич Ке́бич; born 10 June 1936 in a village near Wołożyn, Poland) is a political figure from Belarus.

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Władysław II Jagiełło

Jogaila (later Władysław II JagiełłoHe is known under a number of names: Jogaila Algirdaitis; Władysław II Jagiełło; Jahajła (Ягайла). See also: Names and titles of Władysław II Jagiełło. (c. 1352/1362 – 1 June 1434) was the Grand Duke of Lithuania (1377–1434) and then the King of Poland (1386–1434), first alongside his wife Jadwiga until 1399, and then sole King of Poland. He ruled in Lithuania from 1377. Born a pagan, in 1386 he converted to Catholicism and was baptized as Władysław in Kraków, married the young Queen Jadwiga, and was crowned King of Poland as Władysław II Jagiełło. In 1387 he converted Lithuania to Christianity. His own reign in Poland started in 1399, upon the death of Queen Jadwiga, and lasted a further thirty-five years and laid the foundation for the centuries-long Polish–Lithuanian union. He was a member of the Jagiellonian dynasty in Poland that bears his name and was previously also known as the Gediminid dynasty in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The dynasty ruled both states until 1572,Anna Jagiellon, the last member of royal Jagiellon family, died in 1596. and became one of the most influential dynasties in late medieval and early modern Central and Eastern Europe. During his reign, the Polish-Lithuanian state was the largest state in the Christian world. Jogaila was the last pagan ruler of medieval Lithuania. After he became King of Poland, as a result of the Union of Krewo, the newly formed Polish-Lithuanian union confronted the growing power of the Teutonic Knights. The allied victory at the Battle of Grunwald in 1410, followed by the Peace of Thorn, secured the Polish and Lithuanian borders and marked the emergence of the Polish–Lithuanian alliance as a significant force in Europe. The reign of Władysław II Jagiełło extended Polish frontiers and is often considered the beginning of Poland's Golden Age.

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Western Belorussia

Western Belorussia or Western Belarus (Заходняя Беларусь: Zachodniaja Biełaruś; Zachodnia Białoruś; Западная Белоруссия: Zapadnaja Belorussija) is a historical region of modern-day Belarus comprising the territory which belonged to the Second Polish Republic during the interwar period in accordance with the international peace treaties.

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Western world

The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.

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Westview Press

Westview Press was an American publishing house.

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Wheat

Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.

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Whistleblower

A whistleblower (also written as whistle-blower or whistle blower) is a person who exposes any kind of information or activity that is deemed illegal, unethical, or not correct within an organization that is either private or public.

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White Ruthenia

White Ruthenia (Бѣла Роусь, Bela Rous; Белая Русь, Белая Русь Belaya Rus'), alternatively known as Russia Alba, White Rus' or White Russia, is an archaism for the eastern part of present-day Belarus, including the cities of Polotsk, Vitebsk, and Mogilev.

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Wool

Wool is the textile fiber obtained from sheep and other animals, including cashmere and mohair from goats, qiviut from muskoxen, angora from rabbits, and other types of wool from camelids.

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World Bank

The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.

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World Heritage site

A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.

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World Trade Organization

The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade.

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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World War II casualties of the Soviet Union

World War II fatalities of the Soviet Union from all related causes numbered more than 20,000,000, both civilian and military, although the exact figures are disputed.

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Yakub Kolas

Yakub Kolas (also Jakub Kołas, Яку́б Ко́лас, – August 13, 1956), real name Kanstancin Mickievič (Міцке́віч Канстанці́н Міха́йлавіч) was a Belarusian writer, People's Poet of the Byelorussian SSR (1926), and member (1928) and vice-president (from 1929) of the Belarusian Academy of Sciences.

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Yanka Kupala

Jánka Kupála (akas: Yanka Kupala, Janka Kupała, Я́нка Купа́ла; – June 28, 1942) – was the pen name of Iván Daminíkavich Lutsévich (Ivan Daminikavič Łucevič, Іва́н Даміні́кавіч Луцэ́віч), a Belarusian poet and writer.

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Yiddish dialects

Yiddish dialects are variants of the Yiddish and are divided according to the region in Europe where each developed its distinctiveness.

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Zianon Pazniak

Zianon Stanislavavich Pazniak (Зянон Станіслававіч Пазняк, born 24 April 1944) is a Belarusian nationalist politician, one of the founders of the Belarusian Popular Front and leader of the Conservative Christian Party – BPF.

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.by

.by is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Belarus.

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.бел

The domain name бел (abbreviation of Беларусь, transliterated: Belarus) is an approved internationalized country code top-level domain (IDN ccTLD) for Belarus.

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1994 Winter Olympics

The 1994 Winter Olympics (Olympiske vinterleker 1994), officially known as the XVII Olympic Winter Games (French: Les XVIIes Jeux olympiques d'hiver), was a winter multi-sport event celebrated from 12 to 27 February 1994 in and around Lillehammer, Norway.

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1st Lithuanian–Belarusian Division

The 1st Lithuanian–Belarusian Division (1., 1.DL-B; 1-ая Літоўска-Беларуская дывізія; 1-oji Lietuvos-Baltarusijos divizija) was a volunteer unit of the Polish Army formed around December 1918 and January 1919 during the Polish–Soviet War.

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2007 Russia–Belarus energy dispute

The Russia–Belarus energy dispute began when Russian state-owned gas supplier Gazprom demanded an increase in gas prices paid by Belarus, a country which has been closely allied with Moscow and forms a loose union state with Russia.

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2008 Summer Olympics

The 2008 Summer Olympic Games, officially known as the Games of the XXIX Olympiad and commonly known as Beijing 2008, was an international multi-sport event that was held from 8 to 24 August 2008 in Beijing, China.

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2012 Summer Olympics

The 2012 Summer Olympics, formally the Games of the XXX Olympiad and commonly known as London 2012, was an international multi-sport event that was held from 27 July to 12 August 2012 in London, United Kingdom.

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2014 Winter Olympics

The 2014 Winter Olympics, officially called the XXII Olympic Winter Games (Les XXIIes Jeux olympiques d'hiver) (r) and commonly known as Sochi 2014, was an international winter multi-sport event that was held from 7 to 23 February 2014 in Sochi, Krasnodar Krai, Russia, with opening rounds in certain events held on the eve of the opening ceremony, 6 February 2014.

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2015 UCI Road World Championships – Men's time trial

The Men's time trial of the 2015 UCI Road World Championships is a cycling event that took place on September 23, 2015 in Richmond, Virginia, United States.

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2015 World Championships in Athletics – Women's 800 metres

The women's 800 metres at the 2015 World Championships in Athletics was held at the Beijing National Stadium on 26, 27 and 29 August.

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23rd meridian east

The meridian 23° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, Europe, Africa, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.

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33rd meridian east

The meridian 33° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Turkey, Africa, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.

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51st parallel north

The 51st parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 51 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.

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57th parallel north

The 57th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 57 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.

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Balarus, Belarus', Belaruss, Belarussi, Belarussia, Belarusʹ, Belarus’, Bellarus, Belorus, Belorusi, Belorusia, Beloruss, Belorussia, Belorussiya, Bielaruś, Bielorussia, Biełaruś, Buelorussia, Byelarossia, Byelarus, Bʹelarusʹ, Corruption in Belarus, Etymology of Belarus, ISO 3166-1:BY, Name of Belarus, Republic of Belarus, Republic of Belorus, Republic of Beloruss, Respublika Belarus, Russia (Belarus), The Republic Of Belarus, The Republic of Belarus, Vitryssland, Беларусь, Белору́ссия, Белоруссия, Республика Беларусь, Рэспубліка Беларусь.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belarus

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