154 relations: Adam Mickiewicz, Akanye, Alaiza Pashkevich, Aleksey Shakhmatov, Alexander Lukashenko, Archaism, Ashmyany, Azerbaijan, Babruysk, Balto-Slavic languages, Belarus, Belarus Census (1999), Belarusian alphabet, Belarusian Arabic alphabet, Belarusian Braille, Belarusian grammar, Belarusian Latin alphabet, Belarusian orthography reform of 1933, Belarusian People's Republic, Belarusian referendum, 1995, Belarusian Socialist Assembly, Belarusians, Branislaw Tarashkyevich, Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, Canada, Chernigov Governorate, Collective Security Treaty Organization, Consonant, Cyrillic script, Deutsche Welle, Dialect, East Slavic languages, Estonia, Everyday life, First All-Belarusian Congress, Francišak Bahuševič, Frantsishak Skaryna Belarusian Language Society, Gemination, German language, German occupation of Byelorussia during World War II, Glagolitic script, Gmina Czyże, Gmina Hajnówka, Gmina Narewka, Gmina Orla, Gomel, Governorate (Russia), Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Grodno Governorate, Hajnówka, ..., Hebrew alphabet, History of the Jews in Belarus, Homan (1884), IETF language tag, Irish language, ISO 639, Ivatsevichy, Jan Barszczewski, Jan Czeczot, Jan Stankievič, January Uprising, Jews, Kazakhstan, Kievan Rus', Kirill Mazurov, Konstanty Kalinowski, Krivichs, Kyrgyzstan, Languages of Belarus, Latvia, Lipka Tatars, Lithuania, Lithuanian language, Luninets, Maksim Bahdanovič, Ministries of the Soviet Union, Minsk, Minsk Governorate, Mitrofan Dovnar-Zapol'skiy, Mogilev Governorate, Moldova, Morphophonology, Mova Nanova, Mutual intelligibility, Narkamauka, Nasha Niva, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Neologism, Ober Ost, Official language, Old Church Slavonic, Old East Slavic, Old Ruthenian language, Order of Saint Basil the Great, Partitions of Poland, Paul von Hindenburg, Persecution of Eastern Orthodox Christians, Philip M. Parker, Phoneme, Phonemic orthography, Phonology, Poland, Poles, Polish language, Pruzhany, Romanization, Romanization of Belarusian, Roy Medvedev, Russia, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russian Census (2002), Russian Empire, Russian Empire Census, Russian grammar, Russian language, Russian nationalism, Russian orthography, Russians, Russification, Rusyn language, Ruthenia, Ruthenian language, Siarhei Prytytski, Slavic languages, Slavic vocabulary, Smolensk Governorate, Soviet partisans, Soviet repression in Belarus, Soviet Union, Stolin, Tajikistan, Taraškievica, Telekhany, Trasianka, Turkmenistan, Tutejszy, Ukraine, Ukrainian language, Ukrainians, Uzbekistan, Vaclau Lastouski, Vilna Governorate, Vilnius, Vintsent Dunin-Martsinkyevich, Vistula Land, Vitebsk Governorate, Władysław Syrokomla, West Polesian microlanguage, Western Belorussia, Yakub Kolas, Yanka Kupala, Yefim Karsky, Yiddish, Zvyazda. Expand index (104 more) » « Shrink index
Adam Bernard Mickiewicz (24 December 179826 November 1855) was a Polish poet, dramatist, essayist, publicist, translator, professor of Slavic literature, and political activist.
Akanye or akanje (аканне, аканье,, akanje) is a phonological phenomenon in Slavic languages in which the phonemes or are realized as more or less close to.
Alaiza Pashkevich (or Ciotka; Алаіза Пашкевіч, Ałaiza Paškievič; 15 July 1876 – 5 November 1916) was a Belarusian poet and political activist of Belarusian national-democratic rebirth.
Alexei Alexandrovich Shakhmatov (Алексе́й Алекса́ндрович Ша́хматов, – 16 August 1920) was a Russian philologist and historian credited with laying foundations for the science of textology.
Aleksandr Grigoryevich Lukashenko (translit,; ɐlʲɪˈksandr ɡrʲɪˈɡorʲjɪvʲɪtɕ ɫʊkɐˈʂɛnkə; born 30 August 1954) is a Belarusian politician serving as President of Belarus since the office was created on 20 July 1994.
In language, an archaism (from the ἀρχαϊκός, archaïkós, 'old-fashioned, antiquated', ultimately ἀρχαῖος, archaîos, 'from the beginning, ancient') is the use of a form of speech or writing that is no longer current or that is current only within a few special contexts.
Ashmyany (Ашмя́ны; Łacinka: Ašmiany; Ошмя́ны; Ašmena; Oszmiana; אָשמענע, Oshmene) is a town in Grodno Region, Belarus, located at 50 km from Vilnius, capital of the Ashmyany raion.
Babruysk, Babrujsk, or Bobruisk (Бабру́йск, Łacinka: Babrujsk, Бобру́йск, Bobrujsk, באברויסק) is a city in the Mogilev Region of eastern Belarus on the Berezina river.
The Balto-Slavic languages are a branch of the Indo-European family of languages.
Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.
The Belarus Census of 1999 was the first census in Belarus after it became an independent state after the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
The Belarusian alphabet is based on the Cyrillic script and is derived from the alphabet of Old Church Slavonic.
The Belarusian Arabic alphabet (Беларускі арабскі алфавіт/альфабэт, Biełaruski arabski alfabet (Taraškievica), بيَلارُصقِ ارابصقِ الفاوِت) was based on the Arabic script and was developed in the 16th century (possibly 15th).
Belarusian Braille is the braille alphabet of the Belarusian language.
The grammar of the Belarusian language is mostly synthetic and partly analytic, and norms of the modern language were adopted in 1959.
The Belarusian Latin alphabet or Łacinka (from Лацінка (BGN/PCGN: latsinka) for the Latin script in general) is the common name of the several historical alphabets to render the Belarusian (Cyrillic) text in the Latin script.
The orthography of the Belarusian language was reformed in 1933 under Soviet rule.
The Belarusian People's Republic (Белару́ская Наро́дная Рэспу́бліка,, transliterated as Bielarúskaja Naródnaja Respúblika, BNR), (Белорусская народная республика) (transliterated as Belorusskaya narodnaya respublika), historically referred to as the White Ruthenian Democratic Republic (Weißruthenische Volksrepublik) was a failed attempt to create a Belarusian state on the territory controlled by the German Imperial Army during World War I. The BNR existed from 1918 to 1919.
A four-question referendum was held in Belarus on 14 May 1995, alongside parliamentary elections.
The Belarusian Socialist Assembly, BSA (Беларуская сацыялістычная грамада, Belarusian Socialist Hramada, BSH) was a revolutionary party in the Belarusian territory of the Russian Empire.
Belarusians (беларусы, biełarusy, or Byelorussians (from the Byelorussian SSR), are an East Slavic ethnic group who are native to modern-day Belarus and the immediate region. There are over 9.5 million people who proclaim Belarusian ethnicity worldwide, with the overwhelming majority residing either in Belarus or the adjacent countries where they are an autochthonous minority.
Branislaw Adamavich Tarashkyevich (Браніслаў Адамавіч Тарашкевіч, Łacinka: Branisłaŭ Taraškievič, Бронислав Адамович Тарашкевич, Bronislavas Taraškevičius, Bronisław Adamowicz Taraszkiewicz; January 20, 1892 – November 29, 1938) was a Belarusian public figure, politician, and linguist.
The Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (BSSR, or Byelorussian SSR; Bielaruskaja Savieckaja Sacyjalistyčnaja Respublika; Belorusskaya SSR.), also commonly referred to in English as Byelorussia, was a federal unit of the Soviet Union (USSR).
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
The Chernigov Governorate (Черниговская губерния; translit.: Chernigovskaya guberniya), also known as the Government of Chernigov, was a guberniya in the historical Left-bank Ukraine region of the Russian Empire, which was officially created in 1802 from the Malorossiya Governorate with an administrative centre of Chernihiv.
The Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO; Организация Договора о Коллективной Безопасности, Organizacija Dogovora o Kollektivnoj Bezopasnosti, ODKB) is an intergovernmental military alliance that was signed on 15 May 1992.
In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.
The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia (particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia).
Deutsche Welle ("German wave" in German) or DW is Germany's public international broadcaster.
The term dialect (from Latin,, from the Ancient Greek word,, "discourse", from,, "through" and,, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of linguistic phenomena.
The East Slavic languages constitute one of three regional subgroups of Slavic languages, currently spoken throughout Eastern Europe, Northern Asia, and the Caucasus.
Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.
Everyday life, daily life or routine life comprises the ways in which people typically act, think, and feel on a daily basis.
The First All-Belarusian Congress (Першы Ўсебеларускі кангрэс or Першая Ўсебеларуская канферэнцыя) was a congress of Belarusian political organisations and groups held in Minsk in December 1917.
Francišak Bahuševič (Францішак Багушэвіч, – was a Belarusian poet, writer and lawyer, considered to be one of the initiators of modern Belarusian literature.
The Frantsishak Skaryna Belarusian Language Society (Таварыства беларускай мовы імя Францішка Скарыны, TBM) is an association in Belarus.
Gemination, or consonant elongation, is the pronouncing in phonetics of a spoken consonant for an audibly longer period of time than that of a short consonant.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
The occupation of Belarus by Nazi Germany started with the German invasion of the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941 (Operation Barbarossa) and ended in August 1944 with the Soviet Operation Bagration.
The Glagolitic script (Ⰳⰾⰰⰳⱁⰾⰹⱌⰰ Glagolitsa) is the oldest known Slavic alphabet.
Gmina Czyże is a rural gmina (administrative district) in Hajnówka County, Podlaskie Voivodeship, in north-eastern Poland.
Gmina Hajnówka is a rural gmina (administrative district) in Hajnówka County, Podlaskie Voivodeship, in north-eastern Poland, on the border with Belarus.
Gmina Narewka is a rural gmina (administrative district) in Hajnówka County, Podlaskie Voivodeship, in north-eastern Poland, on the border with Belarus.
Gmina Orla is a rural gmina (gmina wiejska) in Bielsk County, Podlaskie Voivodeship.
Gomel (also Homieĺ, Homiel, Homel or Homyel’; Belarusian: Го́мель, Łacinka: Homiel,, Russian: Го́мель) is the administrative centre of Gomel Region and with 526,872 inhabitants (2015 census) the second-most populous city of Belarus.
A governorate, or a guberniya (p; also romanized gubernia, guberniia, gubernya), was a major and principal administrative subdivision of the Russian Empire and the early Russian SFSR and Ukrainian SSR.
The Grand Duchy of Lithuania was a European state that lasted from the 13th century up to 1795, when the territory was partitioned among the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia, and Austria.
The Grodno Governorate, (translit, Gubernia grodzieńska, translit, Gardino gubernija) was a governorate (guberniya) of the Russian Empire.
Hajnówka (Гайнівка, Hainivka; Гайнаўка, Hajnaŭka; Yiddish האַדזשנאָווקאַ, Chajnuvka) is a town and a powiat seat in north-eastern Poland (Podlaskie Voivodeship) with 21,442 inhabitants (2014).
The Hebrew alphabet (אָלֶף־בֵּית עִבְרִי), known variously by scholars as the Jewish script, square script and block script, is an abjad script used in the writing of the Hebrew language, also adapted as an alphabet script in the writing of other Jewish languages, most notably in Yiddish (lit. "Jewish" for Judeo-German), Djudío (lit. "Jewish" for Judeo-Spanish), and Judeo-Arabic.
The Jews in Belarus were the third largest ethnic group in the country in the first half of the 20th century.
Homan (pronounced) was an illegal Belarusian newspaper published from 1884 in Belarusian and Russian languages.
An IETF language tag is an abbreviated language code (for example, en for English, pt-BR for Brazilian Portuguese, or nan-Hant-TW for Min Nan Chinese as spoken in Taiwan using traditional Han characters) defined by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) in the BCP 47 document series, which is currently composed of normative RFC 5646 (referencing the related RFC 5645) and RFC 4647, along with the normative content of the IANA Language Subtag Registry.
The Irish language (Gaeilge), also referred to as the Gaelic or the Irish Gaelic language, is a Goidelic language (Gaelic) of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people.
ISO 639 is a set of standards by the International Organization for Standardization that is concerned with representation of names for languages and language groups.
Ivacevičy (Івацэвічы, Ивацевичи, Iwacewicze, Ivasevičai) is a city in the Brest Province of Belarus, an administrative center of the Ivacevičy district.
Jan Barszczewski (1794 (uncertain) – 12 March 1851) was Polish and Belarusian writer, poet and editor.
Jan Czeczot of Ostoja (Jonas Čečiotas, Ян Чачот, Jan Čačot, 1796–1847) was a Polish romantic poet and ethnographer.
Jan (Janka) Stankievič (Ian Stankevich, Ян Станкевіч, Jan Stankiewicz; November 26, 1891 – August 16, 1976) was a Belarusian-American politician, linguist, historian and philosopher.
The January Uprising (Polish: powstanie styczniowe, Lithuanian: 1863 m. sukilimas, Belarusian: Паўстанне 1863-1864 гадоў, Польське повстання) was an insurrection instigated principally in the Russian Partition of the former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth against its occupation by the Russian Empire.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.
Kievan Rus' (Рѹ́сь, Рѹ́сьскаѧ землѧ, Rus(s)ia, Ruscia, Ruzzia, Rut(h)enia) was a loose federationJohn Channon & Robert Hudson, Penguin Historical Atlas of Russia (Penguin, 1995), p.16.
Kirill Trofimovich Mazurov (Кіры́ла Трафі́мавіч Ма́зураў, Кирилл Трофимович Мазуров; 25 March 1914 in Homyel Voblast, Belarus – 19 December 1989) was a Belarusian Soviet politician.
Wincenty Konstanty Kalinowski, also known as Kastuś Kalinoŭski (Касту́сь Каліно́ўскі), Konstanty Kalinowski (Polish) and Konstantinas Kalinauskas (Lithuanian) (21 January or 2 February 1838 – 22 March 1864), was a 19th-century writer, journalist, lawyer and revolutionary.
The Krivichs (Kryvichs) (Крывічы, Kryvičý,; p) was one of the tribal unions of Early East Slavs between the 6th and the 12th centuries.
The Kyrgyz Republic (Kyrgyz Respublikasy; r; Қирғиз Республикаси.), or simply Kyrgyzstan, and also known as Kirghizia (Kyrgyzstan; r), is a sovereign state in Central Asia.
The official languages of Belarus are equally Belarusian and Russian.
Latvia (or; Latvija), officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika), is a sovereign state in the Baltic region of Northern Europe.
The Lipka Tatars (also known as Lithuanian Tatars, Polish Tatars, Lipkowie, Lipcani or Muślimi) are a group of Tatars who originally settled in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania at the beginning of the 14th century.
Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.
Lithuanian (lietuvių kalba) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.
Luninets (Лунінец, Лунине́ц, Łuniniec, Luninecas, Luninitz BGN/PCGN romanization: Luninyets) is a town and administrative centre for the Luninets district in Brest Province, Belarus, before which it was in Poland (1540–1793, 1920–1939) and Russia and the Soviet Union (1793–1920, 1939–1941, 1944–1991).
Maksim Adamavič Bahdanovič (Belarusian language: Максім Адамавіч Багдановіч) (December 9, 1891 – May 25, 1917) was a Belarusian poet, journalist, translator, literary critic and historian of literature.
The Ministries of the Soviet Union (Министерства СССР) were the government ministries of the Soviet Union.
Minsk (Мінск,; Минск) is the capital and largest city of Belarus, situated on the Svislach and the Nyamiha Rivers.
The Minsk Governorate (Минская губерния) or Government of Minsk was a governorate (guberniya) of the Russian Empire.
Mitrofan Viktorovich Dovnar-Zapol'skiy (Мітрафан Віктаравіч Доўнар-Запольскі, Митрофан Викторович Довнар-Запольский;, Rechytsa, Minsk Governorate — 30 September 1934, Moscow) was a historian, ethnographer, and diplomat of Belarusian origin.
The Mogilev Governorate (Mogilevskaya Gubernya) or Government of Mogilev was a governorate (guberniya) of the Russian Empire in the territory of the present day Belarus.
Moldova (or sometimes), officially the Republic of Moldova (Republica Moldova), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Romania to the west and Ukraine to the north, east, and south (by way of the disputed territory of Transnistria).
Morphophonology (also morphophonemics or morphonology) is the branch of linguistics that studies the interaction between morphological and phonological or phonetic processes.
Mova Nanova (Мова Нанова, Mova Nanova, literally, “language anew”) is a Belarusian course that has taken place in Minsk, the capital of Belarus, since January 13, 2014.
In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without prior familiarity or special effort.
Narkamaŭka (наркамаўка, narkamaŭka) is a colloquial name for the reformed and currently normative Belarusian grammar.
Nasha Niva (Naša Niva, lit. "Our field") is one of the oldest Belarusian weekly newspapers, founded in 1906 and re-established in 1991.
The National Academy of Sciences of Belarus (NASB) (Нацыянальная акадэмія навук Беларусі, Национальная академия наук Беларуси, НАН Беларуси, НАНБ) is the national academy of Belarus.
A neologism (from Greek νέο- néo-, "new" and λόγος lógos, "speech, utterance") is a relatively recent or isolated term, word, or phrase that may be in the process of entering common use, but that has not yet been fully accepted into mainstream language.
Ober Ost is short for Oberbefehlshaber der gesamten Deutschen Streitkräfte im Osten, German for "Supreme Commander of All German Forces in the East" during World War I. It also has an implied double meaning, as in its own right, "Ober Ost" translates into "Upper East," which describes its geographic region in reference to the German Empire.
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
Old Church Slavonic, also known as Old Church Slavic (or Ancient/Old Slavonic often abbreviated to OCS; (autonym словѣ́ньскъ ѩꙁꙑ́къ, slověnĭskŭ językŭ), not to be confused with the Proto-Slavic, was the first Slavic literary language. The 9th-century Byzantine missionaries Saints Cyril and Methodius are credited with standardizing the language and using it in translating the Bible and other Ancient Greek ecclesiastical texts as part of the Christianization of the Slavs. It is thought to have been based primarily on the dialect of the 9th century Byzantine Slavs living in the Province of Thessalonica (now in Greece). It played an important role in the history of the Slavic languages and served as a basis and model for later Church Slavonic traditions, and some Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic churches use this later Church Slavonic as a liturgical language to this day. As the oldest attested Slavic language, OCS provides important evidence for the features of Proto-Slavic, the reconstructed common ancestor of all Slavic languages.
Old East Slavic or Old Russian was a language used during the 10th–15th centuries by East Slavs in Kievan Rus' and states which evolved after the collapse of Kievan Rus'.
Old Ruthenian language may refer to.
The Order of Saint Basil the Great (O.S.B.M. Ordo Sancti Basilii Magni, Ordem de São Basílio Magno, Чин Святого Василія Великого, Chyn Sviatoho Vasyliia Velykoho) also known as the Basilian Order of Saint Josaphat is a monastic religious order of the Greek Catholic Churches that is present in many countries and that has its Mother House in Rome (Santi Sergio e Bacco degli Ucraini).
The Partitions of Poland were three partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth that took place toward the end of the 18th century and ended the existence of the state, resulting in the elimination of sovereign Poland and Lithuania for 123 years.
Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, known generally as Paul von Hindenburg (2 October 1847 – 2 August 1934) was a Generalfeldmarschall and statesman who commanded the German military during the second half of World War I before later being elected President of the Weimar republic in 1925.
Persecution of Eastern Orthodox Christians is the persecution faced by church, clergy and adherents of the Eastern Orthodox Church (Orthodox Christianity) because of religious beliefs and practices.
Philip M. Parker (born June 20, 1960) holds the INSEAD Chair Professorship of Management Science at INSEAD (Fontainebleau, France).
A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
In linguistics, a phonemic orthography is an orthography (system for writing a language) in which the graphemes (written symbols) correspond to the phonemes (significant spoken sounds) of the language.
Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
The Poles (Polacy,; singular masculine: Polak, singular feminine: Polka), commonly referred to as the Polish people, are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Poland in Central Europe who share a common ancestry, culture, history and are native speakers of the Polish language.
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
Pruzhany (Пружа́ны,; Пружаны, Prużany, פרוזשענע Pruzhene) is a town in Brest Voblast, Belarus.
Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics, is the conversion of writing from a different writing system to the Roman (Latin) script, or a system for doing so.
Romanization or Latinization of Belarusian is any system for transliterating written Belarusian from Cyrillic to the Latin.
Roy Aleksandrovich Medvedev (Рой Алекса́ндрович Медве́дев; born 14 November 1925) is a Russian political writer, author of the dissident history of Stalinism, Let History Judge (К суду истории), first published in English in 1972.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS; Росси́йская акаде́мия нау́к (РАН) Rossíiskaya akadémiya naúk) consists of the national academy of Russia; a network of scientific research institutes from across the Russian Federation; and additional scientific and social units such as libraries, publishing units, and hospitals.
The Russian Census of 2002 (Всеросси́йская пе́репись населе́ния 2002 го́да) was the first census of the Russian Federation since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, carried out on October 9 through October 16, 2002.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The Russian Imperial Census of 1897 was first and only census carried out in the Russian Empire (Finland was excluded).
Russian grammar employs an Indo-European inflexional structure, with considerable adaptation.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
Russian nationalism is a form of nationalism that asserts that Russians are a nation and promotes their cultural unity.
Russian orthography (p) is formally considered to encompass spelling (p) and punctuation (p).
Russians (русские, russkiye) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Eastern Europe. The majority of Russians inhabit the nation state of Russia, while notable minorities exist in other former Soviet states such as Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Ukraine and the Baltic states. A large Russian diaspora also exists all over the world, with notable numbers in the United States, Germany, Israel, and Canada. Russians are the most numerous ethnic group in Europe. The Russians share many cultural traits with their fellow East Slavic counterparts, specifically Belarusians and Ukrainians. They are predominantly Orthodox Christians by religion. The Russian language is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan, and also spoken as a secondary language in many former Soviet states.
Russification (Русификация), or Russianization, is a form of cultural assimilation process during which non-Russian communities, voluntarily or not, give up their culture and language in favor of the Russian one.
Rusyn (Carpathian Rusyn), по нашому (po našomu); Pannonian Rusyn)), also known in English as Ruthene (sometimes Ruthenian), is a Slavic language spoken by the Rusyns of Eastern Europe.
Ruthenia (Рѹ́сь (Rus) and Рѹ́сьскаѧ землѧ (Rus'kaya zemlya), Ῥωσία, Rus(s)ia, Ruscia, Ruzzia, Rut(h)enia, Roxolania, Garðaríki) is a proper geographical exonym for Kievan Rus' and other, more local, historical states.
Ruthenian or Old Ruthenian (see other names) was the group of varieties of East Slavic spoken in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and later in the East Slavic territories of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Siarhei Prytytski (Сяргей Прытыцкі, Siarhiej Prytycki Серге́й Притыцкий, Sergey Pritytsky, Sergiusz Prytycki; February 1, 1913, Harkavichy - June 13, 1971, Minsk) was a Belarusian Soviet statesman.
The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) are the Indo-European languages spoken by the Slavic peoples.
Proto-Slavic and its development into today's Slavic languages have been reconstructed using the comparative method (which has also been used to reconstruct its mother tongue, Proto-Indo-European).--> The following list is a comparison of basic Proto-Slavic vocabulary and the corresponding reflexes in the modern languages, for assistance in understanding the discussion in Proto-Slavic and History of the Slavic languages.
Smolensk Governorate (Смоленская губерния), or the Government of Smolensk, was an administrative division (a guberniya) of the Tsardom of Russia, the Russian Empire, and the Russian SFSR, which existed, with interruptions, between 1708 and 1929.
The Soviet partisans were members of resistance movements that fought a guerrilla war against the Axis forces in the Soviet Union, the previously Soviet-occupied territories of interwar Poland in 1941–45 and eastern Finland.
Soviet repression in Belarus refers to cases of ungrounded criminal persecution of people in Belarus under Communist rule.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Stolin (Сто́лін; Сто́лін; Сто́лин; Stolin; Yiddish/Hebrew: סטולין) is a town in the Stolin District in Brest Region of Belarus.
Tajikistan (or; Тоҷикистон), officially the Republic of Tajikistan (Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон, Jumhuriyi Tojikiston), is a mountainous, landlocked country in Central Asia with an estimated population of million people as of, and an area of.
Taraškievica or Belarusian Classical Orthography (тарашкевіца, клясычны правапіс) is a variant of the orthography of the Belarusian language, based on the literary norm of the modern Belarusian language, the first normalization of which was made by Branisłaŭ Taraškievič in 1918, and was in official use in Belarus until the Belarusian orthography reform of 1933.
Telekhany (Целяханы or Celjahany, Telechany, Телеханы or Telehany, טעלעכאן or Telechan, Unknown origin: Telekhani, Telechon, Telekani, Telekhan, Tselyakhani, Celjachani) is a town in Ivatsevichy Raion of the Brest Region in Belarus.
Trasianka (трасянка) refers to a mixed form of speech in which Belarusian and Russian elements and structures alternate in rapid succession.
Turkmenistan (or; Türkmenistan), (formerly known as Turkmenia) is a sovereign state in Central Asia, bordered by Kazakhstan to the northwest, Uzbekistan to the north and east, Afghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the south and southwest, and the Caspian Sea to the west.
Tutejszy (Тутэйшыя, Tutejšyja; Тутешній, Tutešnij; Tuteišiai; Tuteiši, literally meaning “locals”, “from here”) was a self-identification of rural population in mixed-lingual areas of Eastern and Northern Europe, including Poland, Ukraine, Belarus, Lithuania, and Latvia, in particular, in Polesie and Podlasie.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
Ukrainians (українці, ukrayintsi) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Ukraine, which is by total population the sixth-largest nation in Europe.
Uzbekistan, officially also the Republic of Uzbekistan (Oʻzbekiston Respublikasi), is a doubly landlocked Central Asian Sovereign state.
Vatslaw Yustynavich Lastowski (Вацлаў Юстынавіч Ластоўскі, Вацлав Устинович Ластовский, Wacław Łastowski; 1883 – 1938) was a Belarusian critic, historian of literature, and politician.
The Vilna Governorate (1795–1915; also known as Lithuania-Vilnius Governorate from 1801 until 1840; Виленская губерния, Vilenskaya guberniya, Vilniaus gubernija, gubernia wileńska) or Government of Vilnius was a governorate (guberniya) of the Russian Empire created after the Third Partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1795.
Vilnius (see also other names) is the capital of Lithuania and its largest city, with a population of 574,221.
Vincent Dunin-Marcinkievič (Вінцэнт (Вінцук) Дунін-Марцінкевіч; Wincenty Dunin-Marcinkiewicz; c. 1808–1884) was a Belarusian writer, poet, dramatist and social activist and is considered as one of the founders of the modern Belarusian literary tradition and national school theatre.
Vistula Land or Vistula Country (Привислинский край, Privislinsky krai; Kraj Nadwiślański) was the name applied to the former lands of Congress Poland from the 1880s, following the defeats of the November Uprising (1830–31) and January Uprising (1863-1864) as it was increasingly stripped of autonomy and incorporated into Imperial Russia.
Vitebsk Governorate (Витебская губерния) was an administrative unit (guberniya) of the Russian Empire, with the seat of governorship in Vitebsk.
Ludwik Władysław Franciszek Kondratowicz (September 29, 1823 – September 15, 1862), better known as Władysław Syrokomla, was a romantic poet, writer and translator working in Congress Poland of the Russian Empire.
The West Polesian microlanguage (Native name: Заходышнополіська волода, Zakhodyshnopoliska voloda; Західнополіська мікромова, Zakhidnopolis'ka mikromova; Заходнепалеская мікрамова, Zakhodniepalieskaya mikramova) or dialect is spoken in Southwestern Belarus, in Northwestern Ukraine and in the bordering regions of Poland.
Western Belorussia or Western Belarus (Заходняя Беларусь: Zachodniaja Biełaruś; Zachodnia Białoruś; Западная Белоруссия: Zapadnaja Belorussija) is a historical region of modern-day Belarus comprising the territory which belonged to the Second Polish Republic during the interwar period in accordance with the international peace treaties.
Yakub Kolas (also Jakub Kołas, Яку́б Ко́лас, – August 13, 1956), real name Kanstancin Mickievič (Міцке́віч Канстанці́н Міха́йлавіч) was a Belarusian writer, People's Poet of the Byelorussian SSR (1926), and member (1928) and vice-president (from 1929) of the Belarusian Academy of Sciences.
Jánka Kupála (akas: Yanka Kupala, Janka Kupała, Я́нка Купа́ла; – June 28, 1942) – was the pen name of Iván Daminíkavich Lutsévich (Ivan Daminikavič Łucevič, Іва́н Даміні́кавіч Луцэ́віч), a Belarusian poet and writer.
Yefim Fyodorovich Karskiy (Яўхім Фёдаравіч Карскі, Ефим Фёдорович Карский; Евфимий Феодорович Карский, older name form); (1 January 1861 (20 December 1860) – 29 April 1931) was a Belarusian-Russian linguist-Slavist, ethnographer and paleographer, founder of Belarusian linguistics, literary studies and paleography, a member of numerous scientific institutions, and author of more than 100 works on linguistics, ethnography, paleography and others.
Yiddish (ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, "Jewish",; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, Judaeo-German) is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews.
Zvyazda (Звязда,, literally: "The Star") is a state-owned daily newspaper in Belarus.
Belarus language, Belarusan language, Belarusian (language), Belarusian Language, Belarusian-language, Belarussian language, Belorusian language, Belorussian Language, Belorussian language, Bielorussian language, Biełaruskaja mova, Byelaruskaya mova, Byelorussian language, ISO 639:be, ISO 639:bel, White Russian language, Беларуская, Беларуская мова.