39 relations: Affricate consonant, Akanye, Alveolar consonant, Approximant consonant, Assimilation (phonology), Belarusian alphabet, Belarusian language, Belarusian Latin alphabet, Breve, Close back rounded vowel, Close central unrounded vowel, Close front unrounded vowel, Consonant, Dental consonant, Dorsal consonant, Dutch language, East Slavic languages, Fricative consonant, Gemination, International Phonetic Alphabet, Labial consonant, Nasal consonant, Old East Slavic, Open central unrounded vowel, Open front unrounded vowel, Open-mid back rounded vowel, Open-mid front unrounded vowel, Palatalization (phonetics), Phoneme, Postalveolar consonant, Proto-Slavic, Retroflex consonant, Russian phonology, Stop consonant, Syllable, Trill consonant, Ukrainian phonology, Vowel, Vowel reduction in Russian.
An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).
Akanye or akanje (аканне, аканье,, akanje) is a phonological phenomenon in Slavic languages in which the phonemes or are realized as more or less close to.
Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.
Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.
In phonology, assimilation is a common phonological process by which one sound becomes more like a nearby sound.
The Belarusian alphabet is based on the Cyrillic script and is derived from the alphabet of Old Church Slavonic.
Belarusian (беларуская мова) is an official language of Belarus, along with Russian, and is spoken abroad, mainly in Ukraine and Russia.
The Belarusian Latin alphabet or Łacinka (from Лацінка (BGN/PCGN: latsinka) for the Latin script in general) is the common name of the several historical alphabets to render the Belarusian (Cyrillic) text in the Latin script.
A breve (less often;; neuter form of the Latin brevis “short, brief”) is the diacritic mark ˘, shaped like the bottom half of a circle.
The close back rounded vowel, or high back rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.
The close central unrounded vowel, or high central unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound used in some languages.
The close front unrounded vowel, or high front unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound that occurs in most spoken languages, represented in the International Phonetic Alphabet by the symbol i. It is similar to the vowel sound in the English word meet—and often called long-e in American English.
In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.
A dental consonant is a consonant articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth, such as,,, and in some languages.
Dorsal consonants are articulated with the back of the tongue (the dorsum).
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
The East Slavic languages constitute one of three regional subgroups of Slavic languages, currently spoken throughout Eastern Europe, Northern Asia, and the Caucasus.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
Gemination, or consonant elongation, is the pronouncing in phonetics of a spoken consonant for an audibly longer period of time than that of a short consonant.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.
Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator.
In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.
Old East Slavic or Old Russian was a language used during the 10th–15th centuries by East Slavs in Kievan Rus' and states which evolved after the collapse of Kievan Rus'.
The open central unrounded vowel, or low central unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in many spoken languages.
The open front unrounded vowel, or low front unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. It is one of the eight primary cardinal vowels, not directly intended to correspond to a vowel sound of a specific language but rather to serve as a fundamental reference point in a phonetic measuring system. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) that represents this sound is, and in the IPA vowel chart it is positioned at the lower-left corner. However, the accuracy of the quadrilateral vowel chart is disputed, and the sound has been analyzed acoustically as an extra-open/low unrounded vowel at a position where the front/back distinction has lost its significance. There are also differing interpretations of the exact quality of the vowel: the classic sound recording of by Daniel Jones is slightly more front but not quite as open as that by John Wells. In practice, it is considered normal by many phoneticians to use the symbol for an open ''central'' unrounded vowel and instead approximate the open front unrounded vowel with (which officially signifies a ''near-open'' front unrounded vowel). This is the usual practice, for example, in the historical study of the English language. The loss of separate symbols for open and near-open front vowels is usually considered unproblematic, because the perceptual difference between the two is quite small, and very few languages contrast the two. If one needs to specify that the vowel is front, one can use symbols like (advanced/fronted), or (lowered), with the latter being more common. The Hamont dialect of Limburgish has been reported to contrast long open front, central and back unrounded vowels, which is extremely unusual.
The open-mid back rounded vowel, or low-mid back rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages.
The open-mid front unrounded vowel, or low-mid front unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
In phonetics, palatalization (also) or palatization refers to a way of pronouncing a consonant in which part of the tongue is moved close to the hard palate.
A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
Postalveolar consonants (sometimes spelled post-alveolar) are consonants articulated with the tongue near or touching the back of the alveolar ridge, farther back in the mouth than the alveolar consonants, which are at the ridge itself but not as far back as the hard palate, the place of articulation for palatal consonants.
Proto-Slavic is the unattested, reconstructed proto-language of all the Slavic languages.
A retroflex consonant is a coronal consonant where the tongue has a flat, concave, or even curled shape, and is articulated between the alveolar ridge and the hard palate.
This article discusses the phonological system of standard Russian based on the Moscow dialect (unless otherwise noted).
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds.
In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the active articulator and passive articulator.
This article deals with the phonology of the standard Ukrainian language.
A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.
Vowel reduction in Russian differs in the standard language and dialects, which differ from one another.