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Bell Labs

Index Bell Labs

Nokia Bell Labs (formerly named AT&T Bell Laboratories, Bell Telephone Laboratories and Bell Labs) is an American research and scientific development company, owned by Finnish company Nokia. [1]

390 relations: A Mathematical Theory of Communication, A. Michael Noll, Aaron Marcus, Alan Turing, Alan Turing: The Enigma, Alcatel-Lucent, Alexander Graham Bell, Alexander Melville Bell, Alfred Aho, Alfred Y. Cho, Algorithm, Algorithmic composition, Ali Javan, Allentown, Pennsylvania, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, AMPL, Apple Inc., Arno Allan Penzias, Arthur Leonard Schawlow, Arun Netravali, AT&T, AT&T Corporation, AT&T Labs, AT&T Technologies, Audio Engineering Society, AWK, B (programming language), Bayer, BEFLIX, Bell Laboratories Building (Manhattan), Bell Labs Holmdel Complex, Bell Labs Technical Journal, Bell System, Bell System Technical Journal, Bell Telephone Company, Bellmac 32, Big Bang, Bioinformatics, Bishnu S. Atal, Bjarne Stroustrup, Boolean algebra, Breinigsville, Pennsylvania, Brian Kernighan, C (programming language), C++, C. Kumar N. Patel, Carbon dioxide laser, Charge-coupled device, Charles H. Townes, Charles K. Kao, ..., Charles Sumner Tainter, Chester Township, New Jersey, Chicago, Chichester Bell, Cipher, Claire F. Gmachl, Claude Cohen-Tannoudji, Claude Shannon, Clinton Davisson, Code-division multiple access, Code-excited linear prediction, Coding theory, Cohen–Daubechies–Feauveau wavelet, Coin flipping, Columbus, Ohio, Communication Theory of Secrecy Systems, Communications satellite, Compiler, Complex number, Computer, Computer vision, Concurrent computing, Control chart, Convolutional neural network, Corinna Cortes, Cornell University, Cosmic microwave background, Crawford Hill, Cryptanalysis, Daniel C. Tsui, Dark matter, Data mining, Data structure, Daubechies wavelet, David A. B. Miller, Dawon Kahng, Deal Test Site, Dennis Ritchie, Diffraction, Digital cinema, Digital electronics, Digital photography, Direct distance dialing, Distributed element circuit, DNA machine, Donald Cox, Dye laser, DYNAMO (programming language), Edward Lawry Norton, Eero Saarinen, Electret microphone, Electron, Electron diffraction, Electronic music, Elizabeth Bailey, Enumerator polynomial, Eric Betzig, Eric Schmidt, Erna Schneider Hoover, Error correction code, Error detection and correction, Esther M. Conwell, Evelyn Hu, Executive director, Experiments in Art and Technology, Fairchild Semiconductor, Federal government of the United States, Federico Capasso, Fellow, Fluorescence microscope, Fortran, Fractional quantum Hall effect, France, Frank B. Jewett, Freehold Borough, New Jersey, French franc, Galaxy, Gas laser, George D. Edwards, George E. Smith, George Paget Thomson, George Stibitz, Georgia (U.S. state), Gerhard M. Sessler, Gil Amelio, Gilbert Vernam, Go (programming language), Google, Greedy algorithm, Hamming code, Harold F. Dodge, Harry Nyquist, Harvey Fletcher, Herbert E. Ives, Herbert Hoover, High-speed photography, History of cryptography, History of mobile phones, Holmdel Township, New Jersey, Homer Dudley, Horst Ludwig Störmer, Ian Munro Ross, IBM 650, IEEE Alexander Graham Bell Medal, Illinois, Image compression, Indianapolis, Inferno (operating system), Information and communications technology, Information technology, Information theory, Ingrid Daubechies, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Integrated circuit, Invention of the telephone, James Edward Maceo West, James Gleick, Jeong H. Kim, Jessie MacWilliams, John Bardeen, John Bertrand Johnson, John Chambers (statistician), John Hopcroft, John Mashey, John R. Pierce, John S. Mayo, Johnson–Nyquist noise, Jon Hall (programmer), Joseph Kruskal, Joseph Mauborgne, Karl Guthe Jansky, Karmarkar's algorithm, Karnaugh map, Ken Thompson, Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory, KQED-FM, Laboratory, Laser, Laser cooling, Laurie Spiegel, Leopold Stokowski, Lester Germer, Lex (software), Lexical analysis, Limbo (programming language), Lincroft, New Jersey, Linguistics, Linux International, Lisle, Illinois, Lisp (programming language), Lithography, Local exchange carrier, London Mathematical Society, Long Branch, New Jersey, Lucent, Machine learning, Make (software), Marcus Weldon, Margaret H. Wright, Martin Atalla, Mary N. Torrey, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Master's degree, Materials science, Mathematical optimization, Matter wave, Maurice Karnaugh, Max Mathews, Mervin Kelly, Microprocessor, Microwave transmission, Middletown Township, New Jersey, Mike Lesk, Modem, Modification of Final Judgment, Molecular beam epitaxy, MOSFET, Movietone sound system, Murray Hill, New Jersey, Music Mouse, MUSIC-N, Nanometre, Naperville, Illinois, Narendra Karmarkar, National Academy of Engineering, National Academy of Sciences, National Historic Landmark, National Medal of Technology and Innovation, National Semiconductor, Neptune Township, New Jersey, Network planning and design, New Jersey, New Jersey Institute of Technology, New York City, No. 4 Electronic Switching System, Nobel Foundation, Nobel Prize, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Nobel Prize in Physics, Nokia, North Andover, Massachusetts, Norton's theorem, Number Five Crossbar Switching System, Number One Electronic Switching System, Oliver Ellsworth Buckley, One-time pad, Operating system, Optical character recognition, Optical fiber, Optical fiber cable, Optical IP Switching, Organic electronics, Organic field-effect transistor, Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing, Osamu Fujimura (scientist), Oxford University Press, Patent, Persi Diaconis, Personal computer, Peter J. Weinberger, Peter Shor, Philadelphia, Philadelphia Orchestra, Philip Warren Anderson, Phonetics, Phonofilm, Photoactivated localization microscopy, Phyllis Fox, Physicist, Piscataway, New Jersey, Plan 9 from Bell Labs, Point-contact transistor, Princeton, New Jersey, PWB shell, PWB/UNIX, Quantum cascade laser, Quantum fluid, Quantum mechanics, Radio, Radio astronomy, Radiodrum, Ralph Hartley, Randomization, Randomness, Reading, Pennsylvania, Red Bank, New Jersey, Repeaters, Research, Richard Hamming, Robert B. Laughlin, Robert C. Prim, Robert Fourer, Robert Tarjan, Robert Woodrow Wilson, Rockwell International, Russell Ohl, S (programming language), S.A. (corporation), Schön scandal, Shortwave bands, Shuffling, SIGSALY, Six Sigma, Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Software, Software patent, Solar cell, Solid-state electronics, Sound film, Speech synthesis, Stanford University, Statistical process control, Stefan Hell, Stereophonic sound, Steven Chu, Stockholm, Stuart Feldman, Subsidiary, TAT-1, TAT-8, Technical University of Munich, Telcordia Technologies, Telecommunication, Telephone, Telephone exchange, Television, Telstar, Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy, The C Programming Language, The Idea Factory: Bell Labs and the Great Age of American Innovation, The Information: A History, a Theory, a Flood, The New York Times, The Turing Guide, Thesis, Time-division multiple access, Transatlantic communications cable, Transistor, Transistor–transistor logic, Trevor Hastie, Turing Award, TWX (magazine), United States, United States Secretary of Commerce, Universal Turing machine, Universe, Unix, Very-large-scale integration, Vintage Books, Vocoder, Volta Laboratory and Bureau, Volta Prize, W. Edwards Deming, Walter A. Shewhart, Walter Houser Brattain, Warren P. Mason, Washington, D.C., Wavelength, Wavelet, Westbeth Artists Community, Western Electric, Westminster, Colorado, Whippany, New Jersey, Willard Boyle, William B. Snow, William Daniel Phillips, William E. Moerner, William Gardner Pfann, William O. Baker, William R. Bennett Jr., William Shockley, Wire spring relay, Wired (magazine), Wollensak, World War II, Worse is better, Yann LeCun, Zhenan Bao, Zone melting, 32-bit, 5ESS Switching System. Expand index (340 more) »

A Mathematical Theory of Communication

"A Mathematical Theory of Communication" is an article by mathematician Claude E. Shannon published in Bell System Technical Journal in 1948.

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A. Michael Noll


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Aaron Marcus

Aaron Marcus (born 22 May 1943) is an American user-interface and information-visualization designer, as well as a computer graphics artist.

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Alan Turing

Alan Mathison Turing (23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was an English computer scientist, mathematician, logician, cryptanalyst, philosopher, and theoretical biologist.

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Alan Turing: The Enigma

Alan Turing: The Enigma (1983) is a biography of the British mathematician, codebreaker, and early computer scientist, Alan Turing (1912–1954) by Andrew Hodges.

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Alcatel-Lucent S.A. was a French global telecommunications equipment company, headquartered in Boulogne-Billancourt, France.

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Alexander Graham Bell

Alexander Graham Bell (March 3, 1847 – August 2, 1922) was a Scottish-born scientist, inventor, engineer, and innovator who is credited with inventing and patenting the first practical telephone.

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Alexander Melville Bell

Alexander Melville Bell (1 March 18197 August 1905) was a teacher and researcher of physiological phonetics and was the author of numerous works on orthoepy and elocution.

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Alfred Aho

Alfred Vaino Aho (born August 9, 1941) is a Canadian computer scientist best known for his work on programming languages, compilers, and related algorithms, and his textbooks on the art and science of computer programming.

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Alfred Y. Cho

Alfred Yi Cho (born July 10, 1937) is the Adjunct Vice President of Semiconductor Research at Alcatel-Lucent's Bell Labs.

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In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is an unambiguous specification of how to solve a class of problems.

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Algorithmic composition

Algorithmic composition is the technique of using algorithms to create music.

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Ali Javan

Ali Javan (Ali Javān; December 26, 1926 – September 12, 2016) was an Iranian-American physicist and inventor.

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Allentown, Pennsylvania

Allentown (Pennsylvania Dutch: Allenschteddel) is a city located in Lehigh County, Pennsylvania, United States.

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American Academy of Arts and Sciences

The American Academy of Arts and Sciences is one of the oldest learned societies in the United States of America.

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A Mathematical Programming Language (AMPL) is an algebraic modeling language to describe and solve high-complexity problems for large-scale mathematical computing (i.e., large-scale optimization and scheduling-type problems).

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Apple Inc.

Apple Inc. is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, California, that designs, develops, and sells consumer electronics, computer software, and online services.

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Arno Allan Penzias

Arno Allan Penzias (born 26 April 1933) is an American physicist, radio astronomer and Nobel laureate in physics who is co-discoverer of the cosmic microwave background radiation along with Robert Woodrow Wilson, which helped establish the Big Bang theory of cosmology.

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Arthur Leonard Schawlow

Arthur Leonard Schawlow (May 5, 1921 – April 28, 1999) was an American physicist and co-inventor of the laser with Charles Townes.

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Arun Netravali

Arun N. Netravali (born 26 May 1946 in Mumbai, India) is an Indian-American computer engineer credited with major contributions in digital technology including HDTV.

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AT&T Inc. is an American multinational conglomerate holding company headquartered at Whitacre Tower in Downtown Dallas, Texas.

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AT&T Corporation

AT&T Corp., originally the American Telephone and Telegraph Company, is the subsidiary of AT&T that provides voice, video, data, and Internet telecommunications and professional services to businesses, consumers, and government agencies.

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AT&T Labs

AT&T Labs is the research & development division of AT&T.

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AT&T Technologies

AT&T Technologies, Inc., was created in 1983 in preparation for the Bell System Divestiture, which became effective as of January 1, 1984.

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Audio Engineering Society

Established in 1948, the Audio Engineering Society (AES) draws its membership from engineers, scientists, other individuals with an interest or involvement in the professional audio industry.

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AWK is a programming language designed for text processing and typically used as a data extraction and reporting tool.

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B (programming language)

B is a programming language developed at Bell Labs circa 1969.

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Bayer AG is a German multinational, pharmaceutical and life sciences company.

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BEFLIX is the name of the first embedded domain-specific language for computer animation, invented by Ken Knowlton at Bell Labs in 1963.

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Bell Laboratories Building (Manhattan)

463 West Street is a 13-building complex located on the block between West Street, Washington Street, Bank Street, and Bethune Street in Manhattan, New York.

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Bell Labs Holmdel Complex

The Bell Labs Holmdel Complex, in Holmdel Township, New Jersey, United States, functioned for forty-four years as a research and development facility, initially for the Bell System and later Bell Labs.

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Bell Labs Technical Journal

The Bell Labs Technical Journal is the in-house scientific journal for scientists of Nokia Bell Labs.

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Bell System

The Bell System was the system of companies, led by the Bell Telephone Company and later by AT&T, which provided telephone services to much of the United States and Canada from 1877 to 1984, at various times as a monopoly.

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Bell System Technical Journal

The Bell System Technical Journal was a periodical publication by the American Telephone and Telegraph Company (AT&T) in New York devoted to the scientific and engineering aspects of electrical communication.

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Bell Telephone Company

The Bell Telephone Company, a common law joint stock company, was organized in Boston, Massachusetts on July 9, 1877, by Alexander Graham Bell's father-in-law Gardiner Greene Hubbard, who also helped organize a sister company — the New England Telephone and Telegraph Company.

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Bellmac 32

The Bellmac 32 was a microprocessor developed by Bell Labs's processor division in 1980, implemented using CMOS technology and was the first microprocessor that could move 32 bits in one clock cycle.

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Big Bang

The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological model for the universe from the earliest known periods through its subsequent large-scale evolution.

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Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary field that develops methods and software tools for understanding biological data.

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Bishnu S. Atal

Bishnu S. Atal (born 1933) is a noted researcher in linear predictive coding.

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Bjarne Stroustrup

Bjarne Stroustrup (born 30 December 1950) is a Danish computer scientist, who is most notable for the creation and development of the widely used C++ programming language.

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Boolean algebra

In mathematics and mathematical logic, Boolean algebra is the branch of algebra in which the values of the variables are the truth values true and false, usually denoted 1 and 0 respectively.

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Breinigsville, Pennsylvania

Breinigsville is a census-designated place located in Lehigh County, Pennsylvania, in the United States.

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Brian Kernighan

Brian Wilson Kernighan (born January 1, 1942) is a Canadian computer scientist who worked at Bell Labs alongside Unix creators Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie and contributed to the development of Unix.

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C (programming language)

C (as in the letter ''c'') is a general-purpose, imperative computer programming language, supporting structured programming, lexical variable scope and recursion, while a static type system prevents many unintended operations.

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C++ ("see plus plus") is a general-purpose programming language.

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C. Kumar N. Patel

Chandra Kumar Naranbhai Patel (born 2 July 1938) is an electrical engineer.

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Carbon dioxide laser

The carbon dioxide laser (CO2 laser) was one of the earliest gas lasers to be developed.

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Charge-coupled device

A charge-coupled device (CCD) is a device for the movement of electrical charge, usually from within the device to an area where the charge can be manipulated, for example conversion into a digital value.

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Charles H. Townes

Charles Hard Townes (July 28, 1915 – January 27, 2015) was an American physicist and inventor of the maser and laser.

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Charles K. Kao

Sir Charles Kuen Kao, as a member of National Academy of Engineering in Electronics, Communication & Information Systems Engineering for pioneering and sustained accomplishments towards the theoretical and practical realization of optical fiber communication systems.

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Charles Sumner Tainter

Charles Sumner Tainter (April 25, 1854 – April 20, 1940) was an American scientific instrument maker, engineer and inventor, best known for his collaborations with Alexander Graham Bell, Chichester Bell, Alexander's father-in-law Gardiner Hubbard, and for his significant improvements to Thomas Edison's phonograph, resulting in the Graphophone, one version of which was the first Dictaphone.

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Chester Township, New Jersey

Chester Township is a township in Morris County, New Jersey, United States.

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Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the third most populous city in the United States, after New York City and Los Angeles.

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Chichester Bell

Chichester Alexander Bell (1848–1924) was a chemist, first cousin of Alexander Graham Bell, and instrumental in developing improved versions of the phonograph.

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In cryptography, a cipher (or cypher) is an algorithm for performing encryption or decryption—a series of well-defined steps that can be followed as a procedure.

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Claire F. Gmachl

Claire F. Gmachl is the Eugene Higgins Professor of Electrical Engineering at Princeton University.

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Claude Cohen-Tannoudji

Claude Cohen-Tannoudji (born 1 April 1933) is a French physicist.

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Claude Shannon

Claude Elwood Shannon (April 30, 1916 – February 24, 2001) was an American mathematician, electrical engineer, and cryptographer known as "the father of information theory".

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Clinton Davisson

Clinton Joseph Davisson (October 22, 1881 – February 1, 1958), was an American physicist who won the 1937 Nobel Prize in Physics for his discovery of electron diffraction in the famous Davisson-Germer experiment.

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Code-division multiple access

Code-division multiple access (CDMA) is a channel access method used by various radio communication technologies.

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Code-excited linear prediction

Code-excited linear prediction (CELP) is a speech coding algorithm originally proposed by M. R. Schroeder and B. S. Atal in 1985.

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Coding theory

Coding theory is the study of the properties of codes and their respective fitness for specific applications.

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Cohen–Daubechies–Feauveau wavelet

Cohen–Daubechies–Feauveau wavelet are the historically first family of biorthogonal wavelets, which was made popular by Ingrid Daubechies.

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Coin flipping

Coin flipping, coin tossing, or heads or tails is the practice of throwing a coin in the air and checking which side is showing when it lands to choose between two alternatives, sometimes to resolve a dispute between two parties.

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Columbus, Ohio

Columbus is the state capital and the most populous city in Ohio.

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Communication Theory of Secrecy Systems

"Communication Theory of Secrecy Systems" is a paper published in 1949 by Claude Shannon discussing cryptography from the viewpoint of information theory.

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Communications satellite

A communications satellite is an artificial satellite that relays and amplifies radio telecommunications signals via a transponder; it creates a communication channel between a source transmitter and a receiver at different locations on Earth.

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A compiler is computer software that transforms computer code written in one programming language (the source language) into another programming language (the target language).

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Complex number

A complex number is a number that can be expressed in the form, where and are real numbers, and is a solution of the equation.

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A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming.

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Computer vision

Computer vision is a field that deals with how computers can be made for gaining high-level understanding from digital images or videos.

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Concurrent computing

Concurrent computing is a form of computing in which several computations are executed during overlapping time periods—concurrently—instead of sequentially (one completing before the next starts).

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Control chart

Control charts, also known as Shewhart charts (after Walter A. Shewhart) or process-behavior charts, are a statistical process control tool used to determine if a manufacturing or business process is in a state of control.

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Convolutional neural network

In machine learning, a convolutional neural network (CNN, or ConvNet) is a class of deep, feed-forward artificial neural networks, most commonly applied to analyzing visual imagery.

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Corinna Cortes

Corinna Cortes is a Danish computer scientist known for her contributions to machine learning.

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Cornell University

Cornell University is a private and statutory Ivy League research university located in Ithaca, New York.

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Cosmic microwave background

The cosmic microwave background (CMB, CMBR) is electromagnetic radiation as a remnant from an early stage of the universe in Big Bang cosmology.

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Crawford Hill

Crawford Hill is located in Holmdel Township, New Jersey, United States.

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Cryptanalysis (from the Greek kryptós, "hidden", and analýein, "to loosen" or "to untie") is the study of analyzing information systems in order to study the hidden aspects of the systems.

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Daniel C. Tsui

Daniel Chee Tsui (born February 28, 1939) is a Chinese-born American physicist whose areas of research included electrical properties of thin films and microstructures of semiconductors and solid-state physics.

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Dark matter

Dark matter is a theorized form of matter that is thought to account for approximately 80% of the matter in the universe, and about a quarter of its total energy density.

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Data mining

Data mining is the process of discovering patterns in large data sets involving methods at the intersection of machine learning, statistics, and database systems.

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Data structure

In computer science, a data structure is a data organization and storage format that enables efficient access and modification.

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Daubechies wavelet

The Daubechies wavelets, based on the work of Ingrid Daubechies, are a family of orthogonal wavelets defining a discrete wavelet transform and characterized by a maximal number of vanishing moments for some given support.

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David A. B. Miller

David Andrew Barclay Miller is the W. M. Keck Foundation Professor of Electrical Engineering at Stanford University, where he is also a Professor of Applied Physics by courtesy.

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Dawon Kahng

Dawon Kahng (May 4, 1931 – May 13, 1992) was a Korean-American electrical engineer known for his work at Solid-State Electronics.

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Deal Test Site

The Deal Test Site (now Joe Palaia Park) is located in Ocean Township, New Jersey.

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Dennis Ritchie

Dennis MacAlistair Ritchie (September 9, 1941 – October 12, 2011) was an American computer scientist.

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--> Diffraction refers to various phenomena that occur when a wave encounters an obstacle or a slit.

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Digital cinema

Digital cinema refers to the use of digital technology to distribute or project motion pictures as opposed to the historical use of reels of motion picture film, such as 35 mm film.

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Digital electronics

Digital electronics or digital (electronic) circuits are electronics that operate on digital signals.

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Digital photography

Digital photography is a form of photography that uses cameras containing arrays of electronic photodetectors to capture images focused by a lens, as opposed to an exposure on photographic film.

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Direct distance dialing

Direct distance dialing (DDD) is a telecommunication service feature in which a caller may, without operator assistance, call any other user outside the local calling area.

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Distributed element circuit

Distributed element circuits are electrical circuits composed of lengths of transmission lines or other distributed components.

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DNA machine

A DNA machine is a molecular machine constructed from DNA.

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Donald Cox

Donald C. Cox (born 1937) is an electrical engineer researching wireless communication, currently a professor at University of Nebraska Lincoln, where he heads the Wireless Communications Research Group.

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Dye laser

A dye laser is a laser which uses an organic dye as the lasing medium, usually as a liquid solution.

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DYNAMO (programming language)

DYNAMO (DYNAmic MOdels) was a simulation language and accompanying graphical notation developed within the system dynamics analytical framework.

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Edward Lawry Norton

Edward Lawry Norton (28 July 1898, Rockland, Maine – 28 January 1983, Chatham, New Jersey) was an accomplished Bell Labs engineer and scientist famous for Norton's theorem.

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Eero Saarinen

Eero Saarinen (August 20, 1910 – September 1, 1961) was a Finnish American architect and industrial designer noted for his neo-futuristic style.

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Electret microphone

An electret microphone is a type of electrostatic capacitor-based microphone, which eliminates the need for a polarizing power supply by using a permanently charged material.

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The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.

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Electron diffraction

Electron diffraction refers to the wave nature of electrons.

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Electronic music

Electronic music is music that employs electronic musical instruments, digital instruments and circuitry-based music technology.

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Elizabeth Bailey

Elizabeth Ellery Bailey (born 1938) is an American economist.

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Enumerator polynomial

In coding theory, the weight enumerator polynomial of a binary linear code specifies the number of words of each possible Hamming weight.

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Eric Betzig

Robert Eric Betzig (born January 13, 1960) is an American physicist based at the Janelia Farm Research Campus in Ashburn, Virginia.

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Eric Schmidt

Eric Emerson Schmidt (born April 27, 1955) is an American businessman and software engineer.

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Erna Schneider Hoover


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Error correction code

In computing, telecommunication, information theory, and coding theory, an error correction code, sometimes error correcting code, (ECC) is used for controlling errors in data over unreliable or noisy communication channels.

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Error detection and correction

In information theory and coding theory with applications in computer science and telecommunication, error detection and correction or error control are techniques that enable reliable delivery of digital data over unreliable communication channels.

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Esther M. Conwell

Esther Marley Conwell (May 23, 1922 – November 16, 2014) was a pioneering American chemist and physicist who studied properties of semiconductors and organic conductors, especially electron transport.

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Evelyn Hu

Evelyn L. Hu is Gordon McKay Professor of Applied Physics and Electrical Engineering at Harvard University.

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Executive director

An executive director is a chief executive officer (CEO) or managing director of an organization, company, or corporation.

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Experiments in Art and Technology

Experiments in Art and Technology (E.A.T.) was a non-profit and tax-exempt organization established to develop collaborations between artists and engineers.

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Fairchild Semiconductor

Fairchild Semiconductor International, Inc. was an American semiconductor company based in San Jose, California.

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Federal government of the United States

The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government) is the national government of the United States, a constitutional republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D.C. (the nation's capital), and several territories.

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Federico Capasso

Federico Capasso (born 1949, Rome, Italy), a prominent applied physicist, was one of the inventors of the quantum cascade laser during his work at Bell Laboratories.

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A fellow is a member of a group (or fellowship) that work together in pursuing mutual knowledge or practice.

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Fluorescence microscope

A fluorescence microscope is an optical microscope that uses fluorescence and phosphorescence instead of, or in addition to, reflection and absorption to study properties of organic or inorganic substances.

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Fortran (formerly FORTRAN, derived from Formula Translation) is a general-purpose, compiled imperative programming language that is especially suited to numeric computation and scientific computing.

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Fractional quantum Hall effect

The fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE) is a physical phenomenon in which the Hall conductance of 2D electrons shows precisely quantised plateaus at fractional values of e^2/h.

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France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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Frank B. Jewett

Frank Baldwin Jewett (5 September 1879 – 18 November 1949) worked as an engineer for American Telegraph and Telephone where his work demonstrated transatlantic radio telephony using a vacuum-tube transmitter.

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Freehold Borough, New Jersey

Freehold is a borough in Monmouth County, New Jersey, United States.

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French franc

The franc (sign: F or Fr), also commonly distinguished as the (FF), was a currency of France.

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A galaxy is a gravitationally bound system of stars, stellar remnants, interstellar gas, dust, and dark matter.

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Gas laser

A gas laser is a laser in which an electric current is discharged through a gas to produce coherent light.

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George D. Edwards

George DeForest Edwards (1890 – 1974) was a 20th-century quality control expert most notable for having served as the first president of American Society for Quality Control.

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George E. Smith

George Elwood Smith (born May 10, 1930) is an American scientist, applied physicist, and co-inventor of the charge-coupled device (CCD).

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George Paget Thomson

Sir George Paget Thomson, FRS (3 May 1892 – 10 September 1975) was an English physicist and Nobel laureate in physics recognised for his discovery of the wave properties of the electron by electron diffraction.

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George Stibitz

George Robert Stibitz (April 30, 1904 – January 31, 1995) was a Bell Labs researcher internationally recognized as one of the fathers of the modern first digital computer.

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Georgia (U.S. state)

Georgia is a state in the Southeastern United States.

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Gerhard M. Sessler

Gerhard M. Sessler (born 15 February 1931 in Rosenfeld, Baden-Württemberg, Germany) is a German inventor and scientist.

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Gil Amelio

Gilbert Frank Amelio (born March 1, 1943) is an American technology executive.

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Gilbert Vernam

Gilbert Sandford Vernam (3 April 1890 – 7 February 1960) was a Worcester Polytechnic Institute 1914 graduate and AT&T Bell Labs engineer who, in 1917, invented an additive polyalphabetic stream cipher and later co-invented an automated one-time pad cipher.

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Go (programming language)

Go (often referred to as Golang) is a programming language created at Google in 2009 by Robert Griesemer, Rob Pike, and Ken Thompson.

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Google LLC is an American multinational technology company that specializes in Internet-related services and products, which include online advertising technologies, search engine, cloud computing, software, and hardware.

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Greedy algorithm

A greedy algorithm is an algorithmic paradigm that follows the problem solving heuristic of making the locally optimal choice at each stage with the intent of finding a global optimum.

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Hamming code

In telecommunication, Hamming codes are a family of linear error-correcting codes.

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Harold F. Dodge

Harold French Dodge (January 23, 1893 in Lowell, Massachusetts – December 10, 1976) was one of the principal architects of the science of statistical quality control.

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Harry Nyquist

Harry Nyquist (born Harry Theodor Nyqvist,; February 7, 1889 – April 4, 1976) was a Swedish-born American electronic engineer who made important contributions to communication theory.

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Harvey Fletcher

Harvey Fletcher (September 11, 1884 – July 23, 1981) was an American physicist.

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Herbert E. Ives

Herbert Eugene Ives (July 21, 1882 – November 13, 1953) was a scientist and engineer who headed the development of facsimile and television systems at AT&T in the first half of the twentieth century.

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Herbert Hoover

Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964) was an American engineer, businessman and politician who served as the 31st President of the United States from 1929 to 1933 during the Great Depression.

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High-speed photography

High-speed photography is the science of taking pictures of very fast phenomena.

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History of cryptography

Cryptography, the use of codes and ciphers to protect secrets, began thousands of years ago.

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History of mobile phones

The history of mobile phones covers mobile communication devices that connect wirelessly to the public switched telephone network.

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Holmdel Township, New Jersey

Holmdel Township is a township in Monmouth County, New Jersey, United States.

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Homer Dudley

Homer W. Dudley (14 November 1896– 18 September 1980) was a pioneering electronic and acoustic engineer who created the first electronic voice synthesizer for Bell Labs in the 1930s and led the development of a method of sending secure voice transmissions during World War Two.

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Horst Ludwig Störmer

Horst Ludwig Störmer (born April 6, 1949) is a German-born American physicist, Nobel laureate and emeritus professor at Columbia University.

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Ian Munro Ross

Ian Munro Ross FREng (15 August 1927 – 10 March 2013) was an early pioneer in transistors, and for 12 years President of Bell Labs.

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IBM 650

The IBM 650 Magnetic Drum Data-Processing Machine is one of IBM's early computers, and the world’s first mass-produced computer.

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IEEE Alexander Graham Bell Medal

The IEEE Alexander Graham Bell Medal is an award honoring "exceptional contributions to the advancement of communications sciences and engineering" in the field of telecommunications.

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Illinois is a state in the Midwestern region of the United States.

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Image compression

Image compression is a type of data compression applied to digital images, to reduce their cost for storage or transmission.

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Indianapolis is the capital and most populous city of the U.S. state of Indiana and the seat of Marion County.

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Inferno (operating system)

Inferno is a distributed operating system started at Bell Labs and now developed and maintained by Vita Nuova Holdings as free software.

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Information and communications technology

Information and communication technology (ICT) is another/extensional term for information technology (IT) which stresses the role of unified communications and the integration of telecommunications (telephone lines and wireless signals), computers as well as necessary enterprise software, middleware, storage, and audio-visual systems, which enable users to access, store, transmit, and manipulate information.

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Information technology

Information technology (IT) is the use of computers to store, retrieve, transmit, and manipulate data, or information, often in the context of a business or other enterprise.

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Information theory

Information theory studies the quantification, storage, and communication of information.

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Ingrid Daubechies

Ingrid Daubechies (born 17 August 1954) is a Belgian physicist and mathematician.

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Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is a professional association with its corporate office in New York City and its operations center in Piscataway, New Jersey.

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Integrated circuit

An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon.

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Invention of the telephone

The invention of the telephone was the culmination of work done by many individuals, and involved an array of lawsuits founded upon the patent claims of several individuals and numerous companies.

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James Edward Maceo West

James Edward Maceo West (born February 10, 1931 in Farmville, Prince Edward County, Virginia) is an African American inventor and acoustician.

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James Gleick

James Gleick (born August 1, 1954) is an American author and historian of science whose work has chronicled the cultural impact of modern technology.

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Jeong H. Kim

Jeong Hun Kim (김종훈; born August 13, 1960) is a South Korean-born U.S. technology entrepreneur, businessman, and philanthropist.

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Jessie MacWilliams

Florence Jessie MacWilliams (4 January 1917 – 27 May 1990) was an English mathematician who contributed to the field of coding theory.

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John Bardeen

John Bardeen (May 23, 1908 – January 30, 1991) was an American physicist and electrical engineer.

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John Bertrand Johnson

John Bertrand "Bert" Johnson (October 2, 1887 – November 27, 1970) (né Johan Erik Bertrand) was a Swedish-born American electrical engineer and physicist.

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John Chambers (statistician)

John McKinley Chambers is the creator of the S programming language, and core member of the R programming language project.

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John Hopcroft

John Edward Hopcroft (born October 7, 1939) is an American theoretical computer scientist.

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John Mashey

John R. Mashey (born 1946) is a US computer scientist, director and entrepreneur.

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John R. Pierce

John Robinson Pierce (March 27, 1910 – April 2, 2002), was an American engineer and author.

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John S. Mayo

John Sullivan Mayo (born February 26, 1930) is an American engineer, AT&T executive and seventh president of Bell Labs, known from contributions to the computer and telecommunications industry.

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Johnson–Nyquist noise

Johnson–Nyquist noise (thermal noise, Johnson noise, or Nyquist noise) is the electronic noise generated by the thermal agitation of the charge carriers (usually the electrons) inside an electrical conductor at equilibrium, which happens regardless of any applied voltage.

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Jon Hall (programmer)

Jon "maddog" Hall (born 7 August 1950) is the Board Chair for the Linux Professional Institute, and CEO of OptDyn, makers of Subutai P2P Cloud Platform.

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Joseph Kruskal

Joseph Bernard Kruskal, Jr. (January 29, 1928 – September 19, 2010) was an American mathematician, statistician, computer scientist and psychometrician.

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Joseph Mauborgne

Joseph Oswald Mauborgne (February 26, 1881 – June 7, 1971) co-invented the one-time pad with Gilbert Vernam of Bell Labs.

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Karl Guthe Jansky

Karl Guthe Jansky (October 22, 1905 – February 14, 1950) was an American physicist and radio engineer who in August 1931 first discovered radio waves emanating from the Milky Way.

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Karmarkar's algorithm

Karmarkar's algorithm is an algorithm introduced by Narendra Karmarkar in 1984 for solving linear programming problems.

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Karnaugh map

The Karnaugh map (KM or K-map) is a method of simplifying Boolean algebra expressions.

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Ken Thompson

Kenneth Lane "Ken" Thompson (born February 4, 1943), commonly referred to as ken in hacker circles, is an American pioneer of computer science.

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Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory

Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) is an American research and development facility based in Niskayuna, New York and dedicated to the support of the US Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program.

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KQED-FM (88.5 FM) is an NPR-member radio station owned by Northern California Public Broadcasting in San Francisco, California.

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A laboratory (informally, lab) is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific or technological research, experiments, and measurement may be performed.

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A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.

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Laser cooling

Laser cooling refers to a number of techniques in which atomic and molecular samples are cooled down to near absolute zero.

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Laurie Spiegel

Laurie Spiegel (born September 20, 1945 in Chicago) is an American composer.

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Leopold Stokowski

Leopold Anthony Stokowski (18 April 188213 September 1977) was an English conductor of Polish and Irish descent.

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Lester Germer

Lester Halbert Germer (October 10, 1896 – October 3, 1971) was an American physicist.

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Lex (software)

Lex is a computer program that generates lexical analyzers ("scanners" or "lexers").

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Lexical analysis

In computer science, lexical analysis, lexing or tokenization is the process of converting a sequence of characters (such as in a computer program or web page) into a sequence of tokens (strings with an assigned and thus identified meaning).

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Limbo (programming language)

Limbo is a programming language for writing distributed systems and is the language used to write applications for the Inferno operating system.

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Lincroft, New Jersey

Lincroft is an unincorporated community and census-designated place (CDP) within Middletown Township, in Monmouth County, New Jersey, United States.

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Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.

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Linux International

Linux International (LI), is an international, non-profit association of users that work towards the international understanding and use of Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) It is headed by Jon "maddog" Hall.

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Lisle, Illinois

Lisle is a village in DuPage County, Illinois, United States.

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Lisp (programming language)

Lisp (historically, LISP) is a family of computer programming languages with a long history and a distinctive, fully parenthesized prefix notation.

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Lithography is a method of printing originally based on the immiscibility of oil and water.

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Local exchange carrier

Local exchange carrier (LEC) is a regulatory term in telecommunications for the local telephone company. In the United States, wireline telephone companies are divided into two large categories: long distance (interexchange carrier, or IXCs) and local (local exchange carrier, or LECs).

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London Mathematical Society

The London Mathematical Society (LMS) is one of the United Kingdom's learned societies for mathematics (the others being the Royal Statistical Society (RSS) and the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications (IMA)).

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Long Branch, New Jersey

Long Branch is a beachside city in Monmouth County, New Jersey, United States.

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Lucent Technologies, Inc., was an American multinational telecommunications equipment company headquartered in Murray Hill, New Jersey, in the United States.

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Machine learning

Machine learning is a subset of artificial intelligence in the field of computer science that often uses statistical techniques to give computers the ability to "learn" (i.e., progressively improve performance on a specific task) with data, without being explicitly programmed.

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Make (software)

In software development, Make is a build automation tool that automatically builds executable programs and libraries from source code by reading files called Makefiles which specify how to derive the target program.

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Marcus Weldon

Marcus Weldon (born 25 July 1968) is the 13th President of Bell Labs.

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Margaret H. Wright

Margaret H. Wright (born February 18, 1944) is an American computer scientist and mathematician.

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Martin Atalla

Martin "John" M. Atalla (4 August 1924 – 30 December 2009) was an engineer and entrepreneur in the field of semiconductor technology and computer data security.

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Mary N. Torrey

Mary Newton Torrey (born February 2, 1910) was a mathematical statistician and quality control specialist for Bell Laboratories.

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Massachusetts Institute of Technology

The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.

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Master's degree

A master's degree (from Latin magister) is an academic degree awarded by universities or colleges upon completion of a course of study demonstrating mastery or a high-order overview of a specific field of study or area of professional practice.

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Materials science

The interdisciplinary field of materials science, also commonly termed materials science and engineering is the design and discovery of new materials, particularly solids.

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Mathematical optimization

In mathematics, computer science and operations research, mathematical optimization or mathematical programming, alternatively spelled optimisation, is the selection of a best element (with regard to some criterion) from some set of available alternatives.

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Matter wave

Matter waves are a central part of the theory of quantum mechanics, being an example of wave–particle duality.

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Maurice Karnaugh

Maurice Karnaugh (born October 4, 1924) is an American physicist and mathematician known for the Karnaugh map used in Boolean algebra.

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Max Mathews

Max Vernon Mathews (born November 13, 1926 in Columbus, Nebraska, USA – April 21, 2011 in San Francisco, CA, USA) was a pioneer of computer music.

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Mervin Kelly

Mervin Joe Kelly (February 14, 1895 Princeton, Missouri – March 18, 1971) was an American physicist, and director of Bell Labs from 1951-1959.

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A microprocessor is a computer processor that incorporates the functions of a central processing unit on a single integrated circuit (IC), or at most a few integrated circuits.

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Microwave transmission

Microwave transmission is the transmission of information or energy by microwave radio waves.

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Middletown Township, New Jersey

Middletown Township is a township in Monmouth County, New Jersey, United States.

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Mike Lesk

Michael E. (Mike) Lesk (born 1945) is an American computer scientist.

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A modem (modulator–demodulator) is a network hardware device that modulates one or more carrier wave signals to encode digital information for transmission and demodulates signals to decode the transmitted information.

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Modification of Final Judgment

In United States telecommunication law, the Modification of Final Judgment (MFJ) is the August 1982 agreement approved by the court (consent decree) settling United States v. AT&T, a landmark antitrust suit, originally filed on January 14, 1949 and modifying the previous Final Judgment of January 24, 1956.

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Molecular beam epitaxy

Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) is an epitaxy method for thin-film deposition of single crystals.

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MOSFET showing gate (G), body (B), source (S) and drain (D) terminals. The gate is separated from the body by an insulating layer (white). surface-mount packages. Operating as switches, each of these components can sustain a blocking voltage of 120nbspvolts in the ''off'' state, and can conduct a continuous current of 30 amperes in the ''on'' state, dissipating up to about 100 watts and controlling a load of over 2000 watts. A matchstick is pictured for scale. A cross-section through an nMOSFET when the gate voltage ''V''GS is below the threshold for making a conductive channel; there is little or no conduction between the terminals drain and source; the switch is off. When the gate is more positive, it attracts electrons, inducing an ''n''-type conductive channel in the substrate below the oxide, which allows electrons to flow between the ''n''-doped terminals; the switch is on. Simulation result for formation of inversion channel (electron density) and attainment of threshold voltage (IV) in a nanowire MOSFET. Note that the threshold voltage for this device lies around 0.45 V The metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET, MOS-FET, or MOS FET) is a type of field-effect transistor (FET), most commonly fabricated by the controlled oxidation of silicon.

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Movietone sound system

The Movietone sound system is an optical sound-on-film method of recording sound for motion pictures that guarantees synchronization between sound and picture.

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Murray Hill, New Jersey

Murray Hill is an unincorporated community located within portions of both Berkeley Heights and New Providence, located in Union County in northern New Jersey, United States.

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Music Mouse

Music Mouse is an algorithmic musical composition software developed by Laurie Spiegel.

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MUSIC-N refers to a family of computer music programs and programming languages descended from or influenced by MUSIC, a program written by Max Mathews in 1957 at Bell Labs.

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The nanometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth (short scale) of a metre (m).

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Naperville, Illinois

Naperville is a city in DuPage and Will counties in the U.S. state of Illinois, and a suburb of Chicago.

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Narendra Karmarkar

Narendra Krishna Karmarkar (born 1957) is an Indian mathematician, who developed Karmarkar's algorithm.

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National Academy of Engineering

The National Academy of Engineering (NAE) is an American nonprofit, non-governmental organization.

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National Academy of Sciences

The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a United States nonprofit, non-governmental organization.

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National Historic Landmark

A National Historic Landmark (NHL) is a building, district, object, site, or structure that is officially recognized by the United States government for its outstanding historical significance.

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National Medal of Technology and Innovation

The National Medal of Technology and Innovation (formerly the National Medal of Technology) is an honor granted by the President of the United States to American inventors and innovators who have made significant contributions to the development of new and important technology.

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National Semiconductor

National Semiconductor was an American semiconductor manufacturer which specialized in analog devices and subsystems, formerly with headquarters in Santa Clara, California, United States.

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Neptune Township, New Jersey

Neptune Township is a township in Monmouth County, New Jersey, in the United States.

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Network planning and design

Network planning and design is an iterative process, encompassing topological design, network-synthesis, and network-realization, and is aimed at ensuring that a new telecommunications network or service meets the needs of the subscriber and operator.

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New Jersey

New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the Northeastern United States.

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New Jersey Institute of Technology

The New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT) is a public research university in the University Heights neighborhood of Newark, New Jersey.

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New York City

The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.

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No. 4 Electronic Switching System

The No.

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Nobel Foundation

The Nobel Foundation (Nobelstiftelsen) is a private institution founded on 29 June 1900 to manage the finances and administration of the Nobel Prizes.

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Nobel Prize

The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.

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Nobel Prize in Chemistry

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry (Nobelpriset i kemi) is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry.

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Nobel Prize in Physics

The Nobel Prize in Physics (Nobelpriset i fysik) is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for those who conferred the most outstanding contributions for mankind in the field of physics.

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Nokia is a Finnish multinational telecommunications, information technology, and consumer electronics company, founded in 1865.

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North Andover, Massachusetts

North Andover is a town in Essex County, Massachusetts, United States.

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Norton's theorem

Known in Europe as the Mayer–Norton theorem, Norton's theorem holds, to illustrate in DC circuit theory terms (see that image).

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Number Five Crossbar Switching System

The Number Five Crossbar Switching System (5XB switch) is a telephone switch for telephone exchanges designed by Bell Labs and manufactured by Western Electric starting in 1947.

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Number One Electronic Switching System

The Number One Electronic Switching System (1ESS) was the first large-scale stored program control (SPC) telephone exchange or electronic switching system in the Bell System.

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Oliver Ellsworth Buckley

Oliver Ellsworth Buckley (August 8, 1887 – December 14, 1959) was an American electrical engineer known for his contributions to the field of submarine telephony.

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One-time pad

In cryptography, the one-time pad (OTP) is an encryption technique that cannot be cracked, but requires the use of a one-time pre-shared key the same size as, or longer than, the message being sent.

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Operating system

An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.

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Optical character recognition

Optical character recognition (also optical character reader, OCR) is the mechanical or electronic conversion of images of typed, handwritten or printed text into machine-encoded text, whether from a scanned document, a photo of a document, a scene-photo (for example the text on signs and billboards in a landscape photo) or from subtitle text superimposed on an image (for example from a television broadcast).

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Optical fiber

An optical fiber or optical fibre is a flexible, transparent fiber made by drawing glass (silica) or plastic to a diameter slightly thicker than that of a human hair.

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Optical fiber cable

An optical fiber cable, also known as a fiber optic cable, is an assembly similar to an electrical cable, but containing one or more optical fibers that are used to carry light.

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Optical IP Switching

Optical IP Switching (OIS), is a novel method of creating transparent optical connections between network nodes using a flow-based approach.

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Organic electronics

Organic electronics is a field of materials science concerning the design, synthesis, characterization, and application of organic small molecules or polymers that show desirable electronic properties such as conductivity.

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Organic field-effect transistor

An organic field-effect transistor (OFET) is a field-effect transistor using an organic semiconductor in its channel.

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Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing

In telecommunications, orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) is a method of encoding digital data on multiple carrier frequencies.

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Osamu Fujimura (scientist)

Osamu Fujimura 藤村靖 (Tokyo, August 29, 1927 – Waikoloa Beach, Hawaii, March 13, 2017) was a Japanese physicist, phonetician and linguist, recognized as one of the pioneers of speech science.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a sovereign state or intergovernmental organization to an inventor or assignee for a limited period of time in exchange for detailed public disclosure of an invention.

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Persi Diaconis

Persi Warren Diaconis (born January 31, 1945) is an American mathematician of Greek descent and former professional magician.

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Personal computer

A personal computer (PC) is a multi-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and price make it feasible for individual use.

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Peter J. Weinberger

Peter Jay Weinberger (born August 6, 1942) is a computer scientist best known for his early work at Bell Labs.

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Peter Shor

Peter Williston Shor (born August 14, 1959) is an American professor of applied mathematics at MIT.

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Philadelphia is the largest city in the U.S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and the sixth-most populous U.S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863.

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Philadelphia Orchestra

The Philadelphia Orchestra is an American symphony orchestra, based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

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Philip Warren Anderson

Philip Warren Anderson (born December 13, 1923) is an American physicist and Nobel laureate.

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Phonetics (pronounced) is the branch of linguistics that studies the sounds of human speech, or—in the case of sign languages—the equivalent aspects of sign.

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Phonofilm is an optical sound-on-film system developed by inventors Lee de Forest and Theodore Case in the 1920s.

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Photoactivated localization microscopy

Photo-activated localization microscopy (PALM or FPALM) and stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) are widefield (as opposed to point scanning techniques such as laser scanning confocal microscopy) fluorescence microscopy imaging methods that allow obtaining images with a resolution beyond the diffraction limit.

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Phyllis Fox

Phyllis Ann Fox is an American mathematician and computer scientist.

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A physicist is a scientist who has specialized knowledge in the field of physics, which encompasses the interactions of matter and energy at all length and time scales in the physical universe.

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Piscataway, New Jersey

Piscataway is a township in Middlesex County, New Jersey, United States.

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Plan 9 from Bell Labs

Plan 9 from Bell Labs is a distributed operating system, originating in the Computing Sciences Research Center (CSRC) at Bell Labs in the mid-1980s, and building on UNIX concepts first developed there in the late 1960s; until the Labs' final release at the start of 2015.

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Point-contact transistor

A point-contact transistor was the first type of solid-state electronic transistor ever constructed.

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Princeton, New Jersey

Princeton is a municipality with a borough form of government in Mercer County, New Jersey, United States, that was established in its current form on January 1, 2013, through the consolidation of the Borough of Princeton and Princeton Township.

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PWB shell

The PWB shell (also known as the Mashey shell) is an early discontinued Unix shell.

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The Programmer's Workbench (PWB/UNIX) is an early, now discontinued, version of the Unix operating system created in the Bell Labs Computer Science Research Group of AT&T.

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Quantum cascade laser

Quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) are semiconductor lasers that emit in the mid- to far-infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum and were first demonstrated by Jerome Faist, Federico Capasso, Deborah Sivco, Carlo Sirtori, Albert Hutchinson, and Alfred Cho at Bell Laboratories in 1994.

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Quantum fluid

A quantum fluid refers to any system that exhibits quantum mechanical effects at the macroscopic level such as superfluids, superconductors, ultracold atoms, etc.

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Quantum mechanics

Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.

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Radio is the technology of using radio waves to carry information, such as sound, by systematically modulating properties of electromagnetic energy waves transmitted through space, such as their amplitude, frequency, phase, or pulse width.

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Radio astronomy

Radio astronomy is a subfield of astronomy that studies celestial objects at radio frequencies.

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The Radiodrum or radio-baton is a musical instrument played in three-dimensional space using two mallets (snare drum sticks with wires).

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Ralph Hartley

Ralph Vinton Lyon Hartley (November 30, 1888 – May 1, 1970) was an electronics researcher.

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Randomization is the process of making something random; in various contexts this involves, for example.

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Randomness is the lack of pattern or predictability in events.

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Reading, Pennsylvania

Reading (Pennsylvania German: Reddin) is a city in and the county seat of Berks County, Pennsylvania, United States.

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Red Bank, New Jersey

Red Bank is a borough in Monmouth County, New Jersey, incorporated in 1908 and located on the Navesink River, the area's original transportation route to the ocean and other ports.

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Repeaters is a 2010 Canadian thriller film directed by Carl Bessai, written by Arne Olsen, and starring Dustin Milligan, Amanda Crew, and Richard de Klerk as young drug addicts who find themselves stuck in a time loop.

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Research comprises "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications." It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories.

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Richard Hamming

Richard Wesley Hamming (February 11, 1915 – January 7, 1998) was an American mathematician whose work had many implications for computer engineering and telecommunications.

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Robert B. Laughlin

Robert Betts Laughlin (born November 1, 1950) is the Anne T. and Robert M. Bass Professor of Physics and Applied Physics at Stanford University.

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Robert C. Prim

Robert Clay Prim (born September 25, 1921 in Sweetwater, Texas) is an American mathematician and computer scientist.

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Robert Fourer

Robert Fourer (born September 2, 1950) is a scientist working in the area of operational research and management science.

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Robert Tarjan

Robert Endre Tarjan (born April 30, 1948) is an American computer scientist and mathematician.

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Robert Woodrow Wilson

Robert Woodrow Wilson (born January 10, 1936) is an American astronomer, 1978 Nobel laureate in physics, who with Arno Allan Penzias discovered in 1964 the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB).

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Rockwell International

Rockwell International was a major American manufacturing conglomerate in the latter half of the 20th century, involved in aircraft, the space industry, both defense-oriented and commercial electronics, automotive and truck components, printing presses, valves and meters, and industrial automation.

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Russell Ohl

Russell Shoemaker Ohl (January 30, 1898 – March 20, 1987) was an American engineer who is generally recognized for patenting the modern solar cell (US Patent 2402662, "Light sensitive device").

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S (programming language)

S is a statistical programming language developed primarily by John Chambers and (in earlier versions) Rick Becker and Allan Wilks of Bell Laboratories.

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S.A. (corporation)

S.A. (and variants) designates a type of corporation in countries that mostly employ civil law.

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Schön scandal

The Schön scandal concerns German physicist Jan Hendrik Schön (born August 1970 in Verden an der Aller, Lower Saxony, Germany) who briefly rose to prominence after a series of apparent breakthroughs with semiconductors that were later discovered to be fraudulent.

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Shortwave bands

Shortwave bands are frequency allocations for use within the shortwave radio spectrum (the upper MF band and all of the HF band).

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Shuffling is a procedure used to randomize a deck of playing cards to provide an element of chance in card games.

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In cryptography, SIGSALY (also known as the X System, Project X, Ciphony I, and the Green Hornet) was a secure speech system used in World War II for the highest-level Allied communications.

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Six Sigma

Six Sigma (6σ) is a set of techniques and tools for process improvement.

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Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics

The Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics (SIAM) is an academic association dedicated to the use of mathematics in industry.

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Computer software, or simply software, is a generic term that refers to a collection of data or computer instructions that tell the computer how to work, in contrast to the physical hardware from which the system is built, that actually performs the work.

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Software patent

A software patent is a patent on a piece of software, such as a computer program, libraries, user interface, or algorithm.

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Solar cell

A solar cell, or photovoltaic cell, is an electrical device that converts the energy of light directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect, which is a physical and chemical phenomenon.

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Solid-state electronics

Solid-state electronics means semiconductor electronics; electronic equipment using semiconductor devices such as semiconductor diodes, transistors, and integrated circuits (ICs).

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Sound film

A sound film is a motion picture with synchronized sound, or sound technologically coupled to image, as opposed to a silent film.

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Speech synthesis

Speech synthesis is the artificial production of human speech.

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Stanford University

Stanford University (officially Leland Stanford Junior University, colloquially the Farm) is a private research university in Stanford, California.

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Statistical process control

Statistical process control (SPC) is a method of quality control which employs statistical methods to monitor and control a process.

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Stefan Hell

Stefan Walter Hell HonFRMS (born 23 December 1962) is a Romanian-born German physicist and one of the directors of the Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry in Göttingen, Germany.

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Stereophonic sound

Stereophonic sound or, more commonly, stereo, is a method of sound reproduction that creates an illusion of multi-directional audible perspective.

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Steven Chu

Steven Chu in atomic physics and laser spectroscopy, including the first observation of parity non-conservation in atoms, excitation and precision spectroscopy of positronium, and the optical confinement and cooling of atoms.

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Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous city in the Nordic countries; 952,058 people live in the municipality, approximately 1.5 million in the urban area, and 2.3 million in the metropolitan area.

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Stuart Feldman

Stuart Feldman is the creator of the computer software program make for UNIX systems.

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A subsidiary, subsidiary company or daughter company"daughter company.

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TAT-1 (Transatlantic No. 1) was the first submarine transatlantic telephone cable system.

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TAT-8 was the 8th transatlantic communications cable and first transatlantic fiber-optic cable, initially carrying 40,000 telephone circuits (simultaneous calls) between the United States, Great Britain and France.

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Technical University of Munich

Technical University of Munich (TUM) (Technische Universität München) is a research university with campuses in Munich, Garching and Freising-Weihenstephan.

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Telcordia Technologies

Telcordia Technologies, Inc., doing business as iconectiv, is an American subsidiary of the Swedish telecommunications company Ericsson.

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Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, signals, messages, words, writings, images and sounds or information of any nature by wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic systems.

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A telephone, or phone, is a telecommunications device that permits two or more users to conduct a conversation when they are too far apart to be heard directly.

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Telephone exchange

A telephone exchange is a telecommunications system used in the public switched telephone network or in large enterprises.

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Television (TV) is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome (black and white), or in colour, and in two or three dimensions and sound.

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Telstar is the name of various communications satellites.

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Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

In physics, terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) is a spectroscopic technique in which the properties of matter are probed with short pulses of terahertz radiation.

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The C Programming Language

The C Programming Language (sometimes termed K&R, after its authors' initials) is a computer programming book written by Brian Kernighan and Dennis Ritchie, the latter of whom originally designed and implemented the language, as well as co-designed the Unix operating system with which development of the language was closely intertwined.

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The Idea Factory: Bell Labs and the Great Age of American Innovation

The Idea Factory: Bell Labs and the Great Age of American Innovation is a 2013 book by Jon Gertner that describes the history of Bell Labs, the research and development wing of AT&T, as well as many of its eccentric personalities, such as Claude Shannon and William Shockley.

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The Information: A History, a Theory, a Flood

The Information: A History, a Theory, a Flood is a book by science history writer James Gleick published in March 2011 which covers the genesis of our current information age.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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The Turing Guide

The Turing Guide (2017), written by Jack Copeland, Jonathan Bowen, Mark Sprevak, Robin Wilson, and others, is a book about the work and life of the British mathematician, philosopher, and early computer scientist, Alan Turing (1912–1954).

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A thesis or dissertation is a document submitted in support of candidature for an academic degree or professional qualification presenting the author's research and findings.

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Time-division multiple access

Time-division multiple access (TDMA) is a channel access method for shared-medium networks.

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Transatlantic communications cable

A transatlantic telecommunications cable is a submarine communications cable connecting one side of the Atlantic Ocean to the other.

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A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power.

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Transistor–transistor logic

Transistor–transistor logic (TTL) is a logic family built from bipolar junction transistors.

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Trevor Hastie

Trevor John Hastie (born 27 June 1953) is a South African and American statistician and computer scientist.

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Turing Award

The ACM A.M. Turing Award is an annual prize given by the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) to an individual selected for contributions "of lasting and major technical importance to the computer field".

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TWX (magazine)

TWX was a trade magazine published by the Long Lines Department of AT&T Corporation.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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United States Secretary of Commerce

The United States Secretary of Commerce (SecCom) is the head of the United States Department of Commerce.

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Universal Turing machine

In computer science, a universal Turing machine (UTM) is a Turing machine that can simulate an arbitrary Turing machine on arbitrary input.

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The Universe is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy.

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Unix (trademarked as UNIX) is a family of multitasking, multiuser computer operating systems that derive from the original AT&T Unix, development starting in the 1970s at the Bell Labs research center by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and others.

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Very-large-scale integration

Very-large-scale integration (VLSI) is the process of creating an integrated circuit (IC) by combining hundreds of thousands of transistors or devices into a single chip.

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Vintage Books

Vintage Books is a publishing imprint established in 1954 by Alfred A. Knopf.

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A vocoder (a portmanteau of voice encoder) is a category of voice codec that analyzes and synthesizes the human voice signal for audio data compression, multiplexing, voice encryption, voice transformation, etc.

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Volta Laboratory and Bureau

The Volta Laboratory (also known as the "Alexander Graham Bell Laboratory", the "Bell Carriage House" and the "Bell Laboratory") and the Volta Bureau were created in Georgetown, Washington, D.C. by Alexander Graham Bell.

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Volta Prize

The Volta Prize (French: le Prix Volta) was originally established by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1801 to honor Alessandro Volta, an Italian physicist noted for developing the battery.

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W. Edwards Deming

William Edwards Deming (October 14, 1900 – December 20, 1993) was an American engineer, statistician, professor, author, lecturer, and management consultant.

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Walter A. Shewhart

Walter Andrew Shewhart (pronounced like "shoe-heart", March 18, 1891 – March 11, 1967) was an American physicist, engineer and statistician, sometimes known as the father of statistical quality control and also related to the Shewhart cycle.

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Walter Houser Brattain

Walter Houser Brattain (February 10, 1902 – October 13, 1987) was an American physicist at Bell Labs who, along with fellow scientists John Bardeen and William Shockley, invented the point-contact transistor in December 1947.

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Warren P. Mason

Warren Perry Mason (September 28, 1900 – August 23, 1986) was an American electrical engineer and physicist at Bell Labs.

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Washington, D.C.

Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.

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In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.

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A wavelet is a wave-like oscillation with an amplitude that begins at zero, increases, and then decreases back to zero.

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Westbeth Artists Community

Westbeth Artists Housing is a nonprofit housing and commercial complex dedicated to providing affordable living and working space for artists and arts organizations in New York City.

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Western Electric

Western Electric Company (WE, WECo) was an American electrical engineering and manufacturing company that served as the primary supplier to AT&T from 1881 to 1996.

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Westminster, Colorado

Westminster is a Home Rule Municipality in Adams and Jefferson counties in the U.S. state of Colorado.

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Whippany, New Jersey

Whippany is an unincorporated community located within Hanover Township in Morris County, New Jersey, United States.

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Willard Boyle

Willard Sterling Boyle, (August 19, 1924May 7, 2011) was a Canadian physicist, pioneer in the field of laser technology and co-inventor of the charge-coupled device.

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William B. Snow

William B. Snow (San Francisco, 16 May 1903 – 5 October 1968) was a sound engineer.

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William Daniel Phillips

William Daniel Phillips (born November 5, 1948) is an American physicist.

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William E. Moerner

William Esco Moerner (born June 24, 1953) is an American physical chemist and chemical physicist with current work in the biophysics and imaging of single molecules.

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William Gardner Pfann

William Gardner Pfann (commonly called Bill; October 27, 1917 – October 22, 1982) was an inventor and materials scientist with Bell Labs.

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William O. Baker

William Oliver Baker (July 15, 1915 – October 31, 2005) was president of Bell Labs from 1973 to 1979 and advisor on scientific matters to five United States presidents.

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William R. Bennett Jr.

William Ralph Bennett Jr. (January 30, 1930 – June 29, 2008) was an American physicist known for his pioneering work on gas lasers.

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William Shockley

William Bradford Shockley Jr. (February 13, 1910 – August 12, 1989) was an American physicist and inventor.

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Wire spring relay

A wire spring relay is a type of relay, that has springs made from drawn wires of nickel silver, rather than cut from flat sheet metal as in the flat-spring relay.

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Wired (magazine)

Wired is a monthly American magazine, published in print and online editions, that focuses on how emerging technologies affect culture, the economy, and politics.

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Wollensak was an American manufacturer of audio-visual products located in Rochester New York.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Worse is better

Worse is better, also called New Jersey style, was conceived by Richard P. Gabriel in an essay "Worse is better" to describe the dynamics of software acceptance, but it has broader application.

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Yann LeCun

Yann LeCun (born 1960) is a computer scientist working primarily in the fields of machine learning, computer vision, mobile robotics and computational neuroscience.

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Zhenan Bao

Zhenan Bao (born 1970), Ph.D., is a Professor of Chemical Engineering and Material Science and Engineering at Stanford University.

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Zone melting

Zone melting (or zone refining or floating zone process or travelling melting zone) is a group of similar methods of purifying crystals, in which a narrow region of a crystal is melted, and this molten zone is moved along the crystal.

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32-bit microcomputers are computers in which 32-bit microprocessors are the norm.

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5ESS Switching System

The 5ESS Switching System is a Class 5 telephone electronic switching system developed by Western Electric for the American Telephone and Telegraph Company (AT&T) and the Bell System in the United States.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bell_Labs

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