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Abul Kasem Fazlul Huq (26 October 1873—27 April 1962); was a Bengali lawyer, legislator and statesman in the 20th century.
The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Abdul Hamid Khan Bhashani (আব্দুল হামিদ খান ভাসানী, 12 December 1880 – 17 November 1976), shortened as Maulana Bhashani was a popular Islamic scholar and political leader in British India (now Bangladesh).
The Adina Mosque is the ruins of the largest mosque in the Indian subcontinent, located in the Indian state of West Bengal near the border with Bangladesh.
Agartala 'আগরতলা (Bengali)' is the capital of the Indian state of Tripura as well as the second largest city in North-east India after Guwahati, both in municipal area and population.
The Age of Discovery, or the Age of Exploration (approximately from the beginning of the 15th century until the end of the 18th century) is an informal and loosely defined term for the period in European history in which extensive overseas exploration emerged as a powerful factor in European culture and was the beginning of globalization.
Agrarian reform can refer either, narrowly, to government-initiated or government-backed redistribution of agricultural land (see land reform) or, broadly, to an overall redirection of the agrarian system of the country, which often includes land reform measures.
Ahsan Manzil (আহসান মঞ্জিল, Ahsan Monjil) was the official residential palace and seat of the Nawab of Dhaka.
The Akhil Bhāratiya Hindū Mahāsabhā (translation: All-India Hindu Grand-Assembly) is a right wing Hindu nationalist political party in India.
Syed Alaol (সৈয়দ আলাওল; 1607 – 1673) was a poet in Bengal during the medieval age.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
Alipurduar District is the 20th district in the state of West Bengal, India.
The All India Trinamool Congress (abbreviated AITC, TMC or Trinamool Congress) is an Indian political party based in West Bengal.
The All-India Muslim League (popularised as Muslim League) was a political party established during the early years of the 20th century in the British Indian Empire.
Alstonia is a widespread genus of evergreen trees and shrubs, of the dogbane plant family Apocynaceae.
Amar Sonar Bangla (আমার সোনার বাংলা, "My Golden Bengal") is the national anthem of Bangladesh.
Amartya Kumar Sen, CH, FBA (born 3 November 1933) is an Indian economist and philosopher, who since 1972 has taught and worked in India, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.
Amitav Ghosh (born 11 July 1956), Encyclopædia Britannica is an Indian writer best known for his work in English fiction.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
The Andaman and Nicobar Islands, one of the seven union territories of India, are a group of islands at the juncture of the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea.
Anga was an ancient Indian kingdom that flourished on the eastern Indian subcontinent and one of the sixteen mahajanapadas ("large state").
Apabhranśa (अपभ्रंश,, Prakrit) is a term used by vyākaraṇin (grammarians) since Patañjali to refer to the dialects prevalent in the Ganges (east and west) before the rise of the modern languages.
Arab Muslims are adherents of Islam who identify linguistically, culturally, and genealogically as Arabs.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
Arakanese (also known as Rakhine; ရခိုင်ဘာသာ, MLCTS: ra.hkuing bhasa) is a language closely related to Burmese, of which it is often considered a dialect.
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.
The architecture of Bengal, which comprises the modern country of Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal, has a long and rich history, blending indigenous elements with influences from different parts of the world.
The areca nut is the fruit of the areca palm (Areca catechu), which grows in much of the tropical Pacific (Melanesia and Micronesia), Southeast and South Asia, and parts of east Africa.
Arrian of Nicomedia (Greek: Ἀρριανός Arrianos; Lucius Flavius Arrianus) was a Greek historian, public servant, military commander and philosopher of the Roman period.
Arsenic contamination of groundwater is a form of groundwater pollution which is often due to naturally occurring high concentrations of arsenic in deeper levels of groundwater.
Asansol is a city in the Indian state of West Bengal. It is the second largest and most populated city in West Bengal after Kolkata and the district headquarters of Paschim Bardhaman district. It is the 39th largest urban agglomeration in India. According to a 2010 report released by the International Institute for Environment and Development, a UK-based policy research non-governmental body, Asansol was ranked 11th among Indian cities. and 42nd in the world in its list of 100 fastest-growing cities. Asansol is classed as a Y-category city for calculation of HRA (House Rent Allowance) for public servants, making it a Tier-II city.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
The Asiatic Society of Bangladesh was established as the Asiatic Society of Pakistan in Dhaka in 1952, and renamed in 1972.
Assam is a state in Northeast India, situated south of the eastern Himalayas along the Brahmaputra and Barak River valleys.
Assam separatist movements are insurgency movements operating in Northeast India's oil-rich state of Assam.
Assamese or Asamiya অসমীয়া is an Eastern Indo-Aryan language spoken mainly in the Indian state of Assam, where it is an official language.
The assassination of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was the killing of the president of Bangladesh, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and almost his entire family.
Ziaur Rahman, the president of Bangladesh, was assassinated by a faction of officers of Bangladesh Army, on 30 May 1981, in the south-eastern port city of Chittagong.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is a regional intergovernmental organization comprising ten Southeast Asian countries that promotes intergovernmental cooperation and facilitates economic, political, security, military, educational, and sociocultural integration amongst its members, other Asian countries, and globally.
Atong is a Sino-Tibetan language related to Koch, Rabha, Bodo and Garo.
Austric is a large hypothetical grouping of languages primarily spoken in Southeast Asia and Pacific.
The Austroasiatic languages, formerly known as Mon–Khmer, are a large language family of Mainland Southeast Asia, also scattered throughout India, Bangladesh, Nepal and the southern border of China, with around 117 million speakers.
Bagerhat District (বাগেরহাট, pron: bageɾɦaʈ) is a district in South-western Bangladesh.
Bakarkhani or BaqarKhani (باقرخانی), also known as bakar khani roti, is a thick, spiced flat-bread that is part of the Mughlai cuisine of the Indian subcontinent.
Balurghat subdivision is a subdivision of the South Dinajpur district in the state of West Bengal, India.
Bandarban (বান্দরবান) is a district in South-Eastern Bangladesh, and a part of the Chittagong Division.
Bangaon subdivision is an administrative subdivision of the North 24 Parganas district in the Indian state of West Bengal.
Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.
The Bangladesh Awami League (BAL) (বাংলাদেশ আওয়ামী লীগ; translated from Urdu: Bangladesh People's League), often simply called the Awami League or AL, is one of the two major political parties of Bangladesh.
The Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS) is the centralized official bureau in Bangladesh for collecting statistics on demographics, the economy, and other facts about the country and disseminating the information.
Bangladesh Krishak Sramik Awami League (BaKSAL) (বাংলাদেশ কৃষক শ্রমিক আওয়ামী লীগ "Bangladesh Worker-Peasant's People's League"; বাকশাল) was a political front comprising Bangladesh Awami League, Communist Party of Bangladesh, National Awami Party (Mozaffar) and Jatiyo League.
The Bangladesh Liberation War (মুক্তিযুদ্ধ), also known as the Bangladesh War of Independence, or simply the Liberation War in Bangladesh, was a revolution and armed conflict sparked by the rise of the Bengali nationalist and self-determination movement in what was then East Pakistan during the 1971 Bangladesh genocide.
Bangladesh Nationalist Party (বাংলাদেশ জাতীয়তাবাদী দল, transliterated: Bangladesh Jātīẏatābādī Dôl), always abbreviated as BNP, is one of the two major contemporary political parties of Bangladesh.
The Bangladesh–India border, known locally as the International Border (IB), is an international border running between Bangladesh and India that demarcates the eight divisions of Bangladesh and the Indian states.
Bangladesh and India are South Asian neighbours.
Bangladeshi art is a form of visual arts that has been practiced throughout the land of what is now known as Bangladesh.
The Bangladeshi taka (টাকা, sign: ৳ or Tk, code: BDT) is the currency of the People's Republic of Bangladesh.
Although Bangladesh only came into existence in 1971, the land which is today Bangladesh has strong ties to the Middle East.
Banglapedia: the National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh is the first Bangladeshi encyclopedia.
Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay or Bankim Chandra Chatterjee (27 June 1838–8 April 1894) was an Indian writer, poet and journalist.
Bankura (pron: bænˈkʊərə) (Bengali: বাঁকুড়া) is a city and a municipality in Bankura Sadar subdivision of Bankura district in the state of West Bengal, India.
Bara Katra (বড় কাটরা; Great Caravanserai), a historical and architectural monument, is one of the oldest buildings in Dhaka.
Barak (or; בָּרָק, Tiberian Hebrew: Bārāq, البُراق al-Burāq "lightning") was a ruler of Ancient Israel.
The Barak Valley is a valley located in the southern region of the Indian state of Assam.
Bardhaman (Pron: ˈbɑ:dəˌmən) is a city in West Bengal state in eastern India.
Barind Tract (alternately called the Varendra Tract in English and Borendro Bhumi in Bengali) is the largest Pleistocene era pysiographic unit in the Bengal Basin.
Barisal Division, officially known as Barishal Division, is one of the eight administrative divisions of Bangladesh.
The Baro-Bhuyans (spelled variously as Baro-Bhuinas, "Baro-Bhuiyan" etc.) were warrior chiefs and landlords (zamindars) on the Indian subcontinent; in the region of medieval Assam and Bengal, who maintained a loosely independent confederacy.
The Battle of Plassey was a decisive victory of the British East India Company over the Nawab of Bengal and his French allies on 23 June 1757.
The Battle of Trafalgar (21 October 1805) was a naval engagement fought by the British Royal Navy against the combined fleets of the French and Spanish Navies, during the War of the Third Coalition (August–December 1805) of the Napoleonic Wars (1796–1815).
Baul or Bauls (বাউল) are a group of mystic minstrels from Bengal, which includes Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal.
The Bom, or Bawm (বম), are an ethnic community inhabiting in the Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh.
The Bay of Bengal (Bengali: বঙ্গোপসাগর) is the northeastern part of the Indian Ocean, bounded on the west and north by India and Bangladesh, and on the east by Myanmar and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (India).
The Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC) is an international organisation of seven nations of South Asia and South East Asia, housing 1.5 billion people and having a combined gross domestic product of $2.5 trillion (2014).
The Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal (BBIN) Initiative is a sub regional architecture of countries in Eastern South Asia, a subregion of South Asia.
The Bangladesh–China–India–Myanmar Forum for Regional Cooperation (BCIM) is a sub-regional organisation of Asian nations aimed at greater integration of trade and investment between the four countries.
Benapole (বেনাপোল) is a township in Sharsha Upazila in the Jessore District of Bangladesh.
The Bengal Army was the army of the Bengal Presidency, one of the three presidencies of British India within the British Empire.
The Bengal famine of 1943 (Bengali: pañcāśēra manvantara) was a major famine in the Bengal province in British India during World War II.
The Bengal Presidency was once the largest subdivision (presidency) of British India, with its seat in Calcutta (now Kolkata).
The Bengal School of Art commonly referred as Bengal School, was an art movement and a style of Indian painting that originated in Bengal, primarily Kolkata and Shantiniketan, and flourished throughout India during the British Raj in the early 20th century.
The Bengal Subah was a subdivision of the Mughal Empire encompassing modern Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal between the 16th and 18th centuries.
The Sultanate of Bengal (also known as the Bengal Sultanate; Bangalah (بنگاله Bangālah, বাঙ্গালা/বঙ্গালা) and Shahi Bangalah (شاهی بنگاله. Shāhī Bangālah, শাহী বাঙ্গলা)) was a Muslim state, established in Bengal during the 14th century, as part of the Muslim conquest of the Indian subcontinent.
The Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) is the most numerous tiger subspecies in Asia, and was estimated at fewer than 2,500 individuals by 2011.
The Bengali alphabet or Bangla alphabet (বাংলা বর্ণমালা, bangla bôrnômala) or Bengali script (বাংলা লিপি, bangla lipi) is the writing system for the Bengali language and, together with the Assamese alphabet, is the fifth most widely used writing system in the world.
The Bengali Calendar or Bangla Calendar (Baṅgābda) is a solar calendar used in the region of Bengal.
Bengali cuisine is a culinary style originating in Bengal, a region in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent, which is now divided between Bangladesh and the West Bengal state of India.
Bengali Hindus (বাঙালি হিন্দু) are ethnic Bengali adherents of Hinduism, and are native to the Bengal region of the Indian subcontinent.
Bengali, also known by its endonym Bangla (বাংলা), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in South Asia.
The Bengali Language Movement in Barak Valley, Assam was a protest against the decision of the Government of Assam to make Assamese the only official language of the state even though a significant proportion of population were Bengali people.
Bengali literature (বাংলা সাহিত্য, Bangla Sahityô) denotes the body of writings in the Bengali language.
Bengali Muslims (বাঙালি মুসলমান) are an ethnic, linguistic, and religious population who make up the majority of Bangladesh's citizens and the largest minority in the Indian states of West Bengal and Assam.
Bengali nationalism is one of the four fundamental principles according to the original Constitution of Bangladesh.
The Bengali renaissance or simply Bengal renaissance, (বাংলার নবজাগরণ; Bānglār nabajāgaraṇ) was a cultural, social, intellectual and artistic movement in Bengal region of the Indian subcontinent during the period of the British Indian Empire, from the nineteenth century to the early twentieth century.
The Bengali–Assamese languages (or Assamese-Bengali languages) belong to the Eastern zone of Indo-Aryan languages.
Bengalis (বাঙালি), also rendered as the Bengali people, Bangalis and Bangalees, are an Indo-Aryan ethnic group and nation native to the region of Bengal in the Indian subcontinent, which is presently divided between most of Bangladesh and the Indian states of West Bengal, Tripura, Assam, Jharkhand.
Pakistani Bengalis (پاکستانی بنگالی) are Pakistani citizens who migrated from East Bengal and live in West Pakistan or East Pakistan prior to 1971, or immigrants who migrated from Bangladesh after 1971; although according to social activists in Pakistan, economic migrants have mostly moved out because it is no longer profitable to work and earn in Pakistan due to the Pakistani rupee being weaker than the Bangladeshi taka.
The Bharatiya Janata Party (translation: Indian People's Party; BJP) is one of the two major political parties in India, along with the Indian National Congress.
Bhatiali or bhatiyali is a form of folk music in both Bangladesh and West Bengal.
Bhawaiya (ভাওয়াইয়া) is a musical form or a popular folk music in Northern Bangladesh, especially Rangpur District and in Cooch Behar, Jalpaiguri, part of Darjeeling and North Dinajpur district of West Bengal and Dhubri and Goalpara of Assam in India.
Bhawal National Park (ভাওয়াল জাতীয় উদ্যান) is a nature reserve and the national park of Bangladesh.
Bhutan, officially the Kingdom of Bhutan (Druk Gyal Khap), is a landlocked country in South Asia.
Bibhutibhushan Bandyopadhyay (12 September 1894 – 1 November 1950) was an Indian Bengali author and one of the leading writers of modern Bengali literature. His best known work is the autobiographical novel Pather Panchali (The Song of the Road), which was later adapted (along with Aparajito, the sequel) into The Apu Trilogy of films directed by Satyajit Ray. The 1951 Rabindra Puraskar, the most prestigious literary award in West Bengal, was posthumously awarded to Bibhutibhushan for his novel, Ichhamati.
Bihar is an Indian state considered to be a part of Eastern as well as Northern India.
Bihari is the western group of Eastern Indo-Aryan languages, mainly spoken in the Indian states of Bihar, Jharkhand, West Bengal and Uttar Pradesh and also in Nepal.
Biodiversity, a portmanteau of biological (life) and diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.
A biodiversity hotspot is a biogeographic region with significant levels of biodiversity that is threatened with destruction.
Bir Bikram Kishore Debbarman Manikya Bahadur (19 August 1908 – 17 May 1947) was a king (or maharaja) of Tripura State.
Birbhum district (pron: biːrbʰuːm) is an administrative unit in the Indian state of West Bengal.
Biryani, also known as biriyani, biriani, birani or briyani, ¨spicy rice¨ is a South Asian mixed rice dish with its origins among the Muslims of the Indian subcontinent.
The Bishnupuriya or Bishnupriya Manipuri (BPM) (বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in parts of the Indian states of Assam, Tripura and others, as well as in the Sylhet region of Bangladesh, Burma, and other countries.
Bishnupur is a town and a municipality in Bishnupur subdivision of Bankura District in the state of West Bengal, India.
A body of water or waterbody (often spelled water body) is any significant accumulation of water, generally on a planet's surface.
Bogra, officially known as Bogura, is a major city located in the Bogra District, Rajshahi Division, Bangladesh.
Bolpur-Santiniketan is a municipality, city and headquarters of Bolpur subdivision in Birbhum District in the state of West Bengal, India.
A border checkpoint is a place, generally between two countries, where travelers or goods are inspected.
A Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) is a state of matter of a dilute gas of bosons cooled to temperatures very close to absolute zero.
In quantum statistics, Bose–Einstein statistics (or more colloquially B–E statistics) is one of two possible ways in which a collection of non-interacting indistinguishable particles may occupy a set of available discrete energy states, at thermodynamic equilibrium.
Botany, also called plant science(s), plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology.
The Brahmaputra (is one of the major rivers of Asia, a trans-boundary river which flows through China, India and Bangladesh. As such, it is known by various names in the region: Assamese: ব্ৰহ্মপুত্ৰ নদ ('নদ' nôd, masculine form of 'নদী' nôdi "river") Brôhmôputrô; ब्रह्मपुत्र, IAST:; Yarlung Tsangpo;. It is also called Tsangpo-Brahmaputra (when referring to the whole river including the stretch within Tibet). The Manas River, which runs through Bhutan, joins it at Jogighopa, in India. It is the ninth largest river in the world by discharge, and the 15th longest. With its origin in the Manasarovar Lake, located on the northern side of the Himalayas in Burang County of Tibet as the Yarlung Tsangpo River, it flows across southern Tibet to break through the Himalayas in great gorges (including the Yarlung Tsangpo Grand Canyon) and into Arunachal Pradesh (India). It flows southwest through the Assam Valley as Brahmaputra and south through Bangladesh as the Jamuna (not to be mistaken with Yamuna of India). In the vast Ganges Delta, it merges with the Padma, the popular name of the river Ganges in Bangladesh, and finally the Meghna and from here it is known as Meghna before emptying into the Bay of Bengal. About long, the Brahmaputra is an important river for irrigation and transportation. The average depth of the river is and maximum depth is. The river is prone to catastrophic flooding in the spring when Himalayas snow melts. The average discharge of the river is about, and floods can reach over. It is a classic example of a braided river and is highly susceptible to channel migration and avulsion. It is also one of the few rivers in the world that exhibit a tidal bore. It is navigable for most of its length. The river drains the Himalaya east of the Indo-Nepal border, south-central portion of the Tibetan plateau above the Ganga basin, south-eastern portion of Tibet, the Patkai-Bum hills, the northern slopes of the Meghalaya hills, the Assam plains, and the northern portion of Bangladesh. The basin, especially south of Tibet, is characterized by high levels of rainfall. Kangchenjunga (8,586 m) is the only peak above 8,000 m, hence is the highest point within the Brahmaputra basin. The Brahmaputra's upper course was long unknown, and its identity with the Yarlung Tsangpo was only established by exploration in 1884–86. This river is often called Tsangpo-Brahmaputra river. The lower reaches are sacred to Hindus. While most rivers on the Indian subcontinent have female names, this river has a rare male name, as it means "son of Brahma" in Sanskrit (putra means "son").
Brahmi (IAST) is the modern name given to one of the oldest writing systems used in Ancient India and present South and Central Asia from the 1st millennium BCE.
Brill (known as E. J. Brill, Koninklijke Brill, Brill Academic Publishers) is a Dutch international academic publisher founded in 1683 in Leiden, Netherlands.
British Bangladeshis (ব্রিটিশ বাংলাদেশি) are people of Bangladeshi origin who have attained citizenship in the United Kingdom, through immigration and historical naturalisation.
The British Raj (from rāj, literally, "rule" in Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.
Buddhadeva Bose (also spelt Buddhadeb Bosu) (1908–1974) was an Indian Bengali writer of the 20th century.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
A bungalow is a type of building, originally developed in the Bengal region in South Asia.
Calcutta Stock Exchange, also abbreviated to CSE, (দি ক্যালকাটা স্টক এক্সচেঞ্জ di kyalkata stôk ekschenj) located at the Lyons Range, Kolkata, India, is the oldest stock exchange in South Asia.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
The Caretaker Government of Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশের তত্ত্বাবধায়ক সরকার) was a form of government in which Bangladesh used to be ruled by a selected government for an interim period during the transition from one elected government to another, after the completion of tenure of the former, during the period between 1996 to 2008.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
Chakma language (autonym: 𑄌𑄋𑄴𑄟𑄳𑄦 𑄞𑄌𑄴, script) is an Indo-European language spoken by the Chakma and Daingnet people.
The Chakmas, also known as the Changma, Daingnet people, are an ethnic group scattered in Arunachal Pradesh, Tripura, Assam, Mizoram, Meghalaya and West Bengal of India and in Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh.
The Chalcolithic (The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998), p. 301: "Chalcolithic /,kælkəl'lɪθɪk/ adjective Archaeology of, relating to, or denoting a period in the 4th and 3rd millennium BCE, chiefly in the Near East and SE Europe, during which some weapons and tools were made of copper. This period was still largely Neolithic in character. Also called Eneolithic... Also called Copper Age - Origin early 20th cent.: from Greek khalkos 'copper' + lithos 'stone' + -ic". χαλκός khalkós, "copper" and λίθος líthos, "stone") period or Copper Age, in particular for eastern Europe often named Eneolithic or Æneolithic (from Latin aeneus "of copper"), was a period in the development of human technology, before it was discovered that adding tin to copper formed the harder bronze, leading to the Bronze Age.
Chandidas (চণ্ডীদাস; born 1408 CE) refers to a medieval poet of Bengal or possibly more than one.
The Chandra dynasty were a family who ruled over the kingdom of Harikela in eastern Bengal (comprising the ancient lands of Harikela, Vanga and Samatala) for roughly 150 years from the beginning of the 10th century CE.
Chandraketugarh is an archaeological site located beside the Bidyadhari river, about north-east of Kolkata, India, in the district of North 24 parganas, near the township of Berachampa and the Harua Road railhead.
The Charyapada (চর্যাপদ Sôrzapôd) (চর্যাপদ Chôrjapôd) is a collection of mystical poems, songs of realization in the Vajrayana tradition of Buddhism from the tantric tradition during the Pala Empire in Ancient Bengal, Bihar, Orissa.
Chess is a two-player strategy board game played on a chessboard, a checkered gameboard with 64 squares arranged in an 8×8 grid.
Chhota Katra (ছোট কাটারা; Small Katara) is one of the two Katras built during Mughal's regime in Dhaka, Bangladesh.
A chief minister is the elected head of government of a sub-national entity, for instance a administrative subdivision or federal constituent entity.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chittagong, officially known as Chattogram, is a major coastal city and financial centre in southeastern Bangladesh.
Chittagong District, officially known as Chattogram District, is a district located in the south-eastern region of Bangladesh.
Chittagong Division, officially known as Chattogram Division, is geographically the largest of the eight administrative divisions of Bangladesh.
The Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT; Bengali: পার্বত্য চট্টগ্রাম, Parbotto Choŧŧogram; or the Hill Tracts for short) are an area within the Chattogram Division in southeastern Bangladesh, bordering India and Myanmar (Burma).
The Chittagong Stock Exchange (চট্টগ্রাম স্টক এক্সচেঞ্জ) is a stock exchange based in the port city of Chittagong, Bangladesh.
Chittagonian or Chittagong Bangla, also Chatgaya (চাঁটগাঁইয়া) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by the people of Chittagong in Bangladesh and in much of the southeast of the country.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The cinema of Bangladesh is the Bengali language film industry based in Dhaka, Bangladesh.
A city-state is a sovereign state, also described as a type of small independent country, that usually consists of a single city and its dependent territories.
Civil disobedience is the active, professed refusal of a citizen to obey certain laws, demands, orders or commands of a government or occupying international power.
A coin is a small, flat, (usually) round piece of metal or plastic used primarily as a medium of exchange or legal tender.
Comilla, officially known as Cumilla, is a city in the Chittagong Division of Bangladesh, located along the Dhaka-Chittagong Highway.
The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.
The Communist Party of India (Marxist) (abbreviated CPI(M)) is a communist party in India.
Company rule in India (sometimes, Company Raj, "raj, lit. "rule" in Hindi) refers to the rule or dominion of the British East India Company over parts of the Indian subcontinent.
Confectionery is the art of making confections, which are food items that are rich in sugar and carbohydrates.
The Constitution of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh is the constitutional document of Bangladesh.
Contemporary art is the art of today, produced in the late 20th century or in the 21st century.
Cooch Behar district is a district of the state of West Bengal, India, as well as the district's namesake town.
Cooch Behar Palace, also called the Victor Jubilee Palace, is a landmark in Cooch Behar city, West Bengal.
Coral reefs are diverse underwater ecosystems held together by calcium carbonate structures secreted by corals.
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae.
Cox's Bazar (কক্সবাজার) is a city, fishing port, tourism centre and district headquarters in southeastern Bangladesh.
Cox's Bazar Beach, located at Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh, is the longest unbroken sea beach in the world, running.
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, at the centre of which is a rectangular pitch with a target at each end called the wicket (a set of three wooden stumps upon which two bails sit).
The culture of Bengal encompasses the Bengal region in South Asia, including Bangladesh and the Indian states of West Bengal, Tripura and Assam (Barak Valley), where the Bengali language is the official and primary language.
The D-8 Organization for Economic Cooperation, also known as Developing-8, is an organisation for development co-operation among the following countries: Bangladesh, Egypt, Nigeria, Indonesia, Iran, Malaysia, Pakistan, and Turkey.
Dakshin Dinajpur or South Dinajpur is a district of the Indian state of West Bengal.
Darjeeling is a town and a municipality in the Indian state of West Bengal.
Darjeeling District (pronunciation: dɑ:rʤi:lɪŋ) is the northernmost district of the state of West Bengal in eastern India in the foothills of the Himalayas.
Darjeeling Himalayan hill region or Darjeeling Himalaya is the mountainous area on the North-Western side of the state of West Bengal in India.
The Darjeeling Himalayan Railway, also known as the DHR or Toy Train, is a narrow-gauge railway based on zig zag and loop-line technology which runs between New Jalpaiguri and Darjeeling in the Indian state of West Bengal.
Phoenix dactylifera, commonly known as date or date palm, is a flowering plant species in the palm family, Arecaceae, cultivated for its edible sweet fruit.
Deindustrialization or deindustrialisation is a process of social and economic change caused by the removal or reduction of industrial capacity or activity in a country or region, especially heavy industry or manufacturing industry.
The Delhi Sultanate (Persian:دهلی سلطان, Urdu) was a Muslim sultanate based mostly in Delhi that stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent for 320 years (1206–1526).
Democracy (δημοκρατία dēmokraa thetía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
Devolution is the statutory delegation of powers from the central government of a sovereign state to govern at a subnational level, such as a regional or local level.
Dhaka (or; ঢাকা); formerly known as Dacca is the capital and largest city of Bangladesh.
Dhaka Division (ঢাকা বিভাগ, Ḑhaka Bibhag) is an administrative division within Bangladesh.
The Dhaka Stock Exchange (DSE) (ঢাকা স্টক এক্সচেঞ্জ Dhaka stôk ekschenj), located in Motijheel, Dhaka, is one of the two stock exchanges of Bangladesh (the other being the Chittagong Stock Exchange).
Dhol (ढोल, ਢੋਲ, ڈھول, ঢোল, ઢોલ, ढोल, ঢোল) can refer to any one of a number of similar types of double-headed drum widely used, with regional variations, throughout the Indian subcontinent.
The Vesti, also known as panche, Dhoti, dhuti, mardani, chaadra, dhotar, and panchey, is a traditional men's garment worn in the Indian subcontinent.
Digha is a seaside resort town in the state of West Bengal, India.
Dinajpur district (দিনাজপুর জেলা) is a district in the Rangpur Division of northern Bangladesh.
A dinghy (or dingey) is a type of small boat, often carried or towed for use as a lifeboat by a larger vessel.
Dipterocarpus is a genus of flowering plants and the type genus of family Dipterocarpaceae.
The divisions of Bangladesh are divided into 64 districts, or zila (Bengali জিলা/জে.
Between gaining independence from the United Kingdom on 15 August 1947 and the proclamation of a republic on 26 January 1950, India was an independent dominion in the British Commonwealth of Nations with king George VI as its head of state.
The Dooars or Duars are the alluvial floodplains in northeastern India that lie south of the outer foothills of the Himalayas and north of the Brahmaputra River basin.
The dotara (or dotar) (দোতারা, দোতাৰা, literally, 'Of or having two wires') is a two, four, or sometimes five-stringed musical instrument resembling a sarod.
The Dravidian languages are a language family spoken mainly in southern India and parts of eastern and central India, as well as in Sri Lanka with small pockets in southwestern Pakistan, southern Afghanistan, Nepal, Bangladesh and Bhutan, and overseas in other countries such as Malaysia, Indonesia and Singapore.
Durga Puja, also called Durgotsava, is an annual Hindu festival in the Indian subcontinent that reveres the goddess Durga. Durga Puja is believed to be the greatest festival of the Bengali people. It is particularly popular in West Bengal, Bihar, Jharkhand, Odisha, Assam, Tripura, Bangladesh and the diaspora from this region, and also in Nepal where it is called Dashain. The festival is observed in the Hindu calendar month of Ashvin, typically September or October of the Gregorian calendar, and is a multi-day festival that features elaborate temple and stage decorations (pandals), scripture recitation, performance arts, revelry, and processions. It is a major festival in the Shaktism tradition of Hinduism across India and Shakta Hindu diaspora. Durga Puja festival marks the battle of goddess Durga with the shape-shifting, deceptive and powerful buffalo demon Mahishasura, and her emerging victorious. Thus, the festival epitomises the victory of good over evil, but it also is in part a harvest festival that marks the goddess as the motherly power behind all of life and creation. The Durga Puja festival dates coincide with Vijayadashami (Dussehra) observed by other traditions of Hinduism, where the Ram Lila is enacted — the victory of Rama is marked and effigies of demon Ravana are burnt instead. The primary goddess revered during Durga Puja is Durga, but her stage and celebrations feature other major deities of Hinduism such as goddess Lakshmi (goddess of wealth, prosperity), Saraswati (goddess of knowledge and music), Ganesha (god of good beginnings) and Kartikeya (god of war). The latter two are considered to be children of Durga (Parvati). The Hindu god Shiva, as Durga's husband, is also revered during this festival. The festival begins on the first day with Mahalaya, marking Durga's advent in her battle against evil. Starting with the sixth day (Sasthi), the goddess is welcomed, festive Durga worship and celebrations begin in elaborately decorated temples and pandals hosting the statues. Lakshmi and Saraswati are revered on the following days. The festival ends of the tenth day of Vijaya Dashami, when with drum beats of music and chants, Shakta Hindu communities start a procession carrying the colorful clay statues to a river or ocean and immerse them, as a form of goodbye and her return to divine cosmos and Mount Kailash. The festival is an old tradition of Hinduism, though it is unclear how and in which century the festival began. Surviving manuscripts from the 14th century provide guidelines for Durga puja, while historical records suggest royalty and wealthy families were sponsoring major Durga Puja public festivities since at least the 16th century. The prominence of Durga Puja increased during the British Raj in its provinces of Bengal and Assam. Durga Puja is a ten-day festival, of which the last five are typically special and an annual holiday in regions such as West Bengal, Odisha and Tripura where it is particularly popular. In the contemporary era, the importance of Durga Puja is as much as a social festival as a religious one wherever it is observed.
Durgapur is a Tier-II city in Paschim Bardhaman district, in the state of West Bengal, India. Durgapur is the third largest urban agglolomeration in West Bengal and happens to be the second planned city of India after Chandigarh and has the only operational dry (inland) port in Eastern India. Durgapur was planned by two American Architects Joseph Allen Stein and Benjamin Polk in 1955.It is the only city in Eastern India to have an operational dry dock.
The United East India Company, sometimes known as the United East Indies Company (Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie; or Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie in modern spelling; abbreviated to VOC), better known to the English-speaking world as the Dutch East India Company or sometimes as the Dutch East Indies Company, was a multinational corporation that was founded in 1602 from a government-backed consolidation of several rival Dutch trading companies.
East Bengal (পূর্ব বাংলা Purbô Bangla) was a geographically noncontiguous province of the Dominion of Pakistan covering Bangladesh.
East India is a region of India consisting of the Indian states of Bihar, Jharkhand, West Bengal, Odisha and also the union territory Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to trade with the East Indies (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent.
East Pakistan was the eastern provincial wing of Pakistan between 1955 and 1971, covering the territory of the modern country Bangladesh.
Eastern Bengal and Assam was an administrative subdivision (province) of the British Raj between 1905 and 1912.
Eastern Nagari script, Assamese script, Bengali script, Assamese-Bengali script or Purbi script is the basis of the Assamese alphabet and the Bengali alphabet.
Economic integration is the unification of economic policies between different states through the partial or full abolition of tariff and non-tariff restrictions on trade taking place among them prior to their integration.
The Roman province of Egypt (Aigyptos) was established in 30 BC after Octavian (the future emperor Augustus) defeated his rival Mark Antony, deposed Queen Cleopatra VII, and annexed the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt to the Roman Empire.
Ektara (एकतारा, একতারা, ਇਕ ਤਾਰਾ; literally "one-string", also called iktar, ektar, yaktaro, gopichand, gopichant, gopijiantra, tun tuna) is a one-string instrument most often used in traditional music from Bangladesh, Egypt, India, and Pakistan.
An emerging market is a country that has some characteristics of a developed market, but does not meet standards to be a developed market.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Environmental Health Perspectives (EHP) is a peer-reviewed journal published monthly with support from the U.S. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS).
An estuary is a partially enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea.
In botany, an evergreen is a plant that has leaves throughout the year, always green.
An exonym or xenonym is an external name for a geographical place, or a group of people, an individual person, or a language or dialect.
An experiment is a procedure carried out to support, refute, or validate a hypothesis.
Famine had been a recurrent feature of life the Indian sub-continental countries of India, Pakistan and Bangladesh.
Farakka is a town, with a police station and a post office, not identified in 2011 census, in Farakka CD Block in Jangipur subdivision of Murshidabad district in the state of West Bengal, India.
Farakka Port or Farakka Floating Terminal is one of the minor river ports in West Bengal.
Faridpur (ফরিদপুর জেলা) is a district in south-central Bangladesh.
Faridpur Division (ফরিদপুর বিভাগ), is a proposed administrative division within Bangladesh for the southern parts of the existing Dhaka Division, comprising Faridpur, Gopalganj, Madaripur, Rajbari and Shariatpur Districts of Dhaka Division.
Fazlur Rahman Khan (ফজলুর রহমান খান, Fozlur Rôhman Khan) (3 April 1929 – 27 March 1982) was a Bangladeshi-American structural engineer and architect, who initiated important structural systems for skyscrapers.
The Federal Research Division (FRD) is the research and analysis unit of the United States Library of Congress.
Fertility is the natural capability to produce offspring.
The fishing cat (Prionailurus viverrinus) is a medium-sized wild cat of South and Southeast Asia.
A floodplain or flood plain is an area of land adjacent to a stream or river which stretches from the banks of its channel to the base of the enclosing valley walls, and which experiences flooding during periods of high discharge.
The flute is a family of musical instruments in the woodwind group.
A country's foreign policy, also called foreign relations or foreign affairs policy, consists of self-interest strategies chosen by the state to safeguard its national interests and to achieve goals within its international relations milieu.
A fossil fuel is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing energy originating in ancient photosynthesis.
In economics, a free market is an idealized system in which the prices for goods and services are determined by the open market and consumers, in which the laws and forces of supply and demand are free from any intervention by a government, price-setting monopoly, or other authority.
Gangaridai (Γανγαρίδαι; Latin: Gangaridae) is a term used by the ancient Greco-Roman writers to describe a people or a geographical region of the ancient Indian subcontinent.
The Ganges, also known as Ganga, is a trans-boundary river of Asia which flows through the nations of India and Bangladesh.
The Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta (also known as the Brahmaputra Delta, the Sunderbans Delta or the Bengal Delta) is a river delta in the Bengal region of the South Asia, consisting of Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal.
Garo, or A·chik (the name in Garo), is a language spoken in India in the Garo Hills districts of Meghalaya, some parts of Assam, and in small pockets in Tripura.
Gauḍa, Gaur, or Gour, also known as Lakhnauti, is a ruined city on the Indo-Bangladesh border, most of the former citadel is located in the present-day Malda district of West Bengal, India, while a smaller part is located in Nawabganj District of Bangladesh.
Gazipur (গাজীপুর) is a city in central Bangladesh.
Bangladesh is a densely-populated, low-lying, mainly riverine country located in South Asia with a coastline of on the northern littoral of the Bay of Bengal.
Gambhira is a type of song (originating in Chapai Nawabganj, in the Northern region of Bangladesh).
Gopala (ruled c. 750s–770s CE) was the founder of the Pala Dynasty of Bengal region of the Indian Subcontinent.
The Government of Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ সরকার Bangladesh Sôrkar GOB) has three branches; the Executive branch, the Legislative branch and the Judicial branch.
The Government of India (IAST), often abbreviated as GoI, is the union government created by the constitution of India as the legislative, executive and judicial authority of the union of 29 states and seven union territories of a constitutionally democratic republic.
A governor is, in most cases, a public official with the power to govern the executive branch of a non-sovereign or sub-national level of government, ranking under the head of state.
The Great Bengal Famine of 1770 (৭৬-এর মন্বন্তর, Chhiattōrer monnōntór; lit The Famine of '76) was a famine between 1769 and 1773 (1176 to 1180 in the Bengali calendar) that affected the lower Gangetic plain of India from Bihar to the Bengal region.
Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars, use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.
The Gupta Empire was an ancient Indian empire, existing from approximately 240 to 590 CE.
Habiganj (Bengali: হবিগঞ্জ, Sylheti:ꠢꠛꠤꠉꠘ꠆ꠎ), formerly known as Habibganj, which was named after its founder Syed Habib Ullah of Taraf kingdom, is a district of the Sylhet Division in the north-eastern part of Bangladesh.
Hajong, originally a Tibeto-Burman language, is now considered an Indo-Aryan language with Tibeto-Burman roots.
Hakimpur is an Upazila of Dinajpur District in the Division of Rangpur, Bangladesh.
Haldia is an industrial city and municipality in Purba Medinipur district, in the Indian state of West Bengal.
Haldia port or Haldia Dock Complex has been built at the meeting place of the Haldi River and Hooghly river.
The Han Chinese,.
Harikela was a kingdom in ancient Bengal encompassing much of the eastern regions of the Indian Subcontinent.
Hason Raja, (হাসন রাজা; 18541922) was a Bengali poet, mystic philosopher and songwriter from Sylhet, Bangladesh.
Heliocentrism is the astronomical model in which the Earth and planets revolve around the Sun at the center of the Solar System.
Heritiera fomes is a species of mangrove tree in the family Malvaceae.
Hili land port is situated at Hakimpur Upazila in Dinajpur district and is the 2nd largest land port in Bangladesh.
The Himalayan states are a group of countries straddling the Himalayan mountain range in Asia.
The Himalayas, or Himalaya, form a mountain range in Asia separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau.
Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.
The Hindi Belt or Hindi Desh, sometimes referred to as the Hindi-Urdu Region, is a linguistic region in north-central India where Hindi (including its dialects) and Urdu are widely spoken.
Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.
Hindu nationalism has been collectively referred to as the expressions of social and political thought, based on the native spiritual and cultural traditions of the Indian subcontinent.
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
Hindustani classical music is the traditional music of northern areas of the Indian subcontinent, including the modern states of India, Nepal, Bangladesh and Pakistan.
The history of the Republic of India begins on 26 January 1950.
The history of the taka, also known as the tanka or tangka, refers to one of the major historical currencies of Asia, particularly in the Indian subcontinent and Tibet.
Holi (Holī), also known as the "festival of colours", is a spring festival celebrated all across the Indian subcontinent as well as in countries with large Indian subcontinent diaspora populations such as Jamaica, Suriname, Guyana, Trinidad and Tobago, South Africa, Malaysia, the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, Mauritius, and Fiji.
Hooghly district is one of the districts of the state of West Bengal in India.
Howrah or Haora, is the second largest city in West Bengal, India, after Kolkata.
Human development is the science that seeks to understand how and why the people of all ages and circumstances change or remain the same over time.
Humayun Ahmed (13 November 194819 July 2012) was a Bangladeshi writer, dramatist, screenwriter, filmmaker, song writer, scholar, and lecturer.
Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy (English IPA: ɦusæŋ ʃɑid sɦuɾɑwɑɾdɪə; حسین شہید سہروردی; হোসেন শহীদ সোহ্রাওয়ার্দী; 8 September 18925 December 1963) is a Bengali politician and a lawyer who served as the fifth Prime Minister of Pakistan, appointed in this capacity on 12 September 1956 until resigning on 17 October 1957.
Hussain Muhammad Ershad (হুসেইন মুহাম্মদ এরশাদ; born 1 February 1930) is a Bangladeshi politician who served as the 10th President of Bangladesh from 1983 to 1990.
Ibn Battuta (محمد ابن بطوطة; fully; Arabic: أبو عبد الله محمد بن عبد الله اللواتي الطنجي بن بطوطة) (February 25, 13041368 or 1369) was a Moroccan scholar who widely travelled the medieval world.
Tenualosa ilisha (ilish, hilsa, hilsa herring "ইলিশ" in Bangla, or hilsa shad) is a species of fish related to the herring, in the Clupeidae family.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Indian Armed Forces (Hindi (in IAST): Bhāratīya Saśastra Senāeṃ) are the military forces of the Republic of India.
The term Indian classical drama refers to the tradition of dramatic literature and performance in ancient India.
The Indian independence movement encompassed activities and ideas aiming to end the East India Company rule (1757–1857) and the British Indian Empire (1857–1947) in the Indian subcontinent.
The Indian National Army (INA; Azad Hind Fauj; lit.: Free Indian Army) was an armed force formed by Indian nationalists in 1942 in Southeast Asia during World War II.
The Indian National Congress (INC, often called Congress Party) is a broadly based political party in India.
The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).
The Indian Rebellion of 1857 was a major uprising in India between 1857–58 against the rule of the British East India Company, which functioned as a sovereign power on behalf of the British Crown.
The Indian rupee (sign: ₹; code: INR) is the official currency of the Republic of India.
The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.
The Indo-Aryan or Indic languages are the dominant language family of the Indian subcontinent.
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
Indo-Saracenic Revival (also known as Indo-Gothic, Mughal-Gothic, Neo-Mughal, Hindoo style) was an architectural style mostly used by British architects in India in the later 19th century, especially in public and government buildings in the British Raj, and the palaces of rulers of the princely states.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
Information technology (IT) is the use of computers to store, retrieve, transmit, and manipulate data, or information, often in the context of a business or other enterprise.
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is a professional association with its corporate office in New York City and its operations center in Piscataway, New Jersey.
Insurgency in Northeast India involves multiple armed factions operating in India's northeastern states, which are connected to the rest of India by the Siliguri Corridor, a strip of land as narrow as wide.
The International Crimes Tribunal (Bangladesh) (ICT of Bangladesh) is a domestic war crimes tribunal in Bangladesh set up in 2009 to investigate and prosecute suspects for the genocide committed in 1971 by the Pakistan Army and their local collaborators, Razakars, Al-Badr and Al-Shams during the Bangladesh Liberation War.
International Mother Language Day (IMLD) is a worldwide annual observance held on 21 February to promote awareness of linguistic and cultural diversity and promote multilingualism.
The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.
Irrigation is the application of controlled amounts of water to plants at needed intervals.
Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar CIE (26 September 1820 – 29 July 1891), born Ishwar Chandra Bandyopadhyay (Ishshor Chôndro Bôndopaddhae; Bengali: ঈশ্বরচন্দ্র বন্দ্যোপাধ্যায়), was a British Indian Bengali polymath and a key figure of the Bengal Renaissance.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
The jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus), also known as jack tree, fenne, jakfruit, or sometimes simply jack or jak, is a species of tree in the fig, mulberry, and breadfruit family (Moraceae) native to southwest India.
Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose, CSI, CIE, FRS (30 November 1858 – 23 November 1937), also spelled Jagdish and Jagadis, was a polymath, physicist, biologist, biophysicist, botanist and archaeologist, and an early writer of science fiction.
Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma, is an ancient Indian religion.
Jaldapara National Park (জলদাপাড়া জাতীয় উদ্যান; Pron: ˌʤʌldəˈpɑ:rə) (formerly Jaldapara Wildlife Sanctuary) is a national park situated at the foothills of the Eastern Himalayas in Alipurduar District of northern West Bengal and on the banks of the Torsa River.
Jalpaiguri (Pron: ˌʤælpaɪˈgʊəri) is a city in the Indian state of West Bengal.
Jalpaiguri district (Pron: dʒɔlpaːiːguɽiː) is a district of the Indian state of West Bengal,2.
Jalpaiguri Division is a division in the Indian state of West Bengal.
Jamdani (জামদানি) is one of the finest muslin textiles of Bengal, produced in South Rupshi, Narayanganj, Dhaka District, Bangladesh for centuries.
Major James Rennell, FRS FRSE FRGS (3 December 1742 – 29 March 1830) was an English geographer, historian and a pioneer of oceanography.
The Jamuna River (যমুনা Jomuna) is one of the three main rivers of Bangladesh.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
Jasimuddin (জসীম উদ্দীন) (1 January 1903 – 13 March 1976), popularly called Palli Kabi (Pastoral Poet), was a Bangladeshi poet and writer widely celebrated for his modern ballad sagas in the pastoral mode.
The Jatiya Party (Ershad) (National Party (Ershad)) is a conservative political party in Bangladesh.
The Jatiya Sangsad ("National Parliament"; জাতীয় সংসদ Jatiyô Sôngsôd), often referred to simply as the Sangsad or JS and also known as the House of the Nation, is the supreme legislative body of Bangladesh.
Jatiya Sangsad Bhaban or National Parliament House, (জাতীয় সংসদ ভবন Jatiyô Sôngsôd Bhôbôn) is the house of the Parliament of Bangladesh, located at Sher-e-Bangla Nagar in the Bangladeshi capital of Dhaka.
Jessore District, officially known as Jashore District, is a district in the southwestern region of Bangladesh.
Jharkhand (lit. "Bushland" or The land of forest) is a state in eastern India, carved out of the southern part of Bihar on 15 November 2000.
Nilanjana Sudeshna "Jhumpa" Lahiri (ঝুম্পা লাহিড়ী; born on July 11, 1967) is an American author.
Jibanananda Das (জীবনানন্দ দাশ) (17 February 1899 – 22 October 1954) was a Bengali poet, writer, novelist and essayist.
John F. Richards (November 3, 1938 - August 23, 2007) was a historian of South Asia and in particular of the Mughal Empire.
A jungle is land covered with dense vegetation dominated by trees.
Jute is a long, soft, shiny vegetable fiber that can be spun into coarse, strong threads.
Kabaddi is a contact team sport.
Kalapara (কলাপাড়া, also known as Khepupara) is an Upazila of Patuakhali District in the Division of Barisal, Bangladesh.
Kali Puja, also known as Shyama Puja or Mahanisha Puja, is a festival dedicated to the Hindu goddess Kali, celebrated on the new moon day of the Hindu month Kartik especially in West Bengal, Bihar, Odisha, Assam, Tripura and Bangladesh.
Kalimpong is a hill station in the Indian state of West Bengal.
Kalimpong district is a district in the state of West Bengal, India.
Kāmarūpa (also called Pragjyotisha), was a power during the Classical period on the Indian subcontinent; and along with Davaka, the first historical kingdom of Assam.
MBB College, Agartala, Tripura. Maharani Kanchan Prava Devi the daughter of the HH Sir Maharaja Yadenvdra Singh, the King of Panna State and the wife of the King of Tripura State, Bir Bikram Kishore Debbarman and regent from 1947 to 1949.
The Katra Masjid (also known as Katra Mosque) is a mosque and the tomb of Nawab Murshid Quli Khan built between 1723 and 1724.
Kazi Nazrul Islam (কাজী নজরুল ইসলাম,; 24 May 189929 August 1976) was a Bengali poet, writer, musician, and revolutionary.
Kebabs (also kabobs or kababs) are various cooked meat dishes, with their origins in Middle Eastern cuisine.
The Khadga dynasty was a Buddhist power during the Late Vedic period on the Indian Subcontinent, which originated in the region of Bengal.
Khagrachhari (খাগড়াছড়ি) (Chakma:𑄌𑄬𑄋𑄴𑄟𑄩 "chengmi") is a district in south-eastern Bangladesh.
Begum Khaleda Zia (IPA: kʰaled̪a dʒia; Majumder, born 1945) is a Bangladeshi politician who served as the Prime Minister of Bangladesh from 1991 to 1996, and again from 2001 to 2006.
Khasi (Khasi: Ka Ktien Khasi) is an Austroasiatic language spoken primarily in Meghalaya state in India by the Khasi people.
Kho kho (ਖੋ-ਖੋ) is a popular tag sport from India.
Khulna (খুলনা) is the third-largest city of Bangladesh.
Khulna District (খুলনা জেলা, Khulna Jela also Khulna Zila) is a district of Bangladesh.
Khulna Division (খুলনা বিভাগ) is one of the eight divisions of Bangladesh.
The Kingdom of Mrauk-U was an independent coastal kingdom of Arakan which existed for over 350 years.
Kishanganj is a city and district headquarters of Kishanganj district in Purnea division of Bihar state.
Koch is a Sino-Tibetan language spoken by the Koch people of Republic of India, Koch people in Nepal bhutan burma and Bangladesh.
Koda is an endangered Munda language of India and Bangladesh.
Kok Borok is the native language of the Borok (Tripura) people of the Indian state of Tripura and neighbouring areas of Bangladesh.
Kolkata (also known as Calcutta, the official name until 2001) is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal.
Kolkata district is an administrative unit in the Indian state of West Bengal.
Krishna Janmashtami (Devanagari कृष्ण जन्माष्टमी, IAST), also known simply as Janmashtami or Gokulashtami, is an annual Hindu festival that celebrates the birth of Krishna, the eighth avatar of Vishnu.
The Kuki-Chin languages are a branch of 50 or so Sino-Tibetan languages spoken in northeastern India, western Burma and eastern Bangladesh.
A kurta (कुर्ता, কুর্তা, ਕੁੜਤਾ, کرتہ) is an upper garment for men and women, originating in the Indian subcontinent, with regional variations of form.
Kurukh (also Kurux and Oraon or Uranw; Devanagari: कुड़ुख़) is a Dravidian language spoken by nearly two million Oraon and Kisan tribal peoples of Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Odisha and West Bengal, as well as by 65,000 in northern Bangladesh, 28,600 a dialect called Dhangar in Nepal, and about 5,000 in Bhutan.
The Lahore Resolution (قرارداد لاہور, Karardad-e-Lahore; Bengali: লাহোর প্রস্তাব, Lahor Prostab),was a declaration written by Muhammad Zafarullah Khan and others and presented by A. K. Fazl ul Huq, the Prime Minister of Bengal, was a formal political statement adopted by the All-India Muslim League on the occasion of its three-day general session in Lahore on 22–24 March 1940.
Lalbagh Fort (also Fort Aurangabad) is an incomplete 17th century Mughal fort complex that stands before the Buriganga River in the southwestern part of Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Lalon also known as Lalon Sain, Lalon Shah, Lalon Fakir or Mahatma Lalon (c. 1772 – 17 October 1890; Bengali: 1 Kartik 1179) was a prominent Bengali philosopher, Baul saint, mystic, songwriter, social reformer and thinker.
The Language Movement (ভাষা আন্দোলন Bhasha Andolôn) was a political movement in former East Bengal (currently Bangladesh) advocating the recognition of the Bengali language as an official language of the then-Dominion of Pakistan in order to allow its use in government affairs, the continuation of its use as a medium of education, its use in media, currency and stamps, and to maintain its writing in the Bengali script.
Lawachara National Park (লাউয়াছড়া) is a major national park and nature reserve in Bangladesh.
The Left Front (বামফ্রন্ট, transliterated bamfront) is a political alliance in the Indian state of Tripura.
The Left Front (বামফ্রন্ট, transliterated bamfront) is an alliance of political parties in the Indian state of West Bengal.
Legislative assembly is the name given in some countries to either a legislature, or to one of its branch.
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
This article provides lists of famous and notable Bengali people, from India or Bangladesh, or people with Bengali ancestry or people who speak Bengali as their primary language.
This is a list of the bird species recorded in Bangladesh.
The Himalayas lies in the north of the state and the Bay of Bengal is at the south.
Bangladesh is a country with hundreds of rivers and ponds and is notable for being a fish-loving nation, acquiring the name "Machh-e Bhat-e Bangali" which means, "Bengali by fish and rice".
This article ranks human languages by their number of native speakers.
This is a list of the mammal species recorded in Bangladesh.
Bangladesh is a low-lying country.
This is a list of national animals.
The following is a list of significant men and women known for being the father, mother, or considered the founders mostly in Western societies in a field, listed by category.
Bangladesh is a riverine country.
The littoral zone is the part of a sea, lake or river that is close to the shore.
The Lok Sabha (House of the People) is the lower house of India's bicameral Parliament, with the upper house being the Rajya Sabha.
Louis Isadore Kahn (born Itze-Leib Schmuilowsky) (– March 17, 1974) was an American architect, based in Philadelphia.
The lungi is a type of sarong, originating from the Indian subcontinent, and a traditional garment worn around the waist in Sri Lanka, India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Somalia, Nepal, Cambodia, Djibouti, Myanmar and Thailand, Saudi Arabia and Yemen.
Madhupur tract is a large upland area of 4,244 km² in north central part of Bangladesh, stretching from east of Jamalpur in the north, to Fatullah and Narayanganj, in the south.
Magadha was an ancient Indian kingdom in southern Bihar, and was counted as one of the sixteen Mahajanapadas (Sanskrit: "Great Countries") of ancient India.
Magadhi Prakrit (Māgadhī) was a vernacular Middle Indo-Aryan language, replacing earlier Vedic Sanskrit in parts of the Indian subcontinents.
The Mahābhārata (महाभारतम्) is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the Rāmāyaṇa.
Mahārāja (महाराज, also spelled Maharajah, Moharaja) is a Sanskrit title for a "great ruler", "great king" or "high king".
Mahasthangarh (মহাস্থানগড় Môhasthangôṛ) is one of the earliest urban archaeological sites so far discovered in Bangladesh.
Mahāyāna (Sanskrit for "Great Vehicle") is one of two (or three, if Vajrayana is counted separately) main existing branches of Buddhism and a term for classification of Buddhist philosophies and practice.
Maimansingha Gitika (মৈমনসিংহ গীতিকা), also known by the alternative name Mymensingh Geetika, is a collection of folk ballads from the region of Mymensingh, Bangladesh.
Mainamati (ময়নামতি Môynamoti) is an isolated low, dimpled range of hills, dotted with more than 50 ancient Buddhist settlements dating to between the 8th and 12th century CE.
Makar Sankranti, also known as Makara Sankrānti (Sanskrit: मकर सङ्क्रान्ति) or Maghi, is a festival day in the Hindu calendar, in reference to deity Surya (sun).
Malda district, also spelt Maldah or Maldaha (often; মালদা, মালদহ) is a district in West Bengal, India.
Malto or Paharia or, rarely, archaically, Rajmahali is a Northern Dravidian language spoken primarily in East India.
Mangal-Kāvya (মঙ্গলকাব্য, "Poems of Benediction") is a group of Bengali Hindu religious texts, composed more or less between 13th Century and 18th Century, notably consisting of narratives of indigenous deities of rural Bengal in the social scenario of the Middle Ages.
Mangifera indica, commonly known as mango, is a species of flowering plant in the sumac and poison ivy family Anacardiaceae.
Mangoes are juicy stone fruit (drupe) from numerous species of tropical trees belonging to the flowering plant genus Mangifera, cultivated mostly for their edible fruit.
A mangrove is a shrub or small tree that grows in coastal saline or brackish water.
Manik Bandopadhyay (19 May 1908 – 3 December 1956) was a Bengali writer and novelist, widely regarded as one of the major figures of 20th century Bengali literature.
Manmohan Singh (born 26 September 1932) is an Indian economist and politician who served as the Prime Minister of India from 2004 to 2014.
Maritime transport is the transport of people (passengers) or goods (cargo) by water.
The Marma (မရမာလူမျိုး) people are the second-largest ethnic community in the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT).
A marsh is a wetland that is dominated by herbaceous rather than woody plant species.
The Maurya Empire was a geographically-extensive Iron Age historical power founded by Chandragupta Maurya which dominated ancient India between 322 BCE and 180 BCE.
Megam is a Sino-Tibetan language spoken in Kalmakanda subdistrict, Netrokona district, Dhaka division, Bangladesh.
Megasthenes (Μεγασθένης, c. 350 – c. 290 BC) was an ancient Greek historian, diplomat and Indian ethnographer and explorer in the Hellenistic period.
The Meghna River (মেঘনা নদী) is one of the most important rivers in Bangladesh, one of the three that forms the Ganges Delta, the largest delta on earth, which fans out to the Bay of Bengal.
Meitei (also Manipuri, Census of India, 2001, Meithei, Meetei, Meeʁteilon) is the predominant language and lingua franca in the southeastern Himalayan state of Manipur, in northeastern India.
A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the voters to a parliament.
Michael Madhusudan Dutt, or Michael Madhusudan Dutta (মাইকেল মধুসূদন দত্ত; 25 January 1824 – 29 June 1873) was a popular 19th-century Bengali poet and dramatist.
Microwaves are a form of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths ranging from one meter to one millimeter; with frequencies between and.
Bangladesh has undergone several changes of government due to her untimely and unorthodox independence, also officially dubbed Liberation from Pakistan that partially ended in 1971 and officially after withdrawal of Indian Army and civilian personnel on March 19, 1972.
A military dictatorship (also known as a military junta) is a form of government where in a military force exerts complete or substantial control over political authority.
Military occupation is effective provisional control by a certain ruling power over a territory which is not under the formal sovereignty of that entity, without the violation of the actual sovereign.
The Mizo language, or Mizo ṭawng, is a language belonging to the Sino-Tibetan family of languages, spoken natively by the Mizo people in the Mizoram state of India and Chin State in Burma.
Sahibzada Mohammad Ali Bogra (মোহাম্মদ আলী বগুড়া); (19 October 1909 – 23 January 1963), also sometimes known as Mohammad Ali of Bogra, was a Bengali politician, statesman, and a career diplomat who served as third Prime Minister of Pakistan, appointed in this capacity in 1953 until he stepped down in 1955 in favor of Finance Minister Muhammad Ali.
Mongla (মংলা) is an Upazila of Bagerhat District in the Division of Khulna, Bangladesh.
Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea.
The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.
The Mosque City of Bagerhat (মসজিদের শহর বাগেরহাট) is a formerly lost city, located in the suburbs of Bagerhat city in Bagerhat District, in the Khulna Division of southwest of Bangladesh.
Mru is a Sino-Tibetan language and one of the recognized languages of Bangladesh.
The Mughal emperors, from the early 16th century to the early 18th century, built and ruled the Mughal Empire on the Indian subcontinent, mainly corresponding to the modern countries of India, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Bangladesh.
The Mughal Empire (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān)) or Mogul Empire was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by a Muslim dynasty with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia, but with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; only the first two Mughal emperors were fully Central Asian, while successive emperors were of predominantly Rajput and Persian ancestry. The dynasty was Indo-Persian in culture, combining Persianate culture with local Indian cultural influences visible in its traits and customs. The Mughal Empire at its peak extended over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent and parts of Afghanistan. It was the second largest empire to have existed in the Indian subcontinent, spanning approximately four million square kilometres at its zenith, after only the Maurya Empire, which spanned approximately five million square kilometres. The Mughal Empire ushered in a period of proto-industrialization, and around the 17th century, Mughal India became the world's largest economic power, accounting for 24.4% of world GDP, and the world leader in manufacturing, producing 25% of global industrial output up until the 18th century. The Mughal Empire is considered "India's last golden age" and one of the three Islamic Gunpowder Empires (along with the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia). The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, in the First Battle of Panipat (1526). The Mughal emperors had roots in the Turco-Mongol Timurid dynasty of Central Asia, claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan (founder of the Mongol Empire, through his son Chagatai Khan) and Timur (Turco-Mongol conqueror who founded the Timurid Empire). During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur, the empire was briefly interrupted by the Sur Empire. The "classic period" of the Mughal Empire started in 1556 with the ascension of Akbar the Great to the throne. Under the rule of Akbar and his son Jahangir, the region enjoyed economic progress as well as religious harmony, and the monarchs were interested in local religious and cultural traditions. Akbar was a successful warrior who also forged alliances with several Hindu Rajput kingdoms. Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but most of them were subdued by Akbar. All Mughal emperors were Muslims; Akbar, however, propounded a syncretic religion in the latter part of his life called Dīn-i Ilāhī, as recorded in historical books like Ain-i-Akbari and Dabistān-i Mazāhib. The Mughal Empire did not try to intervene in the local societies during most of its existence, but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices and diverse and inclusive ruling elites, leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule. Traditional and newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Maratha Empire|Marathas, the Rajputs, the Pashtuns, the Hindu Jats and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience. The reign of Shah Jahan, the fifth emperor, between 1628 and 1658, was the zenith of Mughal architecture. He erected several large monuments, the best known of which is the Taj Mahal at Agra, as well as the Moti Masjid, Agra, the Red Fort, the Badshahi Mosque, the Jama Masjid, Delhi, and the Lahore Fort. The Mughal Empire reached the zenith of its territorial expanse during the reign of Aurangzeb and also started its terminal decline in his reign due to Maratha military resurgence under Category:History of Bengal Category:History of West Bengal Category:History of Bangladesh Category:History of Kolkata Category:Empires and kingdoms of Afghanistan Category:Medieval India Category:Historical Turkic states Category:Mongol states Category:1526 establishments in the Mughal Empire Category:1857 disestablishments in the Mughal Empire Category:History of Pakistan.
Muhammad bin Tughluq (also Prince Fakhr Malik, Jauna Khan, Ulugh Khan; died 20 March 1351) was the Sultan of Delhi from 1325 to 1351.
Muhammad Yunus (মুহাম্মদ ইউনূস; born 28 June 1940) is a Bangladeshi social entrepreneur, banker, economist, and civil society leader who was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for founding the Grameen Bank and pioneering the concepts of microcredit and microfinance.
Muḥarram (مُحَرَّم) is the first month of the Islamic calendar.
The Mukti Bahini (মুক্তি বাহিনী translates as 'Freedom Fighters', or Liberation Forces; also known as the Bangladesh Forces) is a popular Bengali term which refers to the guerrilla resistance movement formed by the Bangladeshi military, paramilitary and civilians during the War of Liberation that transformed East Pakistan into Bangladesh in 1971.
A multi-party system is a system in which multiple political parties across the political spectrum run for national election, and all have the capacity to gain control of government offices, separately or in coalition.
In international relations, multilateralism refers to an alliance of multiple countries pursuing a common goal.
Mundari (Muɳɖa) is a Munda language of the Austroasiatic language family spoken by the Munda people in eastern India (primarily Assam and Jharkhand), Bangladesh, and Nepal.
Murshidabad (Pron: ˈmʊəʃɪdəˌbɑ:d/bæd or ˈmɜ:ʃɪdəˌ) is a town in Murshidabad district of West Bengal state in India.
Bengali music (বাংলা সংগীত) comprises a long tradition of religious and secular song-writing over a period of almost a millennium.
Muslim conquests on the Indian subcontinent mainly took place from the 12th to the 16th centuries, though earlier Muslim conquests made limited inroads into modern Afghanistan and Pakistan as early as the time of the Rajput kingdoms in the 8th century.
Muslin, also mousseline, is a cotton fabric of plain weave.
Muslin, a cotton fabric of plain weave, was hand woven in the region around Dhaka, East Bengal (now Bangladesh), and exported to Europe, the Middle East, and other markets, for much of the 17th and 18th centuries.
Mustard plants are any of several plant species in the genera Brassica and Sinapis in the family Brassicaceae.
Muzharul Islam (25 December 1923 – 15 July 2012) was a Bangladeshi architect, urban planner, educator and activist.
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
Emperor Nader Shah, the Shah of Persia (1736–47) and the founder of the Afsharid dynasty of Persia, invaded the Mughal Empire, eventually attacking Delhi in March 1739.
Nadia district (Pron: nɔd̪iːaː) (নদিয়া জেলা) is a district of the state of West Bengal, in eastern India.
Narayanganj (নারায়ণগঞ্জ Naraeongônj) is a city in central Bangladesh.
A national personification is an anthropomorphism of a nation or its people.
Bangladesh is the ninetenth-largest producer of natural gas in Asia.
The Nawabs of Bengal (full title, the Nawab Nizam of Bengal and Orissa) were the rulers of the then provinces of Bengal and Orissa.
A Naxal or Naxalite is a member of the Communist Party of India (Maoist).
Nepal (नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल), is a landlocked country in South Asia located mainly in the Himalayas but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.
Nepali known by endonym Khas-kura (खस कुरा) is an Indo-Aryan language of the sub-branch of Eastern Pahari.
New Delhi is an urban district of Delhi which serves as the capital of India and seat of all three branches of Government of India.
The news media or news industry are forms of mass media that focus on delivering news to the general public or a target public.
The Next Eleven (known also by the numeronym N-11) are the eleven countries – Bangladesh, Egypt, Indonesia, Iran, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, the Philippines, Turkey, South Korea and Vietnam – identified by Goldman Sachs investment banker and economist Jim O'Neill in a research paper as having a high potential of becoming, along with the BRICS countries, among the world's largest economies in the 21st century.
Niccolò de' Conti (c. 1395–1469) was an Italian merchant and explorer, born in Chioggia, who traveled to India and Southeast Asia, and possibly to Southern China, during the early 15th century.
The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences (officially Sveriges riksbanks pris i ekonomisk vetenskap till Alfred Nobels minne, or the Swedish National Bank's Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel), commonly referred to as the Nobel Prize in Economics, is an award for outstanding contributions to the field of economics, and generally regarded as the most prestigious award for that field.
The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish, Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is one of the five Nobel Prizes created by the Swedish industrialist, inventor, and armaments manufacturer Alfred Nobel, along with the prizes in Chemistry, Physics, Physiology or Medicine, and Literature.
The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is a group of states that are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc.
North 24 Parganas (Pron: pɔrɡɔnɔs) or abv.
North Bengal (উত্তরবঙ্গ) is a term used for the north-western part of Bangladesh and northern part of West Bengal.
Northeast India (officially North Eastern Region, NER) is the easternmost region of India representing both a geographic and political administrative division of the country.
The Northern Black Polished Ware culture (abbreviated NBPW or NBP) is an urban Iron Age culture of the Indian Subcontinent, lasting c. 700–200 BCE, succeeding the Painted Grey Ware culture and Black and red ware culture.
Nyctanthes arbor-tristis, the night-flowering jasmine or parijat, is a species of Nyctanthes native to South Asia and Southeast Asia.
Nymphaea is a genus of hardy and tender aquatic plants in the family Nymphaeaceae.
An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus (Latin "oak tree") of the beech family, Fagaceae.
Odisha (formerly Orissa) is one of the 29 states of India, located in eastern India.
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
Om Prakash (born January 1940, in Delhi) is an Indian economic historian.
Optics is the branch of physics which involves the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it.
The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC; منظمة التعاون الإسلامي; Organisation de la coopération islamique) is an international organization founded in 1969, consisting of 57 member states, with a collective population of over 1.3 billion as of 2009 with 47 countries being Muslim Majority countries.
The oriental magpie-robin (Copsychus saularis) is a small passerine bird that was formerly classed as a member of the thrush family Turdidae, but now considered an Old World flycatcher.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
An oxbow lake is a U-shaped lake that forms when a wide meander from the main stem of a river is cut off, creating a free-standing body of water.
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.
The Padma (পদ্মা ''Pôdda'') is a major river in Bangladesh.
Pahela Baishakh (পহেলা বৈশাখ) or Bangla Nababarsha (বাংলা নববর্ষ, Bangla Nôbobôrsho) is the first day of Bengali Calendar.
Pajamas (US) or pyjamas, often shortened to PJs or jammies, can refer to several related types of clothing originating from the Indian subcontinent.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
The Pakistani rupee (روپیہ / ALA-LC:; sign: ₨; code: PKR) is the currency of Pakistan.
The Pala Empire was an imperial power during the Late Classical period on the Indian subcontinent, which originated in the region of Bengal.
Pangkhua (Pangkhu), or Paang, is a Kuki-Chin language primarily spoken in Bangladesh.
A parliamentary republic is a republic that operates under a parliamentary system of government where the executive branch (the government) derives its legitimacy from and is accountable to the legislature (the parliament).
The decision to effect the Partition of Bengal (বঙ্গভঙ্গ.) was announced on 19 July 1905 by the Viceroy of India, Lord Curzon.
The Partition of Bengal in 1947, part of the Partition of India, divided the British Indian province of Bengal based on the Radcliffe Line between India and Pakistan.
Paschim Medinipur district or West Midnapore district (Pron: ˌmɪdnəˈpʊə) (also known as Midnapore West) is one of the districts of the state of West Bengal, India.
Patuakhali is a district in South-central Bangladesh.
Peacekeeping refers to activities intended to create conditions that favour lasting peace.
A pearl is a hard glistening object produced within the soft tissue (specifically the mantle) of a living shelled mollusk or another animal, such as a conulariid.
Petrapole is the Indian side of Petrapole-Benapole border checkpoint between India and Benapole of Bangladesh, on the Bangladesh-India border, near Bongaon in North 24 Parganas district of West Bengal.
The Pinophyta, also known as Coniferophyta or Coniferae, or commonly as conifers, are a division of vascular land plants containing a single extant class, Pinopsida.
Pitha (Bengali/Assamese: পিঠা piṭha, ପିଠା or ꠙꠤꠑꠣ; fiṭa) is a type of rice cake from the eastern regions of the Indian subcontinent, common in Bangladesh, Nepal and India, especially the eastern states of Odisha, Assam, West Bengal, Jharkhand, Bihar and the northeastern region of India.
Pnar (also known as Jaintia or Synteng) is an Austroasiatic language spoken in India and Bangladesh.
Population density (in agriculture: standing stock and standing crop) is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume; it is a quantity of type number density.
The Port of Chittagong (চট্টগ্রাম বন্দর) is the busiest seaport on the coastline of the Bay of Bengal, and the second busiest in the overall region of countries dependent on the Bay of Bengal. According to Lloyd's, it ranked as the 71st busiest port in the world in 2017 Located in the Bangladeshi port city of Chittagong and on the banks of the Karnaphuli River, the port of Chittagong handles 90% of Bangladesh's export-import trade, and has been used by India, Nepal and Bhutan for transshipment. Congestion is a major challenge in Chittagong port. The port had a congestion rate of 84.3 hours between January and July in 2017.
The Port of Kolkata is a riverine port in the city of Kolkata, India, located around from the sea.
The Port of Mongla is the second busiest seaport of Bangladesh.
The Port of Narayanganj is a river port in Narayanganj, Bangladesh.
The Port of Payra is a small seaport in southern Bangladesh.
The Portuguese Empire (Império Português), also known as the Portuguese Overseas (Ultramar Português) or the Portuguese Colonial Empire (Império Colonial Português), was one of the largest and longest-lived empires in world history and the first colonial empire of the Renaissance.
Chittagong (Xatigan in Portuguese), the second largest city and main port of Bangladesh, was home to a thriving trading post of the Portuguese Empire in the 16th and 17th centuries.
Pranab Kumar Mukherjee (born 11 December 1935) is an Indian politician who served as the 13th President of India from 2012 until 2017.
The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the subcontinent.
The President of Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশের রাষ্ট্রপতি —) is the Head of State of Bangladesh.
The President of the Republic of India is the head of state of India and the commander-in-chief of the Indian Armed Forces.
In India, President's rule refers to suspension of state government and imposition of direct Central Government rule in a state.
A presidential system is a democratic and republican system of government where a head of government leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch.
A prime minister is the head of a cabinet and the leader of the ministers in the executive branch of government, often in a parliamentary or semi-presidential system.
The Prime Minister of India is the leader of the executive of the Government of India.
Prince Vijaya (විජය කුමරු) was a legendary king of Sri Lanka, mentioned in the Pali chronicles, including Mahavamsa.
Proto-Dravidian is the linguistic reconstruction of the common ancestor of the Dravidian languages.
The Provisional Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh was established following the declaration of independence of East Pakistan on 10 April 1971.
The Ptolemy world map is a map of the world known to Hellenistic society in the 2nd century.
Pundravardhana (পুন্ড্রবর্ধন Punḍrôbôrdhôn, Punḍravardhana), was an ancient kingdom during the Classical period on the Indian subcontinent; the territory located in North Bengal in ancient times, home of the Pundra, a group of people not speaking languages of the Indo-Aryan family.
The Punjab, also spelled Panjab (land of "five rivers"; Punjabi: پنجاب (Shahmukhi); ਪੰਜਾਬ (Gurumukhi); Πενταποταμία, Pentapotamia) is a geographical and cultural region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northern India.
Purba Medinipur (English: East Medinipur, alternative spelling Midnapore) district is an administrative unit in the Indian state of West Bengal.
Purulia City (Pron: ˈpʊru:ˌlɪə), also known as "Manbhum City", is a city located in West Bengal state, India, and was constituted in 1876.
Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.
Rabindranath Tagore FRAS, also written Ravīndranātha Ṭhākura (7 May 1861 – 7 August 1941), sobriquet Gurudev, was a Bengali polymath who reshaped Bengali literature and music, as well as Indian art with Contextual Modernism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Radio is the technology of using radio waves to carry information, such as sound, by systematically modulating properties of electromagnetic energy waves transmitted through space, such as their amplitude, frequency, phase, or pulse width.
Rainforests are forests characterized by high rainfall, with annual rainfall in the case of tropical rainforests between, and definitions varying by region for temperate rainforests.
Rajshahi (রাজশাহী,; historically Rampur Boalia; nicknamed Silk City) is a metropolitan city in Bangladesh and a major urban, commercial and educational centre of North Bengal.
Rajshahi Division (রাজশাহী বিভাগ) is one of the eight first-level administrative divisions of Bangladesh.
The Rajya Sabha or Council of States is the upper house of the Parliament of India.
Rakhine State (Rakhine pronunciation;; formerly Arakan) is a state in Myanmar (Burma).
Rangamati (রাঙামাটি, Chakma:, script) is a district in south-eastern Bangladesh.
Rangpur (রংপুর) is one of the major cities in Bangladesh and Rangpur Division.
Rangpur Division (রংপুর বিভাগ) was formed on 25 January 2010, as Bangladesh's 7th division.
Kamtapuri, Rangpuri or Rajbangshi is a Bengali-Assamese language spoken by the Rajbongshi people in Bangladesh and India, and Rajbanshi and Tajpuria in Nepal.
Rarh region is a toponym for an area in the Indian subcontinent that lies between the Chota Nagpur Plateau on the West and the Ganges Delta on the East.
Rasgulla is a syrupy dessert popular in the Indian subcontinent and regions with South Asian diaspora.
Ratargul Swamp Forest is a freshwater swamp forest located in Gowain River, Fatehpur Union, Gowainghat, Sylhet, Bangladesh.
Ratha Yatra, also referred to as Rathayatra, Rathjatra or Chariot festival is any public procession in a chariot.
A regent (from the Latin regens: ruling, governing) is a person appointed to govern a state because the monarch is a minor, is absent or is incapacitated.
A religious festival is a time of special importance marked by adherents to that religion.
Representative democracy (also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.
The Revolutionary movement for Indian independence is a part of the Indian independence movement comprising the actions of the underground revolutionary factions.
Rhododendron (from Ancient Greek ῥόδον rhódon "rose" and δένδρον déndron "tree") is a genus of 1,024 species of woody plants in the heath family (Ericaceae), either evergreen or deciduous, and found mainly in Asia, although it is also widespread throughout the highlands of the Appalachian Mountains of North America.
Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or Oryza glaberrima (African rice).
Rohingya, or Ruáingga, is a language spoken by the Rohingya people of Rakhine State.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
Sadri, also known as Nagpuri, is an Eastern Indo-Aryan language spoken in the Indian states of Bihar, Jharkhand, Odisha, northern West Bengal, Assam and in Bangladesh.
Sak (also known as Cak, Chak, or Tsak) is a Sino-Tibetan language of the Sal branch spoken in Bangladesh and Myanmar.
The Kingdom of Samatata (or Samata) was an ancient kingdom during the Classical period on the Indian subcontinent, located at the mouth of the Brahmaputra river in the south east of Bengal.
A sampan is a relatively flat bottomed Chinese wooden boat.
Sandakphu or Sandakfu or Sandakpur (3636 m; 11,930 ft) is the highest peak in the district of Ilam, Nepal and West Bengal, India.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
The Santal, or rarely Santals (Santali:ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲ,सांथाल, translit, translit), are an ethnic group, native to Nepal and the Indian states of Jharkhand, West Bengal, Bihar and Odisha.
Santali (Ol Chiki:; Eastern Nagari: সাঁওতালি) is a language in the Munda subfamily of Austroasiatic languages, related to Ho and Mundari, spoken mainly in the Indian states of Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh.
Santiniketan (Santiniketôn) is a small town near Bolpur in the Birbhum district of West Bengal, India, approximately 180 km north of Kolkata (formerly Calcutta).
Saptagram (colloquially called Satgaon) was a major port, the chief city and sometimes capital of southern Bengal, in ancient and medieval times, the location presently being in the Hooghly district in the Indian state of West Bengal.
Sarat Chandra Chattopadhyay, alternatively spelt as Sarat Chandra Chatterjee (15 September 1876 – 16 January 1938), was a prominent Bengali novelist and short story writer of the early 20th century.
A sari, saree, or shariThe name of the garment in various regional languages include:শাড়ি, साड़ी, ଶାଢୀ, ಸೀರೆ,, साडी, कापड, चीरे,, സാരി, साडी, सारी, ਸਾਰੀ, புடவை, చీర, ساڑى is a female garment from the Indian subcontinent that consists of a drape varying from five to nine yards (4.5 metres to 8 metres) in length and two to four feet (60 cm to 1.20 m) in breadth that is typically wrapped around the waist, with one end draped over the shoulder, baring the midriff.
Satchari National Park (সাতছড়ি) is a national park in Habiganj District, Bangladesh.
Satkhira (সাতক্ষীরা জেলা, pron:ʃat̪kʰiɾa) is a district in southwestern Bangladesh and is part of Khulna Division.
Satyendra Nath Bose, (সত্যেন্দ্র নাথ বসু Sôtyendronath Bosu,; 1 January 1894 – 4 February 1974) was an Indian physicist specialising in theoretical physics.
Satyendranath Dutta (also spelt as Satyendranath Datta or Satyendra Nath Dutta) (সত্যেন্দ্রনাথ দত্ত) (1882 - 25 June 1922), a Bengali poet, is considered the wizard of rhymes (or ছন্দের যাদুকর - chhonder jadukar in Bengali).
R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.
Seamanship is the art of operating a ship or boat.
The right of people to self-determination is a cardinal principle in modern international law (commonly regarded as a jus cogens rule), binding, as such, on the United Nations as authoritative interpretation of the Charter's norms.
The Sena Empire (সেন সাম্রাজ্য, Shen Shamrajjo) was a Hindu dynasty during the Late Classical period on the Indian subcontinent, that ruled from Bengal through the 11th and 12th centuries.
Shah (Šāh, pronounced, "king") is a title given to the emperors, kings, princes and lords of Iran (historically also known as Persia).
Shalwar kameez, also spelled salwar kameez or shalwar qameez, is a traditional outfit originating in the Indian subcontinent.
Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah (শামসুদ্দীন ইলিয়াস শাহ) was the first Sultan of Bengal and founder of the Ilyas Shahi dynasty, which lasted for nearly one hundred and fifty years.
Sharsha (শার্শা) is an Upazila of Jessore District in the Division of Khulna, Bangladesh.
Sheikh Hasina Wazed (শেখ হাসিনা ওয়াজেদ;,; born 28 September 1947) is the current Prime Minister of Bangladesh, in office since January 2009.
Sheikh Mujibur Rahman (শেখ মুজিবুর রহমান);; (17 March 1920 – 15 August 1975), shortened as Sheikh Mujib or just Mujib, was a Bengali politician and statesman.
Shēr Shāh Sūrī (1486–22 May 1545), born Farīd Khān, was the founder of the Suri Empire in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, with its capital at Delhi. An ethnic Pashtun, Sher Shah took control of the Mughal Empire in 1538. After his accidental death in 1545, his son Islam Shah became his successor. He first served as a private before rising to become a commander in the Mughal army under Babur and then the governor of Bihar. In 1537, when Babur's son Humayun was elsewhere on an expedition, Sher Shah overran the state of Bengal and established the Suri dynasty. A brilliant strategist, Sher Shah proved himself as a gifted administrator as well as a capable general. His reorganization of the empire laid the foundations for the later Mughal emperors, notably Akbar, son of Humayun. During his seven-year rule from 1538 to 1545, he set up a new civic and military administration, issued the first Rupiya from "Taka" and re-organised the postal system of India. He further developed Humayun's Dina-panah city and named it Shergarh and revived the historical city of Pataliputra, which had been in decline since the 7th century CE, as Patna. He extended the Grand Trunk Road from Chittagong in the frontiers of the province of Bengal in northeast India to Kabul in Afghanistan in the far northwest of the country.
Shipbuilding is the construction of ships and other floating vessels.
Shipbuilding is a growing industry in Bangladesh with great potentials.
Shorea robusta, also known as śāl, sakhua or shala tree, is a species of tree belonging to the Dipterocarpaceae family.
Shreekrishna Kirtana Kabya (শ্রীকৃষ্ণকীর্তন কাব্য) or Sri Krishna Kirtana Kabya is a pastoral Vaishnava drama in verse composed by Boru Chandidas.
Siliguri is a city which spans areas of the Darjeeling and Jalpaiguri districts in the Indian state of West Bengal.
Silk is a natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be woven into textiles.
The Silk Road was an ancient network of trade routes that connected the East and West.
The Six Point Movement was a movement in East Pakistan, spearheaded by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, which called for greater autonomy for East Pakistan.
Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.
Somapura Mahavihara (সোমপুর মহাবিহার Shompur Môhabihar) in Paharpur, Badalgachhi Upazila, Naogaon District, Bangladesh is among the best known Buddhist viharas in the Indian Subcontinent and is one of the most important archaeological sites in the country.
Sonargaon (সোনারগাঁও; also transcribed as Sunārgāon, meaning Village of Gold) was a historic administrative, commercial and maritime centre in Bengal.
South 24 Parganas is a district in the Indian State of West Bengal, headquartered in Alipore.
South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) is the regional intergovernmental organization and geopolitical union of nations in South Asia.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
The Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) was an international organization for collective defense in Southeast Asia created by the Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty, or Manila Pact, signed in September 1954 in Manila, Philippines.
A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
Srivijaya (also written Sri Vijaya, Indonesian/Malay: Sriwijaya, Javanese: ꦯꦿꦶꦮꦶꦗꦪ, Sundanese:, ศรีวิชัย, Sanskrit: श्रीविजय, Śrīvijaya, Khmer: ស្រីវិជ័យ "Srey Vichey", known by the Chinese as Shih-li-fo-shih and San-fo-ch'i t) was a dominant thalassocratic Malay city-state based on the island of Sumatra, Indonesia, which influenced much of Southeast Asia.
State governments in India are the governments ruling States of India and the head of the council of ministers in a state is chief minister.
A state of emergency is a situation in which a government is empowered to perform actions that it would normally not be permitted.
A state religion (also called an established religion or official religion) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state.
Subhas Chandra Bose (23 January 1897 – 18 August 1945) was an Indian nationalist whose defiant patriotism made him a hero in India, but whose attempt during World War II to rid India of British rule with the help of Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan left a troubled legacy.
Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.
Sugarcane, or sugar cane, are several species of tall perennial true grasses of the genus Saccharum, tribe Andropogoneae, native to the warm temperate to tropical regions of South and Southeast Asia, Polynesia and Melanesia, and used for sugar production.
Suhma Kingdom was an ancient state during the Late Vedic period on the eastern part of the Indian Subcontinent, which originated in the region of Bengal.
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.
The Sundarbans is a vast forest in the coastal region of the Bay of Bengal and considered one of the natural wonders of the world.
Sunil Gangopadhyay or Sunil Ganguly (সুনীল গঙ্গোপাধ্যায় Shunil Gônggopaddhae) (7 September 1934 – 23 October 2012) was an Indian Bengali poet and novelist based in the Indian city of Kolkata.
Surfing is a surface water sport in which the wave rider, referred to as a surfer, rides on the forward or deep face of a moving wave, which is usually carrying the surfer towards the shore.
The Surma River (translit) is a major river in Bangladesh, part of the Surma-Meghna River System.
Suzerainty (and) is a back-formation from the late 18th-century word suzerain, meaning upper-sovereign, derived from the French sus (meaning above) + -erain (from souverain, meaning sovereign).
Syed Mujtaba Ali (সৈয়দ মুজতবা আলী; 13 September 1904 – 11 February 1974) was a Bengali author, journalist, travel enthusiast, academician, scholar and linguist.
Sylhet (সিলেট, ꠍꠤꠟꠐ), also known as Jalalabad, the spiritual capital; is a metropolitan city in northeastern Bangladesh.
Sylhet Division (সিলেট বিভাগ, ꠍꠤꠟꠐ ꠛꠤꠜꠣꠉ), also known as Greater Sylhet, is the northeastern division of Bangladesh, named after its main city, Sylhet.
Sylheti (ꠍꠤꠟꠐꠤ Silôṭi) is an Eastern Indo-Aryan language, primarily spoken in the Sylhet Division of Bangladesh and in the Barak Valley of the Indian state of Assam.
The tabla is a membranophone percussion instrument originating from the Indian subcontinent, consisting of a pair of drums, used in traditional, classical, popular and folk music.
Tahmima Anam (তাহমিমা আনাম; born 8 October 1975) is a British Bangladeshi writer, novelist and columnist.
The Taluqdars or Talukders (تعلقدار, तालुक़दार, তালুকদার, তালুকদাৰ) (from Arabic ta'alluq, "attachment " + dar "land owner"), were aristocrats who formed the ruling class during the Mughal Empire and British times.
Tanchangya is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by the Tanchangya people of Bangladesh.
The Tanchangya people or Tanchangyas are indigenous ethnic group living in the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) of Bangladesh.
Tangail (টাঙ্গাইল) is a city of Dhaka Division in the central region of Bangladesh 98 km north-west of Dhaka, the capital.
Tantras ("Looms" or "Weavings") refers to numerous and varied scriptures pertaining to any of several esoteric traditions rooted in Hindu and Buddhist philosophy.
Tarasankar Bandyopadhyay (23 July 1898 – 14 September 1971) was one of the leading Bengali novelists.
Teak (Tectona grandis) is a tropical hardwood tree species placed in the flowering plant family Lamiaceae.
Teknaf Wildlife Sanctuary is a protected area in the Cox's Bazar District of southern Bangladesh comprising a hill forest area of.
The Terai (तराई तराइ) is a lowland region in southern Nepal and northern India that lies south of the outer foothills of the Himalayas, the Siwalik Hills, and north of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.
Terracotta, terra cotta or terra-cotta (Italian: "baked earth", from the Latin terra cocta), a type of earthenware, is a clay-based unglazed or glazed ceramic, where the fired body is porous.
A textile is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres (yarn or thread).
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
Thakurmar Jhuli (Grandmother's Bag Of Stories) (ঠাকুরমার ঝুলি) is a collection of Bengali folk tales and fairy tales.
A thalassocracy (from Classical Greek θάλασσα (thalassa), meaning "sea", and κρατεῖν (kratein), meaning "power", giving Koine Greek θαλασσοκρατία (thalassokratia), "sea power") is a state with primarily maritime realms, an empire at sea (such as the Phoenician network of merchant cities) or a seaborne empire.
The World Factbook, also known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.
Tibet is a historical region covering much of the Tibetan Plateau in Central Asia.
The Tibetan Empire ("Great Tibet") existed from the 7th to 9th centuries AD when Tibet was unified as a large and powerful empire, and ruled an area considerably larger than the Tibetan Plateau, stretching to parts of East Asia, Central Asia and South Asia.
The Tibeto-Burman languages are the non-Sinitic members of the Sino-Tibetan language family, over 400 of which are spoken throughout the highlands of Southeast Asia as well as certain parts of East Asia and South Asia.
Syed Mir Nisar Ali Titumir (সৈয়দ মীর নিসার আলী তিতুমীর; 27 January 1782 – 19 November 1831) was an Islamic preacher who led a peasant uprising against the Hindu zamindars, British India during the 19th century.
Tripura 'ত্রিপুরা (Bengali)' is a state in Northeast India.
Tripura State, also known as Hill Tipperah, was a princely state in India during the period of the British Raj and for some two years after the departure of the British.
The State of Tripura was one of the ancient princely states of India.
The Tripuri (also Tipra or Tipperah) people are the original inhabitants of the Twipra Kingdom in North-East India and Bangladesh.
Twipra Kingdom (Sanskrit: Tripura, Anglicized: Tippera) was one of the largest historical kingdoms of the Twipra people in the North-east India.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
A union territory is a type of administrative division in the Republic of India.
United Bengal is a political ideology for a unified Bengali-speaking nation in South Asia.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
Under United States law, a patent is a right granted to the inventor of a (1) process, machine, article of manufacture, or composition of matter, (2) that is new, useful, and non-obvious.
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
Urbanization refers to the population shift from rural to urban residency, the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas, and the ways in which each society adapts to this change.
Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language.
Uttar Dinajpur or North Dinajpur is a district of the Indian state of West Bengal.
Vajjabhumi was a part of Rarh in ancient times.
The Vangidae family (from vanga, Malagasy for the hook-billed vanga, Vanga curvirostris) comprises a group of often shrike-like medium-sized birds distributed from Australia to Africa, including the vangas of Madagascar to which the family owe its name.
The Vanga Kingdom was an ancient seafaring thalassocracy during the Late Vedic period on the Indian Subcontinent, which originated in the region of Bengal.
Varendra (or Barind) was a region of North Bengal, now in Bangladesh.
The Varman dynasty (350-650) is the first historical dynasty of the Kamarupa kingdom.
Vasant Panchami, also spelled Basant Panchami, is celebrated by people in various ways depending on the region, Vasant is a festival that marks the arrival of spring.
Vedic and Sanskrit literature comprises the spoken or sung literature of the Vedas from the early-to-mid 2nd to mid 1st millennium BCE, and continues with the oral tradition of the Sanskrit epics of Iron Age India; the golden age of Classical Sanskrit literature dates to Late Antiquity (roughly the 3rd to 8th centuries CE).
The Victoria Memorial is a large marble building in Kolkata, West Bengal, India, which was built between 1906 and 1921.
The Vidhan Sabha the Legislative Assembly is the lower house (in states with bicameral) or the sole house (in unicameral states) of the state legislature in the different states of India.
Vihara (विहार, IAST: vihāra) generally refers to a Buddhist bhikkhu monastery.
War Jaintia (also spelled Waar), War-Jaintia or Amwi is an Austroasiatic language spoken by about 16,000 people in Bangladesh and 26,000 people in India.
The Wari-Bateshwar region (উয়ারী-বটেশ্বর Uari-Bôṭeshshor) in Narsingdi, Bangladesh is the site of an ancient fort city dating back to 450 BCMM Hoque and SS Mostafizur Rahman,, Banglapedia: The National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Retrieved: 20 February 2012 during the era of Maurya dynasty.
West Bengal (Paśchimbāṅga) is an Indian state, located in Eastern India on the Bay of Bengal.
West Pakistan (مغربی پاکستان,; পশ্চিম পাকিস্তান) was one of the two exclaves created at the formation of the modern State of Pakistan following the 1947 Partition of India.
The Westminster system is a parliamentary system of government developed in the United Kingdom.
A wetland is a land area that is saturated with water, either permanently or seasonally, such that it takes on the characteristics of a distinct ecosystem.
The white-throated kingfisher (Halcyon smyrnensis) also known as the white-breasted kingfisher is a tree kingfisher, widely distributed in Asia from Turkey east through the Indian subcontinent to the Philippines.
The World Bank Group (WBG) (Groupe de la Banque mondiale) is a family of five international organizations that make leveraged loans to developing countries.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade.
Yunnan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the far southwest of the country.
Zainul Abedin (29 December 1914 – 28 May 1976) was a Bengali painter.
A zamindar in the Indian subcontinent was an aristocrat.
Zheng He (1371–1433 or 1435) was a Chinese mariner, explorer, diplomat, fleet admiral, and court eunuch during China's early Ming dynasty.
Zia Haider Rahman (জিয়া হায়দার রহমান) is a British novelist who was born in Bangladesh and raised in the UK.
Ziaur Rahman (জিয়াউর রহমান Ji-yaur Rôhman; 19 January 1936 – 30 May 1981) was the 7th President of Bangladesh.
0 (zero) is both a number and the numerical digit used to represent that number in numerals.
The Great Backerganj Cyclone of 1876 (October 29 – November 1, 1876) was one of the deadliest cyclones in history.
The 1970 Bhola cyclone was a devastating tropical cyclone that struck East Pakistan (present-day Bangladesh) and India's West Bengal on November 12, 1970.
The genocide in Bangladesh began on 26 March 1971 with the launch of Operation Searchlight, as West Pakistan began a military crackdown on the Eastern wing of the nation to suppress Bengali calls for self-determination rights.
The 1st millennium BC encompasses the Iron Age and sees the rise of many successive empires, and spanned from 1000 BC to 1 BC.