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Bengali language

Index Bengali language

Bengali, also known by its endonym Bangla (বাংলা), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in South Asia. [1]

262 relations: Abahattha, Abugida, Accusative case, Adjective, Affricate consonant, Alaler Gharer Dulal, Allography, Alveolar consonant, Alveolo-palatal consonant, Amar Sonar Bangla, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Animacy, Apabhraṃśa, Approximant consonant, Arabic, Arabic alphabet, Ardhamagadhi Prakrit, Article (grammar), ASCII, Aspirated consonant, Assam, Assamese alphabet, Assamese language, Austroasiatic languages, Back vowel, Bangla Academy, Bangladesh, Bangladeshi Australians, Bangladeshi Canadians, Bangladeshi folk literature, Bangladeshis in Italy, Bangladeshis in Malaysia, Bangladeshis in the Middle East, Banglapedia, Barak Valley, Barisal Division, Bengal, Bengal Sultanate, Bengali alphabet, Bengali Americans, Bengali Braille, Bengali consonant clusters, Bengali dialects, Bengali Language Movement (Barak Valley), Bengali literature, Bengali nationalism, Bengali numerals, Bengali renaissance, Bengali vocabulary, Bengali-language newspapers, ..., Bengali–Assamese languages, Bengalis, Bihar, Bihari languages, Brahmic scripts, British Bangladeshi, British Raj, Bureau of Indian Standards, Byomkes Chakrabarti, Central vowel, Chagatai language, Chakma language, Chandidas, Chittagong, Chittagong Division, Chittagonian language, Clitic, Close vowel, Close-mid vowel, Collation, Colonialism, Conditional mood, Consonant, Consonant cluster, Copula (linguistics), Culture of Bengal, Cursive, De facto, Declension, Delhi, Dental consonant, Determiner, Dhaka Division, Diacritic, Dialect continuum, Diglossia, Diphthong, Dominion of Pakistan, Dutch language, East Bengal, Eastern Nagari script, Elision, Ethnic groups in Europe, Exonym and endonym, Finite verb, First language, Focus (linguistics), Fricative consonant, Front vowel, Full stop, Gemination, Genitive case, Glottal consonant, Government of Assam, Government of Bangladesh, Grammatical aspect, Grammatical case, Grammatical conjugation, Grammatical mood, Grammatical number, Grammatical particle, Grammatical person, Grammatical tense, Grapheme, Gupta Empire, Hajong language, Head-directionality parameter, Heteroglossia, Hindi, Hindustan Times, History of Bengali literature, Honorific, Hungarian language, India, Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Iranian languages, Inflection, Inherent vowel, International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration, International Mother Language Day, International Phonetic Alphabet, ITRANS, Jana Gana Mana, Jharkhand, Karachi, Kolkata, Labial consonant, Language Movement, Language Movement Day, Languages of Bangladesh, Languages with official status in India, Letter case, Lingua franca, List of languages by number of native speakers, Loanword, Locative case, Magadha, Magadhi Prakrit, Manipur, Mass noun, Measure word, Meghalaya, Meitei language, Meitei script, Middle Indo-Aryan languages, Midnapore, Mizoram, Morphology (linguistics), Mughal Empire, Mumbai, Nadia district, Nasal consonant, Nasalization, National language, National Library at Kolkata romanisation, Natural Language and Linguistic Theory, NDTV, Near-open front unrounded vowel, Near-open vowel, Nominative case, Noun, Odia language, Odisha, Official language, Official languages of the United Nations, Open vowel, Orthographic depth, Pala Empire, Palato-alveolar consonant, Pali, Paschimbanga Bangla Akademi, Peary Chand Mitra, Persian language, Persian people, Phoneme, Phonemic orthography, Portuguese language, Possession (linguistics), Pramatha Chaudhuri, Preposition and postposition, Rabindranath Tagore, Rangpuri language, Retroflex consonant, Rhotic consonant, Romani language, Romanisation of Bengali, Romanization, Sanskrit, Second language, Segment (linguistics), Sena dynasty, Shadhu-bhasha, Shahmukhi alphabet, Shantipur, Sheikh Hasina, Shreekrishna Kirtana, Singapore, Sinhalese language, South Asia, Sri Lanka Matha, States and union territories of India, Stop consonant, Stress (linguistics), Subject–object–verb, Suniti Kumar Chatterji, Sylhet Division, Sylheti language, Syllable, Syntax, Tadbhava, Tatsama, The Daily Mirror (Sri Lanka), The Daily Star (Bangladesh), Tibeto-Burman languages, Tone (linguistics), Transcription (linguistics), Transliteration, Tripura, Trochee, Turkic peoples, Typographic ligature, UNESCO, United Nations, United Nations General Assembly, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, University of Dhaka, University of Karachi, Varanasi, Variety (linguistics), Vedic and Sanskrit literature, Velar consonant, Velar nasal, Vernacular, Virama, Voice (phonetics), Voiced alveolo-palatal affricate, Voiced postalveolar affricate, Voiceless alveolar fricative, Voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative, Voiceless glottal fricative, Voiceless postalveolar affricate, Voiceless postalveolar fricative, Voiceless retroflex fricative, Voicelessness, Vowel, Vowel harmony, Vrindavan, West Bengal, Word order, Zero copula, 1st millennium, 1st millennium BC. Expand index (212 more) »


Abahattha (Prakrit: abasatta, অবহট্‌ঠ ôbôhôtthô, ultimately from Sanskrit apaśabda; "meaningless sound") is a stage in the evolution of the Eastern group of Indo-Aryan languages.

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An abugida (from Ge'ez: አቡጊዳ ’abugida), or alphasyllabary, is a segmental writing system in which consonant–vowel sequences are written as a unit: each unit is based on a consonant letter, and vowel notation is secondary.

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Accusative case

The accusative case (abbreviated) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb.

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In linguistics, an adjective (abbreviated) is a describing word, the main syntactic role of which is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about the object signified.

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Affricate consonant

An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).

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Alaler Gharer Dulal

Alaler Gharer Dulal (Bengali: আলালের ঘরের দুলাল, published in 1857) is a Bengali novel by Peary Chand Mitra (1814-1883).

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Allography, from the Greek for "other writing", has several meanings which all relate to how words and sounds are written down.

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Alveolar consonant

Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.

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Alveolo-palatal consonant

In phonetics, alveolo-palatal (or alveopalatal) consonants, sometimes synonymous with pre-palatal consonants, are intermediate in articulation between the coronal and dorsal consonants, or which have simultaneous alveolar and palatal articulation.

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Amar Sonar Bangla

Amar Sonar Bangla (আমার সোনার বাংলা, "My Golden Bengal") is the national anthem of Bangladesh.

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Andaman and Nicobar Islands

The Andaman and Nicobar Islands, one of the seven union territories of India, are a group of islands at the juncture of the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea.

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Animacy is a grammatical and semantic principle expressed in language based on how sentient or alive the referent of a noun is.

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Apabhranśa (अपभ्रंश,, Prakrit) is a term used by vyākaraṇin (grammarians) since Patañjali to refer to the dialects prevalent in the Ganges (east and west) before the rise of the modern languages.

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Approximant consonant

Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.

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Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.

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Arabic alphabet

The Arabic alphabet (الأَبْجَدِيَّة العَرَبِيَّة, or الحُرُوف العَرَبِيَّة) or Arabic abjad is the Arabic script as it is codified for writing Arabic.

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Ardhamagadhi Prakrit

Ardhamagadhi Prakrit was a Middle Indo-Aryan language and a Dramatic Prakrit thought to have been spoken in modern-day Uttar Pradesh and used in some early Buddhism and Jainism.

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Article (grammar)

An article (with the linguistic glossing abbreviation) is a word that is used with a noun (as a standalone word or a prefix or suffix) to specify grammatical definiteness of the noun, and in some languages extending to volume or numerical scope.

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ASCII, abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding standard for electronic communication.

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Aspirated consonant

In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of breath that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents.

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Assam is a state in Northeast India, situated south of the eastern Himalayas along the Brahmaputra and Barak River valleys.

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Assamese alphabet

The Assamese script is a writing system of the Assamese language.

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Assamese language

Assamese or Asamiya অসমীয়া is an Eastern Indo-Aryan language spoken mainly in the Indian state of Assam, where it is an official language.

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Austroasiatic languages

The Austroasiatic languages, formerly known as Mon–Khmer, are a large language family of Mainland Southeast Asia, also scattered throughout India, Bangladesh, Nepal and the southern border of China, with around 117 million speakers.

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Back vowel

A back vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in spoken languages.

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Bangla Academy

The Bangla Academy is Bangladesh's national language authority, established in 1955.

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Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.

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Bangladeshi Australians

Bangladeshi Australians refers to Australian citizens or residents who have full or partial Bangladeshi heritage or people who emigrated from Bangladesh and reside in Australia.

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Bangladeshi Canadians

Bangladeshi Canadians are Canadian citizens of Bangladeshi descent or a Bangladesh-born permanent resident who resides in Canada.

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Bangladeshi folk literature

Bangladeshi Folk Literature (বাংলা লোক/পল্লী সাহিত্য) constitutes a considerable portion of Bengali literature.

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Bangladeshis in Italy

Bangladeshis form one of the largest immigrant populations in Italy.

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Bangladeshis in Malaysia

The Bangladeshi Malaysians consists of people of full or partial Bangladeshi descent who were born in or immigrated to Malaysia.

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Bangladeshis in the Middle East

Although Bangladesh only came into existence in 1971, the land which is today Bangladesh has strong ties to the Middle East.

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Banglapedia: the National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh is the first Bangladeshi encyclopedia.

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Barak Valley

The Barak Valley is a valley located in the southern region of the Indian state of Assam.

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Barisal Division

Barisal Division, officially known as Barishal Division, is one of the eight administrative divisions of Bangladesh.

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Bengal (Bānglā/Bôngô /) is a geopolitical, cultural and historical region in Asia, which is located in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent at the apex of the Bay of Bengal.

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Bengal Sultanate

The Sultanate of Bengal (also known as the Bengal Sultanate; Bangalah (بنگاله Bangālah, বাঙ্গালা/বঙ্গালা) and Shahi Bangalah (شاهی بنگاله. Shāhī Bangālah, শাহী বাঙ্গলা)) was a Muslim state, established in Bengal during the 14th century, as part of the Muslim conquest of the Indian subcontinent.

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Bengali alphabet

The Bengali alphabet or Bangla alphabet (বাংলা বর্ণমালা, bangla bôrnômala) or Bengali script (বাংলা লিপি, bangla lipi) is the writing system for the Bengali language and, together with the Assamese alphabet, is the fifth most widely used writing system in the world.

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Bengali Americans

Bengali Americans (মার্কিন বাঙ্গালী) are Americans of Bengali ethnic, cultural and linguistic heritage and identity.

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Bengali Braille

Bengali Braille is used for the Bengali.

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Bengali consonant clusters

Consonant clusters in Bengali are very common word-initially due to a long history of borrowing from English and Sanskrit, two languages with a large cluster inventory.

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Bengali dialects

The dialects of the Bengali language (বাংলা উপভাষাসমূহ) are part of the Eastern Indo-Aryan language group of the Indo-European language family widely spoken in the Bengal region of South Asia.

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Bengali Language Movement (Barak Valley)

The Bengali Language Movement in Barak Valley, Assam was a protest against the decision of the Government of Assam to make Assamese the only official language of the state even though a significant proportion of population were Bengali people.

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Bengali literature

Bengali literature (বাংলা সাহিত্য, Bangla Sahityô) denotes the body of writings in the Bengali language.

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Bengali nationalism

Bengali nationalism is one of the four fundamental principles according to the original Constitution of Bangladesh.

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Bengali numerals

Bengali–Assamese numerals (সংখ্যা shôngkha, সংখ্যা xoiŋkha) are the numeral system used in Bengali, Sylheti, Assamese, Bishnupriya Manipuri, Chakma, Hajong and Meithei languages.

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Bengali renaissance

The Bengali renaissance or simply Bengal renaissance, (বাংলার নবজাগরণ; Bānglār nabajāgaraṇ) was a cultural, social, intellectual and artistic movement in Bengal region of the Indian subcontinent during the period of the British Indian Empire, from the nineteenth century to the early twentieth century.

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Bengali vocabulary

Bengali (বাংলা Bangla) is one of the Magadhan languages, evolved from Magadhi Prakrit and Pali languages.

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Bengali-language newspapers

Robert Knight's papers promoted Indian self-rule and often criticized the policies of the British Raj.

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Bengali–Assamese languages

The Bengali–Assamese languages (or Assamese-Bengali languages) belong to the Eastern zone of Indo-Aryan languages.

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Bengalis (বাঙালি), also rendered as the Bengali people, Bangalis and Bangalees, are an Indo-Aryan ethnic group and nation native to the region of Bengal in the Indian subcontinent, which is presently divided between most of Bangladesh and the Indian states of West Bengal, Tripura, Assam, Jharkhand.

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Bihar is an Indian state considered to be a part of Eastern as well as Northern India.

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Bihari languages

Bihari is the western group of Eastern Indo-Aryan languages, mainly spoken in the Indian states of Bihar, Jharkhand, West Bengal and Uttar Pradesh and also in Nepal.

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Brahmic scripts

The Brahmic scripts are a family of abugida or alphabet writing systems.

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British Bangladeshi

British Bangladeshis (ব্রিটিশ বাংলাদেশি) are people of Bangladeshi origin who have attained citizenship in the United Kingdom, through immigration and historical naturalisation.

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British Raj

The British Raj (from rāj, literally, "rule" in Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.

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Bureau of Indian Standards

The Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) is the national Standards Body of India working under the aegis of Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food & Public Distribution, Government of India.

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Byomkes Chakrabarti


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Central vowel

A central vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.

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Chagatai language

Chagatai (جغتای) is an extinct Turkic language which was once widely spoken in Central Asia, and remained the shared literary language there until the early 20th century.

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Chakma language

Chakma language (autonym: 𑄌𑄋𑄴𑄟𑄳𑄦 𑄞𑄌𑄴, script) is an Indo-European language spoken by the Chakma and Daingnet people.

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Chandidas (চণ্ডীদাস; born 1408 CE) refers to a medieval poet of Bengal or possibly more than one.

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Chittagong, officially known as Chattogram, is a major coastal city and financial centre in southeastern Bangladesh.

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Chittagong Division

Chittagong Division, officially known as Chattogram Division, is geographically the largest of the eight administrative divisions of Bangladesh.

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Chittagonian language

Chittagonian or Chittagong Bangla, also Chatgaya (চাঁটগাঁইয়া) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by the people of Chittagong in Bangladesh and in much of the southeast of the country.

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A clitic (from Greek κλιτικός klitikos, "inflexional") is a morpheme in morphology and syntax that has syntactic characteristics of a word, but depends phonologically on another word or phrase.

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Close vowel

A close vowel, also known as a high vowel (in American terminology), is any in a class of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.

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Close-mid vowel

A close-mid vowel (also mid-close vowel, high-mid vowel, mid-high vowel or half-close vowel) is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.

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Collation is the assembly of written information into a standard order.

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Colonialism is the policy of a polity seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of developing or exploiting them to the benefit of the colonizing country and of helping the colonies modernize in terms defined by the colonizers, especially in economics, religion and health.

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Conditional mood

The conditional mood (abbreviated) is a grammatical mood used to express a proposition whose validity is dependent on some condition, possibly counterfactual.

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In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.

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Consonant cluster

In linguistics, a consonant cluster, consonant sequence or consonant compound is a group of consonants which have no intervening vowel.

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Copula (linguistics)

In linguistics, a copula (plural: copulas or copulae; abbreviated) is a word used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate (a subject complement), such as the word is in the sentence "The sky is blue." The word copula derives from the Latin noun for a "link" or "tie" that connects two different things.

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Culture of Bengal

The culture of Bengal encompasses the Bengal region in South Asia, including Bangladesh and the Indian states of West Bengal, Tripura and Assam (Barak Valley), where the Bengali language is the official and primary language.

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Cursive (also known as script or longhand, among other names) is any style of penmanship in which some characters are written joined together in a flowing manner, generally for the purpose of making writing faster.

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De facto

In law and government, de facto (or;, "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.

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In linguistics, declension is the changing of the form of a word to express it with a non-standard meaning, by way of some inflection, that is by marking the word with some change in pronunciation or by other information.

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Delhi (Dilli), officially the National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT), is a city and a union territory of India.

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Dental consonant

A dental consonant is a consonant articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth, such as,,, and in some languages.

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A determiner, also called determinative (abbreviated), is a word, phrase, or affix that occurs together with a noun or noun phrase and serves to express the reference of that noun or noun phrase in the context.

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Dhaka Division

Dhaka Division (ঢাকা বিভাগ, Ḑhaka Bibhag) is an administrative division within Bangladesh.

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A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or an accent – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph.

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Dialect continuum

A dialect continuum or dialect chain is a spread of language varieties spoken across some geographical area such that neighbouring varieties differ only slightly, but the differences accumulate over distance so that widely separated varieties are not mutually intelligible.

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In linguistics, diglossia is a situation in which two dialects or languages are used by a single language community.

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A diphthong (or; from Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable.

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Dominion of Pakistan

Pakistan (পাকিস্তান অধিরাজ্য; مملکتِ پاکستان), also called the Dominion of Pakistan, was an independent federal dominion in South Asia that was established in 1947 as a result of the Pakistan movement, followed by the simultaneous partition of British India to create a new country called Pakistan.

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Dutch language

The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.

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East Bengal

East Bengal (পূর্ব বাংলা Purbô Bangla) was a geographically noncontiguous province of the Dominion of Pakistan covering Bangladesh.

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Eastern Nagari script

Eastern Nagari script, Assamese script, Bengali script, Assamese-Bengali script or Purbi script is the basis of the Assamese alphabet and the Bengali alphabet.

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In linguistics, an elision or deletion is the omission of one or more sounds (such as a vowel, a consonant, or a whole syllable) in a word or phrase.

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Ethnic groups in Europe

The Indigenous peoples of Europe are the focus of European ethnology, the field of anthropology related to the various indigenous groups that reside in the nations of Europe.

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Exonym and endonym

An exonym or xenonym is an external name for a geographical place, or a group of people, an individual person, or a language or dialect.

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Finite verb

A finite verb is a form of a verb that has a subject (expressed or implied) and can function as the root of an independent clause; an independent clause can, in turn, stand alone as a complete sentence.

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First language

A first language, native language or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period.

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Focus (linguistics)

Focus (abbreviated) is a grammatical category that determines which part of the sentence contributes new, non-derivable, or contrastive information.

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Fricative consonant

Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.

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Front vowel

A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the highest point of the tongue is positioned relatively in front in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant.

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Full stop

The full point or full stop (British and broader Commonwealth English) or period (North American English) is a punctuation mark.

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Gemination, or consonant elongation, is the pronouncing in phonetics of a spoken consonant for an audibly longer period of time than that of a short consonant.

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Genitive case

In grammar, the genitive (abbreviated); also called the second case, is the grammatical case that marks a word, usually a noun, as modifying another word, also usually a noun.

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Glottal consonant

Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.

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Government of Assam

The Government of Assam is the provincial governing authority of Assam, a state of India.

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Government of Bangladesh

The Government of Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ সরকার Bangladesh Sôrkar GOB) has three branches; the Executive branch, the Legislative branch and the Judicial branch.

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Grammatical aspect

Aspect is a grammatical category that expresses how an action, event, or state, denoted by a verb, extends over time.

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Grammatical case

Case is a special grammatical category of a noun, pronoun, adjective, participle or numeral whose value reflects the grammatical function performed by that word in a phrase, clause or sentence.

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Grammatical conjugation

In linguistics, conjugation is the creation of derived forms of a verb from its principal parts by inflection (alteration of form according to rules of grammar).

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Grammatical mood

In linguistics, grammatical mood (also mode) is a grammatical feature of verbs, used for signaling modality.

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Grammatical number

In linguistics, grammatical number is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, and adjective and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one", "two", or "three or more").

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Grammatical particle

In grammar the term particle (abbreviated) has a traditional meaning, as a part of speech that cannot be inflected, and a modern meaning, as a function word associated with another word or phrase to impart meaning.

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Grammatical person

Grammatical person, in linguistics, is the grammatical distinction between deictic references to participant(s) in an event; typically the distinction is between the speaker (first person), the addressee (second person), and others (third person).

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Grammatical tense

In grammar, tense is a category that expresses time reference with reference to the moment of speaking.

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In linguistics, a grapheme is the smallest unit of a writing system of any given language.

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Gupta Empire

The Gupta Empire was an ancient Indian empire, existing from approximately 240 to 590 CE.

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Hajong language

Hajong, originally a Tibeto-Burman language, is now considered an Indo-Aryan language with Tibeto-Burman roots.

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Head-directionality parameter

In linguistics, the head directionality is a proposed parameter that classifies languages according to whether they are head-initial (the head of a phrase precedes its complements) or head-final (the head follows its complements).

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The term heteroglossia describes the coexistence of distinct varieties within a single "language" (in Greek: hetero- "different" and glōssa "tongue, language").

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Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.

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Hindustan Times

Hindustan Times is an Indian English-language daily newspaper founded in 1924 with roots in the Indian independence movement of the period ("Hindustan" being a historical name for India).

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History of Bengali literature

The first works in Bengali, written in Old Bengali, appeared between 8th and 10th centuries C.E. The collection of these words is generally known as the Charyapada.

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An honorific is a title that conveys esteem or respect for position or rank when used in addressing or referring to a person.

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Hungarian language

Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine, central and western Romania (Transylvania and Partium), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia due to the effects of the Treaty of Trianon, which resulted in many ethnic Hungarians being displaced from their homes and communities in the former territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America (particularly the United States). Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family branch, its closest relatives being Mansi and Khanty.

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India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Indo-Aryan languages

The Indo-Aryan or Indic languages are the dominant language family of the Indian subcontinent.

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Indo-Iranian languages

The Indo-Iranian languages or Indo-Iranic languages, or Aryan languages, constitute the largest and easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European language family.

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In grammar, inflection or inflexion – sometimes called accidence – is the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, and mood.

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Inherent vowel

An inherent vowel is part of an abugida (or alphasyllabary) script.

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International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration

The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (I.A.S.T.) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanization of Indic scripts as employed by Sanskrit and related Indic languages.

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International Mother Language Day

International Mother Language Day (IMLD) is a worldwide annual observance held on 21 February to promote awareness of linguistic and cultural diversity and promote multilingualism.

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International Phonetic Alphabet

The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.

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The "Indian languages TRANSliteration" (ITRANS) is an ASCII transliteration scheme for Indic scripts, particularly for Devanagari script.

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Jana Gana Mana

"Jana Gana Mana" is the national anthem of India.

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Jharkhand (lit. "Bushland" or The land of forest) is a state in eastern India, carved out of the southern part of Bihar on 15 November 2000.

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Karachi (کراچی; ALA-LC:,; ڪراچي) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Sindh.

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Kolkata (also known as Calcutta, the official name until 2001) is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal.

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Labial consonant

Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator.

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Language Movement

The Language Movement (ভাষা আন্দোলন Bhasha Andolôn) was a political movement in former East Bengal (currently Bangladesh) advocating the recognition of the Bengali language as an official language of the then-Dominion of Pakistan in order to allow its use in government affairs, the continuation of its use as a medium of education, its use in media, currency and stamps, and to maintain its writing in the Bengali script.

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Language Movement Day

Language Movement Day or Language Revolution Day or Bengali Language Movement Day (ভাষা আন্দোলন দিবস Bhasha Andolôn Dibôs), which is also referred to as Language Martyrs' Day or Martyrs' Day (শহীদ দিবস Shôhid Dibôs), is a national day of Bangladesh to commemorate protests and sacrifices to protect Bengali as a national language during Bengali Language Movement of 1952.

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Languages of Bangladesh

The official and de facto national language of Bangladesh is Modern Standard Bengali (Literary Bengali).

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Languages with official status in India

The Constitution of India designates the official language of the Government of India as Hindi written in the Devanagari script, as well as English.

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Letter case

Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger upper case (also uppercase, capital letters, capitals, caps, large letters, or more formally majuscule) and smaller lower case (also lowercase, small letters, or more formally minuscule) in the written representation of certain languages.

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Lingua franca

A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.

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List of languages by number of native speakers

This article ranks human languages by their number of native speakers.

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A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.

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Locative case

Locative (abbreviated) is a grammatical case which indicates a location.

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Magadha was an ancient Indian kingdom in southern Bihar, and was counted as one of the sixteen Mahajanapadas (Sanskrit: "Great Countries") of ancient India.

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Magadhi Prakrit

Magadhi Prakrit (Māgadhī) was a vernacular Middle Indo-Aryan language, replacing earlier Vedic Sanskrit in parts of the Indian subcontinents.

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Manipur is a state in Northeast India, with the city of Imphal as its capital.

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Mass noun

In linguistics, a mass noun, uncountable noun, or non-count noun is a noun with the syntactic property that any quantity of it is treated as an undifferentiated unit, rather than as something with discrete subsets.

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Measure word

In linguistics, measure words are words (or morphemes) that are used in combination with a numeral to indicate an amount of something represented by some noun.

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Meghalaya is a state in Northeast India.

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Meitei language

Meitei (also Manipuri, Census of India, 2001, Meithei, Meetei, Meeʁteilon) is the predominant language and lingua franca in the southeastern Himalayan state of Manipur, in northeastern India.

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Meitei script

The Meitei script, Meetei Mayek, is an abugida that was used for the Meitei language, one of the official languages of the Indian state of Manipur, until the eighteenth century, when it was replaced by the Bengali script.

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Middle Indo-Aryan languages

The Middle Indo-Aryan languages (or Middle Indic languages, sometimes conflated with the Prakrits, which are a stage of Middle Indic) are a historical group of languages of the Indo-Aryan family.

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Midnapore city (Pron: med̪iːniːpur) is the district headquarters of Paschim Medinipur district of the Indian state of West Bengal.

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Mizoram is a state in Northeast India, with Aizawl as its capital city.

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Morphology (linguistics)

In linguistics, morphology is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language.

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Mughal Empire

The Mughal Empire (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān)) or Mogul Empire was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by a Muslim dynasty with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia, but with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; only the first two Mughal emperors were fully Central Asian, while successive emperors were of predominantly Rajput and Persian ancestry. The dynasty was Indo-Persian in culture, combining Persianate culture with local Indian cultural influences visible in its traits and customs. The Mughal Empire at its peak extended over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent and parts of Afghanistan. It was the second largest empire to have existed in the Indian subcontinent, spanning approximately four million square kilometres at its zenith, after only the Maurya Empire, which spanned approximately five million square kilometres. The Mughal Empire ushered in a period of proto-industrialization, and around the 17th century, Mughal India became the world's largest economic power, accounting for 24.4% of world GDP, and the world leader in manufacturing, producing 25% of global industrial output up until the 18th century. The Mughal Empire is considered "India's last golden age" and one of the three Islamic Gunpowder Empires (along with the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia). The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, in the First Battle of Panipat (1526). The Mughal emperors had roots in the Turco-Mongol Timurid dynasty of Central Asia, claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan (founder of the Mongol Empire, through his son Chagatai Khan) and Timur (Turco-Mongol conqueror who founded the Timurid Empire). During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur, the empire was briefly interrupted by the Sur Empire. The "classic period" of the Mughal Empire started in 1556 with the ascension of Akbar the Great to the throne. Under the rule of Akbar and his son Jahangir, the region enjoyed economic progress as well as religious harmony, and the monarchs were interested in local religious and cultural traditions. Akbar was a successful warrior who also forged alliances with several Hindu Rajput kingdoms. Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but most of them were subdued by Akbar. All Mughal emperors were Muslims; Akbar, however, propounded a syncretic religion in the latter part of his life called Dīn-i Ilāhī, as recorded in historical books like Ain-i-Akbari and Dabistān-i Mazāhib. The Mughal Empire did not try to intervene in the local societies during most of its existence, but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices and diverse and inclusive ruling elites, leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule. Traditional and newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Maratha Empire|Marathas, the Rajputs, the Pashtuns, the Hindu Jats and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience. The reign of Shah Jahan, the fifth emperor, between 1628 and 1658, was the zenith of Mughal architecture. He erected several large monuments, the best known of which is the Taj Mahal at Agra, as well as the Moti Masjid, Agra, the Red Fort, the Badshahi Mosque, the Jama Masjid, Delhi, and the Lahore Fort. The Mughal Empire reached the zenith of its territorial expanse during the reign of Aurangzeb and also started its terminal decline in his reign due to Maratha military resurgence under Category:History of Bengal Category:History of West Bengal Category:History of Bangladesh Category:History of Kolkata Category:Empires and kingdoms of Afghanistan Category:Medieval India Category:Historical Turkic states Category:Mongol states Category:1526 establishments in the Mughal Empire Category:1857 disestablishments in the Mughal Empire Category:History of Pakistan.

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Mumbai (also known as Bombay, the official name until 1995) is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra.

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Nadia district

Nadia district (Pron: nɔd̪iːaː) (নদিয়া জেলা) is a district of the state of West Bengal, in eastern India.

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Nasal consonant

In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.

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In phonetics, nasalization (or nasalisation) is the production of a sound while the velum is lowered, so that some air escapes through the nose during the production of the sound by the mouth.

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National language

A national language is a language (or language variant, e.g. dialect) that has some connection—de facto or de jure—with people and the territory they occupy.

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National Library at Kolkata romanisation

The National Library at Kolkata romanisation transliterationSee p 24-26 for table comparing Indic languages, and p 33-34 for Devanagari alphabet listing.

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Natural Language and Linguistic Theory

Natural Language & Linguistic Theory is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal covering theoretical and generative linguistics.

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New Delhi Television Limited (NDTV) is an Indian television media company founded in 1988 by Radhika Roy, a journalist.

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Near-open front unrounded vowel

No description.

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Near-open vowel

A near-open vowel or a near-low vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.

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Nominative case

The nominative case (abbreviated), subjective case, straight case or upright case is one of the grammatical cases of a noun or other part of speech, which generally marks the subject of a verb or the predicate noun or predicate adjective, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments.

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A noun (from Latin nōmen, literally meaning "name") is a word that functions as the name of some specific thing or set of things, such as living creatures, objects, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.

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Odia language

Odia (ଓଡ଼ିଆ) (formerly romanized as Oriya) is a language spoken by 4.2% of India's population.

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Odisha (formerly Orissa) is one of the 29 states of India, located in eastern India.

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Official language

An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.

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Official languages of the United Nations

The official languages of the United Nations are the six languages that are used in UN meetings, and in which all official UN documents are written.

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Open vowel

An open vowel is a vowel sound in which the tongue is positioned as far as possible from the roof of the mouth.

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Orthographic depth

In linguistics, the orthographic depth of an alphabetic orthography indicates the degree to which a written language deviates from simple one-to-one letter–phoneme correspondence.

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Pala Empire

The Pala Empire was an imperial power during the Late Classical period on the Indian subcontinent, which originated in the region of Bengal.

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Palato-alveolar consonant

In phonetics, palato-alveolar (or palatoalveolar) consonants are postalveolar consonants, nearly always sibilants, that are weakly palatalized with a domed (bunched-up) tongue.

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Pali, or Magadhan, is a Middle Indo-Aryan language native to the Indian subcontinent.

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Paschimbanga Bangla Akademi

Paschimbanga Bangla Akademi, popularly known as Bangla Akademi, is the official regulatory body of the Bengali language in West Bengal.

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Peary Chand Mitra

Peary Chand Mitra (প্যারীচাঁদ মিত্র; 22 July 1814 – 23 November 1883) was an Indian writer, journalist, cultural activist and entrepreneur.

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Persian language

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.

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Persian people

The Persians--> are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran.

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A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.

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Phonemic orthography

In linguistics, a phonemic orthography is an orthography (system for writing a language) in which the graphemes (written symbols) correspond to the phonemes (significant spoken sounds) of the language.

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Portuguese language

Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.

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Possession (linguistics)

Possession, in the context of linguistics, is an asymmetric relationship between two constituents, the referent of one of which (the possessor) in some sense possesses (owns, has as a part, rules over, etc.) the referent of the other (the possessed).

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Pramatha Chaudhuri

Pramathanath Chaudhuri (প্রমথনাথ চৌধুরী) (7 August 1868 – 2 September 1946), known as Pramatha Chaudhuri, alias Birbal, was a Bengali writer and an influential figure in Bengali literature.

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Preposition and postposition

Prepositions and postpositions, together called adpositions (or broadly, in English, simply prepositions), are a class of words used to express spatial or temporal relations (in, under, towards, before) or mark various semantic roles (of, for).

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Rabindranath Tagore

Rabindranath Tagore FRAS, also written Ravīndranātha Ṭhākura (7 May 1861 – 7 August 1941), sobriquet Gurudev, was a Bengali polymath who reshaped Bengali literature and music, as well as Indian art with Contextual Modernism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

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Rangpuri language

Kamtapuri, Rangpuri or Rajbangshi is a Bengali-Assamese language spoken by the Rajbongshi people in Bangladesh and India, and Rajbanshi and Tajpuria in Nepal.

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Retroflex consonant

A retroflex consonant is a coronal consonant where the tongue has a flat, concave, or even curled shape, and is articulated between the alveolar ridge and the hard palate.

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Rhotic consonant

In phonetics, rhotic consonants, or "R-like" sounds, are liquid consonants that are traditionally represented orthographically by symbols derived from the Greek letter rho, including r in the Latin script and p in the Cyrillic script.

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Romani language

Romani (also Romany; romani čhib) is any of several languages of the Romani people belonging to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language family.

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Romanisation of Bengali

Romanisation of Bengali is the representation of written Bengali language in the Latin script.

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Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics, is the conversion of writing from a different writing system to the Roman (Latin) script, or a system for doing so.

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Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.

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Second language

A person's second language or L2, is a language that is not the native language of the speaker, but that is used in the locale of that person.

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Segment (linguistics)

In linguistics, a segment is "any discrete unit that can be identified, either physically or auditorily, in the stream of speech".

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Sena dynasty

The Sena Empire (সেন সাম্রাজ্য, Shen Shamrajjo) was a Hindu dynasty during the Late Classical period on the Indian subcontinent, that ruled from Bengal through the 11th and 12th centuries.

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Sadhu Bhasha (সাধুভাষা) is a literary variation of the Bengali language.

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Shahmukhi alphabet

Shahmukhi (Gurmukhi: ਸ਼ਾਹਮੁਖੀ, meaning literally "from the King's mouth") is a Perso-Arabic alphabet used by Muslims in Punjab to write the Punjabi language.

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Shantipur (also known as Santipur) is a city and a municipality in Ranaghat subdivision of Nadia district in the Indian state of West Bengal.

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Sheikh Hasina

Sheikh Hasina Wazed (শেখ হাসিনা ওয়াজেদ;,; born 28 September 1947) is the current Prime Minister of Bangladesh, in office since January 2009.

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Shreekrishna Kirtana

Shreekrishna Kirtana Kabya (শ্রীকৃষ্ণকীর্তন কাব্য) or Sri Krishna Kirtana Kabya is a pastoral Vaishnava drama in verse composed by Boru Chandidas.

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Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.

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Sinhalese language

Sinhalese, known natively as Sinhala (සිංහල; siṁhala), is the native language of the Sinhalese people, who make up the largest ethnic group in Sri Lanka, numbering about 16 million.

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South Asia

South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.

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Sri Lanka Matha

Sri Lanka Matha (ශ්‍රී ලංකා මාතා Śrī Laṁkā Mātā; translit) is the national anthem of Sri Lanka.

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States and union territories of India

India is a federal union comprising 29 states and 7 union territories, for a total of 36 entities.

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Stop consonant

In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.

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Stress (linguistics)

In linguistics, and particularly phonology, stress or accent is relative emphasis or prominence given to a certain syllable in a word, or to a certain word in a phrase or sentence.

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In linguistic typology, a subject–object–verb (SOV) language is one in which the subject, object, and verb of a sentence always or usually appear in that order.

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Suniti Kumar Chatterji

Suniti Kumar Chatterji (26 November 1890 – 29 May 1977) was an Indian linguist, educationist and litterateur.

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Sylhet Division

Sylhet Division (সিলেট বিভাগ, ꠍꠤꠟꠐ ꠛꠤꠜꠣꠉ), also known as Greater Sylhet, is the northeastern division of Bangladesh, named after its main city, Sylhet.

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Sylheti language

Sylheti (ꠍꠤꠟꠐꠤ Silôṭi) is an Eastern Indo-Aryan language, primarily spoken in the Sylhet Division of Bangladesh and in the Barak Valley of the Indian state of Assam.

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A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds.

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In linguistics, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language, usually including word order.

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(lit. "arising from that") is the Sanskrit word for one of three etymological classes defined by native grammarians of Middle Indo-Aryan languages, alongside tatsama and deśi words.

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Tatsama (Sanskrit;, lit. 'same as that') are Sanskrit loanwords in modern Indo-Aryan languages like Bengali, Marathi, Oriya, Hindi, Gujarati, and Sinhala and in Dravidian languages like Malayalam, Kannada, Telugu, and Tamil.

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The Daily Mirror (Sri Lanka)

The Daily Mirror is a daily English-language newspaper published in Colombo, Sri Lanka, by Wijeya Newspapers.

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The Daily Star (Bangladesh)

The Daily Star is the largest circulating daily English-language newspaper in Bangladesh.

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Tibeto-Burman languages

The Tibeto-Burman languages are the non-Sinitic members of the Sino-Tibetan language family, over 400 of which are spoken throughout the highlands of Southeast Asia as well as certain parts of East Asia and South Asia.

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Tone (linguistics)

Tone is the use of pitch in language to distinguish lexical or grammatical meaning – that is, to distinguish or to inflect words.

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Transcription (linguistics)

Transcription in the linguistic sense is the systematic representation of language in written form.

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Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping letters (thus trans- + liter-) in predictable ways (such as α → a, д → d, χ → ch, ն → n or æ → e).

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Tripura 'ত্রিপুরা (Bengali)' is a state in Northeast India.

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In poetic metre, a trochee, choree, or choreus, is a metrical foot consisting of a stressed syllable followed by an unstressed one, in English, or a heavy syllable followed by a light one in Latin or Greek.

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Turkic peoples

The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethno-linguistic groups of Central, Eastern, Northern and Western Asia as well as parts of Europe and North Africa.

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Typographic ligature

In writing and typography, a ligature occurs where two or more graphemes or letters are joined as a single glyph.

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The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.

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United Nations

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.

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United Nations General Assembly

The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; Assemblée Générale AG) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), the only one in which all member nations have equal representation, and the main deliberative, policy-making and representative organ of the UN.

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Universal Declaration of Human Rights

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is a historic document that was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly at its third session on 10 December 1948 as Resolution 217 at the Palais de Chaillot in Paris, France.

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University of Dhaka

The University of Dhaka (ঢাকা বিশ্ববিদ্যালয়, also known as Dhaka University or simply DU) is the oldest university in modern Bangladesh.

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University of Karachi

The University of Karachi (جامعۂ كراچى; ڪراچي يونيورسٽي; or KU) is a public university university located in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.

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Varanasi, also known as Benares, Banaras (Banāras), or Kashi (Kāśī), is a city on the banks of the Ganges in the Uttar Pradesh state of North India, south-east of the state capital, Lucknow, and east of Allahabad.

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Variety (linguistics)

In sociolinguistics a variety, also called a lect, is a specific form of a language or language cluster.

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Vedic and Sanskrit literature

Vedic and Sanskrit literature comprises the spoken or sung literature of the Vedas from the early-to-mid 2nd to mid 1st millennium BCE, and continues with the oral tradition of the Sanskrit epics of Iron Age India; the golden age of Classical Sanskrit literature dates to Late Antiquity (roughly the 3rd to 8th centuries CE).

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Velar consonant

Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).

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Velar nasal

The velar nasal, also known as agma, from the Greek word for fragment, is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.

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A vernacular, or vernacular language, is the language or variety of a language used in everyday life by the common people of a specific population.

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Virama (्) is a generic term for the diacritic in many Brahmic scripts, ்including Devanagari and Eastern Nagari script, used to suppress the inherent vowel that otherwise occurs with every consonant letter.

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Voice (phonetics)

Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).

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Voiced alveolo-palatal affricate

The voiced alveolo-palatal sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.

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Voiced postalveolar affricate

The voiced palato-alveolar sibilant affricate, voiced post-alveolar affricate or voiced domed postalveolar sibilant affricate, is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.

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Voiceless alveolar fricative

A voiceless alveolar fricative is a type of fricative consonant pronounced with the tip or blade of the tongue against the alveolar ridge (gum line) just behind the teeth.

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Voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative

The voiceless alveolo-palatal sibilant fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some oral languages.

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Voiceless glottal fricative

The voiceless glottal fricative, sometimes called voiceless glottal transition, and sometimes called the aspirate, is a type of sound used in some spoken languages that patterns like a fricative or approximant consonant phonologically, but often lacks the usual phonetic characteristics of a consonant.

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Voiceless postalveolar affricate

The voiceless palato-alveolar sibilant affricate or voiceless domed postalveolar sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.

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Voiceless postalveolar fricative

Voiceless fricatives produced in the postalveolar region include the voiceless palato-alveolar fricative, the voiceless postalveolar non-sibilant fricative, the voiceless retroflex fricative, and the voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative.

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Voiceless retroflex fricative

The voiceless retroflex sibilant fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.

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In linguistics, voicelessness is the property of sounds being pronounced without the larynx vibrating.

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A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.

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Vowel harmony

Vowel harmony is a type of long-distance assimilatory phonological process involving vowels that occurs in some languages.

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Vrindavan is a town in the Mathura district of Uttar Pradesh, India.

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West Bengal

West Bengal (Paśchimbāṅga) is an Indian state, located in Eastern India on the Bay of Bengal.

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Word order

In linguistics, word order typology is the study of the order of the syntactic constituents of a language, and how different languages can employ different orders.

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Zero copula

Zero copula is a linguistic phenomenon whereby the subject is joined to the predicate without overt marking of this relationship (like the copula 'to be' in English).

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1st millennium

The first millennium was a period of time that began on January 1, AD 1, and ended on December 31, AD 1000, of the Julian calendar.

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1st millennium BC

The 1st millennium BC encompasses the Iron Age and sees the rise of many successive empires, and spanned from 1000 BC to 1 BC.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bengali_language

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