130 relations: Acetylcholine, Alcoholic polyneuropathy, Alfuzosin, Alpha blocker, Alpha-1 blocker, Alpha-adrenergic agonist, Alternative medicine, Androgen, Androgen receptor, Annals of Saudi Medicine, Anticholinergic, Antihistamine, Aromatase, Autocrine signalling, Beijing, Beta-Sitosterol, Bladder cancer, Bladder stone, Caffeine, Calcium channel blocker, Cancer, Castration, Catheter, Central nervous system, Chlortalidone, Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome, Clinical urine tests, Cucurbita pepo, Decongestant, Diabetes mellitus, Diabetes mellitus type 2, Dihydrotestosterone, Doxazosin, Dutasteride, Dysuria, Ejaculation, Embolization, Enzyme, Enzyme inhibitor, Epithelium, Erectile dysfunction, Estrogen, Fibrosis, Finasteride, Furosemide, Glycosuria, Growth factor, H&E stain, Heart failure, Herbalism, ..., Hormone, Hydronephrosis, Hypertension, Hypertriglyceridemia, Hypoxis hemerocallidea, Immunohistochemistry, Incidence (epidemiology), International Prostate Symptom Score, Interventional radiology, Kidney, Kidney failure, Kidney stone disease, Libido, Loop diuretic, Lower urinary tract symptoms, Medical ultrasound, Meta-analysis, Metabolic syndrome, Metabolite, Micrograph, Multiple sclerosis, Muscarinic antagonist, Neurogenic bladder dysfunction, Nocturia, Nodule (medicine), Obesity, Opioid, Orthostatic hypotension, Overactive bladder, Paracrine signalling, Parkinson's disease, PDE5 inhibitor, Phenoxybenzamine, Physical examination, Placebo, Prevalence, Prostate, Prostate cancer, Prostate cancer screening, Prostate-specific antigen, Prostatectomy, Proteinuria, Prunus africana, Pseudoephedrine, Qing dynasty, Rectal examination, Renal function, Saw palmetto extract, Serenoa, Sildenafil, Silodosin, Smooth muscle tissue, Spinal cord injury, Syncope (medicine), Systematic review, Tadalafil, Tamsulosin, Teratology, Terazosin, Testicle, Testosterone, The Lancet, Thiazide, Tolterodine, Transcription (biology), Transurethral resection of the prostate, Tricyclic antidepressant, Urethra, Urethral stricture, Urinary bladder, Urinary catheterization, Urinary incontinence, Urinary retention, Urinary tract infection, Urodynamic testing, Urology, Urtica dioica, Vitamin B12 deficiency, 5α-Reductase, 5α-Reductase inhibitor. Expand index (80 more) » « Shrink index
Acetylcholine (ACh) is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a neurotransmitter—a chemical message released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells.
Alcoholic polyneuropathy (A.K.A alcohol leg) is a neurological disorder in which peripheral nerves throughout the body malfunction simultaneously.
Alfuzosin (INN, provided as the hydrochloride salt) is a pharmaceutical drug of the α1 blocker class.
Alpha-blockers, also known as α-blockers or α-adrenoreceptor antagonists, are a class of pharmacological agents that act as antagonists on α-adrenergic receptors (α-adrenoceptors).
Alpha-1 blockers (also called alpha-adrenergic blocking agents) constitute a variety of drugs that block alpha-1-adrenergic receptors in arteries, smooth muscles, and central nervous system tissues.
Adrenergic alpha-agonists (or alpha-adrenergic agonists) are a class of sympathomimetic agents that selectively stimulates alpha adrenergic receptors.
Alternative medicine, fringe medicine, pseudomedicine or simply questionable medicine is the use and promotion of practices which are unproven, disproven, impossible to prove, or excessively harmful in relation to their effect — in the attempt to achieve the healing effects of medicine.--> --> --> They differ from experimental medicine in that the latter employs responsible investigation, and accepts results that show it to be ineffective. The scientific consensus is that alternative therapies either do not, or cannot, work. In some cases laws of nature are violated by their basic claims; in some the treatment is so much worse that its use is unethical. Alternative practices, products, and therapies range from only ineffective to having known harmful and toxic effects.--> Alternative therapies may be credited for perceived improvement through placebo effects, decreased use or effect of medical treatment (and therefore either decreased side effects; or nocebo effects towards standard treatment),--> or the natural course of the condition or disease. Alternative treatment is not the same as experimental treatment or traditional medicine, although both can be misused in ways that are alternative. Alternative or complementary medicine is dangerous because it may discourage people from getting the best possible treatment, and may lead to a false understanding of the body and of science.-->---> Alternative medicine is used by a significant number of people, though its popularity is often overstated.--> Large amounts of funding go to testing alternative medicine, with more than US$2.5 billion spent by the United States government alone.--> Almost none show any effect beyond that of false treatment,--> and most studies showing any effect have been statistical flukes. Alternative medicine is a highly profitable industry, with a strong lobby. This fact is often overlooked by media or intentionally kept hidden, with alternative practice being portrayed positively when compared to "big pharma". --> The lobby has successfully pushed for alternative therapies to be subject to far less regulation than conventional medicine.--> Alternative therapies may even be allowed to promote use when there is demonstrably no effect, only a tradition of use. Regulation and licensing of alternative medicine and health care providers varies between and within countries. Despite laws making it illegal to market or promote alternative therapies for use in cancer treatment, many practitioners promote them.--> Alternative medicine is criticized for taking advantage of the weakest members of society.--! Terminology has shifted over time, reflecting the preferred branding of practitioners.. Science Based Medicine--> For example, the United States National Institutes of Health department studying alternative medicine, currently named National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, was established as the Office of Alternative Medicine and was renamed the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine before obtaining its current name. Therapies are often framed as "natural" or "holistic", in apparent opposition to conventional medicine which is "artificial" and "narrow in scope", statements which are intentionally misleading. --> When used together with functional medical treatment, alternative therapies do not "complement" (improve the effect of, or mitigate the side effects of) treatment.--> Significant drug interactions caused by alternative therapies may instead negatively impact functional treatment, making it less effective, notably in cancer.--> Alternative diagnoses and treatments are not part of medicine, or of science-based curricula in medical schools, nor are they used in any practice based on scientific knowledge or experience.--> Alternative therapies are often based on religious belief, tradition, superstition, belief in supernatural energies, pseudoscience, errors in reasoning, propaganda, fraud, or lies.--> Alternative medicine is based on misleading statements, quackery, pseudoscience, antiscience, fraud, and poor scientific methodology. Promoting alternative medicine has been called dangerous and unethical.--> Testing alternative medicine that has no scientific basis has been called a waste of scarce research resources.--> Critics state that "there is really no such thing as alternative medicine, just medicine that works and medicine that doesn't",--> that the very idea of "alternative" treatments is paradoxical, as any treatment proven to work is by definition "medicine".-->.
An androgen (from Greek andr-, the stem of the word meaning "man") is any natural or synthetic steroid hormone which regulates the development and maintenance of male characteristics in vertebrates by binding to androgen receptors.
The androgen receptor (AR), also known as NR3C4 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 4), is a type of nuclear receptor that is activated by binding any of the androgenic hormones, including testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in the cytoplasm and then translocating into the nucleus.
The Annals of Saudi Medicine is a bimonthly peer-reviewed medical journal published by the King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre (Riyadh, Saudi Arabia).
An anticholinergic agent is a substance that blocks the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the central and the peripheral nervous system.
Antihistamines are drugs which treat allergic rhinitis and other allergies.
Aromatase, also called estrogen synthetase or estrogen synthase, is an enzyme responsible for a key step in the biosynthesis of estrogens.
Autocrine signaling is a form of cell signaling in which a cell secretes a hormone or chemical messenger (called the autocrine agent) that binds to autocrine receptors on that same cell, leading to changes in the cell.
Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.
β-Sitosterol (beta-sitosterol) is one of several phytosterols (plant sterols) with chemical structures similar to that of cholesterol.
Bladder cancer is any of several types of cancer arising from the tissues of the urinary bladder.
A bladder stone is a stone found in the urinary bladder.
Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class.
Calcium channel blockers (CCB), calcium channel antagonists or calcium antagonists are several medications that disrupt the movement of calcium through calcium channels.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
Castration (also known as gonadectomy) is any action, surgical, chemical, or otherwise, by which an individual loses use of the testicles.
In medicine, a catheter is a thin tube made from medical grade materials serving a broad range of functions.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
Chlortalidone (INN/BAN) or chlorthalidone (USAN) is a diuretic medication used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure), originally marketed as Hygroton in the USA.
Chronic nonbacterial prostatitis or chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is a pelvic pain condition in men, and should be distinguished from other forms of prostatitis such as chronic bacterial prostatitis and acute bacterial prostatitis.
Clinical urine tests are various tests of urine for diagnostic purposes.
Cucurbita pepo is a cultivated plant of the genus Cucurbita.
A decongestant, or nasal decongestant, is a type of pharmaceutical drug that is used to relieve nasal congestion in the upper respiratory tract.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
Diabetes mellitus type 2 (also known as type 2 diabetes) is a long-term metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood sugar, insulin resistance, and relative lack of insulin.
Dihydrotestosterone (DHT), or 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT), also known as androstanolone or stanolone, is an endogenous androgen sex steroid and hormone.
Doxazosin mesylate, a quinazoline compound sold by Pfizer under the brand names Cardura and Carduran, is an α1-selective alpha blocker used to treat high blood pressure and urinary retention associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).
Dutasteride, sold under the brand name Avodart among others, is a medication used primarily to treat enlarged prostate in men.
In medicine, specifically urology, dysuria refers to painful urination.
Ejaculation is the discharge of semen (normally containing sperm) from the male reproductory tract, usually accompanied by orgasm.
Embolization or embolisation refers to the passage and lodging of an embolus within the bloodstream.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
4QI9) An enzyme inhibitor is a molecule that binds to an enzyme and decreases its activity.
Epithelium is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue.
Erectile dysfunction (ED), also known as impotence, is a type of sexual dysfunction characterized by the inability to develop or maintain an erection of the penis during sexual activity.
Estrogen, or oestrogen, is the primary female sex hormone.
Fibrosis is the formation of excess fibrous connective tissue in an organ or tissue in a reparative or reactive process.
Finasteride, sold under the brand names Proscar and Propecia among others, is a medication used mainly to treat an enlarged prostate or scalp hair loss in men.
Furosemide, sold under the brand name Lasix among others, is a medication used to treat fluid build-up due to heart failure, liver scarring, or kidney disease.
Glycosuria or glucosuria is the excretion of glucose into the urine.
A growth factor is a naturally occurring substance capable of stimulating cellular growth, proliferation, healing, and cellular differentiation.
Hematoxylin and eosin stain or haematoxylin and eosin stain (H&E stain or HE stain) is one of the principal stains in histology.
Heart failure (HF), often referred to as congestive heart failure (CHF), is when the heart is unable to pump sufficiently to maintain blood flow to meet the body's needs.
Herbalism (also herbal medicine or phytotherapy) is the study of botany and use of plants intended for medicinal purposes or for supplementing a diet.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
Hydronephrosis describes urine-filled dilation of the renal pelvis and/or calyces as a result of obstruction.
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
Hypertriglyceridemia denotes high (hyper-) blood levels (-emia) of triglycerides, the most abundant fatty molecule in most organisms.
Hypoxis hemerocallidea, the African star grass or African potato, is a medicinal plant in the Hypoxidaceae family.
Immunohistochemistry (IHC) involves the process of selectively imaging antigens (proteins) in cells of a tissue section by exploiting the principle of antibodies binding specifically to antigens in biological tissues.
Incidence in epidemiology is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time.
The International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) is an eight-question written screening tool used to screen for, rapidly diagnose, track the symptoms of, and suggest management of the symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).
Interventional radiology (IR), sometimes known as vascular and interventional radiology (VIR), is a medical specialty which provides minimally invasive image-guided diagnosis and treatment of disease.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
Kidney failure, also known as end-stage kidney disease, is a medical condition in which the kidneys no longer work.
Kidney stone disease, also known as urolithiasis, is when a solid piece of material (kidney stone) occurs in the urinary tract.
Libido, colloquially known as sex drive, is a person's overall sexual drive or desire for sexual activity.
Loop diuretics are diuretics that act at the ascending limb of the loop of Henle in the kidney.
Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) refer to a group of clinical symptoms involving the bladder, urinary sphincter, urethra, and, in men, the prostate.
Medical ultrasound (also known as diagnostic sonography or ultrasonography) is a diagnostic imaging technique based on the application of ultrasound.
A meta-analysis is a statistical analysis that combines the results of multiple scientific studies.
Metabolic syndrome, sometimes known by other names, is a clustering of at least three of the five following medical conditions: abdominal obesity, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, high serum triglycerides and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels.
A metabolite is the intermediate end product of metabolism.
A micrograph or photomicrograph is a photograph or digital image taken through a microscope or similar device to show a magnified image of an item.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease in which the insulating covers of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord are damaged.
A muscarinic receptor antagonist (MRA) is a type of anticholinergic agent that blocks the activity of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor.
Neurogenic bladder dysfunction, sometimes simply referred to as neurogenic bladder, is a dysfunction of the urinary bladder due to disease of the central nervous system or peripheral nerves involved in the control of micturition (urination).
Nocturia (derived from Latin nox, night, and Greek ούρα, urine), also called nycturia (Greek νυκτουρία), is defined by the International Continence Society (ICS) as “the complaint that the individual has to wake at night one or more times for voiding (i.e. to urinate).” Its causes are varied and, in many patients, difficult to discern.
In medicine, nodules are solid, elevated areas of tissue or fluid inside or under the skin with a diameter greater than 0.5 centimeters.
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.
Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.
Orthostatic hypotension, also known as postural hypotension, occurs when a person's blood pressure falls when suddenly standing up from a lying or sitting position.
Overactive bladder (OAB) is a condition where there is a frequent feeling of needing to urinate to a degree that it negatively affects a person's life.
Paracrine signaling is a form of cell-to-cell communication in which a cell produces a signal to induce changes in nearby cells, altering the behavior of those cells.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.
A phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor (PDE5 inhibitor) is a drug used to block the degradative action of cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) on cyclic GMP in the smooth muscle cells lining the blood vessels supplying the corpus cavernosum of the penis.
Phenoxybenzamine (marketed under the trade name Dibenzyline) is a non-selective, irreversible alpha blocker.
A physical examination, medical examination, or clinical examination (more popularly known as a check-up) is the process by which a medical professional investigates the body of a patient for signs of disease.
A placebo is a substance or treatment of no intended therapeutic value.
Prevalence in epidemiology is the proportion of a particular population found to be affected by a medical condition (typically a disease or a risk factor such as smoking or seat-belt use).
The prostate (from Ancient Greek προστάτης, prostates, literally "one who stands before", "protector", "guardian") is a compound tubuloalveolar exocrine gland of the male reproductive system in most mammals.
Prostate cancer is the development of cancer in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system.
Prostate cancer screening is the screening process used to detect undiagnosed prostate cancer in those without signs or symptoms.
Prostate-specific antigen (PSA), also known as gamma-seminoprotein or kallikrein-3 (KLK3), is a glycoprotein enzyme encoded in humans by the KLK3 gene. PSA is a member of the kallikrein-related peptidase family and is secreted by the epithelial cells of the prostate gland. PSA is produced for the ejaculate, where it liquefies semen in the seminal coagulum and allows sperm to swim freely. It is also believed to be instrumental in dissolving cervical mucus, allowing the entry of sperm into the uterus. PSA is present in small quantities in the serum of men with healthy prostates, but is often elevated in the presence of prostate cancer or other prostate disorders. PSA is not a unique indicator of prostate cancer, but may also detect prostatitis or benign prostatic hyperplasia.
Prostatectomy (from the Greek prostates, "prostate", combined with the suffix -ektomē, "excision") as a medical term refers to the surgical removal of all or part of the prostate gland.
Proteinuria is the presence of excess proteins in the urine.
Prunus africana, the African cherry, has a wide distribution in Africa, occurring in montane regions of central and southern Africa and on the islands of Bioko, São-Tomé, and Grande Comore (Kalkman, 1965).
Pseudoephedrine (PSE) is a sympathomimetic drug of the phenethylamine and amphetamine chemical classes.
The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.
A rectal examination, commonly called a prostate exam, is an internal examination of the rectum, performed by a healthcare provider.
Renal function, in nephrology, is an indication of the kidney's condition and its role in renal physiology.
Saw palmetto extract is an extract of the fruit of the saw palmetto.
Serenoa repens, commonly known as saw palmetto, is the sole species currently classified in the genus Serenoa.
Sildenafil, sold as the brand name Viagra among others, is a medication used to treat erectile dysfunction and pulmonary arterial hypertension.
Smooth muscle is an involuntary non-striated muscle.
A spinal cord injury (SCI) is damage to the spinal cord that causes temporary or permanent changes in its function.
Syncope, also known as fainting, is a loss of consciousness and muscle strength characterized by a fast onset, short duration, and spontaneous recovery.
Systematic reviews are a type of literature review that uses systematic methods to collect secondary data, critically appraise research studies, and synthesize studies.
Tadalafil (INN) is a PDE5 inhibitor marketed in pill form for treating erectile dysfunction (ED) under the name Cialis, and under the name Adcirca for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension.
Tamsulosin, sold under the trade name Alna ® / Flomax ®, is a medication used to treat symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and chronic prostatitis, help with the passage of kidney stones, and for urinary retention along with other measures.
Teratology is the study of abnormalities of physiological development.
Terazosin (marketed as Hytrin or Zayasel) is a selective alpha-1 antagonist used for treatment of symptoms of an enlarged prostate (BPH).
The testicle or testis is the male reproductive gland in all animals, including humans.
Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone and an anabolic steroid.
The Lancet is a weekly peer-reviewed general medical journal.
Thiazide is a type of molecule and a class of diuretics often used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure) and edema (such as that caused by heart failure, liver failure, or kidney failure).
Tolterodine (trade names Detrol, Detrusitol) is an antimuscarinic drug that is used for symptomatic treatment of urinary incontinence.
Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.
Transurethral resection of the prostate (commonly known as a TURP, plural TURPs, and rarely as a transurethral prostatic resection, TUPR) is a urological operation.
Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) are a class of medications that are used primarily as antidepressants.
In anatomy, the urethra (from Greek οὐρήθρα – ourḗthrā) is a tube that connects the urinary bladder to the urinary meatus for the removal of urine from the body.
A urethral stricture is a narrowing of the urethra caused by injury, instrumentation, infection and certain non-infectious forms of urethritis.
The urinary bladder is a hollow muscular organ in humans and some other animals that collects and stores urine from the kidneys before disposal by urination.
In urinary catheterization a latex, polyurethane, or silicone tube known as a urinary catheter is inserted into a patient's bladder via the urethra.
Urinary incontinence (UI), also known as involuntary urination, is any uncontrolled leakage of urine.
Urinary retention is an inability to completely empty the bladder.
A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection that affects part of the urinary tract.
Urodynamic testing or urodynamics is a study that assesses how the bladder and urethra are performing their job of storing and releasing urine.
Urology (from Greek οὖρον ouron "urine" and -λογία -logia "study of"), also known as genitourinary surgery, is the branch of medicine that focuses on surgical and medical diseases of the male and female urinary-tract system and the male reproductive organs.
Urtica dioica, often called common nettle, stinging nettle (although not all plants of this species sting) or nettle leaf, is a herbaceous perennial flowering plant in the family Urticaceae.
Vitamin B12 deficiency, also known as cobalamin deficiency, is the medical condition of low blood levels of vitamin B12.
5α-reductases, also known as 3-oxo-5α-steroid 4-dehydrogenases, are enzymes involved in steroid metabolism.
5α-Reductase inhibitors (5-ARIs), also known as dihydrotestosterone (DHT) blockers, are a class of medications with antiandrogenic effects which are used primarily in the treatment of enlarged prostate and scalp hair loss.
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia, Benign enlargement of the prostate, Benign prostate enlargement, Benign prostate hyperplasia, Benign prostatic enlargement, Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), Benign prostatic hypertrophy, Enlarged prostate, Hyperplasia of prostate, Photoselective vaporization of the prostate, Prostate Enlargement, Prostate enlargement, Prostate hyperplasia, Prostate hypertrophy, Prostatic hyperplasia, Prostatic hypertrophy, Swelling of prostate.