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Benjamin Franklin

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Benjamin Franklin (April 17, 1790) was an American polymath and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. [1]

515 relations: A Dissertation on Liberty and Necessity, Pleasure and Pain, A. Owen Aldridge, Abolitionism, Abolitionism in the United States, Academy and College of Philadelphia, Adam Smith, Advice to a Friend on Choosing a Mistress, Aether theories, Age of Enlightenment, Albany Congress, Albany Plan, Alessandro Volta, Alexander Pope, Alexander Wedderburn, 1st Earl of Rosslyn, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, American Enlightenment, American football, American Heritage (magazine), American National Biography, American Philosophical Society, American Revolution, American Writers: A Journey Through History, Andrew Bradford, Andrew Kippis, Andrew Oliver, Animal magnetism, Annapolis, Maryland, Anonymity, Antoine Lavoisier, Aphorism, Apprenticeship, Archibald Spencer, Articles of Confederation, Atlantic Ocean, Atlantic slave trade, Bachelor of Arts, Balloon (aeronautics), Banknote, Barbados, Battles of Lexington and Concord, Bellows, Benjamin Franklin Bridge, Benjamin Franklin House, Benjamin Franklin in popular culture, Benjamin Franklin Institute of Technology, Benjamin Franklin Medal (Royal Society of Arts), Benjamin Franklin National Memorial, Benjamin Franklin Parkway, Benjamin Franklin's phonetic alphabet, Bequest, ..., Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, Bibliothèque nationale de France, Bifocals, Bigamy, Blue plaque, Board of Trade, Book of Exodus, Boston, Boston Gazette, Boston Latin School, British America, British Army, British North America, Bureau of Public Affairs, C-SPAN, Café de la Régence, Calendar (New Style) Act 1750, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, Camden, New Jersey, Capitalism, Carl L. 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anchor, Second Continental Congress, Silence, Silence Dogood, Sincerity, Sir William Keith, 4th Baronet, Slavery, Slavery in the United States, Smallpox, Smithfield, London, Smithsonian (magazine), Smithsonian Institution, Society of the Cincinnati, Socrates, Solicitor General for England and Wales, St Andrews, St Bartholomew-the-Great, St. Stephen's Episcopal Church (Philadelphia), Stacy Schiff, Stamp Act 1765, Statcoulomb, State of Franklin, Stirling, Storm oil, Strand, London, Stratford, Connecticut, String quartet, Subscription library, Supreme Executive Council of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Surveillance art, Susquehannock, Sutton Coldfield, Tallow, Temperance (virtue), The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin, The Morals of Chess, The New York Times, The New-England Courant, The Times, The Way to Wealth, Theophilus Lindsey, Thermometer, Thirteen Colonies, Thomas Birch, Thomas Bond (physician), Thomas Hutchinson (governor), Thomas Jefferson, Thomas Mifflin, Thomas Paine, Thomas Percival, Thomas Robert Malthus, Thomas Young (scientist), Thomas-François Dalibard, Tranquillity, Treaty of Alliance (1778), Treaty of Amity and Commerce (Prussia–United States), Treaty of Amity and Commerce (United States–Sweden), Treaty of Paris (1763), Treaty of Paris (1783), Trinity, Trois-Rivières, Tuileries Garden, Tun Tavern, Typesetting, Union Fire Company, Unitarianism, United States Bicentennial, United States Congress, United States Constitution, United States Declaration of Independence, United States Department of State, United States fifty-dollar bill, United States Navy, United States one hundred-dollar bill, United States Postal Service, United States Postmaster General, University of Missouri Press, University of Oxford, University of Pennsylvania, University of St Andrews, Urinary catheterization, USS Benjamin Franklin (SSBN-640), Virginia, Virtue, Vocational school, Voltaic pile, Voltaire, Volunteer fire department, Walter Isaacson, Washington-Franklin Issues, Whitehall, William Franklin, William Goddard (U.S. patriot/publisher), William Hewson (surgeon), William Hunter (publisher), William Penn, William Smith (Episcopal priest), William Temple Franklin, William Watson (scientist), Wills Hill, 1st Marquess of Downshire, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, World Chess Hall of Fame, Yale University, Yale University Press, Yekaterina Vorontsova-Dashkova, 111th Infantry Regiment (United States). 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A Dissertation on Liberty and Necessity, Pleasure and Pain

A Dissertation on Liberty and Necessity, Pleasure and Pain is a philosophical pamphlet by Benjamin Franklin, published in London in 1725 in response to The Religion of Nature Delineated.

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A. Owen Aldridge

Alfred Owen Aldridge (December 16, 1915 – January 29, 2005) was a professor of French and comparative literature, founder-editor of the journal Comparative Literature Studies, and author of books on a wide range of literature studies.

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Abolitionism

Abolitionism is a general term which describes the movement to end slavery.

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Abolitionism in the United States

Abolitionism in the United States was the movement before and during the American Civil War to end slavery in the United States.

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Academy and College of Philadelphia

The Academy and College of Philadelphia was a secondary school and later university located in Philadelphia.

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Adam Smith

Adam Smith (16 June 1723 NS (5 June 1723 OS) – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish economist, philosopher and author as well as a moral philosopher, a pioneer of political economy and a key figure during the Scottish Enlightenment era.

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Advice to a Friend on Choosing a Mistress

"Advice to a Friend on Choosing a Mistress" is a letter by Benjamin Franklin dated June 25, 1745, in which Franklin counsels a young man about channeling sexual urges.

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Aether theories

Aether theories (also known as ether theories) in physics propose the existence of a medium, the aether (also spelled ether, from the Greek word (αἰθήρ), meaning "upper air" or "pure, fresh air"" ", American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language.), a space-filling substance or field, thought to be necessary as a transmission medium for the propagation of electromagnetic or gravitational forces.

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Age of Enlightenment

The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".

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Albany Congress

The Albany Congress (also known as "The Conference of Albany") was a meeting of representatives sent by the legislatures of seven of the thirteen British colonies in British America: Connecticut, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, Pennsylvania, and Rhode Island.

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Albany Plan

The Albany Plan of Union was a plan to create a unified government for the Thirteen Colonies, suggested by Benjamin Franklin, then a senior leader (age 48) and a delegate from Pennsylvania, at the Albany Congress on July 10, 1754 in Albany, New York.

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Alessandro Volta

Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta (18 February 1745 – 5 March 1827) was an Italian physicist, chemist, and a pioneer of electricity and power,Giuliano Pancaldi, "Volta: Science and culture in the age of enlightenment", Princeton University Press, 2003.

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Alexander Pope

Alexander Pope (21 May 1688 – 30 May 1744) was an 18th-century English poet.

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Alexander Wedderburn, 1st Earl of Rosslyn

Alexander Wedderburn, 1st Earl of Rosslyn, PC, KC (3 February 1733 – 2 January 1805) was a Scottish lawyer and politician who sat in the House of Commons between 1761 and 1780 when he was raised to the peerage as Baron Loughborough.

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American Academy of Arts and Sciences

The American Academy of Arts and Sciences is one of the oldest learned societies in the United States of America.

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American Enlightenment

The American Enlightenment was a period of intellectual ferment in the thirteen American colonies in the 17th to 18th century, which led to the American Revolution, and the creation of the American Republic.

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American football

American football, referred to as football in the United States and Canada and also known as gridiron, is a team sport played by two teams of eleven players on a rectangular field with goalposts at each end.

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American Heritage (magazine)

American Heritage is a magazine dedicated to covering the history of the United States of America for a mainstream readership.

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American National Biography

The American National Biography (ANB) is a 24-volume biographical encyclopedia set that contains about 17,400 entries and 20 million words, first published in 1999 by Oxford University Press under the auspices of the American Council of Learned Societies.

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American Philosophical Society

The American Philosophical Society (APS), founded in 1743 and located in Philadelphia, is an eminent scholarly organization of international reputation that promotes useful knowledge in the sciences and humanities through excellence in scholarly research, professional meetings, publications, library resources, and community outreach.

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American Revolution

The American Revolution was a colonial revolt that took place between 1765 and 1783.

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American Writers: A Journey Through History

American Writers: A Journey Through History is a series produced and broadcast by C-SPAN in 2001 and 2002 that profiled selected American writers and their times.

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Andrew Bradford

Andrew Bradford (1686 – November 24, 1742) was an early American printer in colonial Philadelphia.

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Andrew Kippis

Andrew Kippis (28 March 17258 October 1795) was an English nonconformist clergyman and biographer.

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Andrew Oliver

Andrew Oliver (March 28, 1706 – March 3, 1774) was a merchant and public official in the Province of Massachusetts Bay.

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Animal magnetism

Animal magnetism, also known as mesmerism, was the name given by the German doctor Franz Mesmer in the 18th century to what he believed to be an invisible natural force (lebensmagnetismus) possessed by all living/animate beings (humans, animals, vegetables, etc.). He believed that the force could have physical effects, including healing.

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Annapolis, Maryland

Annapolis is the capital of the U.S. state of Maryland, as well as the county seat of Anne Arundel County.

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Anonymity

Anonymity, adjective "anonymous", is derived from the Greek word ἀνωνυμία, anonymia, meaning "without a name" or "namelessness".

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Antoine Lavoisier

Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (also Antoine Lavoisier after the French Revolution;; 26 August 17438 May 1794) CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique) was a French nobleman and chemist who was central to the 18th-century chemical revolution and who had a large influence on both the history of chemistry and the history of biology.

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Aphorism

An aphorism (from Greek ἀφορισμός: aphorismos, denoting "delimitation", "distinction", and "definition") is a concise, terse, laconic, and/or memorable expression of a general truth or principle.

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Apprenticeship

An apprenticeship is a system of training a new generation of practitioners of a trade or profession with on-the-job training and often some accompanying study (classroom work and reading).

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Archibald Spencer

Archibald Spencer (January 1, 1698 – January 13, 1760) was a businessman, scientist, doctor, clergyman, and lecturer.

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Articles of Confederation

The Articles of Confederation, formally the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, was an agreement among the 13 original states of the United States of America that served as its first constitution.

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Atlantic Ocean

The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.

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Atlantic slave trade

The Atlantic slave trade or transatlantic slave trade involved the transportation by slave traders of enslaved African people, mainly to the Americas.

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Bachelor of Arts

A Bachelor of Arts (BA or AB, from the Latin baccalaureus artium or artium baccalaureus) is a bachelor's degree awarded for an undergraduate course or program in either the liberal arts, sciences, or both.

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Balloon (aeronautics)

In aeronautics, a balloon is an unpowered aerostat, which remains aloft or floats due to its buoyancy.

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Banknote

A banknote (often known as a bill, paper money, or simply a note) is a type of negotiable promissory note, made by a bank, payable to the bearer on demand.

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Barbados

Barbados is an island country in the Lesser Antilles of the West Indies, in the Caribbean region of North America.

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Battles of Lexington and Concord

The Battles of Lexington and Concord were the first military engagements of the American Revolutionary War.

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Bellows

A bellows or pair of bellows is a device constructed to furnish a strong blast of air.

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Benjamin Franklin Bridge

The Benjamin Franklin Bridge – originally named the Delaware River Bridge, and now informally called the Ben Franklin Bridge – is a suspension bridge across the Delaware River connecting Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and Camden, New Jersey.

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Benjamin Franklin House

Benjamin Franklin House is a museum in a terraced Georgian house at 36 Craven Street, London, close to Trafalgar Square.

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Benjamin Franklin in popular culture

Benjamin Franklin, one of the founding fathers of the United States of America, has appeared in popular culture as a character in novels, films, musicals, comics and video games.

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Benjamin Franklin Institute of Technology

The Benjamin Franklin Institute of Technology (BFIT) in Boston, Massachusetts, is a non-profit private college of engineering and industrial technologies established in 1908 with funds bequeathed in Benjamin Franklin's will.

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Benjamin Franklin Medal (Royal Society of Arts)

The Royal Society of Arts Benjamin Franklin Medal was instituted in 1956 to commemorate the 250th anniversary of Benjamin Franklin's birth and the 200th anniversary of his membership to the Royal Society of Arts.

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Benjamin Franklin National Memorial

The Benjamin Franklin National Memorial, located in the rotunda of The Franklin Institute science museum in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S., features a colossal statue of a seated Benjamin Franklin, American writer, inventor, and statesman.

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Benjamin Franklin Parkway

Benjamin Franklin Parkway is a scenic boulevard that runs through the cultural heart of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

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Benjamin Franklin's phonetic alphabet

Benjamin Franklin's phonetic alphabet was Benjamin Franklin's proposal for a spelling reform of the English language.

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Bequest

A bequest is property given by will.

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Bethlehem, Pennsylvania

Bethlehem is a city in Lehigh and Northampton counties in the Lehigh Valley region of the eastern portion of the U.S. state of Pennsylvania.

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Bibliothèque nationale de France

The (BnF, English: National Library of France) is the national library of France, located in Paris.

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Bifocals

Bifocals are eyeglasses with two distinct optical powers.

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Bigamy

In cultures that practice marital monogamy, bigamy is the act of entering into a marriage with one person while still legally married to another.

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Blue plaque

A blue plaque is a permanent sign installed in a public place in the United Kingdom and elsewhere to commemorate a link between that location and a famous person, event, or former building on the site, serving as a historical marker.

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Board of Trade

The Board of Trade is a British government department concerned with commerce and industry, currently within the Department for International Trade.

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Book of Exodus

The Book of Exodus or, simply, Exodus (from ἔξοδος, éxodos, meaning "going out"; וְאֵלֶּה שְׁמוֹת, we'elleh shəmōṯ, "These are the names", the beginning words of the text: "These are the names of the sons of Israel" וְאֵלֶּה שְׁמֹות בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל), is the second book of the Torah and the Hebrew Bible (the Old Testament) immediately following Genesis.

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Boston

Boston is the capital city and most populous municipality of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States.

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Boston Gazette

The Boston Gazette (1719–1798) was a newspaper published in Boston, Massachusetts, in the British North American colonies.

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Boston Latin School

The Boston Latin School is a public exam school in Boston, Massachusetts.

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British America

British America refers to English Crown colony territories on the continent of North America and Bermuda, Central America, the Caribbean, and Guyana from 1607 to 1783.

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British Army

The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces.

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British North America

The term "British North America" refers to the former territories of the British Empire on the mainland of North America.

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Bureau of Public Affairs

The Bureau of Public Affairs (PA) is the part of the United States Department of State that carries out the Secretary of State's mandate to help Americans understand the importance of foreign policy.

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C-SPAN

C-SPAN, an acronym for Cable-Satellite Public Affairs Network, is an American cable and satellite television network that was created in 1979 by the cable television industry as a public service.

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Café de la Régence

The Café de la Régence in Paris was an important European centre of chess in the 18th and 19th centuries.

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Calendar (New Style) Act 1750

The Calendar (New Style) Act 1750 (c.23) (also known as Chesterfield's Act after Philip Stanhope, 4th Earl of Chesterfield) was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain.

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Cambridge

Cambridge is a university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam approximately north of London.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Camden, New Jersey

Camden is a city in Camden County, New Jersey.

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Capitalism

Capitalism is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.

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Carl L. Becker

Carl Lotus Becker (September 7, 1873 – April 10, 1945) was an American historian.

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Catamaran

A catamaran (informally, a "cat") is a multi-hulled watercraft featuring two parallel hulls of equal size.

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Catholic Church

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.

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Cato's Letters

Cato's Letters were essays by British writers John Trenchard and Thomas Gordon, first published from 1720 to 1723 under the pseudonym of Cato (95–46 BCE), the implacable foe of Julius Caesar and a famously stubborn champion of republican principles (mos maiorum).

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Centimetre–gram–second system of units

The centimetre–gram–second system of units (abbreviated CGS or cgs) is a variant of the metric system based on the centimetre as the unit of length, the gram as the unit of mass, and the second as the unit of time.

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Central London

Central London is the innermost part of London, in the United Kingdom, spanning several boroughs.

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Champ de Mars

The Champ de Mars (Field of Mars) is a large public greenspace in Paris, France, located in the seventh ''arrondissement'', between the Eiffel Tower to the northwest and the École Militaire to the southeast.

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Chandlery

A chandlery was originally the office in a medieval household responsible for wax and candles, as well as the room in which the candles were kept.

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Charge conservation

In physics, charge conservation is the principle that the total electric charge in an isolated system never changes.

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Charles Biddle

Charles Biddle (December 24, 1745 – April 4, 1821) was a Pennsylvania statesman and a member of the prominent Biddle family of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

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Charles I of England

Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649.

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Charles-Joseph Mathon de la Cour

Charles-Joseph Mathon de la Cour (6 October 1738, Lyon – 15 November 1793, Lyon) was a French art critic, mathematician, financier, and essayist.

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Charleston, South Carolina

Charleston is the oldest and largest city in the U.S. state of South Carolina, the county seat of Charleston County, and the principal city in the Charleston–North Charleston–Summerville Metropolitan Statistical Area.

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Chastity

Chastity is sexual conduct of a person deemed praiseworthy and virtuous according to the moral standards and guidelines of their culture, civilization or religion.

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Chess

Chess is a two-player strategy board game played on a chessboard, a checkered gameboard with 64 squares arranged in an 8×8 grid.

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Chess magazine

CHESS Magazine, also called CHESS and previously called CHESS Monthly, is a chess magazine published monthly in the United Kingdom by Chess and Bridge Limited.

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Christ Church Burial Ground

Christ Church Burial Ground in Philadelphia is an important early-American cemetery.

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Christiaan Huygens

Christiaan Huygens (Hugenius; 14 April 1629 – 8 July 1695) was a Dutch physicist, mathematician, astronomer and inventor, who is widely regarded as one of the greatest scientists of all time and a major figure in the scientific revolution.

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Christian prayer

Prayer is an important activity in Christianity, and there are several different forms of Christian prayer.

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Christology

Christology (from Greek Χριστός Khristós and -λογία, -logia) is the field of study within Christian theology which is primarily concerned with the ontology and person of Jesus as recorded in the canonical Gospels and the epistles of the New Testament.

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Church of England

The Church of England (C of E) is the state church of England.

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Civic virtue

Civic virtue is the cultivation of habits important for the success of the community.

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Clapham Common

Clapham Common is a large triangular urban park in Clapham, south London.

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Classical period (music)

The Classical period was an era of classical music between roughly 1730 to 1820, associated with the style of Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven.

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Cleanliness

Cleanliness is both the abstract state of being clean and free from dirt, and the habit of achieving and maintaining that state.

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Clinton Rossiter

Clinton Lawrence Rossiter III (September 18, 1917 – July 11, 1970) was an American historian and political scientist who taught at Cornell University from 1947 to 1970.

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CMA CGM Benjamin Franklin

CMA CGM Benjamin Franklin is an Explorer class containership built for CMA CGM.

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CNNMoney

CNNMoney.com is a financial news and information website, operated by CNN.

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College of William & Mary

The College of William & Mary (also known as William & Mary, or W&M) is a public research university in Williamsburg, Virginia. Founded in 1693 by letters patent issued by King William III and Queen Mary II, it is the second-oldest institution of higher education in the United States, after Harvard University. William & Mary educated American Presidents Thomas Jefferson (third), James Monroe (fifth), and John Tyler (tenth) as well as other key figures important to the development of the nation, including the fourth U.S. Supreme Court Chief Justice John Marshall of Virginia, Speaker of the House of Representatives Henry Clay of Kentucky, sixteen members of the Continental Congress, and four signers of the Declaration of Independence, earning it the nickname "the Alma Mater of the Nation." A young George Washington (1732–1799) also received his surveyor's license through the college. W&M students founded the Phi Beta Kappa academic honor society in 1776 and W&M was the first school of higher education in the United States to install an honor code of conduct for students. The establishment of graduate programs in law and medicine in 1779 makes it one of the earliest higher level universities in the United States. In addition to its undergraduate program (which includes an international joint degree program with the University of St Andrews in Scotland and a joint engineering program with Columbia University in New York City), W&M is home to several graduate programs (including computer science, public policy, physics, and colonial history) and four professional schools (law, business, education, and marine science). In his 1985 book Public Ivies: A Guide to America's Best Public Undergraduate Colleges and Universities, Richard Moll categorized William & Mary as one of eight "Public Ivies".

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Colonial Williamsburg

Colonial Williamsburg is a living-history museum and private foundation presenting part of an historic district in the city of Williamsburg, Virginia, United States.

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Columbia University

Columbia University (Columbia; officially Columbia University in the City of New York), established in 1754, is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City.

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Commissioner

A commissioner is, in principle, a member of a commission or an individual who has been given a commission (official charge or authority to do something).

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Committee of Five

The Committee of Five of the Second Continental Congress was a team of five men who drafted and presented to the Congress what would become America's Declaration of Independence of July 4, 1776.

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Common law

Common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is that body of law derived from judicial decisions of courts and similar tribunals.

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Common-law marriage

Common-law marriage, also known as sui iuris marriage, informal marriage, marriage by habit and repute, or marriage in fact, is a legal framework in a limited number of jurisdictions where a couple is legally considered married, without that couple having formally registered their relation as a civil or religious marriage.

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Compartment (ship)

A compartment is a portion of the space within a ship defined vertically between decks and horizontally between bulkheads.

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Congress of the Confederation

The Congress of the Confederation, or the Confederation Congress, formally referred to as the United States in Congress Assembled, was the governing body of the United States of America that existed from March 1, 1781, to March 4, 1789.

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Connecticut

Connecticut is the southernmost state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.

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Constitutional Convention (United States)

The Constitutional Convention (also known as the Philadelphia Convention, the Federal Convention, or the Grand Convention at Philadelphia) took place from May 25 to September 17, 1787, in the old Pennsylvania State House (later known as Independence Hall because of the adoption of the Declaration of Independence there eleven years before) in Philadelphia.

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Continental Army

The Continental Army was formed by the Second Continental Congress after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War by the colonies that became the United States of America.

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Continental Congress

The Continental Congress, also known as the Philadelphia Congress, was a convention of delegates called together from the Thirteen Colonies.

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Copley Medal

The Copley Medal is a scientific award given by the Royal Society, for "outstanding achievements in research in any branch of science." It alternates between the physical and the biological sciences.

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Corpuscular theory of light

In optics, the corpuscular theory of light, arguably set forward by Descartes (1637) states that light is made up of small discrete particles called "corpuscles" (little particles) which travel in a straight line with a finite velocity and possess impetus.

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Cotton Mather

Cotton Mather, FRS (February 12, 1663 – February 13, 1728; A.B. 1678, Harvard College; A.M. 1681, honorary doctorate 1710, University of Glasgow) was a socially and politically influential New England Puritan minister, prolific author, and pamphleteer.

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Counterfeit

The counterfeit means to imitate something.

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County (United States)

In the United States, an administrative or political subdivision of a state is a county, which is a region having specific boundaries and usually some level of governmental authority.

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Court clerk

A court clerk (British English clerk to the court; American English clerk of the court or clerk of court) is an officer of the court whose responsibilities include maintaining records of a court.

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David Hall (publisher)

David Hall (1714 – December 24, 1772) was an American printer and a business partner with Benjamin Franklin in Philadelphia.

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David Hume

David Hume (born David Home; 7 May 1711 NS (26 April 1711 OS) – 25 August 1776) was a Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist, who is best known today for his highly influential system of philosophical empiricism, skepticism, and naturalism.

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David Redick

David Redick (died 1805) was a Pennsylvania surveyor, lawyer, and politician.

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David Vincent Hooper

David Vincent Hooper (31 August 1915 – May 1998), born in Reigate, was a British chess player and writer.

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Daylight saving time

Daylight saving time (abbreviated DST), sometimes referred to as daylight savings time in U.S., Canadian, and Australian speech, and known as summer time in some countries, is the practice of advancing clocks during summer months so that evening daylight lasts longer, while sacrificing normal sunrise times.

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Deborah Read

Deborah Read Franklin (c. 1708 – December 19, 1774) was the common-law spouse of inventor, printer, thinker, revolutionary and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States, Benjamin Franklin.

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Decision-making

In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decision making and decisionmaking) is regarded as the cognitive process resulting in the selection of a belief or a course of action among several alternative possibilities.

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Decisional balance sheet

A decisional balance sheet or decision balance sheet is a tabular method for representing the pros and cons of different choices and for helping someone decide what to do in a certain circumstance.

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Deflation

In economics, deflation is a decrease in the general price level of goods and services.

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Deism

Deism (or; derived from Latin "deus" meaning "god") is a philosophical belief that posits that God exists and is ultimately responsible for the creation of the universe, but does not interfere directly with the created world.

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Delaware River

The Delaware River is a major river on the Atlantic coast of the United States.

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Demography

Demography (from prefix demo- from Ancient Greek δῆμος dēmos meaning "the people", and -graphy from γράφω graphō, implies "writing, description or measurement") is the statistical study of populations, especially human beings.

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Diethyl ether

Diethyl ether, or simply ether, is an organic compound in the ether class with the formula, sometimes abbreviated as (see Pseudoelement symbols).

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Doctrine of the Trinity Act 1813

The Doctrine of the Trinity Act 1813 (53 Geo. III c. 160. sometimes called the Trinitarian Act 1812) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

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Double-slit experiment

In modern physics, the double-slit experiment is a demonstration that light and matter can display characteristics of both classically defined waves and particles; moreover, it displays the fundamentally probabilistic nature of quantum mechanical phenomena.

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Dowry

A dowry is a transfer of parental property, gifts or money at the marriage of a daughter.

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Dublin

Dublin is the capital of and largest city in Ireland.

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Ecton, Northamptonshire

Ecton is a village and civil parish in the Borough of Wellingborough in Northamptonshire, England.

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Edict of Fontainebleau

The Edict of Fontainebleau (22 October 1685) was an edict issued by Louis XIV of France, also known as the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes.

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Edict of Versailles

The Edict of Versailles, commonly known as the Edict of Tolerance, was an official act that gave non-Catholics in France the right to openly practice their religions as well as legal and civil status, which included the right to contract marriages without having to convert to the Catholic faith.

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Edinburgh

Edinburgh (Dùn Èideann; Edinburgh) is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 council areas.

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Edmund Morgan (historian)

Edmund Sears Morgan (January 17, 1916 – July 8, 2013) was an American historian and an eminent authority on early American history.

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Egalitarianism

Egalitarianism – or equalitarianism – is a school of thought that prioritizes equality for all people.

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Eiffel Tower

The Eiffel Tower (tour Eiffel) is a wrought iron lattice tower on the Champ de Mars in Paris, France.

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Electric bath (electrotherapy)

An electric bath is a 19th-century medical treatment in which high-voltage electrical apparatus was used for electrifying patients by causing an electric charge to build up on their bodies.

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Electric charge

Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field.

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Electrical injury

Electrical injury is a physiological reaction caused by electric current passing through the (human) body.

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Electricity

Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of electric charge.

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Electrotherapy

Electrotherapy is the use of electrical energy as a medical treatment.

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Elizabeth Timothy

Elizabeth Timothy or Elisabet Timothee (30 June 1702 – April 1757) was a prominent colonial American printer and newspaper publisher in the colony of South Carolina who worked for Benjamin Franklin.

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England

England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.

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English coffeehouses in the 17th and 18th centuries

English coffeehouses in the 17th and 18th centuries were public social places where men would meet for conversation and commerce.

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English Dissenters

English Dissenters or English Separatists were Protestant Christians who separated from the Church of England in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries.

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Erasmus Darwin

Erasmus Darwin (12 December 173118 April 1802) was an English physician.

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Esmond Wright

Esmond Wright (5 November 1915, Newcastle upon Tyne – 9 August 2003, Masham, North Yorkshire) was an English historian of the United States, Director of the Institute of United States Studies at the University of London from 1971 to 1983, a television personality, author, and a Conservative politician.

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Essex Street Chapel

Essex Street Chapel, also known as Essex Church, is a Unitarian place of worship in London.

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Ethics

Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.

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Evaporation

Evaporation is a type of vaporization that occurs on the surface of a liquid as it changes into the gaseous phase before reaching its boiling point.

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Evaporative cooler

An evaporative cooler (also swamp cooler, desert cooler and wet air cooler) is a device that cools air through the evaporation of water.

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Everything You Know Is Wrong

Everything You Know Is Wrong is the eighth comedy album by the Firesign Theatre.

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Experiments and Observations on Electricity

Experiments and Observations on Electricity is a mid-eighteenth century book consisting of letters from Benjamin Franklin.

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Explorer-class container ship

The Explorer class is a series of large container ships built for CMA CGM.

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Ezra Stiles

Ezra Stiles (December 10, 1727 – May 12, 1795) was an American academic and educator, a Congregationalist minister, theologian and author.

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Falmouth, Cornwall

Falmouth (Aberfala) is a town, civil parish and port on the River Fal on the south coast of Cornwall, England, United Kingdom.

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Fart Proudly

"Fart Proudly" (also called "A Letter to a Royal Academy about farting", and "To the Royal Academy of Farting") is the popular name of an essay about flatulence written by Benjamin Franklin c. 1781 while he was living abroad as United States Ambassador to France.

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Fides et Historia

Fides et Historia is a semi-annual peer-reviewed academic journal concerning the "intersection of Christian faith and historical inquiry".

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First Great Awakening

The First Great Awakening (sometimes Great Awakening) or the Evangelical Revival was a series of Christian revivals that swept Britain and its Thirteen Colonies between the 1730s and 1740s.

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Florence Earle Coates

Florence Van Leer Earle Nicholson Coates (July 1, 1850 – April 6, 1927) was an American poet.

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Founding Fathers of the United States

The Founding Fathers of the United States led the American Revolution against the Kingdom of Great Britain.

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France–United States relations

French–American relations refers to the relations between France and the United States since 1776.

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Francis Folger Franklin

Francis Folger Franklin (October 20, 1732 November 21, 1736) was the eldest son of Founding Father of the United States Benjamin Franklin by Deborah Read.

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Franklin & Marshall College

Franklin & Marshall College (F&M) is a private co-educational residential liberal arts college in the Northwest Corridor neighborhood of Lancaster, Pennsylvania, United States.

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Franklin Field

Franklin Field is the home of the Penn Relays, and is the University of Pennsylvania's stadium for football, track and field, lacrosse and formerly for soccer, field hockey and baseball.

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Franklin half dollar

The Franklin half dollar is a coin that was struck by the United States Mint from 1948 to 1963.

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Franklin Institute

The Franklin Institute is a science museum and the center of science education and research in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

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Franklin Institute Awards

The Franklin Institute Awards (or Benjamin Franklin Medal) is a science and engineering award presented since 1824 by the Franklin Institute, of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, US.

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Franklin stove

The Franklin stove is a metal-lined fireplace named after Benjamin Franklin, who invented it in 1741.

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Franklin's electrostatic machine

Franklin's electrostatic machine is a high-voltage static electricity-generating device used by Benjamin Franklin in the mid-18th century for research into electrical phenomena.

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Franz Mesmer

Franz Friedrich Anton Mesmer (May 23, 1734 – March 5, 1815) was a German physician with an interest in astronomy who theorised that there was a natural energetic transference that occurred between all animated and inanimate objects that he called animal magnetism, sometimes later referred to as mesmerism.

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Freedom of religion

Freedom of religion is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or community, in public or private, to manifest religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship, and observance without government influence or intervention.

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Freedom of speech

Freedom of speech is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or a community to articulate their opinions and ideas without fear of retaliation, censorship, or sanction.

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Freedom of the City

The Freedom of the City is an honour bestowed by a municipality upon a valued member of the community, or upon a visiting celebrity or dignitary.

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Freemasonry

Freemasonry or Masonry consists of fraternal organisations that trace their origins to the local fraternities of stonemasons, which from the end of the fourteenth century regulated the qualifications of stonemasons and their interaction with authorities and clients.

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French and Indian War

The French and Indian War (1754–63) comprised the North American theater of the worldwide Seven Years' War of 1756–63.

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French livre

The livre (pound) was the currency of Kingdom of France and its predecessor state of West Francia from 781 to 1794.

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Frugality

Frugality is the quality of being frugal, sparing, thrifty, prudent or economical in the consumption of consumable resources such as food, time or money, and avoiding waste, lavishness or extravagance.

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Fugitive

A fugitive (or runaway) is a person who is fleeing from custody, whether it be from jail, a government arrest, government or non-government questioning, vigilante violence, or outraged private individuals.

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General Assembly of Unitarian and Free Christian Churches

The General Assembly of Unitarian and Free Christian Churches (GAUFCC or colloquially British Unitarians) is the umbrella organisation for Unitarian, Free Christians and other liberal religious congregations in the United Kingdom and Ireland.

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Gentlemen's club

A gentlemen's club, or formerly traditional gentlemen's club, is a members-only private club originally set up by and for British upper-class men in the 18th century, and popularised by English upper middle-class men and women in the late 19th century and early 20th century.

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Georg Wilhelm Richmann

Georg Wilhelm Richmann (Russian: Георг Вильгельм Рихман) (22 July 1711 – 6 August 1753), (Old Style: 11 July 1711 – 26 July 1753) was a Baltic German physicist.

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George Hudson (entomologist)

George Vernon Hudson (20 April 1867 – 5 April 1946) was a British-born New Zealand entomologist and astronomer.

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George III of the United Kingdom

George III (George William Frederick; 4 June 1738 – 29 January 1820) was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of the two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death in 1820.

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George Pocock (inventor)

George Pocock (1774–1843) was an English schoolteacher and inventor of the "Charvolant", a kite-drawn carriage.

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George Washington

George Washington (February 22, 1732 –, 1799), known as the "Father of His Country," was an American soldier and statesman who served from 1789 to 1797 as the first President of the United States.

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George Whitefield

George Whitefield (30 September 1770), also spelled Whitfield, was an English Anglican cleric who was one of the founders of Methodism and the evangelical movement.

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Georgia (U.S. state)

Georgia is a state in the Southeastern United States.

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German language

German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.

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Glass harmonica

The glass harmonica, also known as the glass armonica, glass harmonium, bowl organ, hydrocrystalophone, or simply the armonica or harmonica (derived from ἁρμονία, harmonia, the Greek word for harmony), is a type of musical instrument that uses a series of glass bowls or goblets graduated in size to produce musical tones by means of friction (instruments of this type are known as friction idiophones).

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Gordon S. Wood

Gordon Stewart Wood (born November 27, 1933) is Alva O. Way University Professor and Professor of History Emeritus at Brown University, and the recipient of the 1993 Pulitzer Prize for History for The Radicalism of the American Revolution (1992).

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Gout

Gout is a form of inflammatory arthritis characterized by recurrent attacks of a red, tender, hot, and swollen joint.

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Governor of New Jersey

The Governor of the State of New Jersey is head of the executive branch of New Jersey's state government.

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Great Seal of the United States

The Great Seal of the United States is used to authenticate certain documents issued by the U.S. federal government.

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Ground (electricity)

In electrical engineering, ground or earth is the reference point in an electrical circuit from which voltages are measured, a common return path for electric current, or a direct physical connection to the earth.

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Gulf Stream

The Gulf Stream, together with its northern extension the North Atlantic Drift, is a warm and swift Atlantic ocean current that originates in the Gulf of Mexico and stretches to the tip of Florida, and follows the eastern coastlines of the United States and Newfoundland before crossing the Atlantic Ocean.

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H. W. Brands

Henry William Brands Jr. (born August 7, 1953 in Portland, Oregon) is an American educator, author and historian.

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Halifax, Nova Scotia

Halifax, officially known as the Halifax Regional Municipality (HRM), is the capital of the Canadian province of Nova Scotia.

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Harmonica

The harmonica, also known as a French harp or mouth organ, is a free reed wind instrument used worldwide in many musical genres, notably in blues, American folk music, classical music, jazz, country, and rock and roll.

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Harp

The harp is a stringed musical instrument that has a number of individual strings running at an angle to its soundboard; the strings are plucked with the fingers.

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Harvard Collection of Historical Scientific Instruments

Harvard University's Collection of Historical Scientific Instruments (CHSI), established 1948, is "one of the three largest university collections of its kind in the world".

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Harvard Hall

Harvard Hall is a Harvard University classroom building in Harvard Yard, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

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Harvard Science Center

The Harvard University Science Center is Harvard's main classroom and laboratory building for undergraduate science and mathematics, in addition to housing numerous other facilities and services.

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Harvard University

Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

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Henry Home, Lord Kames

Henry Home, Lord Kames (169627 December 1782) was a Scottish advocate, judge, philosopher, writer and agricultural improver.

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Henry Steele Commager

Henry Steele Commager (October 25, 1902 – March 2, 1998) was an American historian.

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Historical Society of Pennsylvania

The Historical Society of Pennsylvania is a historical society founded in 1824 and based in Philadelphia.

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History (U.S. TV network)

History (originally The History Channel from 1995 to 2008) is a history-based digital cable and satellite television network that is owned by A&E Networks, a joint venture between the Hearst Communications and the Disney–ABC Television Group division of the Walt Disney Company.

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History of American newspapers

The history of American newspapers begins in the early 18th century with the publication of the first colonial newspapers.

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History of Freemasonry

The history of Freemasonry encompasses the origins, evolution and defining events of the fraternal organis<!-- NOTE: THIS ARTICLE USES UK SPELLING... which spells this word with an "s" and not a "z". -->ation known as Freemasonry.

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History of physics

Physics (from the Ancient Greek φύσις physis meaning "nature") is the fundamental branch of science.

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HMS Canopus (1798)

HMS Canopus was an 84-gun third rate ship of the line of the British Royal Navy.

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Home insurance

Home insurance, also commonly called homeowner's insurance (often abbreviated in the US real estate industry as HOI), is a type of property insurance that covers a private residence.

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Honorary degree

An honorary degree, in Latin a degree honoris causa ("for the sake of the honor") or ad honorem ("to the honor"), is an academic degree for which a university (or other degree-awarding institution) has waived the usual requirements, such as matriculation, residence, a dissertation and the passing of comprehensive examinations.

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Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau

Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, Count of Mirabeau (9 March 17492 April 1791) was a leader of the early stages of the French Revolution.

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House of Commons of the United Kingdom

The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

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Hugh Meredith

Hugh Meredith (c. 1697 - c. 1749) was a farmer and printer in the American colonies, who briefly had a partnership with Benjamin Franklin as publishers of the Pennsylvania Gazette.

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Human sexuality

Human sexuality is the way people experience and express themselves sexually.

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Humility

Humility is the quality of being humble.

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Humphrey Gilbert

Sir Humphrey Gilbert (c. 1539 – 9 September 1583) of Compton in the parish of Marldon and of Greenway in the parish of Churston Ferrers, both in Devon, England, was an adventurer, explorer, member of parliament and soldier who served during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I and was a pioneer of the English colonial empire in North America and the Plantations of Ireland.

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Indentured servitude

An indentured servant or indentured laborer is an employee (indenturee) within a system of unfree labor who is bound by a signed or forced contract (indenture) to work for a particular employer for a fixed time.

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Independent politician

An independent or nonpartisan politician is an individual politician not affiliated with any political party.

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Industry

Industry is the production of goods or related services within an economy.

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Infant baptism

Infant baptism is the practice of baptising infants or young children.

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Isaac Asimov

Isaac Asimov (January 2, 1920 – April 6, 1992) was an American writer and professor of biochemistry at Boston University.

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Isaac Bickerstaff

Isaac Bickerstaff Esq was a pseudonym used by Jonathan Swift as part of a hoax to predict the death of then famous Almanac–maker and astrologer John Partridge.

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Isaac Newton

Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.

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Isaac Norris (statesman)

Isaac Norris (October 3, 1701 – June 13, 1766) was a merchant and statesman in provincial Pennsylvania.

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Israelites

The Israelites (בני ישראל Bnei Yisra'el) were a confederation of Iron Age Semitic-speaking tribes of the ancient Near East, who inhabited a part of Canaan during the tribal and monarchic periods.

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Italian language

Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.

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Jacques Charles

Jacques Alexandre César Charles (November 12, 1746 – April 7, 1823) was a French inventor, scientist, mathematician, and balloonist.

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Jacques-Donatien Le Ray de Chaumont

Jacques-Donatien Le Ray de Chaumont (1 September 1726 &ndash; 22 February 1803) was a French "Father of the American Revolution", but later an opponent of the French Revolution.

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James Anderson (Freemason)

James Anderson (c. 1679/1680 &ndash; 1739) was a Scottish writer and minister born and educated in Aberdeen, Scotland.

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James Franklin (printer)

James Franklin (February 4, 1697 in Boston &ndash; February 4, 1735 in Newport, Rhode Island) was an American colonial author, printer, newspaper publisher, and almanac publisher.

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James Irvine (Pennsylvania)

James Irvine (August 4, 1735 – April 28, 1819) was a Pennsylvania soldier and politician of the Colonial, Revolutionary, and Post-Revolutionary periods.

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James Madison (bishop)

James Madison (August 27, 1749 &ndash; March 6, 1812) was the first bishop of the Diocese of Virginia of The Episcopal Church in the United States, one of the first bishops to be consecrated to the new church after the American Revolution.

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James Parker (publisher)

James Parker (1714 – July 2, 1770) was a prominent colonial American printer and publisher.

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James Srodes

James Srodes (March 12, 1940—September 27, 2017) was an American journalist and author.

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James Watt

James Watt (30 January 1736 (19 January 1736 OS) – 25 August 1819) was a Scottish inventor, mechanical engineer, and chemist who improved on Thomas Newcomen's 1712 Newcomen steam engine with his Watt steam engine in 1781, which was fundamental to the changes brought by the Industrial Revolution in both his native Great Britain and the rest of the world.

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Jane Mecom

Jane Franklin Mecom (March 27, 1712 – May 7, 1794) was the youngest sister of Benjamin Franklin and was considered one of his closest confidants.

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Jean Sylvain Bailly

Jean Sylvain Bailly (15 September 1736 – 12 November 1793) was a French astronomer, mathematician, freemason, and political leader of the early part of the French Revolution.

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Jesus

Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.

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John Adams

John Adams (October 30 &#91;O.S. October 19&#93; 1735 – July 4, 1826) was an American statesman and Founding Father who served as the first Vice President (1789–1797) and second President of the United States (1797–1801).

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John Dickinson

John Dickinson (November 8, 1732 – February 14, 1808), a Founding Father of the United States, was a solicitor and politician from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and Wilmington, Delaware known as the "Penman of the Revolution" for his twelve Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania, published individually in 1767 and 1768.

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John Hadley (chemist)

John Hadley (1731 – 5 November 1764) was a British chemist and physician.

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John Hancock

John Hancock (October 8, 1793) was an American merchant, statesman, and prominent Patriot of the American Revolution.

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John Kenneth Galbraith

John Kenneth Galbraith (October 15, 1908 - April 29, 2006), also known as Ken Galbraith, was a Canadian-born economist, public official, and diplomat, and a leading proponent of 20th-century American liberalism.

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John Pringle

Sir John Pringle, 1st Baronet, PRS (10 April 1707 – 18 January 1782) was a British physician who has been called the "father of military medicine" (although Ambroise Paré and Jonathan Letterman have also been accorded this sobriquet).

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Jonathan Russell

Jonathan Russell (February 27, 1771 – February 17, 1832) was a United States Representative from Massachusetts and diplomat.

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Jonathan Swift

Jonathan Swift (30 November 1667 – 19 October 1745) was an Anglo-Irish satirist, essayist, political pamphleteer (first for the Whigs, then for the Tories), poet and cleric who became Dean of St Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin.

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Joseph Addison

Joseph Addison (1 May 1672 – 17 June 1719) was an English essayist, poet, playwright, and politician.

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Joseph Duplessis

Joseph-Siffred Duplessis (22 September 1725 &ndash; 1 April 1802) was a French painter, known for the clarity and immediacy of his portraits.

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Joseph Priestley

Joseph Priestley FRS (– 6 February 1804) was an 18th-century English Separatist theologian, natural philosopher, chemist, innovative grammarian, multi-subject educator, and liberal political theorist who published over 150 works.

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Joseph-Ignace Guillotin

Dr.

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Josiah Franklin

Josiah Franklin Sr. (December 23, 1657 – January 16, 1745) was an English businessman and the father of Benjamin Franklin.

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Josiah Wedgwood

Josiah Wedgwood (12 July 1730 – 3 January 1795) was an English potter and entrepreneur.

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Journal de Paris

The Journal de Paris (1777-1840) was the first daily French newspaper.

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Junto (club)

The Junto, also known as the Leather Apron Club, was a club for mutual improvement established in 1727 by Benjamin Franklin in Philadelphia.

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Justice

Justice is the legal or philosophical theory by which fairness is administered.

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Justice of the peace

A justice of the peace (JP) is a judicial officer, of a lower or puisne court, elected or appointed by means of a commission (letters patent) to keep the peace.

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Ken Whyld

Kenneth Whyld (6 March 1926 – 11 July 2003) was a British chess author and researcher, best known as the co-author (with David Hooper) of The Oxford Companion to Chess, a single-volume chess reference work in English.

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Kerry S. Walters

Kerry S. Walters (born 1954) is Professor emeritus of Philosophy at Gettysburg College and author of numerous books on philosophy, religion, and American history as well as over 200 articles in academic journals, trade magazines, and newspapers.

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Kite experiment

The kite experiment is a scientific experiment in which a kite with a pointed, conductive wire attached to its apex is flown near thunder clouds to collect electricity from the air and conduct it down the wet kite string to the ground.

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Laki

Laki or Lakagígar (Craters of Laki) is a volcanic fissure in the south of Iceland, not far from the canyon of Eldgjá and the small village of Kirkjubæjarklaustur.

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Lancaster, Pennsylvania

Lancaster is a city located in South Central Pennsylvania which serves as the seat of Pennsylvania's Lancaster County and one of the oldest inland towns in the United States.

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Leeds

Leeds is a city in the metropolitan borough of Leeds, in the county of West Yorkshire, England.

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Leo Lemay

J.

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Leonhard Euler

Leonhard Euler (Swiss Standard German:; German Standard German:; 15 April 170718 September 1783) was a Swiss mathematician, physicist, astronomer, logician and engineer, who made important and influential discoveries in many branches of mathematics, such as infinitesimal calculus and graph theory, while also making pioneering contributions to several branches such as topology and analytic number theory.

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Les Neuf Sœurs

La Loge des Neuf Sœurs (The Nine Sisters), established in Paris in 1776, was a prominent French Masonic Lodge of the Grand Orient de France that was influential in organising French support for the American Revolution.

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Leyden jar

A Leyden jar (or Leiden jar) stores a high-voltage electric charge (from an external source) between electrical conductors on the inside and outside of a glass jar.

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Library Company of Philadelphia

The Library Company of Philadelphia (LCP) is a non-profit organization based in Philadelphia.

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Library of America

The Library of America (LOA) is a nonprofit publisher of classic American literature.

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Lichfield

Lichfield is a cathedral city and civil parish in Staffordshire, England.

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Light

Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.

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Lightning

Lightning is a sudden electrostatic discharge that occurs typically during a thunderstorm.

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Lightning rod

A lightning rod (US, AUS) or lightning conductor (UK) is a metal rod mounted on a structure and intended to protect the structure from a lightning strike.

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List of abolitionist forerunners

Thomas Clarkson (1760 – 1846), the pioneering abolitionist, prepared a "map" of the "streams" of "forerunners and coadjutors" of the abolitionist movement, which he published in his work, The History of the Rise, Progress, and Accomplishment of the Abolition of the African Slave-Trade by the British Parliament published in 1808.

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List of abolitionists

This is a listing of notable opponents of slavery, often called abolitionists.

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List of ambassadors of the United States to France

The United States Ambassador to France is the official representative of the President of the United States to the President of France.

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List of ambassadors of the United States to Sweden

The United States Ambassador to Sweden (USA:s ambassadör i Sverige) serves as the official diplomatic representative of the President and the Government of the United States of America to the King and the Government of the Kingdom of Sweden.

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List of colonial governors of New Jersey

The territory which would later become the state of New Jersey was settled by Dutch and Swedish colonists in the early seventeenth century.

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List of Governors of Pennsylvania

The Governor of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania is the head of the executive branch of Pennsylvania's state government and serves as the commander-in-chief of the state's military forces.

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List of places named for Benjamin Franklin

There are many places named for Benjamin Franklin, one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.

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List of political philosophers

This is a list of notable political philosophers, including some who may be better known for their work in other areas of philosophy.

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List of richest Americans in history

Second richest in terms of wealth over contemporary GDP is disputed, with various sources listing Andrew Carnegie, Cornelius Vanderbilt, John Jacob Astor IV, Bill Gates or Henry Ford.

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List of slave owners

This list includes notable individuals for which there is a consensus of evidence of slave ownership.

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List of Speakers of the Pennsylvania House of Representatives

The speaker of the Pennsylvania House of Representatives holds the oldest statewide elected office in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.

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List of wealthiest historical figures

The list of the wealthiest historical figures gathers published estimates as to the (inflation-adjusted) net-worth and fortunes of the wealthiest historical figures in comparison.

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Louis Timothee

Louis Timothee or Lewis Timothy was a prominent Colonial American printer in the Colonies of Pennsylvania and South Carolina, who worked for Benjamin Franklin.

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Louis XV of France

Louis XV (15 February 1710 – 10 May 1774), known as Louis the Beloved, was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1 September 1715 until his death in 1774.

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Louis XVI of France

Louis XVI (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793), born Louis-Auguste, was the last King of France before the fall of the monarchy during the French Revolution.

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Loyalist (American Revolution)

Loyalists were American colonists who remained loyal to the British Crown during the American Revolutionary War, often called Tories, Royalists, or King's Men at the time.

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Lunar eclipse

A lunar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes directly behind Earth and into its shadow.

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Lunar Society of Birmingham

The Lunar Society of Birmingham was a dinner club and informal learned society of prominent figures in the Midlands Enlightenment, including industrialists, natural philosophers and intellectuals, who met regularly between 1765 and 1813 in Birmingham, England.

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Manchester

Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England, with a population of 530,300.

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Marcello Truzzi

Marcello Truzzi (September 6, 1935 – February 2, 2003) was a professor of sociology at New College of Florida and later at Eastern Michigan University, founding co-chairman of the Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal (CSICOP), a founder of the Society for Scientific Exploration, and director for the Center for Scientific Anomalies Research.

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Mary Morrell Folger

Mary Morrell Folger (&ndash;1704) was the maternal grandmother of Benjamin Franklin, a Founding Father of the United States.

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Maryland

Maryland is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, and Washington, D.C. to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and Delaware to its east.

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Masonic lodge

A Masonic lodge, often termed a private lodge or constituent lodge, is the basic organisational unit of Freemasonry.

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Massachusetts

Massachusetts, officially known as the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.

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Master of Arts

A Master of Arts (Magister Artium; abbreviated MA; also Artium Magister, abbreviated AM) is a person who was admitted to a type of master's degree awarded by universities in many countries, and the degree is also named Master of Arts in colloquial speech.

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Matthew Boulton

Matthew Boulton (3 September 1728 – 17 August 1809) was an English manufacturer and business partner of Scottish engineer James Watt.

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Matthew Fontaine Maury

Matthew Fontaine Maury (January 14, 1806February 1, 1873) was an American astronomer, United States Navy officer, historian, oceanographer, meteorologist, cartographer, author, geologist, and educator.

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Max Weber

Maximilian Karl Emil "Max" Weber (21 April 1864 – 14 June 1920) was a German sociologist, philosopher, jurist, and political economist.

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Meteorology

Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences which includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics, with a major focus on weather forecasting.

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Metrocorp

Metrocorp Inc. is a media company in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania that publishes lifestyle magazines in the United States.

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Michael Faraday

Michael Faraday FRS (22 September 1791 – 25 August 1867) was an English scientist who contributed to the study of electromagnetism and electrochemistry.

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Militia

A militia is generally an army or some other fighting organization of non-professional soldiers, citizens of a nation, or subjects of a state, who can be called upon for military service during a time of need, as opposed to a professional force of regular, full-time military personnel, or historically, members of a warrior nobility class (e.g., knights or samurai).

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Milk Street, Boston

Milk Street is a street in the financial district of Boston, Massachusetts.

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Moderation

Moderation is the process of eliminating or lessening extremes.

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Montreal

Montreal (officially Montréal) is the most populous municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec and the second-most populous municipality in Canada.

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Moravian Sun Inn

The Moravian Sun Inn was an 18th-century inn built by the Moravian community at Bethlehem, Pennsylvania to provide accommodations for non-Moravian merchants who had business with the community.

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Moses

Mosesמֹשֶׁה, Modern Tiberian ISO 259-3; ܡܘܫܐ Mūše; موسى; Mωϋσῆς was a prophet in the Abrahamic religions.

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Nantucket

Nantucket is an island about by ferry south from Cape Cod, in the U.S. state of Massachusetts.

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National Archives and Records Administration

The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) is an independent agency of the United States government charged with preserving and documenting government and historical records and with increasing public access to those documents, which comprise the National Archives.

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National Constituent Assembly (France)

The National Constituent Assembly (Assemblée nationale constituante) was formed from the National Assembly on 9 July 1789 during the first stages of the French Revolution.

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National Football League

The National Football League (NFL) is a professional American football league consisting of 32 teams, divided equally between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC).

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National Portrait Gallery (United States)

The National Portrait Gallery is a historic art museum located between 7th, 9th, F, and G Streets NW in Washington, D.C., in the United States.

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Native Americans in the United States

Native Americans, also known as American Indians, Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States.

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Natural philosophy

Natural philosophy or philosophy of nature (from Latin philosophia naturalis) was the philosophical study of nature and the physical universe that was dominant before the development of modern science.

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New France

New France (Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France in North America during a period beginning with the exploration of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence by Jacques Cartier in 1534 and ending with the cession of New France to Great Britain and Spain in 1763.

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New Jersey

New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the Northeastern United States.

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New York (state)

New York is a state in the northeastern United States.

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Newfoundland (island)

Newfoundland (Terre-Neuve) is a large Canadian island off the east coast of the North American mainland, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador.

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Newington Green Unitarian Church

Newington Green Unitarian Church (NGUC) in north London is one of England's oldest Unitarian churches.

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Newport, Rhode Island

Newport is a seaside city on Aquidneck Island in Newport County, Rhode Island, United States.

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News leak

A news leak is the unsanctioned release of confidential information to news media.

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Norwich

Norwich (also) is a city on the River Wensum in East Anglia and lies approximately north-east of London.

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Obesity

Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.

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Observations Concerning the Increase of Mankind, Peopling of Countries, etc.

Observations Concerning the Increase of Mankind, Peopling of Countries, etc. is a short essay written in 1751 by Benjamin Franklin.

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Old Slaughter's Coffee House

Old Slaughter's Coffee House was a coffee house in St. Martin's Lane in London.

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Old South Church

Old South Church in Boston, Massachusetts, (also known as New Old South Church or Third Church) is a historic United Church of Christ congregation first organized in 1669.

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Old South Meeting House

The Old South Meeting House is a historic Congregational church building located at the corner of Milk and Washington Streets in the Downtown Crossing area of Boston, Massachusetts, built in 1729.

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Old Style and New Style dates

Old Style (O.S.) and New Style (N.S.) are terms sometimes used with dates to indicate that the calendar convention used at the time described is different from that in use at the time the document was being written.

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Omnibenevolence

Omnibenevolence (from Latin omni- meaning "all", bene- meaning "good" and volens meaning "willing") is defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as "unlimited or infinite benevolence".

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Omnipotence

Omnipotence is the quality of having unlimited power.

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Order (virtue)

Order is the planning of time and organizing of resources, as well as of society.

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Otto von Guericke

Otto von Guericke (originally spelled Gericke,; November 20, 1602 &ndash; May 11, 1686 (Julian calendar); November 30, 1602 &ndash; May 21, 1686 (Gregorian calendar)) was a German scientist, inventor, and politician.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Parliament of Great Britain

The Parliament of Great Britain was formed in 1707 following the ratification of the Acts of Union by both the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland.

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Parliament of Ireland

The Parliament of Ireland was the legislature of the Lordship of Ireland, and later the Kingdom of Ireland, from 1297 until 1800.

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Parody

A parody (also called a spoof, send-up, take-off, lampoon, play on something, caricature, or joke) is a work created to imitate, make fun of, or comment on an original work—its subject, author, style, or some other target—by means of satiric or ironic imitation.

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Passy

Passy is an area of Paris, France, located in the 16th arrondissement, on the Right Bank.

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Paxton Boys

The Paxton Boys were frontiersmen of Scots-Irish origin from along the Susquehanna River in central Pennsylvania who formed a vigilante group to retaliate in 1763 against local American Indians in the aftermath of the French and Indian War and Pontiac's Rebellion.

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PDF

The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.

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Penn Quakers football

The Penn Quakers football team is the college football team at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

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Pennsylvania

Pennsylvania (Pennsylvania German: Pennsylvaani or Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States.

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Pennsylvania Abolition Society

The Society for the Relief of Free Negroes Unlawfully Held in Bondage was the first American abolition society.

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Pennsylvania Chronicle

The Pennsylvania Chronicle and Universal Advertiser was an American colonial newspaper founded in 1767 that was published in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, prior to the American Revolution and was founded by William Goddard and his business partners Joseph Galloway and Thomas Wharton.

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Pennsylvania Dutch

The Pennsylvania Dutch (Pennsilfaanisch Deitsch) are a cultural group formed by early German-speaking immigrants to Pennsylvania and their descendants.

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Pennsylvania Gazette

The Pennsylvania Gazette was one of the United States' most prominent newspapers from 1728, before the time period of the American Revolution, until 1800.

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Pennsylvania Hospital

Pennsylvania Hospital is a private, non-profit, 515-bed teaching hospital located in Center City Philadelphia and affiliated with the University of Pennsylvania Health System.

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Perth Amboy, New Jersey

Perth Amboy is a city in Middlesex County, New Jersey, United States.

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Peter Folger (Nantucket settler)

Peter Folger or Foulger (1617 –1690) was a poet and an interpreter of the American Indian language for the first settlers of Nantucket.

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Peter Martyr d'Anghiera

Peter Martyr d'Anghiera (Petrus Martyr Anglerius or ab Angleria; Pietro Martire d'Anghiera; Pedro Mártir de Anglería; 2 February 1457 &ndash; October 1526), formerly known in English as Peter Martyr of Angleria, was an Italian historian at the service of Spain during the Age of Exploration.

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Peter Muhlenberg

John Peter Gabriel Muhlenberg (October 1, 1746October 1, 1807) was an American clergyman, Continental Army soldier during the American Revolutionary War, and political figure in the newly independent United States.

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Philadelphia

Philadelphia is the largest city in the U.S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and the sixth-most populous U.S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863.

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Philadelphia (magazine)

Philadelphia (also called "Philadelphia magazine" or referred to by the nickname "Phillymag") is a regional monthly magazine published in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania by the Lipson family of Philadelphia and its company, Metrocorp.

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Philadelphia Contributionship

The Philadelphia Contributionship for the Insurance of Houses from Loss by Fire is the oldest property insurance company in the United States.

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Philadelphia Eagles

The Philadelphia Eagles are a professional American football franchise based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

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Philip Dray

Philip Dray is an American writer and independent public historian, known for his comprehensive analyses of American scientific, racial, and labor history.

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Piety

In spiritual terminology, piety is a virtue that may include religious devotion, spirituality, or a mixture of both.

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Pillar of Fire (theophany)

A Pillar of Fire was one of the manifestations of the presence of the God of Israel in the Torah, the five books ascribed to Moses which conventionally appear at the beginning of the Bible's Old Testament.

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Plantation

A plantation is a large-scale farm that specializes in cash crops.

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Pleurisy

Pleurisy, also known as pleuritis, is inflammation of the membranes that surround the lungs and line the chest cavity (pleurae).

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Polymath

A polymath (πολυμαθής,, "having learned much,"The term was first recorded in written English in the early seventeenth century Latin: uomo universalis, "universal man") is a person whose expertise spans a significant number of different subject areas—such a person is known to draw on complex bodies of knowledge to solve specific problems.

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Pontiac's War

Pontiac's War (also known as Pontiac's Conspiracy or Pontiac's Rebellion) was launched in 1763 by a loose confederation of elements of Native American tribes, primarily from the Great Lakes region, the Illinois Country, and Ohio Country who were dissatisfied with British postwar policies in the Great Lakes region after the British victory in the French and Indian War (1754–1763).

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Poor Richard's Almanack

Poor Richard's Almanack (sometimes Almanac) was a yearly almanac published by Benjamin Franklin, who adopted the pseudonym of "Poor Richard" or "Richard Saunders" for this purpose.

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Presbyterianism

Presbyterianism is a part of the reformed tradition within Protestantism which traces its origins to Britain, particularly Scotland, and Ireland.

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Prevailing winds

Prevailing winds are winds that blow predominantly from a single general direction over a particular point on the Earth's surface.

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Privy Council of the United Kingdom

Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, usually known simply as the Privy Council, is a formal body of advisers to the Sovereign of the United Kingdom.

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Property

Property, in the abstract, is what belongs to or with something, whether as an attribute or as a component of said thing.

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Proprietary colony

A proprietary colony was a type of British colony mostly in North America and the Caribbean in the 17th century.

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Proprietary House

Proprietary House in Perth Amboy, New Jersey, United States, is the only proprietary governor's mansion of the original Thirteen Colonies still standing.

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Protestant work ethic

The Protestant work ethic, the Calvinist work ethic or the Puritan work ethic is a concept in theology, sociology, economics and history which emphasizes that hard work, discipline and frugality are a result of a person's subscription to the values espoused by the Protestant faith, particularly Calvinism.

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Province of Massachusetts Bay

The Province of Massachusetts Bay was a crown colony in British North America and one of the thirteen original states of the United States from 1776.

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Province of Pennsylvania

The Province of Pennsylvania, also known as the Pennsylvania Colony, was founded in English North America by William Penn on March 4, 1681 as dictated in a royal charter granted by King Charles II.

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Province of Quebec (1763–1791)

The Province of Quebec was a colony in North America created by Great Britain after the Seven Years' War.

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Provost (education)

A provost is the senior academic administrator at many institutions of higher education in the United States and Canada, the equivalent of a pro-vice-chancellor at some institutions in the United Kingdom and Ireland, or a Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Academic) at most Australian universities.

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Pseudonym

A pseudonym or alias is a name that a person or group assumes for a particular purpose, which can differ from their first or true name (orthonym).

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Pulitzer Prize

The Pulitzer Prize is an award for achievements in newspaper, magazine and online journalism, literature, and musical composition in the United States.

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Puritans

The Puritans were English Reformed Protestants in the 16th and 17th centuries who sought to "purify" the Church of England from its "Catholic" practices, maintaining that the Church of England was only partially reformed.

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Quakers

Quakers (or Friends) are members of a historically Christian group of religious movements formally known as the Religious Society of Friends or Friends Church.

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Quebec City

Quebec City (pronounced or; Québec); Ville de Québec), officially Québec, is the capital city of the Canadian province of Quebec. The city had a population estimate of 531,902 in July 2016, (an increase of 3.0% from 2011) and the metropolitan area had a population of 800,296 in July 2016, (an increase of 4.3% from 2011) making it the second largest city in Quebec, after Montreal, and the seventh-largest metropolitan area in Canada. It is situated north-east of Montreal. The narrowing of the Saint Lawrence River proximate to the city's promontory, Cap-Diamant (Cape Diamond), and Lévis, on the opposite bank, provided the name given to the city, Kébec, an Algonquin word meaning "where the river narrows". Founded in 1608 by Samuel de Champlain, Quebec City is one of the oldest cities in North America. The ramparts surrounding Old Quebec (Vieux-Québec) are the only fortified city walls remaining in the Americas north of Mexico, and were declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1985 as the 'Historic District of Old Québec'. The city's landmarks include the Château Frontenac, a hotel which dominates the skyline, and the Citadelle of Quebec, an intact fortress that forms the centrepiece of the ramparts surrounding the old city and includes a secondary royal residence. The National Assembly of Quebec (provincial legislature), the Musée national des beaux-arts du Québec (National Museum of Fine Arts of Quebec), and the Musée de la civilisation (Museum of Civilization) are found within or near Vieux-Québec.

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Racism

Racism is the belief in the superiority of one race over another, which often results in discrimination and prejudice towards people based on their race or ethnicity.

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Radio National

ABC Radio National, known on-air as RN, is an Australia-wide Public Service Broadcasting radio network run by the Australian Broadcasting Corporation.

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Refrigeration

Refrigeration is a process of removing heat from a low-temperature reservoir and transferring it to a high-temperature reservoir.

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Republicanism in the United States

Modern republicanism is a guiding political philosophy of the United States that has been a major part of American civic thought since its founding.

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Revolution Controversy

The Revolution Controversy was a British debate over the French Revolution, lasting from 1789 through 1795.

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Richard Bache

Richard Bache (September 12, 1737 – April 17, 1811), born in Settle, Yorkshire, England, immigrated to Philadelphia, in the colony of Pennsylvania, where he was a businessman, a marine insurance underwriter, and later served as head of the American Post Office.

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Richard Peters (priest)

Richard Peters (1704 – July 10, 1776), born in Liverpool, became an attorney, Anglican minister, and civil servant.

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Richard Price

Richard Price (23 February 1723 – 19 April 1791) was a British moral philosopher, nonconformist preacher and mathematician.

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Robert brothers

Les Frères Robert were two French brothers.

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Royal Society

The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society.

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Royal Society of Arts

The Royal Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce (RSA) is a London-based, British organisation committed to finding practical solutions to social challenges.

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Russia

Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

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Russian Academy of Sciences

The Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS; Росси́йская акаде́мия нау́к (РАН) Rossíiskaya akadémiya naúk) consists of the national academy of Russia; a network of scientific research institutes from across the Russian Federation; and additional scientific and social units such as libraries, publishing units, and hospitals.

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Samuel Johnson (American educator)

Samuel Johnson (October 14, 1696 &ndash; January 6, 1772) was a clergyman, educator, linguist, encyclopedist, historian, and philosopher in colonial America.

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Samuel Keimer

Samuel Keimer (1689–1742) was an English printer and emigrant.

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Samuel Miles

Samuel Miles (March 11, 1740 – December 29, 1805) was an American military officer and politician, as well as an influential businessman and politician, active in Pennsylvania before, during, and after the American Revolutionary War.

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Samuel Willard

Reverend Samuel Willard (January 31, 1640 – September 12, 1707) was a colonial clergyman.

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Sarah Franklin Bache

Sarah “Sally” Franklin Bache (September 11, 1743 – October 5, 1808) was the daughter of Benjamin Franklin and Deborah Read.

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Scientific community

The scientific community is a diverse network of interacting scientists.

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Sea anchor

A sea anchor (also known as a drift anchor, drift sock, para-anchor or boat brake) is a device used to stabilize a boat in heavy weather.

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Second Continental Congress

The Second Continental Congress was a convention of delegates from the Thirteen Colonies that started meeting in the spring of 1775 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

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Silence

Silence is the lack of audible sound, or the presence of sounds of very low intensity.

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Silence Dogood

Mrs.

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Sincerity

Sincerity is the virtue of one who communicates and acts in accordance with their feelings, beliefs, thoughts, and desires.

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Sir William Keith, 4th Baronet

Sir William Keith, 4th Baronet, (166918 November 1749) served as lieutenant-governor of the Colonies of Pennsylvania and Delaware, 171726.

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Slavery

Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.

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Slavery in the United States

Slavery in the United States was the legal institution of human chattel enslavement, primarily of Africans and African Americans, that existed in the United States of America in the 18th and 19th centuries.

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Smallpox

Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.

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Smithfield, London

Smithfield is a locality in the ward of Farringdon Without situated at the City of London's northwest in central London, England.

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Smithsonian (magazine)

Smithsonian is the official journal published by the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. The first issue was published in 1970.

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Smithsonian Institution

The Smithsonian Institution, established on August 10, 1846 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge," is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States.

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Society of the Cincinnati

The Society of the Cincinnati is a hereditary society with branches in the United States and France, founded in 1783, to preserve the ideals and fellowship of officers of the Continental Army who served in the Revolutionary War.

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Socrates

Socrates (Sōkrátēs,; – 399 BC) was a classical Greek (Athenian) philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy, and as being the first moral philosopher, of the Western ethical tradition of thought.

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Solicitor General for England and Wales

Her Majesty's Solicitor General for England and Wales, known informally as the Solicitor General, is one of the Law Officers of the Crown, and the deputy of the Attorney General, whose duty is to advise the Crown and Cabinet on the law.

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St Andrews

St Andrews (S.; Saunt Aundraes; Cill Rìmhinn) is a town on the east coast of Fife in Scotland, 10 miles (16 km) southeast of Dundee and 30 miles (50 km) northeast of Edinburgh.

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St Bartholomew-the-Great

The Priory Church of St Bartholomew the Great, sometimes abbreviated to Great St Bart's, is a church in the Church of England's Diocese of London located in West Smithfield within the City of London.

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St. Stephen's Episcopal Church (Philadelphia)

St.

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Stacy Schiff

Stacy Madeleine Schiff (born October 26, 1961) is an American nonfiction author.

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Stamp Act 1765

The Stamp Act of 1765 (short title Duties in American Colonies Act 1765; 5 George III, c. 12) was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain that imposed a direct tax on the colonies of British America and required that many printed materials in the colonies be produced on stamped paper produced in London, carrying an embossed revenue stamp.

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Statcoulomb

The statcoulomb (statC) or franklin (Fr) or electrostatic unit of charge (esu) is the physical unit for electrical charge used in the esu-cgs (centimetre–gram–second system of units) and Gaussian units.

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State of Franklin

The State of Franklin (also the Free Republic of Franklin or the State of Frankland)Landrum, refers to the proposed state as "the proposed republic of Franklin; while Wheeler has it as Frankland." In That's Not in My American History Book, Thomas Ayres maintains that the official title was "Free Republic of Franklin".

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Stirling

Stirling (Stirlin; Sruighlea) is a city in central Scotland.

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Storm oil

Storm oil is a term used to describe the deliberate use of oil to calm an area of water.

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Strand, London

Strand (or the Strand) is a major thoroughfare in the City of Westminster, Central London.

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Stratford, Connecticut

Stratford is a town in Fairfield County, Connecticut, United States.

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String quartet

A string quartet is a musical ensemble of four string players – two violin players, a viola player and a cellist – or a piece written to be performed by such a group.

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Subscription library

A subscription library (also membership library or independent library) is a library that is financed by private funds either from membership fees or endowments.

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Supreme Executive Council of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania

The Supreme Executive Council of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania comprised the executive branch of the Pennsylvania State government between 1777 and 1790.

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Surveillance art

Surveillance Art is the use of technology intended to record human behavior in a way that offers commentary on the process of surveillance or the technology used to surveil.

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Susquehannock

Susquehannock people, also called the Conestoga (by the English)The American Heritage Book of Indians, pages 188-189 were Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans who lived in areas adjacent to the Susquehanna River and its tributaries ranging from its upper reaches in the southern part of what is now New York (near the lands of the Five Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy), through eastern and central Pennsylvania West of the Poconos and the upper Delaware River (and the Delaware nations), with lands extending beyond the mouth of the Susquehanna in Maryland along the west bank of the Potomac at the north end of the Chesapeake Bay.

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Sutton Coldfield

The Royal Town of Sutton Coldfield, more colloquially known as Sutton Coldfield or simply Sutton, is a town and civil parish in Birmingham, West Midlands, England.

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Tallow

Tallow is a rendered form of beef or mutton fat, and is primarily made up of triglycerides.

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Temperance (virtue)

Temperance is defined as moderation or voluntary self-restraint.

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The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin

The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin is the traditional name for the unfinished record of his own life written by Benjamin Franklin from 1771 to 1790; however, Franklin himself appears to have called the work his Memoirs.

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The Morals of Chess

The Morals of Chess is an essay on chess by the American intellectual Benjamin Franklin, which was first published in The Columbian Magazine in December 1786.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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The New-England Courant

The New-England Courant (also spelled New England Courant), one of the first American newspapers, was founded in Boston on August 7, 1721, by James Franklin.

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The Times

The Times is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England.

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The Way to Wealth

The Way to Wealth is an essay written by Benjamin Franklin in 1758.

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Theophilus Lindsey

Theophilus Lindsey (20 June 1723 O.S. &ndash; 3 November 1808) was an English theologian and clergyman who founded the first avowedly Unitarian congregation in the country, at Essex Street Chapel.

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Thermometer

A thermometer is a device that measures temperature or a temperature gradient.

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Thirteen Colonies

The Thirteen Colonies were a group of British colonies on the east coast of North America founded in the 17th and 18th centuries that declared independence in 1776 and formed the United States of America.

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Thomas Birch

Thomas Birch (23 November 1705 – 9 January 1766) was an English historian.

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Thomas Bond (physician)

Thomas Bond (May 2, 1713 – March 26, 1784) was an American physician and surgeon.

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Thomas Hutchinson (governor)

Thomas Hutchinson (9 September 1711 &ndash; 3 June 1780) was a businessman, historian, and a prominent Loyalist politician of the Province of Massachusetts Bay in the years before the American Revolution.

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Thomas Jefferson

Thomas Jefferson (April 13, &#91;O.S. April 2&#93; 1743 – July 4, 1826) was an American Founding Father who was the principal author of the Declaration of Independence and later served as the third president of the United States from 1801 to 1809.

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Thomas Mifflin

Thomas Mifflin (January 10, 1744January 20, 1800) was an American merchant and politician from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

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Thomas Paine

Thomas Paine (born Thomas Pain; – In the contemporary record as noted by Conway, Paine's birth date is given as January 29, 1736–37. Common practice was to use a dash or a slash to separate the old-style year from the new-style year. In the old calendar, the new year began on March 25, not January 1. Paine's birth date, therefore, would have been before New Year, 1737. In the new style, his birth date advances by eleven days and his year increases by one to February 9, 1737. The O.S. link gives more detail if needed. – June 8, 1809) was an English-born American political activist, philosopher, political theorist and revolutionary.

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Thomas Percival

Thomas Percival FRS FRSE FSA (1740–1804) was an English physician, health reformer, ethicist and author, best known for crafting perhaps the first modern code of medical ethics.

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Thomas Robert Malthus

Thomas Robert Malthus (13 February 1766 – 23 December 1834) was an English cleric and scholar, influential in the fields of political economy and demography.

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Thomas Young (scientist)

Thomas Young FRS (13 June 1773 – 10 May 1829) was a British polymath and physician.

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Thomas-François Dalibard

Thomas-François Dalibard (born in Crannes-en-Champagne, France in 1709, died in 1778) was a French physicist.

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Tranquillity

Tranquillity (also spelled tranquility) is the quality or state of being tranquil; that is, calm, serene, and worry-free.

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Treaty of Alliance (1778)

The Treaty of Alliance with France or Franco-American Treaty was a defensive alliance between France and the United States of America, formed in the midst of the American Revolutionary War, which promised mutual military support in case fighting should break out between French and British forces, as the result signing the previously concluded Treaty of Amity and Commerce.

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Treaty of Amity and Commerce (Prussia–United States)

The Treaty of Amity and Commerce between the Kingdom of Prussia and the United States of America (September 10, 1785) was a treaty negotiated by Count Karl-Wilhelm Finck von Finckenstein, Prussian Prime Minister, and Thomas Jefferson, United States Ambassador to France, and signed by Frederick the Great and George Washington.

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Treaty of Amity and Commerce (United States–Sweden)

The Treaty of Amity and Commerce Between the United States and Sweden (Svensk-amerikanska vänskaps- och handelstraktaten), was a treaty signed on April 3, 1783 in Paris, France between the United States and the Kingdom of Sweden.

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Treaty of Paris (1763)

The Treaty of Paris, also known as the Treaty of 1763, was signed on 10 February 1763 by the kingdoms of Great Britain, France and Spain, with Portugal in agreement, after Great Britain's victory over France and Spain during the Seven Years' War.

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Treaty of Paris (1783)

The Treaty of Paris, signed in Paris by representatives of King George III of Great Britain and representatives of the United States of America on September 3, 1783, ended the American Revolutionary War.

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Trinity

The Christian doctrine of the Trinity (from Greek τριάς and τριάδα, from "threefold") holds that God is one but three coeternal consubstantial persons or hypostases—the Father, the Son (Jesus Christ), and the Holy Spirit—as "one God in three Divine Persons".

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Trois-Rivières

Trois-Rivières is a city in the Mauricie administrative region of Quebec, Canada, at the confluence of the Saint-Maurice and Saint Lawrence rivers, on the north shore of the Saint Lawrence River across from the city of Bécancour.

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Tuileries Garden

The Tuileries Garden (Jardin des Tuileries) is a public garden located between the Louvre and the Place de la Concorde in the 1st arrondissement of Paris, France.

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Tun Tavern

Tun Tavern was a tavern and brewery in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, which served as a founding or early meeting place for a number of notable groups.

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Typesetting

Typesetting is the composition of text by means of arranging physical typesDictionary.com Unabridged.

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Union Fire Company

Union Fire Company, sometimes called Benjamin Franklin's Bucket Brigade, was a volunteer fire department formed in Philadelphia in 1736 with the assistance of Benjamin Franklin.

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Unitarianism

Unitarianism (from Latin unitas "unity, oneness", from unus "one") is historically a Christian theological movement named for its belief that the God in Christianity is one entity, as opposed to the Trinity (tri- from Latin tres "three") which defines God as three persons in one being; the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.

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United States Bicentennial

The United States Bicentennial was a series of celebrations and observances during the mid-1970s that paid tribute to historical events leading up to the creation of the United States of America as an independent republic.

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United States Congress

The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.

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United States Constitution

The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States.

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United States Declaration of Independence

The United States Declaration of Independence is the statement adopted by the Second Continental Congress meeting at the Pennsylvania State House (now known as Independence Hall) in Philadelphia on July 4, 1776.

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United States Department of State

The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.

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United States fifty-dollar bill

The United States fifty-dollar bill ($50) is a denomination of United States currency.

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United States Navy

The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.

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United States one hundred-dollar bill

The United States one hundred-dollar bill ($100) is a denomination of United States currency.

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United States Postal Service

The United States Postal Service (USPS; also known as the Post Office, U.S. Mail, or Postal Service) is an independent agency of the United States federal government responsible for providing postal service in the United States, including its insular areas and associated states.

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United States Postmaster General

The Postmaster General of the United States is the chief executive officer of the United States Postal Service; Megan Brennan is the current Postmaster General.

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University of Missouri Press

The University of Missouri Press is a university press operated by the University of Missouri in Columbia, Missouri and London, England; it was founded in 1958 primarily through the efforts of English professor William Peden.

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University of Oxford

The University of Oxford (formally The Chancellor Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.

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University of Pennsylvania

The University of Pennsylvania (commonly known as Penn or UPenn) is a private Ivy League research university located in University City section of West Philadelphia.

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University of St Andrews

The University of St Andrews (informally known as St Andrews University or simply St Andrews; abbreviated as St And, from the Latin Sancti Andreae, in post-nominals) is a British public research university in St Andrews, Fife, Scotland.

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Urinary catheterization

In urinary catheterization a latex, polyurethane, or silicone tube known as a urinary catheter is inserted into a patient's bladder via the urethra.

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USS Benjamin Franklin (SSBN-640)

USS Benjamin Franklin (SSBN 640), the lead ship of her class of ballistic missile submarine, was the only submarine of the United States Navy to be named for Benjamin Franklin (1706–1790), the American journalist, publisher, author, philanthropist, abolitionist, public servant, scientist, librarian, diplomat, and inventor.

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Virginia

Virginia (officially the Commonwealth of Virginia) is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains.

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Virtue

Virtue (virtus, ἀρετή "arete") is moral excellence.

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Vocational school

A vocational school, sometimes also called a trade school, career center, or vocational college, is a type of educational institution, which, depending on country, may refer to secondary or post-secondary education designed to provide vocational education, or technical skills required to perform the tasks of a particular and specific job.

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Voltaic pile

The voltaic pile was the first electrical battery that could continuously provide an electric current to a circuit.

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Voltaire

François-Marie Arouet (21 November 1694 – 30 May 1778), known by his nom de plume Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit, his attacks on Christianity as a whole, especially the established Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of speech and separation of church and state.

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Volunteer fire department

A volunteer fire department (VFD) is a fire department composed of volunteers who perform fire suppression and other related emergency services for a local jurisdiction.

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Walter Isaacson

Walter Isaacson (born May 20, 1952)Millie Ball, The Times-Picayune, December 11, 2011.

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Washington-Franklin Issues

The Washington-Franklin Issues are a series of definitive U.S. Postage stamps depicting George Washington and Benjamin Franklin issued by the U.S. Post Office between 1908 and 1922.

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Whitehall

Whitehall is a road in the City of Westminster, Central London, which forms the first part of the A3212 road from Trafalgar Square to Chelsea.

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William Franklin

William Franklin FRSE (1730 – November 1813) was an American-born attorney, soldier, politician, and colonial administrator.

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William Goddard (U.S. patriot/publisher)

William Goddard (1740–1817) was an American patriot and printer, born in New London, Connecticut who lived through the era of the American Revolution.

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William Hewson (surgeon)

William Hewson (14 November 1739 – 1 May 1774) was a British surgeon, anatomist and physiologist who has sometimes been referred to as the "father of haematology".

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William Hunter (publisher)

William Hunter (died August 14, 1761) was a colonial American newspaper publisher, book publisher, and printer for the colony of Virginia.

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William Penn

William Penn (14 October 1644 – 30 July 1718) was the son of Sir William Penn, and was an English real estate entrepreneur, philosopher, early Quaker, and founder of the English North American colony the Province of Pennsylvania.

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William Smith (Episcopal priest)

William Smith (September 7, 1727 – May 14, 1803) was the first provost of the College of Philadelphia, which became the University of Pennsylvania.

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William Temple Franklin

William Temple Franklin, known as Temple Franklin, (22 February 1762 in London &ndash; 25 May 1823 in Paris) was a British-born American diplomat and real estate speculator.

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William Watson (scientist)

Sir William Watson, FRS (3 April 1715 &ndash; 10 May 1787) was a British physician and scientist who was born and died in London.

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Wills Hill, 1st Marquess of Downshire

Wills Hill, 1st Marquess of Downshire (30 May 1718 – 7 October 1793), known as the Viscount Hillsborough from 1742 to 1751 and as the Earl of Hillsborough from 1751 to 1789, was a British politician of the Georgian era.

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Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI, acronym pronounced) is a private, nonprofit research and higher education facility dedicated to the study of all aspects of marine science and engineering and to the education of marine researchers.

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World Chess Hall of Fame

The World Chess Hall of Fame (WCHOF) is a nonprofit, collecting institution situated in the Central West End neighborhood of St. Louis, Missouri, United States.

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Yale University

Yale University is an American private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut.

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Yale University Press

Yale University Press is a university press associated with Yale University.

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Yekaterina Vorontsova-Dashkova

Princess Yekaterina Romanovna Vorontsova-Dashkova (Екатери́на Рома́новна Воронцо́ва-Да́шкова; 28 March 1743 – 15 January 1810) was the closest female friend of Empress Catherine the Great and a major figure of the Russian Enlightenment.

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111th Infantry Regiment (United States)

The 111th Infantry Regiment, was originally the Pennsylvania Militia or "Associators" that fought in the American Revolution, composed of civilian males from the citizenry of Pennsylvania.

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Redirects here:

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benjamin_Franklin

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