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Index Benzodiazepine

Benzodiazepines (BZD, BZs), sometimes called "benzos", are a class of psychoactive drugs whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring. [1]

271 relations: Abscess, Action potential, Active metabolite, Adenosine reuptake inhibitor, Adinazolam, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Aggression, Agonist, Agoraphobia, Alcohol dependence, Alcohol detoxification, Alcohol withdrawal syndrome, Alcoholic drink, Allosteric regulation, Alprazolam, American Family Physician, American Psychiatric Association, Amnesia, Anecdotal evidence, Anesthesia, Antacid, Anterograde amnesia, Antibiotic, Anticonvulsant, Antidepressant, Antidote, Antifungal, Antipsychotic, Anxiety, Anxiety disorder, Anxiolytic, Arginine, Ataxia, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Baclofen, Barbiturate, Beers Criteria, Benzene, Benzodiazepine dependence, Benzodiazepine overdose, Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome, Benzofuran, Biological half-life, Borderline personality disorder, British National Formulary, Bromazepam, Bronchitis, Brotizolam, Canadian Medical Association, Carbamazepine, ..., Carbon, Cardiac arrest, CAS Registry Number, Catamenial epilepsy, Cell membrane, Cellulitis, Central nervous system, Chemical synapse, Chlordiazepoxide, Chloride, Chlorpromazine, Choosing Wisely, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Cirrhosis, Class action, Cleft lip and cleft palate, Climazolam, Clobazam, Clonazepam, Clorazepate, Clozapine, Cognitive behavioral therapy, Cognitive deficit, College of Physicians and Surgeons of British Columbia, Coma, Combined oral contraceptive pill, Controlled Drugs and Substances Act, Controlled Substances Act, Convention on Psychotropic Substances, Cross-tolerance, Cytochrome P450, Date rape drug, Death, Deep vein thrombosis, Delirium, Delirium tremens, Dementia, Dental fear, Depersonalization, Depressant, Derealization, Diazepam, Diazepine, Disinhibition, Dissociation (psychology), Double bond, Drug interaction, Drug overdose, Drug tolerance, Drug withdrawal, Effects of long-term benzodiazepine use, Electroconvulsive therapy, Epilepsy, Epileptic seizure, Estazolam, Eszopiclone, Ethanol, Euphoria, Flumazenil, Flunitrazepam, Flurazepam, Flutoprazepam, Food and Drug Administration, GABAA receptor, GABRA2, GABRA3, GABRA4, GABRA5, GABRA6, Gamma-Aminobutyric acid, Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1, Gangrene, Generalized anxiety disorder, Glucuronidation, Halazepam, Hallucinogen, Hantzsch–Widman nomenclature, Health Canada, Heart arrhythmia, Hepatitis, Hepatotoxicity, Heterocyclic compound, Heteromer, Hip fracture, Histidine, Hoffmann-La Roche, Hong Kong, Hypericum perforatum, Hyperpolarization (biology), Hyperreflexia, Hypertonia, Hypnotic, Hypotension, Hypothermia, Hypotonia, Hypoventilation, Immune system, Impulsivity, In utero, Inhibitory control, Insomnia, Intellectual disability, International Narcotics Control Board, International Programme on Chemical Safety, Intramuscular injection, Intravenous therapy, Ion channel, Irritability, IUPAC nomenclature of chemistry, Law firm, Law of the United Kingdom, Legal aid, Leo Sternbach, Lethargy, Ligand (biochemistry), Lithium (medication), Loprazolam, Lorazepam, Lormetazepam, Major depressive disorder, Mania, Mechanical ventilation, Medical emergency, Medsafe, Membrane potential, Mental health, Merck Veterinary Manual, Metabolism, Midazolam, Ministry of Health (New Zealand), Mortality rate, Motor coordination, Muscle relaxant, Myasthenia gravis, Nasal administration, National Health Service, National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Neonatal withdrawal, Neural circuit, Neuroglia, Neuron, Neurotransmitter, Neurotransmitter receptor, Nimetazepam, Nitrazepam, Nitrogen, Nonbenzodiazepine, Nordazepam, Nystagmus, Obsessive–compulsive disorder, Olanzapine, Opiate, Opioid, Opium Law, Oral mucosa, Oxazepam, Panic, Panic attack, Paradoxical reaction, Parasomnia, Peripheral nervous system, Personality disorder, Pharmaceutical industry, Pharmacophore, Phenothiazine, Phenytoin, Physical dependence, Placebo-controlled study, Poly drug use, Prazepam, Prediction interval, Pregabalin, Pregnancy category, Premedication, Preventive healthcare, Protein complex, Psychoactive drug, Psychomotor agitation, Psychosis, Quinolone antibiotic, Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, Rebound effect, Rectum, Relaxed pronunciation, Restless legs syndrome, Rifampicin, Role of chance in scientific discoveries, Rumination (psychology), Schizophrenia, Sedative, Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, Sleep apnea, Sleep induction, Somnolence, Spasm, Spatial visualization ability, Status epilepticus, Stress (biology), Substance abuse, Substance dependence, Suicide, Suicide crisis, Suppository, Temazepam, Teratology, Tetanus, The BMJ, Therapy, Thrombophlebitis, Tizanidine, Traffic collision, Translocator protein, Tremor, Triazolam, Tricyclic antidepressant, Veterinary medicine, World Health Organization, Zaleplon, Zolpidem. Expand index (221 more) »


An abscess is a collection of pus that has built up within the tissue of the body.

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Action potential

In physiology, an action potential occurs when the membrane potential of a specific axon location rapidly rises and falls: this depolarisation then causes adjacent locations to similarly depolarise.

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Active metabolite

An active metabolite is an active form of a drug after it has been processed by the body.

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Adenosine reuptake inhibitor

An adenosine reuptake inhibitor (AdoRI) is a type of drug which acts as a reuptake inhibitor for the purine nucleoside and neurotransmitter adenosine by blocking the action of one or more of the equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENTs).

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AdinazolamFR Patent 2248050 (marketed under the brand name Deracyn) is a benzodiazepine derivative, and more specifically, a triazolobenzodiazepine (TBZD).

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Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality

The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), located in Rockville, MD, a suburb of Washington, D.C., is one of 12 Agencies within the United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS).

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Aggression is overt, often harmful, social interaction with the intention of inflicting damage or other unpleasantness upon another individual.

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An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response.

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Agoraphobia is an anxiety disorder characterized by symptoms of anxiety in situations where the person perceives the environment to be unsafe with no easy way to get away.

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Alcohol dependence

Alcohol dependence is a previous psychiatric diagnosis in which an individual is physically or psychologically dependent upon alcohol (also known formally as ethanol).

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Alcohol detoxification

Alcohol detoxification, or detox, for individuals with alcohol dependence, is the abrupt cessation of alcohol intake, a process often coupled with substitution of cross-tolerant drugs that have effects similar to the effects of alcohol in order to prevent alcohol withdrawal.

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Alcohol withdrawal syndrome

Alcohol withdrawal syndrome is a set of symptoms that can occur following a reduction in alcohol use after a period of excessive use.

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Alcoholic drink

An alcoholic drink (or alcoholic beverage) is a drink that contains ethanol, a type of alcohol produced by fermentation of grains, fruits, or other sources of sugar.

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Allosteric regulation

In biochemistry, allosteric regulation (or allosteric control) is the regulation of an enzyme by binding an effector molecule at a site other than the enzyme's active site.

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Alprazolam, available under the trade name Xanax, is a potent, short-acting benzodiazepine anxiolytic—a minor tranquilizer.

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American Family Physician

American Family Physician is a biweekly peer-reviewed medical journal published by the American Academy of Family Physicians.

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American Psychiatric Association

The American Psychiatric Association (APA) is the main professional organization of psychiatrists and trainee psychiatrists in the United States, and the largest psychiatric organization in the world.

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Amnesia is a deficit in memory caused by brain damage, disease, or psychological trauma.

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Anecdotal evidence

Anecdotal evidence is evidence from anecdotes, i.e., evidence collected in a casual or informal manner and relying heavily or entirely on personal testimony.

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In the practice of medicine (especially surgery and dentistry), anesthesia or anaesthesia (from Greek "without sensation") is a state of temporary induced loss of sensation or awareness.

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An antacid is a substance which neutralizes stomach acidity and is used to relieve heartburn, indigestion or an upset stomach.

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Anterograde amnesia

Anterograde amnesia is a loss of the ability to create new memories after the event that caused the amnesia, leading to a partial or complete inability to recall the recent past, while long-term memories from before the event remain intact.

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An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.

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Anticonvulsants (also commonly known as antiepileptic drugs or as antiseizure drugs) are a diverse group of pharmacological agents used in the treatment of epileptic seizures.

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Antidepressants are drugs used for the treatment of major depressive disorder and other conditions, including dysthymia, anxiety disorders, obsessive–compulsive disorder, eating disorders, chronic pain, neuropathic pain and, in some cases, dysmenorrhoea, snoring, migraine, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, dependence, and sleep disorders.

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An antidote is a substance which can counteract a form of poisoning.

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An antifungal medication, also known as an antimycotic medication, is a pharmaceutical fungicide or fungistatic used to treat and prevent mycosis such as athlete's foot, ringworm, candidiasis (thrush), serious systemic infections such as cryptococcal meningitis, and others.

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Antipsychotics, also known as neuroleptics or major tranquilizers, are a class of medication primarily used to manage psychosis (including delusions, hallucinations, paranoia or disordered thought), principally in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

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Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behaviour such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination.

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Anxiety disorder

Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by significant feelings of anxiety and fear.

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An anxiolytic (also antipanic or antianxiety agent) is a medication or other intervention that inhibits anxiety.

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Arginine (symbol Arg or R) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.

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Ataxia is a neurological sign consisting of lack of voluntary coordination of muscle movements that includes gait abnormality.

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Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder of the neurodevelopmental type.

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Baclofen, sold under the brand name Lioresal among others, is a medication used to treat spasticity.

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A barbiturate is a drug that acts as a central nervous system depressant, and can therefore produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to death.

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Beers Criteria

The Beers Criteria for Potentially Inappropriate Medication Use in Older Adults, commonly called the Beers List, are guidelines for healthcare professionals to help improve the safety of prescribing medications for older adults.

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Benzene is an important organic chemical compound with the chemical formula C6H6.

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Benzodiazepine dependence

Benzodiazepine dependence or benzodiazepine addiction is when one has developed one or more of either tolerance, withdrawal symptoms, drug seeking behaviors, such as continued use despite harmful effects, and maladaptive pattern of substance use, according to the DSM-IV.

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Benzodiazepine overdose

Benzodiazepine overdose describes the ingestion of one of the drugs in the benzodiazepine class in quantities greater than are recommended or generally practiced.

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Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome

Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome—often abbreviated to benzo withdrawal—is the cluster of symptoms that emerge when a person who has taken benzodiazepines, either medically or recreationally, and has developed a physical dependence undergoes dosage reduction or discontinuation.

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Benzofuran is the heterocyclic compound consisting of fused benzene and furan rings.

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Biological half-life

The biological half-life of a biological substance is the time it takes for half to be removed by biological processes when the rate of removal is roughly exponential.

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Borderline personality disorder

Borderline personality disorder (BPD), also known as emotionally unstable personality disorder (EUPD), is a long-term pattern of abnormal behavior characterized by unstable relationships with other people, unstable sense of self, and unstable emotions.

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British National Formulary

The British National Formulary (BNF) is a United Kingdom (UK) pharmaceutical reference book that contains a wide spectrum of information and advice on prescribing and pharmacology, along with specific facts and details about many medicines available on the UK National Health Service (NHS).

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Bromazepam (marketed under several brand names, including Lectopam, Lexotan, Lexilium, Lexaurin, Brazepam, Rekotnil, Bromaze, Somalium and Lexotanil) is a benzodiazepine derivative drug, patented by Roche in 1963 and developed clinically in the 1970s.

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Bronchitis is inflammation of the bronchi (large and medium-sized airways) in the lungs.

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Brotizolam (marketed under brand name Lendormin) is a sedative-hypnotic thienotriazolodiazepine drug which is a benzodiazepine analog.

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Canadian Medical Association

The Canadian Medical Association (CMA) is a national, voluntary association of physicians that advocates on behalf of its members and the public for access to high-quality health care and provides leadership and guidance to physicians.

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Carbamazepine (CBZ), sold under the tradename Tegretol, among others, is a medication used primarily in the treatment of epilepsy and neuropathic pain.

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Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.

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Cardiac arrest

Cardiac arrest is a sudden loss of blood flow resulting from the failure of the heart to effectively pump.

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CAS Registry Number

A CAS Registry Number, also referred to as CASRN or CAS Number, is a unique numerical identifier assigned by the Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) to every chemical substance described in the open scientific literature (currently including all substances described from 1957 through the present, plus some substances from the early or mid 1900s), including organic and inorganic compounds, minerals, isotopes, alloys and nonstructurable materials (UVCBs, of unknown, variable composition, or biological origin).

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Catamenial epilepsy

Epilepsy is a chronic neurological condition characterized by recurrent seizures.

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Cell membrane

The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).

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Cellulitis is a bacterial infection involving the inner layers of the skin.

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Central nervous system

The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.

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Chemical synapse

Chemical synapses are biological junctions through which neurons' signals can be exchanged to each other and to non-neuronal cells such as those in muscles or glands.

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Chlordiazepoxide, trade name Librium, is a sedative and hypnotic medication of the benzodiazepine class; it is used to treat anxiety, insomnia and withdrawal symptoms from alcohol and/or drug abuse.

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The chloride ion is the anion (negatively charged ion) Cl−.

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Chlorpromazine (CPZ), marketed under the trade names Thorazine and Largactil among others, is an antipsychotic medication.

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Choosing Wisely

Choosing Wisely is a United States-based health educational campaign, led by the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM).

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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a type of obstructive lung disease characterized by long-term breathing problems and poor airflow.

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Cirrhosis is a condition in which the liver does not function properly due to long-term damage.

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Class action

A class action, class suit, or representative action is a type of lawsuit where one of the parties is a group of people who are represented collectively by a member of that group.

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Cleft lip and cleft palate

Cleft lip and cleft palate, also known as orofacial cleft, is a group of conditions that includes cleft lip (CL), cleft palate (CP), and both together (CLP).

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Climazolam (Ro21-3982) was introduced under licence as a veterinary medicine by the Swiss Pharmaceutical company Gräub under the tradename Climasol.

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Clobazam (marketed under the brand names Frisium, Urbanol, Onfi and Tapclob) is a benzodiazepine class medication that has been marketed as an anxiolytic since 1975 and an anticonvulsant since 1984.

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Clonazepam, sold under the brand name Klonopin among others, is a medication used to prevent and treat seizures, panic disorder, and for the movement disorder known as akathisia.

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Clorazepate, sold under the brand names Tranxene among others, is a benzodiazepine medication.

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Clozapine, sold under the brand name Clozaril among others, is an atypical antipsychotic medication.

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Cognitive behavioral therapy

Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a psycho-social intervention that is the most widely used evidence-based practice aimed at improving mental health.

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Cognitive deficit

Cognitive deficit or cognitive impairment is an inclusive term to describe any characteristic that acts as a barrier to the cognition process.

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College of Physicians and Surgeons of British Columbia

The College of Physicians and Surgeons of British Columbia is a regulatory college which regulates the practice of medicine in British Columbia.

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Coma is a state of unconsciousness in which a person cannot be awaken; fails to respond normally to painful stimuli, light, or sound; lacks a normal wake-sleep cycle; and does not initiate voluntary actions.

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Combined oral contraceptive pill

The combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP), often referred to as the birth control pill or colloquially as "the pill", is a type of birth control that is designed to be taken orally by women.

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Controlled Drugs and Substances Act

The Controlled Drugs and Substances Act (Loi réglementant certaines drogues et autres substances) (the Act) is Canada's federal drug control statute.

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Controlled Substances Act

The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) is the statute establishing federal U.S. drug policy under which the manufacture, importation, possession, use, and distribution of certain substances is regulated.

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Convention on Psychotropic Substances

The Convention on Psychotropic Substances of 1971 is a United Nations treaty designed to control psychoactive drugs such as amphetamine-type stimulants, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, and psychedelics signed in Vienna, Austria on 21 February 1971.

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Cross-tolerance is a phenomenon that occurs when tolerance to the effects of a certain drug produces tolerance to another drug.

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Cytochrome P450

Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are proteins of the superfamily containing heme as a cofactor and, therefore, are hemoproteins.

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Date rape drug

A date rape drug, also referred to as a predator drug, is any drug that is an incapacitating agent which, when administered to another person, incapacitates the person and renders them vulnerable to a drug facilitated sexual assault (DFSA), including rape.

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Death is the cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living organism.

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Deep vein thrombosis

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT), is the formation of a blood clot in a deep vein, most commonly the legs.

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Delirium, also known as acute confusional state, is an organically caused decline from a previously baseline level of mental function.

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Delirium tremens

Delirium tremens (DTs) is a rapid onset of confusion usually caused by withdrawal from alcohol.

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Dementia is a broad category of brain diseases that cause a long-term and often gradual decrease in the ability to think and remember that is great enough to affect a person's daily functioning.

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Dental fear

Dental fear, dental anxiety and dental phobia are quite often used inter-changeably.

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Depersonalization can consist of a detachment within the self, regarding one's mind or body, or being a detached observer of oneself.

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A depressant, or central depressant, is a drug that lowers neurotransmission levels, which is to depress or reduce arousal or stimulation, in various areas of the brain.

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Derealization (sometimes abbreviated as DR) is an alteration in the perception or experience of the external world so that it seems unreal.

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Diazepam, first marketed as Valium, is a medicine of the benzodiazepine family that typically produces a calming effect.

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Diazepine is a seven-membered heterocyclic compound with two nitrogen atoms (e.g., in ring positions 1 and 2).

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In psychology, disinhibition is a lack of restraint manifested in disregard for social conventions, impulsivity, and poor risk assessment.

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Dissociation (psychology)

In psychology, dissociation is any of a wide array of experiences from mild detachment from immediate surroundings to more severe detachment from physical and emotional experiences.

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Double bond

A double bond in chemistry is a chemical bond between two chemical elements involving four bonding electrons instead of the usual two.

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Drug interaction

A drug interaction is a situation in which a substance (usually another drug) affects the activity of a drug when both are administered together.

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Drug overdose

The term drug overdose (or simply overdose or OD) describes the ingestion or application of a drug or other substance in quantities greater than are recommended or generally practiced.

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Drug tolerance

Drug tolerance is a pharmacological concept describing subjects' reduced reaction to a drug following its repeated use.

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Drug withdrawal

Drug withdrawal is the group of symptoms that occur upon the abrupt discontinuation or decrease in intake of medications or recreational drugs.

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Effects of long-term benzodiazepine use

The effects of long-term benzodiazepine use include drug dependence as well as the possibility of adverse effects on cognitive function, physical health, and mental health.

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Electroconvulsive therapy

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), formerly known as electroshock therapy, and often referred to as shock treatment, is a psychiatric treatment in which seizures are electrically induced in patients to provide relief from mental disorders.

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Epilepsy is a group of neurological disorders characterized by epileptic seizures.

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Epileptic seizure

An epileptic seizure is a brief episode of signs or symptoms due to abnormally excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.

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Estazolam (desmethylalprazolam, marketed under the brand names ProSom, Eurodin, Nuctalon) is a benzodiazepine derivative drug developed by Upjohn in the 1970s.

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Eszopiclone, marketed by Sunovion under the brand-name Lunesta, is a nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic agent used in the treatment of insomnia.

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Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.

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Euphoria is an affective state in which a person experiences pleasure or excitement and intense feelings of well-being and happiness.

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Flumazenil (also known as flumazepil, code name Ro 15-1788) is a selective benzodiazepine receptor antagonist available by injection and intranasal.

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Flunitrazepam, also known as Rohypnol among other names, is an intermediate acting benzodiazepine used in some countries to treat severe insomnia and in fewer, early in anesthesia.

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Flurazepam (marketed under the brand names Dalmane and Dalmadorm) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative.

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Flutoprazepam (Restas) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine.

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Food and Drug Administration

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.

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GABAA receptor

The GABAA receptor (GABAAR) is an ionotropic receptor and ligand-gated ion channel.

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Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2 is a protein in humans that is encoded by the GABRA2 gene.

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Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GABRA3 gene.

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Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GABRA4 gene.

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Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, alpha 5, also known as GABRA5, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the GABRA5 gene.

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Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GABRA6 gene.

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Gamma-Aminobutyric acid

gamma-Aminobutyric acid, or γ-aminobutyric acid, or GABA, is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system.

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Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1

Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GABRA1 gene.

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Gangrene is a type of tissue death caused by a lack of blood supply.

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Generalized anxiety disorder

Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is an anxiety disorder characterized by excessive, uncontrollable and often irrational worry, that is, apprehensive expectation about events or activities.

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Glucuronidation is often involved in drug metabolism of substances such as drugs, pollutants, bilirubin, androgens, estrogens, mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, fatty acid derivatives, retinoids, and bile acids.

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Halazepam is a benzodiazepine derivative that was marketed under the brand names Paxipam in the United States, Alapryl in Spain, and Pacinone in Portugal.

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A hallucinogen is a psychoactive agent which can cause hallucinations, perceptual anomalies, and other substantial subjective changes in thoughts, emotion, and consciousness.

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Hantzsch–Widman nomenclature

Hantzsch–Widman nomenclature, also called the extended Hantzsch–Widman system, is a type of systematic chemical nomenclature used for naming heterocyclic parent hydrides having no more than ten ring members.

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Health Canada

Health Canada (Santé Canada) is the department of the government of Canada with responsibility for national public health.

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Heart arrhythmia

Heart arrhythmia (also known as arrhythmia, dysrhythmia, or irregular heartbeat) is a group of conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow.

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Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver tissue.

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Hepatotoxicity (from hepatic toxicity) implies chemical-driven liver damage.

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Heterocyclic compound

A heterocyclic compound or ring structure is a cyclic compound that has atoms of at least two different elements as members of its ring(s).

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A heteromer is something that consists of different parts.

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Hip fracture

A hip fracture is a break that occurs in the upper part of the femur (thigh bone).

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Histidine (symbol His or H) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.

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Hoffmann-La Roche


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Hong Kong

Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory of China on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.

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Hypericum perforatum

Hypericum perforatum, known as perforate St John's-wort, common Saint John's wort and St John's wort, is a flowering plant in the family Hypericaceae.

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Hyperpolarization (biology)

Hyperpolarization is a change in a cell's membrane potential that makes it more negative.

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Hyperreflexia (or hyper-reflexia) is defined as overactive or overresponsive reflexes.

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Hypertonia is a term sometimes used synonymously with spasticity and rigidity in the literature surrounding damage to the central nervous system, namely upper motor neuron lesions.

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Hypnotic (from Greek Hypnos, sleep) or soporific drugs, commonly known as sleeping pills, are a class of psychoactive drugs whose primary function is to induce sleep and to be used in the treatment of insomnia (sleeplessness), or surgical anesthesia.

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Hypotension is low blood pressure, especially in the arteries of the systemic circulation.

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Hypothermia is reduced body temperature that happens when a body dissipates more heat than it absorbs.

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Hypotonia, commonly known as floppy baby syndrome, is a state of low muscle tone (the amount of tension or resistance to stretch in a muscle), often involving reduced muscle strength.

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Hypoventilation (also known as respiratory depression) occurs when ventilation is inadequate (hypo meaning "below") to perform needed gas exchange.

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Immune system

The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.

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In psychology, impulsivity (or impulsiveness) is a tendency to act on a whim, displaying behavior characterized by little or no forethought, reflection, or consideration of the consequences.

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In utero

In utero is a Latin term literally meaning "in the womb" or "in the uterus".

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Inhibitory control

Inhibitory control, also known as response inhibition, is a cognitive process that permits an individual to inhibit their impulses and natural, habitual, or dominant behavioral responses to stimuli (prepotent responses) in order to select a more appropriate behavior that is consistent with completing their goals.

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Insomnia, also known as sleeplessness, is a sleep disorder where people have trouble sleeping.

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Intellectual disability

Intellectual disability (ID), also known as general learning disability, and mental retardation (MR), is a generalized neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by significantly impaired intellectual and adaptive functioning.

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International Narcotics Control Board

The International Narcotics Control Board (INCB) is the independent and quasi-judicial control organ for the implementation of the United Nations drug conventions.

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International Programme on Chemical Safety

The International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) was formed in 1980 and is a collaboration between three United Nations bodies, the World Health Organization, the International Labour Organization and the United Nations Environment Programme, to establish a scientific basis for safe use of chemicals and to strengthen national capabilities and capacities for chemical safety.

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Intramuscular injection

Intramuscular (also IM or im) injection is the injection of a substance directly into muscle.

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Intravenous therapy

Intravenous therapy (IV) is a therapy that delivers liquid substances directly into a vein (intra- + ven- + -ous).

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Ion channel

Ion channels are pore-forming membrane proteins that allow ions to pass through the channel pore.

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Irritability is the excitatory ability that living organisms have to respond to changes in their environment.

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IUPAC nomenclature of chemistry

The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) has published four sets of rules to standardize chemical nomenclature.

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Law firm

A law firm or a law company is a business entity formed by one or more lawyers to engage in the practice of law.

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Law of the United Kingdom

The United Kingdom has three legal systems, each of which applies to a particular geographical area.

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Legal aid

Legal aid is the provision of assistance to people otherwise unable to afford legal representation and access to the court system.

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Leo Sternbach

Leo Sternbach (May 7, 1908 – September 28, 2005) was a Polish-Jewish chemist who is credited with discovering benzodiazepines, the main class of tranquilizers.

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Lethargy is a state of tiredness, weariness, fatigue, or lack of energy.

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Ligand (biochemistry)

In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose.

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Lithium (medication)

Lithium compounds, also known as lithium salts, are primarily used as a psychiatric medication.

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Loprazolam (triazulenone) marketed under the brand names Dormonoct, Havlane, Sonin and Somnovit, is a drug which is an imidazolobenzodiazepine derivative.

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Lorazepam, sold under the brand name Ativan among others, is a benzodiazepine medication.

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Lormetazepam (INN), or methyl-lorazepam, marketed as Noctamid among others, is a drug which is a short to intermediate acting 3-hydroxy benzodiazepine derivative.

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Major depressive disorder

Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.

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Mania, also known as manic syndrome, is a state of abnormally elevated arousal, affect, and energy level, or "a state of heightened overall activation with enhanced affective expression together with lability of affect." Although mania is often conceived as a "mirror image" to depression, the heightened mood can be either euphoric or irritable; indeed, as the mania intensifies, irritability can be more pronounced and result in violence, or anxiety.

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Mechanical ventilation

Mechanical ventilation is the medical term for artificial ventilation where mechanical means is used to assist or replace spontaneous breathing. This may involve a machine called a ventilator or the breathing may be assisted by an anesthesiologist, certified registered nurse anesthetist, physician, physician assistant, respiratory therapist, paramedic, EMT, or other suitable person compressing a bag or set of bellows. Mechanical ventilation is termed "invasive" if it involves any instrument penetrating the trachea through the mouth, such as an endotracheal tube or the skin, such as a tracheostomy tube. There are two main types: positive pressure ventilation, where air (or another gas mix) is pushed into the trachea, and negative pressure ventilation, where air is, in essence, sucked into the lungs. There are many modes of mechanical ventilation, and their nomenclature has been revised over the decades as the technology has continually developed.

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Medical emergency

A medical emergency is an acute injury or illness that poses an immediate risk to a person's life or long-term health.

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Medsafe, the New Zealand Medicines and Medical Devices Safety Authority, is the medical regulatory body run by the New Zealand Ministry of Health, administering the Medicines Act 1981 and Medicines Regulations 1984.

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Membrane potential

The term "membrane potential" may refer to one of three kinds of membrane potential.

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Mental health

Mental health is a level of psychological well-being or an absence of mental illness.

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Merck Veterinary Manual

The Merck Veterinary Manual is a reference manual of animal health care.

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Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.

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Midazolam, marketed under the trade name Versed, among others, is a medication used for anesthesia, procedural sedation, trouble sleeping, and severe agitation.

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Ministry of Health (New Zealand)

The Ministry of Health (Māori: Manatū Hauora) is the public service department of New Zealand responsible for healthcare in New Zealand.

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Mortality rate

Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time.

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Motor coordination

Motor coordination is the combination of body movements created with the kinematic (such as spatial direction) and kinetic (force) parameters that result in intended actions.

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Muscle relaxant

A muscle relaxant is a drug that affects skeletal muscle function and decreases the muscle tone.

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Myasthenia gravis

Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a long-term neuromuscular disease that leads to varying degrees of skeletal muscle weakness.

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Nasal administration

Nasal administration is a route of administration in which drugs are insufflated through the nose.

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National Health Service

The National Health Service (NHS) is the name used for each of the public health services in the United Kingdom – the National Health Service in England, NHS Scotland, NHS Wales, and Health and Social Care in Northern Ireland – as well as a term to describe them collectively.

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National Institute for Health and Care Excellence

The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) is an executive non-departmental public body of the Department of Health in the United Kingdom, which publishes guidelines in four areas.

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National Institute on Drug Abuse

The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) is a United States federal-government research institute whose mission is to "lead the Nation in bringing the power of science to bear on drug abuse and addiction." The institute has conducted an in-depth study of addiction according to its biological, behavioral and social components.

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Neonatal withdrawal

Neonatal withdrawal or neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) is a withdrawal syndrome of infants after birth caused by in utero exposure to drugs of dependence.

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Neural circuit

A neural circuit, is a population of neurons interconnected by synapses to carry out a specific function when activated.

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Neuroglia, also called glial cells or simply glia, are non-neuronal cells in the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) and the peripheral nervous system.

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A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.

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Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.

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Neurotransmitter receptor

A neurotransmitter receptor (also known as a neuroreceptor) is a membrane receptor protein that is activated by a neurotransmitter.

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Nimetazepam (marketed under brand name Erimin and Lavol) is an intermediate-acting hypnotic drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative.

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Nitrazepam (brand names Alodorm and Mogadon, among others) is a hypnotic drug of the benzodiazepine class used for short-term relief from severe, disabling anxiety and insomnia.

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Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.

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Nonbenzodiazepines (sometimes referred to colloquially as "Z-drugs") are a class of psychoactive drugs that are very benzodiazepine-like in nature.

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Nordazepam (INN; marketed under brand names Nordaz, Stilny, Madar, Vegesan, and Calmday; also known as nordiazepam, desoxydemoxepam, and desmethyldiazepam) is a 1,4-benzodiazepine derivative.

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Nystagmus is a condition of involuntary (or voluntary, in rare cases) eye movement, acquired in infancy or later in life, that may result in reduced or limited vision.

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Obsessive–compulsive disorder

Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a mental disorder where people feel the need to check things repeatedly, perform certain routines repeatedly (called "rituals"), or have certain thoughts repeatedly (called "obsessions").

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Olanzapine (originally branded Zyprexa) is an antipsychotic medication used to treat schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

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Opiate is a term classically used in pharmacology to mean a drug derived from opium.

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Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.

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Opium Law

The Opium Law (or Opiumwet in Dutch) is the section of the Dutch law which covers nearly all psychotropic drugs.

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Oral mucosa

The oral mucosa is the mucous membrane lining the inside of the mouth and consists of stratified squamous epithelium termed oral epithelium and an underlying connective tissue termed lamina propria.

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Oxazepam is a short-to-intermediate-acting benzodiazepine.

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Panic is a sudden sensation of fear, which is so strong as to dominate or prevent reason and logical thinking, replacing it with overwhelming feelings of anxiety and frantic agitation consistent with an animalistic fight-or-flight reaction.

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Panic attack

Panic attacks are sudden periods of intense fear that may include palpitations, sweating, shaking, shortness of breath, numbness, or a feeling that something bad is going to happen.

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Paradoxical reaction

A paradoxical reaction or paradoxical effect is an effect of medical treatment, usually a drug, opposite to the effect which would normally be expected.

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Parasomnias are a category of sleep disorders that involve abnormal movements, behaviors, emotions, perceptions, and dreams that occur while falling asleep, sleeping, between sleep stages, or during arousal from sleep.

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Peripheral nervous system

The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is one of the two components of the nervous system, the other part is the central nervous system (CNS).

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Personality disorder

Personality disorders (PD) are a class of mental disorders characterized by enduring maladaptive patterns of behavior, cognition, and inner experience, exhibited across many contexts and deviating from those accepted by the individual's culture.

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Pharmaceutical industry

The pharmaceutical industry (or medicine industry) is the commercial industry that discovers, develops, produces, and markets drugs or pharmaceutical drugs for use as different types of medicine and medications.

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An example of a pharmacophore model. A pharmacophore is an abstract description of molecular features that are necessary for molecular recognition of a ligand by a biological macromolecule.

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Phenothiazine, abbreviated PTZ, is an organic compound that has the formula S(C6H4)2NH and is related to the thiazine-class of heterocyclic compounds.

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Phenytoin (PHT), sold under the brand name Dilantin among others, is an anti-seizure medication.

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Physical dependence

Physical dependence is a physical condition caused by chronic use of a tolerance forming drug, in which abrupt or gradual drug withdrawal causes unpleasant physical symptoms.

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Placebo-controlled study

Placebo-controlled studies are a way of testing a medical therapy in which, in addition to a group of subjects that receives the treatment to be evaluated, a separate control group receives a sham "placebo" treatment which is specifically designed to have no real effect.

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Poly drug use

Poly drug use refers to the use of two or more psychoactive drugs in combination to achieve a particular effect.

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Prazepam is a benzodiazepine derivative drug developed by Warner-Lambert in the 1960s.

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Prediction interval

In statistical inference, specifically predictive inference, a prediction interval is an estimate of an interval in which a future observation will fall, with a certain probability, given what has already been observed.

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Pregabalin, marketed under the brand name Lyrica among others, is a medication used to treat epilepsy, neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia, and generalized anxiety disorder.

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Pregnancy category

The pregnancy category of a medication is an assessment of the risk of fetal injury due to the pharmaceutical, if it is used as directed by the mother during pregnancy.

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Premedication is using medication before some other therapy (usually surgery or chemotherapy) to prepare for that forthcoming therapy.

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Preventive healthcare

Preventive healthcare (alternately preventive medicine, preventative healthcare/medicine, or prophylaxis) consists of measures taken for disease prevention, as opposed to disease treatment.

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Protein complex

A protein complex or multiprotein complex is a group of two or more associated polypeptide chains.

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Psychoactive drug

A psychoactive drug, psychopharmaceutical, or psychotropic is a chemical substance that changes brain function and results in alterations in perception, mood, consciousness, cognition, or behavior.

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Psychomotor agitation

Psychomotor agitation is a set of signs and symptoms that stem from mental tension and anxiety.

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Psychosis is an abnormal condition of the mind that results in difficulties telling what is real and what is not.

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Quinolone antibiotic

A quinolone antibiotic is any member of a large group of broad-spectrum bactericides that share a bicyclic core structure related to the compound 4-quinolone.

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Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder

Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a sleep disorder (more specifically a parasomnia) in which people act out their dreams.

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Rebound effect

The rebound effect, or rebound phenomenon, is the emergence or re-emergence of symptoms that were either absent or controlled while taking a medication, but appear when that same medication is discontinued, or reduced in dosage.

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The rectum is the final straight portion of the large intestine in humans and some other mammals, and the gut in others.

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Relaxed pronunciation

Relaxed pronunciation (also called condensed pronunciation or word slurs) is a phenomenon that happens when the syllables of common words are slurred together.

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Restless legs syndrome

Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a disorder that causes a strong urge to move one's legs.

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Rifampicin, also known as rifampin, is an antibiotic used to treat several types of bacterial infections, including tuberculosis, leprosy, and Legionnaire's disease.

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Role of chance in scientific discoveries

The role of chance, or "luck", in science comprises all ways in which unexpected discoveries are made.

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Rumination (psychology)

Rumination is the focused attention on the symptoms of one's distress, and on its possible causes and consequences, as opposed to its solutions.

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Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to understand reality.

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A sedative or tranquilliser is a substance that induces sedation by reducing irritability or excitement.

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Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of drugs that are typically used as antidepressants in the treatment of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders.

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Serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor

Serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) are a class of antidepressant drugs that treat major depressive disorder (MDD) and can also treat anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), chronic neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), and menopausal symptoms.

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Sleep apnea

Sleep apnea, also spelled sleep apnoea, is a sleep disorder characterized by pauses in breathing or periods of shallow breathing during sleep.

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Sleep induction

Sleep induction is the deliberate effort to bring on sleep by various techniques or medicinal means, is practiced to lengthen periods of sleep, increase the effectiveness of sleep, and to reduce or prevent insomnia.

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Somnolence (alternatively "sleepiness" or "drowsiness") is a state of strong desire for sleep, or sleeping for unusually long periods (compare hypersomnia).

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A spasm is a sudden involuntary contraction of a muscle, a group of muscles, or a hollow organ such as the heart.

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Spatial visualization ability

Spatial visualization ability or visual-spatial ability is the ability to mentally manipulate 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional figures.

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Status epilepticus

Status epilepticus (SE) is a single epileptic seizure lasting more than five minutes or two or more seizures within a five-minute period without the person returning to normal between them.

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Stress (biology)

Physiological or biological stress is an organism's response to a stressor such as an environmental condition.

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Substance abuse

Substance abuse, also known as drug abuse, is a patterned use of a drug in which the user consumes the substance in amounts or with methods which are harmful to themselves or others, and is a form of substance-related disorder.

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Substance dependence

Substance dependence also known as drug dependence is an adaptive state that develops from repeated drug administration, and which results in withdrawal upon cessation of drug use.

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Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one's own death.

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Suicide crisis

A suicide crisis, suicidal crisis, attempted suicide or potential suicide, is a situation in which a person is attempting to kill themselves or is seriously contemplating or planning to do so.

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A suppository is a solid dosage form that is inserted into the rectum (rectal suppository), vagina (vaginal suppository), or urethra (urethral suppository), where it dissolves or melts and exerts local or systemic effects.

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Temazepam (brand names Restoril and Normison, among others) is an intermediate-acting 3-hydroxy hypnotic of the benzodiazepine class of psychoactive drugs.

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Teratology is the study of abnormalities of physiological development.

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Tetanus, also known as lockjaw, is an infection characterized by muscle spasms.

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The BMJ is a weekly peer-reviewed medical journal.

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Therapy (often abbreviated tx, Tx, or Tx) is the attempted remediation of a health problem, usually following a diagnosis.

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Thrombophlebitis is a phlebitis (inflammation of a vein) related to a thrombus (blood clot).

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Tizanidine (trade names Zanaflex (Acorda Therapeutics), Sirdalud (Novartis), Relentus (Beximco Pharma) Is a centrally acting α2 adrenergic agonist used as a muscle relaxant. It is used to treat the spasms, cramping, and tightness of muscles caused by medical problems such as multiple sclerosis, ALS, spastic diplegia, back pain, or certain other injuries to the spine or central nervous system. It is also prescribed off-label for migraine headaches, as a sleep aid, and as an anticonvulsant. It is also prescribed for some symptoms of fibromyalgia. Tizanidine has been found to be as effective as other antispasmodic drugs and is more tolerable than baclofen and diazepam. Tizanidine can be very strong even at the 2 mg dose and may cause hypotension, so caution is advised when it is used in patients who have a history of orthostatic hypotension, or when switching from gel cap to tablet form and vice versa. Tizanidine can occasionally cause acute liver failure. Clinical trials show that up to 5% of patients treated with tizanidine had elevated liver function test values, though symptoms disappeared upon withdrawal of the drug. Care should be used when first beginning treatment with tizanidine with regular liver tests for the first six months of treatment. As of 2015 the cost for a typical month of medication in the United States is US$100200.

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Traffic collision

A traffic collision, also called a motor vehicle collision (MVC) among other terms, occurs when a vehicle collides with another vehicle, pedestrian, animal, road debris, or other stationary obstruction, such as a tree, pole or building.

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Translocator protein

Translocator protein (TSPO) is an 18 kDa protein mainly found on the outer mitochondrial membrane.

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A tremor is an involuntary, somewhat rhythmic, muscle contraction and relaxation involving oscillations or twitching movements of one or more body parts.

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Triazolam (original brand name Halcion) is a central nervous system (CNS) depressant in the benzodiazepine class.

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Tricyclic antidepressant

Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) are a class of medications that are used primarily as antidepressants.

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Veterinary medicine

Veterinary medicine is the branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of disease, disorder and injury in non-human animals.

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World Health Organization

The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.

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Zaleplon (marketed under the brand names Sonata, Starnoc, and Andante) is a sedative-hypnotic, almost entirely used for the management/treatment of insomnia.

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Zolpidem, sold under the brand name Ambien, among others, is a sedative primarily used for the treatment of trouble sleeping.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benzodiazepine

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