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Berber languages

Index Berber languages

The Berber languages, also known as Berber or the Amazigh languages (Berber name: Tamaziɣt, Tamazight; Neo-Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵜ, Tuareg Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵜ, ⵝⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵝ), are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family. [1]

199 relations: Aïn Defla Province, Abjad, Afroasiatic languages, Air Tamajeq language, Ait Seghrouchen Berber, Alexander Militarev, Alexandra Aikhenvald, Algeria, Algiers, Alhambra Decree, Alveolar consonant, Amazigh Cultural Association in America, Ancient Carthage, Approximant consonant, Arabic script, Arabization, Atlas languages, Atlas Mountains, Awjila language, Back vowel, Batna, Algeria, Béjaïa, Beni Boussaid, Beni Snous, Berber Jews, Berber Latin alphabet, Berbers, Bilabial consonant, Blida, Bouïra, Boumerdès, Burkina Faso, C-Group culture, Canary Islands, Capsian culture, Central Atlas Tamazight, Central Intelligence Agency, Central vowel, Centre de Recherche Berbère, Ceuta, Charles de Foucauld, Chlef Province, Circumfix, Close vowel, Construct state, Dahra Range, Definiteness, Demographics of Morocco, Dental consonant, Dialect continuum, ..., Diminutive, Djerba, Draa River, East Zenati languages, Eastern Berber languages, Eastern Middle Atlas Berber, Egypt, Encyclopædia Britannica, Ergative case, Ethnologue, Fricative consonant, Front vowel, Fuqaha, Libya, Germanic languages, Ghadamès language, Ghat, Libya, Ghomara language, Glottal consonant, Grammatical case, Grammatical gender, Grammatical number, Guanche language, Guanches, Hausa language, Hoggar Mountains, House of Representatives (Morocco), Islam, Jerba Berber, Judeo-Berber language, Kabyle language, Kabyle people, Kabylie, Karl-Gottfried Prasse, Kerma culture, Khenchela, Latin, Leiden University, Libya, Limes, Lingua franca, Linguasphere Observatory, Loanword, Maghreb, Maghrebi Arabic, Mali, Matmata Berber, Matmata, Tunisia, Mauritania, Melilla, Mid vowel, Middle Atlas, Modern Standard Arabic, Mohamed Chafik, Mohammed VI of Morocco, Moroccan Arabic, Moroccan Jews, Morocco, Mount Chenoua, Mozabite language, Muammar Gaddafi, Multilingualism, Mzab–Wargla languages, Nafusa Mountains, Nafusi language, Names of the Berber people, Nasal consonant, National language, National Transitional Council, Neologism, Niger, Niger–Congo languages, Nile, Nilo-Saharan languages, Nobiin language, North Africa, Northern Berber languages, Noun, Nubian languages, Numidian language, Official language, Open vowel, Ouargla, Ouarsenis, Oudalan Province, Oum El Bouaghi, Palatal consonant, Parliament of Morocco, Pharyngeal consonant, Plural, Proto-Berber language, Provinces of Algeria, Punic language, Question time, Rif, Riffian language, Riffian people, Rock art, Roger Blench, Roman Empire, Romance languages, Sahel, Salem Chaker, Sanhaja de Srair language, Sétif, Schwa, Sened language, Sened, Tunisia, Sephardi Jews, Shawiya language, Shenwa language, Shilha language, SIL International, Singulative number, Siwa Oasis, Siwi language, Sokna language, Souk Ahras, Sous, Standard language, Stop consonant, Sudan, Suffix, Tamahaq language, Tamasheq language, Tawellemmet language, Tébessa, Tifinagh, Tin Hinan, Tin Hinan Tomb, Tipaza Province, Tizi Ouzou, Tlemcen, Tlemcen Province, Tomb, Trill consonant, Tripoli, Tripolitania, Tuareg languages, Tuareg people, Tunisia, Uvular consonant, Velar consonant, Western Berber languages, Zenaga language, Zenata, Zenati languages, Zuwara Berber, Zuwarah, 2004 Moroccan census. Expand index (149 more) »

Aïn Defla Province

Aïn Defla (ولاية عين الدفلى) is a wilaya (province) in northern Algeria.

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An abjad (pronounced or) is a type of writing system where each symbol or glyph stands for a consonant, leaving the reader to supply the appropriate vowel.

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Afroasiatic languages

Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as Afrasian and traditionally as Hamito-Semitic (Chamito-Semitic) or Semito-Hamitic, is a large language family of about 300 languages and dialects.

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Air Tamajeq language

Air Tamajeq (Tayiṛt) is a variety of Tamasheq, one of the Tuareg languages.

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Ait Seghrouchen Berber

Ait Seghrouchen Berber, or Seghroucheni (Seghrusheni), is a Zenati Berber language of the Eastern Middle Atlas Berber cluster.

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Alexander Militarev

Alexander Militarev (Алекса́ндр Ю́рьевич Милитарёв; born January 14, 1943) is a Russian scholar of Semitic, Berber, Canarian and Afroasiatic (Afrasian, Semito-Hamitic) languages, comparative-historical linguistics, Jewish and Bible studies.

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Alexandra Aikhenvald

Alexandra Yurievna ("Sasha") Aikhenvald (Eichenwald) (born September 1, 1957 in Moscow, Russian SFSR) (at JCU site; accessed 20 December 2009) - A.Y. Aikhenvald's interview with ABC Radio National, 9 February 2008 is a linguist specialising in Linguistic typology and the Arawak language family (including Tariana) of the Brazilian Amazon basin.

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Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.

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Algiers (الجزائر al-Jazā’er, ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻ, Alger) is the capital and largest city of Algeria.

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Alhambra Decree

The Alhambra Decree (also known as the Edict of Expulsion; Spanish: Decreto de la Alhambra, Edicto de Granada) was an edict issued on 31 March 1492, by the joint Catholic Monarchs of Spain (Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon) ordering the expulsion of practicing Jews from the Kingdoms of Castile and Aragon and its territories and possessions by 31 July of that year.

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Alveolar consonant

Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.

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Amazigh Cultural Association in America

The Amazigh Cultural Association in America (ACAA) is a non-profit organization established in New Jersey.

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Ancient Carthage

Carthage (from Carthago; Punic:, Qart-ḥadašt, "New City") was the Phoenician state, including, during the 7th–3rd centuries BC, its wider sphere of influence, known as the Carthaginian Empire.

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Approximant consonant

Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.

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Arabic script

The Arabic script is the writing system used for writing Arabic and several other languages of Asia and Africa, such as Azerbaijani, Pashto, Persian, Kurdish, Lurish, Urdu, Mandinka, and others.

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Arabization or Arabisation (تعريب) describes either the conquest and/or colonization of a non-Arab area and growing Arab influence on non-Arab populations, causing a language shift by their gradual adoption of the Arabic language and/or their incorporation of Arab culture, Arab identity.

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Atlas languages

The Atlas languages are a subgroup of the Northern Berber languages spoken in the Atlas Mountains of Morocco.

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Atlas Mountains

The Atlas Mountains (jibāl al-ʾaṭlas; ⵉⴷⵓⵔⴰⵔ ⵏ ⵡⴰⵟⵍⴰⵙ, idurar n waṭlas) are a mountain range in the Maghreb.

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Awjila language

Awjila (also Aujila, Augila, Aoudjila, Awgila, Awdjila; Berber name: Tawjilit) is a severely endangered (considered "moribund" by Ethnologue) Eastern Berber language spoken in Cyrenaica, Libya, in the Awjila oasis.

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Back vowel

A back vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in spoken languages.

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Batna, Algeria

Batna (باتنة, Berber: ⵜⴱⴰⵜⴻⵏⵜ, Tbatent) is the main city of Batna Province, Algeria.

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Béjaïa (بِجَايَة, Bijayah; Bgayet, Bgayeth, ⴱⴳⴰⵢⴻⵜ), formerly Bougie and Bugia, is a Mediterranean port city on the Gulf of Béjaïa in Algeria; it is the capital of Béjaïa Province, Kabylia.

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Beni Boussaid

Beni Boussaid is a town and commune in Tlemcen Province in northwestern Algeria.

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Beni Snous

Beni Snous or Aït Snous (بني سنوس) is a town and commune in Tlemcen Province in northwestern Algeria.

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Berber Jews

Berber Jews are the Jewish communities of the Atlas mountains in Morocco, and previously in Algeria, which historically spoke Berber languages.

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Berber Latin alphabet

The Berber Latin alphabet (Agemmay Amaziɣ Alatin) is the version of the Latin alphabet used to write the Berber languages.

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Berbers or Amazighs (Berber: Imaziɣen, ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⴻⵏ; singular: Amaziɣ, ⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗ) are an ethnic group indigenous to North Africa, primarily inhabiting Algeria, northern Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, northern Niger, Tunisia, Libya, and a part of western Egypt.

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Bilabial consonant

In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips.

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Blida (البليدة) is a city in Algeria.

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Bouïra (Berber: Tubirett) is the capital of Bouïra Province, Algeria.

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Boumerdès (Arabic: بومرداس; Kabyle: Bumerdes; Bumardas or Bomardas; formerly Rocher Noir) is the capital city of Boumerdès Province, Algeria.

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Burkina Faso

Burkina Faso is a landlocked country in West Africa.

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C-Group culture

The C-Group culture was an ancient civilization centered in Nubia, which existed from ca.

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Canary Islands

The Canary Islands (Islas Canarias) is a Spanish archipelago and autonomous community of Spain located in the Atlantic Ocean, west of Morocco at the closest point.

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Capsian culture

The Capsian culture was a Mesolithic culture centered in the Maghreb that lasted from about 10,000 to 6,000 BC.

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Central Atlas Tamazight

No description.

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Central Intelligence Agency

The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).

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Central vowel

A central vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.

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Centre de Recherche Berbère

Centre de Recherche Berbère (CRB) is a department at the Institut national des langues et civilisations orientales (INALCO) specializing in the Berber languages.

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Ceuta (also;; Berber language: Sebta) is an Spanish autonomous city on the north coast of Africa, separated by 14 kilometres from Cadiz province on the Spanish mainland by the Strait of Gibraltar and sharing a 6.4 kilometre land border with M'diq-Fnideq Prefecture in the Kingdom of Morocco.

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Charles de Foucauld

Charles Eugene Vicomte de Foucauld de Pontbriand (15 September 1858 – 1 December 1916) was a French Catholic religious and priest living among the Tuareg in the Sahara in Algeria.

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Chlef Province

Chlef (ولاية الشلف) is a province (wilaya) in Algeria, and has about 1 million inhabitants.

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A circumfix (abbreviated) or confix is an affix which has two parts, one placed at the start of a word, and the other at the end.

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Close vowel

A close vowel, also known as a high vowel (in American terminology), is any in a class of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.

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Construct state

In Afro-Asiatic languages, the first noun in a genitive phrase of a possessed noun followed by a possessor noun often takes on a special morphological form, which is termed the construct state (Latin status constructus).

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Dahra Range

The Dahra Range is a mountain range located in northern Algeria.

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In linguistics, definiteness is a semantic feature of noun phrases (NPs), distinguishing between referents/entities that are identifiable in a given context (definite noun phrases) and entities which are not (indefinite noun phrases).

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Demographics of Morocco

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Morocco, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

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Dental consonant

A dental consonant is a consonant articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth, such as,,, and in some languages.

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Dialect continuum

A dialect continuum or dialect chain is a spread of language varieties spoken across some geographical area such that neighbouring varieties differ only slightly, but the differences accumulate over distance so that widely separated varieties are not mutually intelligible.

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A diminutive is a word that has been modified to convey a slighter degree of its root meaning, to convey the smallness of the object or quality named, or to convey a sense of intimacy or endearment.

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Djerba (جربة), also transliterated as Jerba or Jarbah, is, at, the largest island of North Africa, located in the Gulf of Gabès, off the coast of Tunisia.

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Draa River

The Draa (Asif en Dra, ⴰⵙⵉⴼ ⴻⵏ ⴷⵔⴰ, wad dərʿa; also spelled Dra or Drâa, in older sources mostly Darha or Dara) is Morocco's longest river, at.

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East Zenati languages

The East Zenati languages (Blench, 2006) or Tunisian and Zuwara (Kossmann, 2013) are a group of the Zenati Berber dialects spoken in Tunisia and Libya.

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Eastern Berber languages

The Eastern Berber languages are a group of Berber languages spoken in Libya and Egypt.

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Eastern Middle Atlas Berber

Eastern Middle Atlas Berber is a cluster of Berber dialects spoken in the eastern and north-eastern parts of the Middle Atlas, in Morocco.

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Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

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Encyclopædia Britannica

The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.

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Ergative case

The ergative case (abbreviated) is the grammatical case that identifies the noun as a subject of a transitive verb in ergative–absolutive languages.

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Ethnologue: Languages of the World is an annual reference publication in print and online that provides statistics and other information on the living languages of the world.

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Fricative consonant

Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.

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Front vowel

A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the highest point of the tongue is positioned relatively in front in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant.

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Fuqaha, Libya

Fuqaha or El-Foqaha (الفقهاء) is a spring-fed town in central Libya, 200 km by road south of Sokna, on the western edge of the great central Haruj volcano and lava field.

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Germanic languages

The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.

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Ghadamès language

Ghadamès (Berber: Ɛdimes, or Ɣdames,; Arabic: غدامس) is a Berber language that is spoken in the oasis town of Ghadames in Nalut District, Libya.

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Ghat, Libya

Ghat (Berber: Ɣat or ⵗⴰⵜ; غات) is the capital of the Ghat District in the Fezzan region of southwestern Libya.

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Ghomara language

The Ghomara language is a Northern Berber language spoken in Morocco.

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Glottal consonant

Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.

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Grammatical case

Case is a special grammatical category of a noun, pronoun, adjective, participle or numeral whose value reflects the grammatical function performed by that word in a phrase, clause or sentence.

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Grammatical gender

In linguistics, grammatical gender is a specific form of noun class system in which the division of noun classes forms an agreement system with another aspect of the language, such as adjectives, articles, pronouns, or verbs.

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Grammatical number

In linguistics, grammatical number is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, and adjective and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one", "two", or "three or more").

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Guanche language

The Guanche language is an extinct Berber language that was spoken by the Guanches of the Canary Islands until the 17th century or possibly later.

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Guanches were the aboriginal inhabitants of the Canary Islands.

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Hausa language

Hausa (Yaren Hausa or Harshen Hausa) is the Chadic language (a branch of the Afroasiatic language family) with the largest number of speakers, spoken as a first language by some 27 million people, and as a second language by another 20 million.

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Hoggar Mountains

The Hoggar Mountains (جبال هقار, Berber: idurar n Ahaggar, Tuareg: Idurar Uhaggar), also known as the Ahaggar Mountains, are a highland region in the central Sahara, southern Algeria, along the Tropic of Cancer.

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House of Representatives (Morocco)

The Moroccan Parliament has two chambers.

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IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).

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Jerba Berber

Jerba Berber, or Djerbi Berber, is a Zenati Berber language spoken in Djerba, Tunisia.

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Judeo-Berber language

Judeo-Berber (Tamazight Tudayt) is any of several hybrid Berber varieties traditionally spoken as a second language in Jewish communities of central and southern Morocco, and perhaps earlier in Algeria.

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Kabyle language

Kabyle, or Kabylian (native name: Taqbaylit), is a Berber language spoken by the Kabyle people in the north and northeast of Algeria.

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Kabyle people

The Kabyle people (Kabyle: Iqbayliyen) are a Berber ethnic group indigenous to Kabylia in the north of Algeria, spread across the Atlas Mountains, one hundred miles east of Algiers.

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Kabylie, or Kabylia (Tamurt en Yiqbayliyen; Tazwawa; ⵜⴰⵎⵓⵔⵜ ⵏ ⵍⴻⵇⴱⴰⵢⴻⵍ), is a cultural region, natural region, and historical region in northern Algeria.

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Karl-Gottfried Prasse

Karl-Gottfried Prasse (14 August 1929 in Hamburg – 12 april 2018) was a Danish linguist with a focus in the Berber language.

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Kerma culture

The Kerma culture or Kerma kingdom was an early civilization centered in Kerma, Sudan.

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Khenchela ancient Mascula (Berber: Xencelt or Maskult; Arabic: خنشلة) is the capital city of the administrative Khenchela Province (Wilaya), number 40, in the north east of Algeria.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Leiden University

Leiden University (abbreviated as LEI; Universiteit Leiden), founded in the city of Leiden, is the oldest university in the Netherlands.

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Libya (ليبيا), officially the State of Libya (دولة ليبيا), is a sovereign state in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.

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Originally the Latin noun līmes (Latin līmitēs) had a number of different meanings: a path or balk delimiting fields, a boundary line or marker, any road or path, any channel, such as a stream channel, or any distinction or difference.

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Lingua franca

A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.

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Linguasphere Observatory

The Linguasphere Observatory (or "Observatoire", based upon its original French and legal title: Observatoire Linguistique) is a transnational linguistic research network.

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A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.

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The Maghreb (al-Maɣréb lit.), also known as the Berber world, Barbary, Berbery, and Northwest Africa, is a major region of North Africa that consists primarily of the countries Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Libya and Mauritania.

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Maghrebi Arabic

Maghrebi Arabic (Western Arabic; as opposed to Eastern Arabic or Mashriqi Arabic) is an Arabic dialect continuum spoken in the Maghreb region, in Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Western Sahara, and Mauritania.

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Mali, officially the Republic of Mali (République du Mali), is a landlocked country in West Africa, a region geologically identified with the West African Craton.

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Matmata Berber

Matmata Berber is a Zenati Berber dialect spoken around the town of Matmâta in southern Tunisia, and in the villages of Taoujjout, Tamezret and Zrawa.

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Matmata, Tunisia

Matmata (مطماطة) is a small Berber speaking town in southern Tunisia.

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Mauritania (موريتانيا; Gànnaar; Soninke: Murutaane; Pulaar: Moritani; Mauritanie), officially the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, is a country in the Maghreb region of Northwestern Africa.

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Melilla (مليلية, Maliliyyah; ⵎⵔⵉⵜⵙ, Mřič) is a Spanish autonomous city located on the north coast of Africa, sharing a border with Morocco, with an area of.

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Mid vowel

A mid vowel (or a true-mid vowel) is any in a class of vowel sounds used in some spoken languages.

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Middle Atlas

The Middle Atlas (Amazigh: ⴰⵟⵍⴰⵙ ⴰⵏⴰⵎⵎⴰⵙ, Atlas Anammas, Arabic: الأطلس المتوسط, al-Aṭlas al-Mutawassiṭ) is a mountain range in Morocco.

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Modern Standard Arabic

Modern Standard Arabic (MSA; اللغة العربية الفصحى 'the most eloquent Arabic language'), Standard Arabic, or Literary Arabic is the standardized and literary variety of Arabic used in writing and in most formal speech throughout the Arab world to facilitate communication.

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Mohamed Chafik

Mohamed Chafik, born 17 September 1926, is a leading figure in the Amazigh (also known as Berber) cultural movement.

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Mohammed VI of Morocco

Mohammed VI (محمد السادس,; born 21 August 1963) is the King of Morocco.

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Moroccan Arabic

Moroccan Arabic or Moroccan Darija (الدارجة, in Morocco) is a member of the Maghrebi Arabic language continuum spoken in Morocco.

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Moroccan Jews

Moroccan Jews (al-Yehud al-Magharibah יהודים מרוקאים Yehudim Maroka'im) are the Jews who live or have lived in the area of North African country of Morocco.

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Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.

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Mount Chenoua

Mount Chenoua (Berber: Adrar en Cenwa, جبل شنوة) is a mountain range in northern Algeria.

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Mozabite language

Mozabite, or Tunżabt, is a Berber dialect spoken by the Mozabites, an Ibadi Berber group inhabiting the seven cities of the M'zab natural region in the northern Saharan Algeria.

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Muammar Gaddafi

Muammar Mohammed Abu Minyar Gaddafi (20 October 2011), commonly known as Colonel Gaddafi, was a Libyan revolutionary, politician and political theorist.

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Multilingualism is the use of more than one language, either by an individual speaker or by a community of speakers.

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Mzab–Wargla languages

The Mzab–Wargla languages or Northern Saharan oasis dialects are a dialect cluster of the Zenati languages, within the Northern Berber subbranch.

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Nafusa Mountains

The Nafusa Mountains (Berber: Adrar n Infusen (Nafusa Mountain), (Western mountain)) are a mountain range in the western Tripolitania region of northwestern Libya.

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Nafusi language

Nafusi (also spelt Nefusi; Berber: Maziɣ or Tanfusit) is a Berber language spoken in the Nafusa Mountains (Drar n infusen), a large area in northwestern Libya.

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Names of the Berber people

The ethnonym Berber dates to the 19th century, derived from Barbary the term for the Maghreb coast used during the early modern period, itself from Greek barbaria "land of barbarians".

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Nasal consonant

In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.

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National language

A national language is a language (or language variant, e.g. dialect) that has some connection—de facto or de jure—with people and the territory they occupy.

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National Transitional Council

The National Transitional Council of Libya (المجلس الوطني الإنتقالي), sometimes known as the Transitional National Council, was the de facto government of Libya for a period during and after the Libyan Civil War, in which rebel forces overthrew the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya of Muammar Gaddafi.

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A neologism (from Greek νέο- néo-, "new" and λόγος lógos, "speech, utterance") is a relatively recent or isolated term, word, or phrase that may be in the process of entering common use, but that has not yet been fully accepted into mainstream language.

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Niger, also called the Niger officially the Republic of the Niger, is a landlocked country in Western Africa named after the Niger River.

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Niger–Congo languages

The Niger–Congo languages constitute one of the world's major language families and Africa's largest in terms of geographical area, number of speakers and number of distinct languages.

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The Nile River (النيل, Egyptian Arabic en-Nīl, Standard Arabic an-Nīl; ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲱ, P(h)iaro; Ancient Egyptian: Ḥ'pī and Jtrw; Biblical Hebrew:, Ha-Ye'or or, Ha-Shiḥor) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, and is commonly regarded as the longest river in the world, though some sources cite the Amazon River as the longest.

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Nilo-Saharan languages

The Nilo-Saharan languages are a proposed family of African languages spoken by some 50–60 million people, mainly in the upper parts of the Chari and Nile rivers, including historic Nubia, north of where the two tributaries of the Nile meet.

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Nobiin language

Nobiin, or Mahas, is a Northern Nubian language of the Nilo-Saharan phylum.

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North Africa

North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.

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Northern Berber languages

The Northern Berber languages are a dialect continuum spoken across the Maghreb, constituting a subgroup of the Berber branch of the Afroasiatic family.

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A noun (from Latin nōmen, literally meaning "name") is a word that functions as the name of some specific thing or set of things, such as living creatures, objects, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.

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Nubian languages

The Nubian languages (لغات نوبية) are a group of related languages spoken by the Nubians of Nubia, a region along the Nile in southern Egypt and northern Sudan.

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Numidian language

East Numidian, also known as Old Libyan, was the language of the Maesulians of the eastern part of ancient Numidia during the Pre-Roman era, in what is now Algeria.

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Official language

An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.

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Open vowel

An open vowel is a vowel sound in which the tongue is positioned as far as possible from the roof of the mouth.

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Ouargla (Berber: Wargren or Wargla, ورجلان، ورقلة, old Berber name: Wareglan) is the capital city of Ouargla Province in the Sahara Desert in southern Algeria.

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The Ouarsenis or Ouanchariss (Berber language: Warsnis, meaning "nothing higher", الونشريس) is a mountain range and inhabited region in northwestern Algeria.

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Oudalan Province

Oudalan is one of the 45 provinces of Burkina Faso, located in its Sahel Region.

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Oum El Bouaghi

Oum El Bouaghi (أم البواقي; Tifinagh) is a municipality in Algeria.

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Palatal consonant

Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).

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Parliament of Morocco

The Parliament of Morocco is the bicameral legislature located in Rabat, the capital of Morocco.

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Pharyngeal consonant

A pharyngeal consonant is a consonant that is articulated primarily in the pharynx.

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The plural (sometimes abbreviated), in many languages, is one of the values of the grammatical category of number.

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Proto-Berber language

Proto-Berber is the reconstructed proto-language from which the modern Berber languages stem.

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Provinces of Algeria

Algeria is divided into 48 wilayas (provinces) and 1541 baladiyahs (municipalities, in French: commune).

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Punic language

The Punic language, also called Carthaginian or Phoenicio-Punic, is an extinct variety of the Phoenician language, a Canaanite language of the Semitic family.

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Question time

A question time in a parliament occurs when members of the parliament ask questions of government ministers (including the prime minister), which they are obliged to answer.

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The Rif or Riff (Berber: ⴰⵔⵉⴼ Arif or ⴰⵔⵔⵉⴼ Arrif or ⵏⴽⵔ Nkor) is a mainly mountainous region in the northern part of the Kingdom of Morocco.

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Riffian language

Riffian, Rif Berber or Riffian Berber (native local name: Tmaziɣt; external name: Tarifit) is a Zenati Northern Berber language.

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Riffian people

The Riffian people, in Tarifit: Irifiyen, by others also known as Riff, Riyefa or Ruafa, are a Berber speaking people of Northwestern Africa, who derive their name from the Rif region in the northern edge of Morocco.

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Rock art

In archaeology, rock art is human-made markings placed on natural stone; it is largely synonymous with parietal art.

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Roger Blench

Roger Marsh Blench (born 1953) is a British linguist, ethnomusicologist and development anthropologist.

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Romance languages

The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.

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The Sahel is the ecoclimatic and biogeographic zone of transition in Africa between the Sahara to the north and the Sudanian Savanna to the south.

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Salem Chaker

Salem Chaker (born 1950 in Nevers) is an Algerian Berberologist.

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Sanhaja de Srair language

Senhaja de Srair ("Senhaja of Srair") is a Northern Berber language.

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Setif (Berber: Ẓḍif or Sṭif, سطيف, Sitifis) is an Algerian city and the capital of the Stif Province, it is one of the most important cities of eastern Algeria and the country as a whole, since it is considered the trade capital of the country.

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In linguistics, specifically phonetics and phonology, schwa (rarely or; sometimes spelled shwa) is the mid central vowel sound (rounded or unrounded) in the middle of the vowel chart, denoted by the IPA symbol ə, or another vowel sound close to that position.

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Sened language

Sened is an extinct Zenati Berber language that was spoken in the nearby towns of Sened and Majoura (Berber Tmagurt) in southern Tunisia until the mid-20th century.

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Sened, Tunisia

Sened (السند) is a commune and small town in central Tunisia in Gafsa Governorate, and is also the name of the extinct Berber language (Sened) that was spoken there and at the nearby town of Tmagourt until the mid-twentieth century.

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Sephardi Jews

Sephardi Jews, also known as Sephardic Jews or Sephardim (סְפָרַדִּים, Modern Hebrew: Sefaraddim, Tiberian: Səp̄āraddîm; also Ye'hude Sepharad, lit. "The Jews of Spain"), originally from Sepharad, Spain or the Iberian peninsula, are a Jewish ethnic division.

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Shawiya language

Shawiya, or Shawiya Berber, also spelt Chaouïa (native form: Tacawit), is a Zenati Berber language spoken in Algeria by the Shawiya people.

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Shenwa language

Shenwa, also spelt Chenoua (native name: Haqbaylit̠), is a Zenati Berber language spoken on Mount Chenoua (Jebel Chenoua) in Algeria, just west of Algiers, and in the provinces of Tipaza (including the town of Cherchell) and Chlef.

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Shilha language

Shilha is a Berber language native to Shilha people.

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SIL International

SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics) is a U.S.-based, worldwide, Christian non-profit organization, whose main purpose is to study, develop and document languages, especially those that are lesser-known, in order to expand linguistic knowledge, promote literacy, translate the Christian Bible into local languages, and aid minority language development.

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Singulative number

In linguistics, singulative number and collective number (abbreviated and) are terms used when the grammatical number for multiple items is the unmarked form of a noun, and the noun is specially marked to indicate a single item.

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Siwa Oasis

The Siwa Oasis (واحة سيوة, Wāḥat Sīwah) is an urban oasis in Egypt between the Qattara Depression and the Great Sand Sea in the Western Desert, nearly 50 km (30 mi) east of the Libyan border, and 560 km (348 mi) from Cairo.

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Siwi language

Siwi (also known as Siwan or Siwa Berber, autonym: Jlan n Isiwan) is the easternmost Berber language, spoken in Egypt by an estimated 15,000Grammatical Contact in the Sahara: Arabic, Berber, and Songhay in Tabelbala and Siwa, Lameen Souag, PhD thesis, SOAS, 2010 to 20,000 people in the oases of Siwa and Gara, near the Libyan border.

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Sokna language

Sokna (also Sawknah, Sukna; native name: Tasuknit) is a presumably extinct Eastern Berber language which was spoken in the town of Sokna (Isuknan) and the village of Fuqaha in northeastern Fezzan in Libya.

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Souk Ahras

Souk Ahras (Berber: Tagast; ancient name: Thagast; سوق أهراس) is a municipality in Algeria.

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The Sous region (also spelt Sus, Suss, Souss or Sousse) (Berber: ⵙⵓⵙ, Sus) is a region in mid-southern Morocco.

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Standard language

A standard language or standard variety may be defined either as a language variety used by a population for public purposes or as a variety that has undergone standardization.

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Stop consonant

In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.

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The Sudan or Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.

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In linguistics, a suffix (sometimes termed postfix) is an affix which is placed after the stem of a word.

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Tamahaq language

Tamahaq (Tahaggart Tamahaq, Tamahaq Tahaggart) is the only known Northern Tuareg language, spoken in Algeria, western Libya and northern Niger.

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Tamasheq language

Tamasheq is a variety of the Tuareg languages.

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Tawellemmet language

Tawellemmet (Tawəlləmmət) is the largest of the Tuareg languages in the Berber branch of the Afroasiatic family.

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Tébessa (ⵜⴱⴻⵙⴰ Tbessa or Tibesti, تبسة), is the capital city of Tébessa Province, in the Shawi region of Algeria, 20 kilometers west from the border with Tunisia.

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Tifinagh (also written Tifinaɣ in the Berber Latin alphabet; Neo-Tifinagh:; Tuareg Tifinagh: or) is an abjad script used to write the Berber languages.

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Tin Hinan

Tin Hinan was a 4th-century Tuareg queen and matriarch.

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Tin Hinan Tomb

The Tin Hinan Tomb (Tombeau de Tin Hinan) is a monumental tomb located at Abalessa in the Sahara, in the Hoggar Mountains of southern Algeria.

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Tipaza Province

Tipaza or Tipasa (ولاية تيبازة, Tibaza, older Tefessedt) is a province (wilaya) on the coast of Algeria, Its capital is Tipasa, 50 km west of the capital of Algeria.

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Tizi Ouzou

Tizi Ouzou or Thizi Wezzu (Berber: Tizi Wezzu or Thizi Wezzu, ⵜⵉⵣⵉ ⵡⴻⵣⵣⵓ, Algerian Arabic: ثيزي وزو) is a city in north central Algeria.

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Tlemcen (تلمسان Tlemsan; ⵜⵍⴻⵎⵙⴰⵏ) is a city in north-western Algeria, and the capital of the province of the same name.

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Tlemcen Province

Tlemcen (ولاية تلمسان) is a province (wilaya) in northwestern Algeria.

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A tomb (from τύμβος tumbos) is a repository for the remains of the dead.

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Trill consonant

In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the active articulator and passive articulator.

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Tripoli (طرابلس,; Berber: Oea, or Wy't) is the capital city and the largest city of Libya, with a population of about 1.1 million people in 2015.

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Tripolitania or Tripolitana (طرابلس, Berber: Ṭrables, from Vulgar Latin *Trapoletanius, from Latin Regio Tripolitana, from Greek Τριπολιτάνια) is a historic region and former province of Libya.

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Tuareg languages

Tuareg, also known as Tamasheq, Tamajaq or Tamahaq (Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵌⴰⵆ), is a language or family of very closely related Berber languages and dialects.

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Tuareg people

The Tuareg people (also spelt Twareg or Touareg; endonym: Kel Tamasheq, Kel Tagelmust) are a large Berber ethnic confederation.

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Tunisia (تونس; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Tunisie), officially the Republic of Tunisia, (الجمهورية التونسية) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe in particular with France and with Italy have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.

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Uvular consonant

Uvulars are consonants articulated with the back of the tongue against or near the uvula, that is, further back in the mouth than velar consonants.

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Velar consonant

Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).

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Western Berber languages

The Western Berber languages are a branch of the Berber languages.

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Zenaga language

Zenaga (autonym) is a moribund Berber language spoken from the town of Mederdra in southwestern Mauritania to the Atlantic coast and in Senegal.

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The Zenata (Berber: Iznaten, ⵉⵣⵏⴰⵜⴻⵏ or Iznasen, ⵉⵣⵏⴰⵙⴻⵏ; زناتة Zanātah) were a Berber tribe, who inhabited an area stretching from western Egypt to Morocco in antiquity along with the Sanhaja and Masmuda.

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Zenati languages

The Zenati languages are a branch of the Northern Berber language family of North Africa.

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Zuwara Berber

Zuwara Berber (Zuara, Zwara) (Tifinagh: ⵜⵡⵉⵍⵍⵓⵍⵜ; Twillult) is a Tamazight dialect, one of the Zenati languages.

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Zuwarah, or Zuwara or Zwara, is a port city in northwestern Libya, with a population of around 350,000 (2013), famous for its beaches and seafood.

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2004 Moroccan census

The 2004 Moroccan census was held in Morocco in 2004, officially referred to as the 2004 Moroccan census or unofficially as the Michael Ngovement.

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Redirects here:

Amazigh language, Amazigh languages, Berber (language), Berber Languages, Berber dialect, Berber language, Berber-language, Berberophone, ISO 639:ber, List of Berber languages, Tamazic, Tamazic languages, Tamazight, Tamazight language, Tamazight languages, Tamazirt, Tamaziɣt, Tamaziɣt languages, Tamizight, Thamazighth language.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berber_languages

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