536 relations: Abbas ibn Firnas, Abd al-Malik al-Muzaffar, Abd al-Malik ibn Katan al-Fihri, Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan, Abd al-Rahman, Abd al-Rahman I, Abd al-Rahman ibn Habib al-Fihri, Abd al-Rahman Sanchuelo, Abd ar-Rahman III, Abd ar-Rahman IV, Abdallah ibn Yasin, Abderrahmane Abdelli, Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi, Abdullah al-Mahdi Billah, Abrahamic religions, Abu al-Abbas al-Mursi, Abu al-Muhajir Dinar, Abu Bakr ibn Umar, Abu Yaqub Yusuf, Abu Yazid, Acacus Mountains, Acculturation, Adherbal (king of Numidia), Adrian of Canterbury, Africa (Roman province), Afroasiatic languages, Aftasid dynasty, Agathocles, Aghlabids, Ahidus, Ahmed es-Sikeli, Ahmed Mohammed al-Maqqari, Ahwash, Aigeira, Al-Andalus, Al-Busiri, Al-Hakam I, Al-Hakam II, Al-Mu'tamid ibn Abbad, Al-Samh ibn Malik al-Khawlani, Alfonso VI of León and Castile, Algeciras, Algeria, Algerian mandole, Algiers, Ali, Ali ibn al-Athir, Ali ibn Hammud al-Nasir, Almanzor, Almohad Caliphate, ..., Almoravid dynasty, Amenokal, Amir al-Mu'minin, Amrus ibn Yusuf, Anatolia, Ancient Carthage, Ancient DNA, Ancient Egyptian religion, Ancient Rome, Anglican Communion, Animism, Annaba, Anti-Atlas, Anti-Gaddafi forces, Appian, Apuleius, Arabic music, Arabization, Arabized Berber, Arabs, Arius, Atlantic Ocean, Augustine of Hippo, Aurès Mountains, Aures, Algeria, Álava, Écija, Badajoz, Bafour, Bagpipes, Balj ibn Bishr al-Qushayri, Banu Hilal, Banu Qasi, Barbary Coast, Barbary slave trade, Barcelona, Barghawata, Battle of Aqbat al-Bakr, Battle of Covadonga, Battle of Sagrajas, Battle of Simancas, Battle of Tours, BBC World Service, Bedouin, Belgium, Bendir, Beni Hammad Fort, Beni Snous, Berber Arouch Citizens' Movement, Berber calendar, Berber Jews, Berber kings of Roman-era Tunisia, Berber languages, Berber Latin alphabet, Berber music, Berber Revolt, Berberism, Berbers, Berbers and Islam, Berriane, Besançon, Blida, Bread, Brother Rachid, Burkina Faso, Butter, Byzantine Empire, Cairo, Calatrava la Vieja, Caliphate, Caliphate of Córdoba, 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Abu al-Qasim Abbas ibn Firnas ibn Wirdas al-Takurini (810–887 A.D.), also known as Abbas ibn Firnas (عباس بن فرناس), was an Andalusian polymath:Lynn Townsend White, Jr. (Spring, 1961).
Abd al-Malik al-Muzaffar was hajib of the Caliphate of Cordoba from the death of his father al-Mansur ibn Abi Aamir (known to later Spanish historians as Almanzor) in 1002 until his own death in 1008.
Abd al-Malik ibn Katan al-Fihri was an Arab governor of Al-Andalus during two periods from 732 to 734 and from 740 to 742.
Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan (عبد الملك ابن مروان ‘Abd al-Malik ibn Marwān, 646 – 8 October 705) was the 5th Umayyad caliph.
Abd al-Rahman or Abd ar-Rahman or Abdul Rahman or Abdurrahman (عبد الرحمن or occasionally عبد الرحمان; DMG ʿAbd ar-Raḥman) is a male Muslim given name, and in modern usage, surname.
Abd al-Rahman I, more fully Abd al-Rahman ibn Mu'awiya ibn Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan (731–788), was the founder of a Muslim dynasty that ruled the greater part of Iberia for nearly three centuries (including the succeeding Caliphate of Córdoba).
Abd al-Rahman ibn Habib al-Fihri (died 755) was an Arab noble of the Oqbid or Fihrid family, and ruler of Ifriqiya (North Africa) from 745 through 755 AD.
Abd al-Rahman Sanchuelo (983 – 3 March 1009), born and died in Córdoba, was the son of Almanzor who became chief minister of Hisham II, Caliph of Córdoba.
Abd ar-Rahman III (′Abd ar-Rahmān ibn Muhammad ibn ′Abd Allāh ibn Muhammad ibn ′abd ar-Rahman ibn al-Hakam ar-Rabdi ibn Hisham ibn ′abd ar-Rahman ad-Dakhil; عبد الرحمن الثالث; 11 January 889/9115 October 961) was the Emir and Caliph of Córdoba (912–961) of the Umayyad dynasty in al-Andalus.
Abd ar-Rahman IV Mortada (ʿAbd ar-Raḥmān al-Murtaḍā) was the Caliph of Córdoba in the Umayyad dynasty in Al-Andalus, succeeding Sulayman ibn al-Hakam, in 1018.
Abdallah Ibn Yasin (died 7 July 1059 C.E. in "Krifla" near Rommani, Morocco) was a theologian and founder of the Almoravid movement and dynasty.
Abderrahmane Abdelli (born April 2, 1958) is a Berber author, composer, and singer songwriter known for mixing the traditional North African music of his homeland with modern sounds.
Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi (died 732; عبد الرحمن الغافقي), also known as Abd er Rahman, Abdderrahman, Abderame, and Abd el-Rahman, unsuccessfully led the Andalusian Muslims into battle against the forces of Charles Martel in the Battle of Tours on October 10, 732 AD.
Abu Muḥammad ʿAlī / ʿAbd Allāh al-Mahdi Billah (873 – 4 March 934) (أبو محمد عبد الله المهدي بالله), was the founder of the Ismaili Fatimid Caliphate, the only major Shi'a caliphate in Islam, and established Fatimid rule throughout much of North Africa, Hejaz, Palestine and the Levant.
The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as Abrahamism, are a group of Semitic-originated religious communities of faith that claim descent from the practices of the ancient Israelites and the worship of the God of Abraham.
Al-Mursi Abu'l-'Abbas (1219 in Murcia – 1287 CE) (المرسي أبو العباس) is a Sufi saint from Al-Andalus of the Moroccan Merinid dynasty who later in his life moved to Alexandria in Egypt.
Abu al-Muhajir Dinar (أبو المهاجر دينار) (died 683), amir of Ifriqiya under the Umayyads.
Abu Bakr ibn Umar ibn Ibrahim ibn Turgut, sometimes suffixed al-Sanhaji or al-Lamtuni (died 1087; أبو بكر بن عمر) was a chieftain of the Lamtuna Berber Tribe and commander of the Almoravids from 1056 until his death.
Abu Ya`qub Yusuf or Yusuf I (Abū Ya‘qūb Yūsuf; 1135 – 14 October 1184) was the second Almohad Amir or caliph.
Abū Yazīd Mukhallad ibn Kayrād al-Nukkari (أبو يزيد مخلد بن كيراد; 873 - 19 August 947), nicknamed Ṣāhib al-Himār "Possessor of the donkey", was a Ibadi Berber of the Banu Ifran tribe who led a rebellion against the Fatimid Caliphate in Ifriqiya (modern Tunisia and eastern Algeria) starting in 944.
The Acacus Mountains or Tadrart Akakus (تدرارت أكاكوس / ALA-LC: Tadrārt Akākūs) form a mountain range in the desert of the Ghat District in western Libya, part of the Sahara.
Acculturation is the process of social, psychological, and cultural change that stems from blending between cultures.
Adherbal, son of Micipsa and grandson of Masinissa, was a king of Numidia between 118 and 112 BC.
Saint Adrian (or Hadrian) of Canterbury (died 9 January 710) was a famous scholar and the abbot of St Augustine's Abbey in Canterbury in the English county of Kent.
Africa Proconsularis was a Roman province on the north African coast that was established in 146 BC following the defeat of Carthage in the Third Punic War.
Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as Afrasian and traditionally as Hamito-Semitic (Chamito-Semitic) or Semito-Hamitic, is a large language family of about 300 languages and dialects.
The Aftasid dynasty (from the Arabic بنو الأفطس Banu-l'Aftas or Banu al-Aftas) was a Berber Miknasa dynasty centered in Badajoz (1022–1094) in Al Andalus (Moorish Iberia).
Agathocles (Greek: Ἀγαθοκλῆς) is a Greek name, the most famous of which is Agathocles of Syracuse, the tyrant of Syracuse.
The Aghlabids (الأغالبة) were an Arab dynasty of emirs from Banu Tamim, who ruled Ifriqiya, nominally on behalf of the Abbasid Caliph, for about a century, until overthrown by the new power of the Fatimids.
Ahidus, also sometimes called ahidous, haidous, tahidoust or hidoussi, is a style of collective performance in Morocco and Algeria.
Ahmed es-Sikeli (احمد السقيلي), baptised a Christian under the name Peter, was a eunuch and kaid of the Diwan of the Kingdom of Sicily during the reign of William I. His story was recorded by his Christian contemporaries Romuald Guarna and Hugo Falcandus from Sicily and the Muslim historian Ibn Khaldun.
Abu-l-'Abbas Ahmad ibn Mohammed al-Maqqari (or Al-Makkari) (–1632) was an Algerian scholar who was born in Tlemcen in 1577 from a prominent intellectual family that traced its origin to the village of Maqqara, near M'sila.
Ahwash (also spelled ahwach or ahouach) is a style of collective performance from southern Morocco.
Aigeira (Αιγείρα) (Αἰγείρα) is a town and a former municipality in northeastern Achaea, West Greece, Greece.
Al-Andalus (الأنْدَلُس, trans.; al-Ándalus; al-Ândalus; al-Àndalus; Berber: Andalus), also known as Muslim Spain, Muslim Iberia, or Islamic Iberia, was a medieval Muslim territory and cultural domain occupying at its peak most of what are today Spain and Portugal.
al-Būsīrī (Abū 'Abdallāh Muhammad ibn Sa'īd ul-Būsīrī Ash Shadhili) (1211–1294) was a Sanhaji BerberSufi poet belonging to the Shadhiliyya order being direct disciple of Sheikh Abul Abbas al-Mursi ash Shadhili.
Al-Hakam Ibn Hisham Ibn Abd-ar-Rahman I (الحكم بن هشام) was Umayyad Emir of Cordoba from 796 until 822 in the Al-Andalus (Moorish Iberia).
Al-Hakam II (Abū'l-ʿĀs al-Mustansir bi-llāh al-Hakam ibn ʿAbd ar-Rahmān; January 13, 915 – October 16, 976) was the second Umayyad Caliph of Córdoba in Al-Andalus, and son of Abd-ar-Rahman III and Murjan.
Muhammad ibn Abbad al-Mu'tamid (المعتمد بن عباد; reigned c. 1069–1091, lived 1040–1095) was the third and last ruler of the taifa of Seville in Al-Andalus.
Al-Samh ibn Malik al-Khawlani (السمح بن مالك الخولاني) was the Arab governor general of Al-Andalus from between 719 and 721.
Alfonso VI (1 July 1109), nicknamed the Brave (El Bravo) or the Valiant, was the son of King Ferdinand I of León and Queen Sancha, daughter of Alfonso V and sister of Bermudo III.
Algeciras (translit) is a port city in the south of Spain, and is the largest city on the Bay of Gibraltar (in Spanish, the Bahía de Algeciras).
Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
The Algerian mandole (mandol, mondol) is steel-string fretted instrument resembling an elongated mandolin, popular in Algerian Kabyle and Chaabi music and Nuba (Andalusian classical music).
Algiers (الجزائر al-Jazā’er, ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻ, Alger) is the capital and largest city of Algeria.
Ali (ʿAlī) (15 September 601 – 29 January 661) was the cousin and the son-in-law of Muhammad, the last prophet of Islam.
Abu al-Hassan Ali ibn Muhammad ibn Muhammad ash-Shaybani, better known as Ali 'Izz al-Din Ibn al-Athir al-Jazari (Arabic: علي عز الدین بن الاثیر الجزري) (1233–1160) was an Arab or Kurdish historian and biographer who wrote in Arabic and was from the Ibn Athir family.
Ali ibn Hammud al-Nasir (الناصر علي بن حمود - al-nāṣir ʿalī ben ḥammūd) (died 22 March 1018) was the sixth Caliph of Córdoba from 1016 until his death.
Abu ʿĀmir Muḥammad bin ʿAbdullāh ibn Abi ʿĀmir, al-Ḥājib al-Manṣūr (أبو عامر محمد بن عبد الله بن أبي عامر الحاجب المنصور) (c. 938 – August 8, 1002), better known as Almanzor, was for 24 years (978–1002) the de facto ruler of Muslim Iberia (al-Andalus) under the Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba (Khilāfat Qurṭuba).
The Almohad Caliphate (British English:, U.S. English:; ⵉⵎⵡⴻⵃⵃⴷⴻⵏ (Imweḥḥden), from Arabic الموحدون, "the monotheists" or "the unifiers") was a Moroccan Berber Muslim movement and empire founded in the 12th century.
The Almoravid dynasty (Imṛabḍen, ⵉⵎⵕⴰⴱⴹⴻⵏ; المرابطون, Al-Murābiṭūn) was an imperial Berber Muslim dynasty centered in Morocco.
Amenokal is a title for the highest Tuareg traditional chiefs.
Amir al-Mu'minin (أمير المؤمنين), usually translated "Commander of the Faithful" or "Leader of the Faithful", is the Arabic style of some Caliphs and other independent sovereign Muslim rulers that claim legitimacy from a community of Muslims.
'Amrus ibn Yusuf al-Muwallad al-Laridi (عمروس بن يوسف المولد ﺍﻟﻟﺎﺮﺿﻰ, died 808/9 or 813/4) was a Muwallad (probably of Visigothic origin) general of the Emirate of Córdoba and governor of Zaragoza.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
Carthage (from Carthago; Punic:, Qart-ḥadašt, "New City") was the Phoenician state, including, during the 7th–3rd centuries BC, its wider sphere of influence, known as the Carthaginian Empire.
Ancient DNA (aDNA) is DNA isolated from ancient specimens.
Ancient Egyptian religion was a complex system of polytheistic beliefs and rituals which were an integral part of ancient Egyptian society.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
The Anglican Communion is the third largest Christian communion with 85 million members, founded in 1867 in London, England.
Animism (from Latin anima, "breath, spirit, life") is the religious belief that objects, places and creatures all possess a distinct spiritual essence.
Annaba (عنّابة), ("Jujube Town"), formerly known as Bona, and then Bône, is a seaport city in the northeastern corner of Algeria, close to Tunisia.
The Anti-Atlas (الأطلس الصغير, Aṭlas Ameẓyan), Lesser Atlas or Little Atlas is a mountain range in Morocco, a part of the Atlas Mountains in the northwest of Africa.
The anti-Gaddafi forces were Libyan groups that opposed and militarily defeated the government of Muammar Gaddafi, killing him in the process.
Appian of Alexandria (Ἀππιανὸς Ἀλεξανδρεύς Appianòs Alexandreús; Appianus Alexandrinus) was a Greek historian with Roman citizenship who flourished during the reigns of Emperors of Rome Trajan, Hadrian, and Antoninus Pius.
Apuleius (also called Lucius Apuleius Madaurensis; c. 124 – c. 170 AD) was a Latin-language prose writer, Platonist philosopher and rhetorician.
Arabic music or Arab music (Arabic: الموسيقى العربية – ALA-LC) is the music of the Arab people.
Arabization or Arabisation (تعريب) describes either the conquest and/or colonization of a non-Arab area and growing Arab influence on non-Arab populations, causing a language shift by their gradual adoption of the Arabic language and/or their incorporation of Arab culture, Arab identity.
Arabized Berber denotes an inhabitant of the Maghreb region in northwestern Africa, whose native language is a local dialect of Arabic and whose origins are Berber.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
Arius (Ἄρειος, 250 or 256–336) was a Christian presbyter and ascetic of Berber origin, and priest in Baucalis in Alexandria, Egypt.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
Saint Augustine of Hippo (13 November 354 – 28 August 430) was a Roman African, early Christian theologian and philosopher from Numidia whose writings influenced the development of Western Christianity and Western philosophy.
The Aures Mountains (ⵉⴷⵓⵔⴰⵔ ⵏ ⴰⵡⵔⴰⵙ, Aurasium, Jibāl al-Awrās) are an eastern prolongation of the Atlas Mountain System that lies to the east of the Saharan Atlas in northeastern Algeria, North Africa.
Aures (Amazigh: ⴰⵡⵔⴰⵙ / Awras, Awrās) is an Amazigh language-speaking natural region located in the mountainous area of the Aurès range in eastern Algeria.
Álava (in Spanish) or Araba (in Basque, dialectal), officially Araba/Álava, is a province of Spain and a historical territory of the Basque Country, heir of the ancient Lordship of Álava, former medieval Catholic bishopric and now Latin titular see.
Écija is a town belonging to the province of Seville, Spain.
Badajoz (formerly written Badajos in English) is the capital of the Province of Badajoz in the autonomous community of Extremadura, Spain.
The Bafour or Bafur are a group of people inhabiting Mauritania and Western Sahara.
Bagpipes are a woodwind instrument using enclosed reeds fed from a constant reservoir of air in the form of a bag.
Balj ibn Bishr al-Qushayri (Arabic: بَلْج بن بِشْر الْقُشَيْرِيُّ الهَوازِنِيِّ) (? – August 742) was an Umayyad military commander in North Africa and Iberia, and briefly ruler of al-Andalus in 742.
The Banu Hilal (Arabic: بنو هلال or الهلاليين) was a confederation of tribes of Arabia from the Hejaz and Najd regions of the Arabian Peninsula that emigrated to North Africa in the 11th century.
The Banu Qasi, Banu Kasi, Beni Casi (بني قسي or بنو قسي, meaning "sons" or "heirs of Cassius") or Banu Musa were a Hispano-Roman Muwallad dynasty that ruled the upper Ebro valley in the 9th century, before being displaced in the first quarter of the 10th century.
The Barbary Coast, or Berber Coast, was the term used by Europeans from the 16th until the early 19th century to refer to much of the collective land of the Berber people.
The Barbary slave trade refers to the slave markets that were extremely lucrative and vast on the Barbary Coast of North Africa, which included the Ottoman provinces of Algeria, Tunisia and Tripolitania and the independent sultanate of Morocco, between the 16th and middle of the 18th century.
Barcelona is a city in Spain.
The Barghawatas (also Barghwata or Berghouata) were a group of Berber tribes on the Atlantic coast of Morocco, belonging to the Masmuda confederacy.
The Battle of Aqbat al-Bakr (2 June 1010) was a battle of the Fitna of al-Andalus that took place in the area in and around Espiel, Spain.
The Battle of Covadonga was the first victory by Christian military forces in Iberia since the Islamic conquest of Hispania in 711–718.
The Battle of Sagrajas (23 October 1086), also called Zalaca or Zallaqa (translit), was a battle between the Almoravid army led by the Almoravid king Yusuf ibn Tashfin and an army led by the Castilian King Alfonso VI.
The Battle of Simancas (also called Alhandega or al-Khandaq) was a military battle that started on July 19, 939, in the Iberian Peninsula between the troops of the king of León Ramiro II and Cordovan caliph Abd al-Rahman III near the walls of the city of Simancas.
The Battle of Tours (10 October 732) – also called the Battle of Poitiers and, by Arab sources, the Battle of the Palace of the Martyrs (Ma'arakat Balāṭ ash-Shuhadā’) – was fought by Frankish and Burgundian forces under Charles Martel against an army of the Umayyad Caliphate led by Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi, Governor-General of al-Andalus.
The BBC World Service, the world's largest international broadcaster, broadcasts radio and television news, speech and discussions in over 30 languages to many parts of the world on analogue and digital shortwave platforms, Internet streaming, podcasting, satellite, DAB, FM and MW relays.
The Bedouin (badawī) are a grouping of nomadic Arab peoples who have historically inhabited the desert regions in North Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, Iraq and the Levant.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
The bendir (بندير; plural banadir, بنادير) is a wooden-framed frame drum of North Africa and Southwest Asia.
Beni Hammad Fort, also called Al Qal'a of Beni Hammad (قلعة بني حماد) is a fortified palatine city in Algeria.
Beni Snous or Aït Snous (بني سنوس) is a town and commune in Tlemcen Province in northwestern Algeria.
The Arouch Movement or Berber Arouch Citizens' Movement (Kabyle: Laarac; French: Mouvement citoyen des Aarchs) is an organization in Algeria representing the Kabyle people, a Berber group of the province of Kabylie.
The Berber calendar is the agricultural calendar traditionally used by Berbers.
Berber Jews are the Jewish communities of the Atlas mountains in Morocco, and previously in Algeria, which historically spoke Berber languages.
For nearly 250 years, Berber kings of the 'House of Masinissa' ruled in Numidia, which included much of Tunisia, and later in adjacent regions, first as sovereigns allied with Rome and then eventually as Roman clients.
The Berber languages, also known as Berber or the Amazigh languages (Berber name: Tamaziɣt, Tamazight; Neo-Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵜ, Tuareg Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵜ, ⵝⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵝ), are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family.
The Berber Latin alphabet (Agemmay Amaziɣ Alatin) is the version of the Latin alphabet used to write the Berber languages.
Berber music refers to the musical traditions of the Berbers, an ethnic group native to the Maghreb, as well as parts of the Sahara, Nile Valley, West Africa.
The Great Berber Revolt of 739/740–743 AD (122–125 AH in the Muslim calendar) took place during the reign of the Umayyad Caliph Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik and marked the first successful secession from the Arab caliphate (ruled from Damascus).
Berberism (Berber: Timmuzɣa or Tamaziɣiẓri) or Amazighism is a Berber political-cultural movement of ethnic, geographic, or cultural nationalism, started mainly in Kabylia, Algeria, and in Morocco and later spreading to the rest of the Berber communities in North Africa.
Berbers or Amazighs (Berber: Imaziɣen, ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⴻⵏ; singular: Amaziɣ, ⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗ) are an ethnic group indigenous to North Africa, primarily inhabiting Algeria, northern Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, northern Niger, Tunisia, Libya, and a part of western Egypt.
The Berbers (autonym: Imazighen) are an indigenous ethnic group of the Maghreb region of North Africa.
Berriane (from Tamazight: Bergan) (بريان) is a medium-sized town and commune in the south of Algeria, coextensive with Bérianne District, in Ghardaïa Province, Algeria.
Besançon (French and Arpitan:; archaic Bisanz, Vesontio) is the capital of the department of Doubs in the region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté.
Blida (البليدة) is a city in Algeria.
Bread is a staple food prepared from a dough of flour and water, usually by baking.
Brother Rachid (born 1971, Morocco) is a Moroccan Christian convert from Islam whose father is a well-known respected Imam.
Burkina Faso is a landlocked country in West Africa.
Butter is a dairy product containing up to 80% butterfat (in commercial products) which is solid when chilled and at room temperature in some regions and liquid when warmed.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.
Calatrava la Vieja (formerly just Calatrava) is a medieval site and original nucleus of the Order of Calatrava.
A caliphate (خِلافة) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَليفة), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community).
The Caliphate of Córdoba (خلافة قرطبة; trans. Khilāfat Qurṭuba) was a state in Islamic Iberia along with a part of North Africa ruled by the Umayyad dynasty.
Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.
Campo de Calatrava is a comarca in Castilla-La Mancha, Spain.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
The Canary Islands (Islas Canarias) is a Spanish archipelago and autonomous community of Spain located in the Atlantic Ocean, west of Morocco at the closest point.
Cap Bon (الرأس الطيب), also Watan el-kibli, is a peninsula in far northeastern Tunisia.
The Capsian culture was a Mesolithic culture centered in the Maghreb that lasted from about 10,000 to 6,000 BC.
Castile is a vaguely defined historical region of Spain.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Cave paintings, also known as parietal art, are painted drawings on cave walls or ceilings, mainly of prehistoric origin, beginning roughly 40,000 years ago (around 38,000 BCE) in Eurasia.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
Ceuta (also;; Berber language: Sebta) is an Spanish autonomous city on the north coast of Africa, separated by 14 kilometres from Cadiz province on the Spanish mainland by the Strait of Gibraltar and sharing a 6.4 kilometre land border with M'diq-Fnideq Prefecture in the Kingdom of Morocco.
The Chadic languages form a branch of the Afroasiatic language family.
The Chaoui people or Shawia (شاويه, Išawiyen) are a Berber population inhabiting the Aurès, Batna and Khenchla Oum bwaghi Biskra regions located in and surrounded by the Aurès Mountains.
Charles Martel (c. 688 – 22 October 741) was a Frankish statesman and military leader who as Duke and Prince of the Franks and Mayor of the Palace, was the de facto ruler of Francia from 718 until his death.
The Chellah or Shalla (Sla or Calla; شالة), is a medieval fortified Muslim necropolis located in the metro area of Rabat, Morocco, on the south (left) side of the Bou Regreg estuary.
Chenini (شنيني) is a ruined Berber village in the Tataouine district in southern Tunisia.
The Chenouis (in Berber: Icenwiyen) are a Berber-speaking population native to Algeria.
Choreography is the art or practice of designing sequences of movements of physical bodies (or their depictions) in which motion, form, or both are specified.
The Chronicle of 754 (also called the Mozarabic Chronicle or Continuatio Hispana) is a Latin-language history in 95 sections, which was composed in 754 in a part of Spain under Arab rule.
The Circumcellions or Agonistici (as called by Donatists) were bands of Berber Christian extremists in North Africa in the early to mid-4th century.
A client state is a state that is economically, politically, or militarily subordinate to another more powerful state in international affairs.
Clowns are comic performers who employ slapstick or similar types of physical comedy, often in a mime style.
Colonialism is the policy of a polity seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of developing or exploiting them to the benefit of the colonizing country and of helping the colonies modernize in terms defined by the colonizers, especially in economics, religion and health.
Couscous is a Maghrebi dish of small (about diameter) steamed balls of crushed durum wheat semolina that is traditionally served with a stew spooned on top.
Cuenca is a city in the autonomous community of Castile–La Mancha in central Spain.
A cymbal is a common percussion instrument.
Cyrenaica (Cyrenaica (Provincia), Κυρηναία (ἐπαρχία) Kyrēnaíā (eparkhíā), after the city of Cyrene; برقة) is the eastern coastal region of Libya.
Dala'il al-Khayrat or Dalaail u'l Khayraat Wa Shawaariq u'l Anwaar Fee Zikri's Salaat Alan Nabiyyi'l Mukhtaar (meaning the Waymarks of Benefits and the Brilliant Burst of Lights in the Remembrance of Blessings on the Chosen Prophet) is a famous collection of prayers for the Islamic prophet Muhammad, which was written by the Moroccan Shadhili Sufi and Islamic scholar Muhammad Sulaiman al-Jazuli ash Shadhili (died 1465).
Damascus (دمشق, Syrian) is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic; it is also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the battle for the city.
The word Dedan (Dəḏān) (Dudan, Dadan, Daedan in Brenton's Septuagint Translation) means "low ground".
A (ذمي,, collectively أهل الذمة / "the people of the dhimma") is a historical term referring to non-Muslims living in an Islamic state with legal protection.
Dihya or Kahina (Berber: Daya Ult Yenfaq Tajrawt, ⴷⵉⵀⵢⴰ Dihya, or ⴷⴰⵎⵢⴰ Damya) was a Berber warrior queen and a religious and military leader who led indigenous resistance to the Muslim conquest of the Maghreb, the region then known as Numidia.
Djerba (جربة), also transliterated as Jerba or Jarbah, is, at, the largest island of North Africa, located in the Gulf of Gabès, off the coast of Tunisia.
Doctor of the Church (Latin doctor "teacher") is a title given by the Catholic Church to saints whom they recognize as having been of particular importance, particularly regarding their contribution to theology or doctrine.
Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another group to secure a more predictable supply of resources from that second group.
Donatism (Donatismus, Δονατισμός Donatismós) was a schism in the Church of Carthage from the fourth to the sixth centuries AD.
Donatus Magnus, also known as Donatus of Casae Nigrae, became leader of a schismatic Christian sect known as the Donatists in North Africa.
The term double clarinet refers to any of several woodwind instruments consisting of two parallel pipes made of cane, bird bone, or metal, played simultaneously, with a single reed for each.
Douiret (Berber: Eddwirat or igherman, دويرات) is a ruined Berber village in the Tataouine district in southern Tunisia.
Driss Jettou (إدريس جطو) (born 24 May 1945) was the Prime Minister of Morocco from 2002 to 2007.
A drum kit — also called a drum set, trap set, or simply drums — is a collection of drums and other percussion instruments, typically cymbals, which are set up on stands to be played by a single player, with drumsticks held in both hands, and the feet operating pedals that control the hi-hat cymbal and the beater for the bass drum.
The Duchy of Aquitaine (Ducat d'Aquitània,, Duché d'Aquitaine) was a historical fiefdom in western, central and southern areas of present-day France to the south of the Loire River, although its extent, as well as its name, fluctuated greatly over the centuries, at times comprising much of what is now southwestern France (Gascony) and central France.
The name Early African Church is given to the Christian communities inhabiting the region known politically as Roman Africa, and comprised geographically within the following limits, namely: the Mediterranean littoral between Cyrenaica on the east and the river Ampsaga (now the Oued Rhumel (fr)) on the west; that part of it that faces the Atlantic Ocean being called Mauretania.
Early Christianity, defined as the period of Christianity preceding the First Council of Nicaea in 325, typically divides historically into the Apostolic Age and the Ante-Nicene Period (from the Apostolic Age until Nicea).
The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, typically regarded as lasting from the 5th or 6th century to the 10th century CE, marked the start of the Middle Ages of European history.
The early Muslim conquests (الفتوحات الإسلامية, al-Futūḥāt al-Islāmiyya) also referred to as the Arab conquests and early Islamic conquests began with the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the 7th century.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
The Egyptian language was spoken in ancient Egypt and was a branch of the Afro-Asiatic languages.
An emir (أمير), sometimes transliterated amir, amier, or ameer, is an aristocratic or noble and military title of high office used in a variety of places in the Arab countries, West African, and Afghanistan.
Encyclopedia Americana is one of the largest general encyclopedias in the English language.
In archaeology, the Epipalaeolithic, Epipaleolithic (sometimes Epi-paleolithic etc) is a term for a period intervening between the Upper Paleolithic and Neolithic in the Stone Age.
Ercavica (or Arcavica) was an important Roman City whose remains are visible today at the archaeological site.
Essaouira (الصويرة; ⵎⵓⴳⴰⴹⵓⵔ, Mugadur), formerly known as Mogador, is a city in the western Moroccan economic region of Marrakesh-Safi, on the Atlantic coast.
An ethnic flag is a flag that symbolizes a certain ethnic group.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
An exonym or xenonym is an external name for a geographical place, or a group of people, an individual person, or a language or dialect.
Exploration is the act of searching for the purpose of discovery of information or resources.
Marguerite-Fadhma Aït Mansour Amrouche (c. 1882 in Tizi Hibel, Algeria – July 9, 1967 in Saint-Brice-en-Coglès, France) was a poet and folksinger.
Fantasia is a traditional exhibition of horsemanship in the Maghreb performed during cultural festivals and to close Maghrebi wedding celebrations.
Fatimah bint Muhammad (فاطمة;; especially colloquially: born c. 609 (or 20 Jumada al-Thani 5 BH ?) – died 28 August 632) was the youngest daughter and according to Shia Muslims, the only child of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and Khadijah who lived to adulthood, and therefore part of Muhammad's household.
The Fatimid Caliphate was an Islamic caliphate that spanned a large area of North Africa, from the Red Sea in the east to the Atlantic Ocean in the west.
The Fertile Crescent (also known as the "cradle of civilization") is a crescent-shaped region where agriculture and early human civilizations like the Sumer and Ancient Egypt flourished due to inundations from the surrounding Nile, Euphrates, and Tigris rivers.
Fezzan (ⴼⴻⵣⵣⴰⵏ, Fezzan; فزان, Fizzān; Fizan; Phasania) or Phazania is the southwestern region of modern Libya.
A fiddle is a bowed string musical instrument, most often a violin.
The Fihrids (also known as Oqbids) were an illustrious Arab family and clan, prominent in North Africa and Muslim Iberia during the 8th century.
Fiqh (فقه) is Islamic jurisprudence.
A first language, native language or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period.
The First Punic War (264 to 241 BC) was the first of three wars fought between Ancient Carthage and the Roman Republic, the two great powers of the Western Mediterranean.
The flute is a family of musical instruments in the woodwind group.
Fox News (officially known as the Fox News Channel, commonly abbreviated to FNC) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel owned by the Fox Entertainment Group, a subsidiary of 21st Century Fox.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
The Franks (Franci or gens Francorum) were a collection of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine in the 3rd century AD, on the edge of the Roman Empire.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
French North Africa was a collection of territories in North Africa controlled by France, centering on French Algeria.
Gaetuli was the romanised name of an ancient Berber tribe inhabiting Getulia.
Gaia (died 207 BCE) was an ancient Berber king of the Massylii,Livy, Ab Urbe Condita, 24.48 an eastern Numidian tribe in the Ancient Algeria of North Africa.
Gamal Abdel Nasser Hussein (جمال عبد الناصر حسين,; 15 January 1918 – 28 September 1970) was the second President of Egypt, serving from 1956 until his death in 1970.
The Garamantes (possibly from the Berber igherman / iɣerman, meaning: "cities" in modern Berber; or possibly from igerramen meaning "saints, holy/sacred people" in modern Berber) were a Berber tribe, who developed an advanced civilization in ancient southwestern Libya.
García Fernández, called of the White Hands (Burgos, Córdoba, 995), was the count of Castile and Alava from 970 to 995.
The gasba or tamja is a musical style based on a wind instrument of the same name, (gasba literally means "reed" in the Berber language), which is widespread in Tunisia, Algeria (among Chawis of north-east Algeria and Oran in the northwest), and in Morocco, (in the eastern Rif (Al Hoceima, Driouch, Nador, Berkane) Oujda, Beni Mathar and Bouarfa and by Jilala brotherhood).
Medieval Islamic geography was based on Hellenistic geography and reached its apex with Muhammad al-Idrisi in the 12th century.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
The Ghana Empire (700 until 1240), properly known as Awkar (Ghana or Ga'na being the title of its ruler), was located in the area of present-day southeastern Mauritania and western Mali.
Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory located at the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula.
Gijón, or Xixón is the largest city and municipality in the autonomous community of Asturias in Spain.
The Giralda (La Giralda) is the bell tower of the Seville Cathedral in Seville, Spain.
Gnaeus Pompeius Trogus also anglicized as was a Gallo-Roman historian from the Celtic Vocontii tribe in Narbonese Gaul who lived during the reign of the emperor Augustus.
The Godala is a Berber tribe in Northern Africa that lived along the Atlantic coast in present-day Mauritania and participated in the Saharan salt trade and the salt mines of Ijiil.
Granada is the capital city of the province of Granada, in the autonomous community of Andalusia, Spain.
Grazing is a method of feeding in which a herbivore feeds on plants such as grasses, or other multicellular organisms such as algae.
The Guadiana River, or Odiana, is an international river defining a long stretch of the Portugal-Spain border, separating Extremadura and Andalucia (Spain) from Alentejo and Algarve (Portugal).
The Guanche language is an extinct Berber language that was spoken by the Guanches of the Canary Islands until the 17th century or possibly later.
Guanches were the aboriginal inhabitants of the Canary Islands.
The Hafsids (الحفصيون al-Ḥafṣiyūn) were a Sunni Muslim dynasty of Berber descent who ruled Ifriqiya (western Libya, Tunisia, and eastern Algeria) from 1229 to 1574.
A hajib or hadjib (الحاجب., tr. al-ḥājib) was a court official, equivalent to a chamberlain, in the early Muslim world, which evolved to fulfil various functions, often serving as chief ministers or enjoying dictatorial powers.
The Hajj (حَجّ "pilgrimage") is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, the holiest city for Muslims, and a mandatory religious duty for Muslims that must be carried out at least once in their lifetime by all adult Muslims who are physically and financially capable of undertaking the journey, and can support their family during their absence.
Hamites (from the biblical Ham) is a historical term in ethnology and linguistics for a division of the Caucasian race and the group of related languages these populations spoke.
The Hammadid dynasty was a Sanhaja Berber dynasty that ruled an area roughly corresponding to north-eastern modern Algeria between 1008 and 1152.
The Hammudid dynasty was a Berberised Arab Muslim dynasty that briefly ruled the Caliphate of CórdobaLane-Poole (1894), p.21 and the taifas of Málaga and Algeciras and nominal control in Ceuta.
Handhala ibn Safwan al-Kalbi (or Hanzala ibn Safwan) (?–?) was an Umayyad governor of Egypt from 721 to 724 and again 737 to 741, and subsequently governor of Ifriqiya from 741 to 745.
E-M215, also known as E1b1b and formerly E3b, is a major human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.
Haplogroup H is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup.
Haplogroup JT is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup.
Haplogroup K is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup.
Haplogroup M is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup.
Haplogroup T is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup.
Haplogroup T-M184, also known as Haplogroup T is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.
Haplogroup U is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup (mtDNA).
Haplogroup V is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup.
Haplogroup X is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup.
The Hautes Plaines (High Plains), also known as Hauts Plateaux, is a steppe-like natural region located in the Atlas Mountains in northern Algeria.
Hellenistic religion is any of the various systems of beliefs and practices of the people who lived under the influence of ancient Greek culture during the Hellenistic period and the Roman Empire (c. 300 BCE to 300 CE).
Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.
Hiempsal I (died c. 117 BC), son of Micipsa and grandson of Masinissa, was a king of Numidia in the late 2nd century BC.
Hisham I or Hisham Al-Reda (هشام بن عبد الرحمن الداخل) was the second Umayyad Emir of Cordoba, ruling from 788 to 796 in al-Andalus.
Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik (691 – 6 February 743) (هشام بن عبد الملك) was the 10th Umayyad caliph who ruled from 724 until his death in 743.
Abu'l-Walid Hisham II al-Mu'ayyad bi-llah (Abū'l-Walīd Hishām al-Muʾayyad bi-ʾllāh) (son of Al-Hakam II and Subh of Cordoba) was the third Umayyad Caliph of Spain, in Al-Andalus from 976–1009, and 1010–13.
Hispania was the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula.
Human habitation in the North African region occurred over one million years ago.
The history of Roman-era Tunisia begins with the history of the Roman Africa Province.
The Hoggar Mountains (جبال هقار, Berber: idurar n Ahaggar, Tuareg: Idurar Uhaggar), also known as the Ahaggar Mountains, are a highland region in the central Sahara, southern Algeria, along the Tropic of Cancer.
The Holocene is the current geological epoch.
Honey is a sweet, viscous food substance produced by bees and some related insects.
The Ibāḍī movement, Ibadism or Ibāḍiyya, also known as the Ibadis (الاباضية, al-Ibāḍiyyah), is a school of Islam dominant in Oman.
The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.
The Iberians (Hibērī, from Ίβηρες, Iberes) were a set of peoples that Greek and Roman sources (among others, Hecataeus of Miletus, Avienus, Herodotus and Strabo) identified with that name in the eastern and southern coasts of the Iberian peninsula, at least from the 6th century BC.
The Iberomaurusian ("of Iberia and Mauritania"; it was once believed that it extended into Spain) or Oranian is a backed bladelet lithic industry found throughout North Africa.
Abu'l Qāsim ʿAbd ar-Raḥman bin ʿAbdullah bin ʿAbd al-Ḥakam bin Aʿyan al-Qurashī al-Mașrī (أبو القاسم عبد الرحمن بن عبد الله بن عبد الحكم بن اعين القرشي المصري), generally known simply as Ibn ʿAbd al-Ḥakam (born: 187 A.H/ 803 A.D- died 257 A.H/ 871 A.D at al-Fustat near Cairo) was an Egyptian Muslim historian who wrote a work generally known as The Conquest of Egypt and North Africa and Spain (فتح مصر و المغرب و الاندلس, Futūḥ mișr wa'l maghrab wa'l andalus).
Ibn Battuta (محمد ابن بطوطة; fully; Arabic: أبو عبد الله محمد بن عبد الله اللواتي الطنجي بن بطوطة) (February 25, 13041368 or 1369) was a Moroccan scholar who widely travelled the medieval world.
Abū Marwān Ḥayyān ibn Khalaf ibn Ḥusayn ibn Ḥayyān al-Qurṭubī (987–1075), usually known as Ibn Hayyan, was a Muslim historian from Al-Andalus.
Abū al-Abbas Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Idhāri al-Marrākushi (أبو العباس أحمد ابن عذاري المراكشي) who lived in the late 13th and the early 14th century, was the author of an important medieval text (Al-Bayan al-Mughrib) on the history of the Maghreb and Iberia written in 1312.
Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. Ibrāhīm Abu ’l-ʿAbbās S̲h̲ams al-Dīn al-Barmakī al-Irbilī al-S̲h̲āfiʿī (احمد ابن محمد ابن ابراهيم ابوالعباس شمس الدين البرمكي الاربيلي الشافعي) (September 22, 1211 – October 30, 1282) was a Shafi'i Islamic scholar of the 13th Century and is famous as the compiler of a great biographical dictionary of Arab scholars, Wafayāt al-Aʿyān wa-Anbāʾ Abnāʾ az-Zamān (Deaths of Eminent Men and History of the Sons of the Epoch).
Abu Abd Allah Muhammad Ibn Tumart (Berber: Amghar ibn Tumert, أبو عبد الله محمد ابن تومرت, ca. 1080–1130 or 1128), a Muslim Berber religious scholar, teacher and political leader, came from southern Morocco.
Ibrahim I ibn al-Aghlab (إبراهيم بن الأغلب; 756-812) was the first Emir of the Aghlabids in Ifriqiya (800-812) He was the son of al-Aghlab, who successfully quelled the revolt of the Khawarij in Ifriqiya at the end of the 8th century.
Idris I (إدريس الأول), also known as Idris ibn Abdillah, was the founder of the Idrisid dynasty in part of northern Morocco in alliance with the Berber tribe of Awraba.
The Idrisids (الأدارسة) were an Arab-Berber Zaydi-Shia dynasty of Morocco, ruling from 788 to 974.
Ifri Amr U Mussa is an archaeological site located on Zemmour Plateau in the rural commune of Ait Siberne (province of Khemisset), along the national road number 6 which leads to Meknes.
Ifriqiya or Ifriqiyah or el-Maghrib el-Adna (Lower West) was the area during medieval history that comprises what is today Tunisia, Tripolitania (western Libya) and the Constantinois (eastern Algeria); all part of what was previously included in the Africa Province of the Roman Empire.
Imam (إمام; plural: أئمة) is an Islamic leadership position.
Imilchil or Imilshil (إملشيل) is a small town in Midelt Province of central Morocco, in the Atlas Mountains with a population of about 1858.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Islamization (also spelled Islamisation, see spelling differences; أسلمة), Islamicization or Islamification is the process of a society's shift towards Islam, such as found in Sudan, Pakistan, Iran, Malaysia, or Algeria.
Ismāʿīlism (الإسماعيلية al-Ismāʿīliyya; اسماعیلیان; اسماعيلي; Esmāʿīliyān) is a branch of Shia Islam.
Jaén is a city in south-central Spain.
Jerba Berber, or Djerbi Berber, is a Zenati Berber language spoken in Djerba, Tunisia.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
Jugurtha or Jugurthen (c. 160 – 104 BC) was a king of Numidia, born in Cirta (modern-day Constantine).
The Jugurthine War took place in 112–106 BC, between Rome and Jugurtha of Numidia, a kingdom on the north African coast approximating to modern Algeria.
Jurisprudence or legal theory is the theoretical study of law, principally by philosophers but, from the twentieth century, also by social scientists.
Kabyle, or Kabylian (native name: Taqbaylit), is a Berber language spoken by the Kabyle people in the north and northeast of Algeria.
The Kabyle people (Kabyle: Iqbayliyen) are a Berber ethnic group indigenous to Kabylia in the north of Algeria, spread across the Atlas Mountains, one hundred miles east of Algiers.
Kabylie, or Kabylia (Tamurt en Yiqbayliyen; Tazwawa; ⵜⴰⵎⵓⵔⵜ ⵏ ⵍⴻⵇⴱⴰⵢⴻⵍ), is a cultural region, natural region, and historical region in northern Algeria.
Kairouan (القيروان, also known as al-Qayrawan), is the capital of the Kairouan Governorate in Tunisia.
Kelif el Boroud, also known as Kehf el Baroud, is an archaeological site in Morocco.
Khalida Toumi (in Arabic خليدة تومي) (born 13 March 1958), aka Khalida Messaoudi (in Arabic خليدة مسعودي), is an Algerian politician.
The Khawarij (الخوارج, al-Khawārij, singular خارجي, khāriji), Kharijites, or the ash-Shurah (ash-Shurāh "the Exchangers") are members of a school of thought, that appeared in the first century of Islam during the First Fitna, the crisis of leadership after the death of Muhammad.
A kilim (Kilim کیلیم, Kilim, Kilim, گلیم gelīm) is a flat tapestry-woven carpet or rug traditionally produced in countries of the former Ottoman Empire, Iran, Azerbaijan and Turkic countries of Central Asia.
The Kingdom of Asturias (Regnum Asturorum) was a kingdom in the Iberian Peninsula founded in 718 by the Visigothic nobleman Pelagius of Asturias (Asturian: Pelayu, Spanish: Pelayo).
The Kingdom of Navarre (Nafarroako Erresuma, Reino de Navarra, Royaume de Navarre, Regnum Navarrae), originally the Kingdom of Pamplona (Iruñeko Erresuma), was a Basque-based kingdom that occupied lands on either side of the western Pyrenees, alongside the Atlantic Ocean between present-day Spain and France.
The Kingdom of Tlemcen or Zayyanid Kingdom of Tlemcen (ⵉⵣⵉⴰⵏⵉⴻⵏ, الزيانيون) was a Berber kingdom in what is now the northwest of Algeria.
The Kitos War (115–117; מרד הגלויות: mered ha'galuyot or mered ha'tfutzot; translation: rebellion of the diaspora. Tumultus Iudaicus) occurred during the period of the Jewish–Roman wars, 66–136.
Kulthum ibn Iyadh al-Qushayri (died October 741) was an Umayyad governor of Kairouan, Ifriqiya for only a few months, from February to October, 741.
Caecilius (Berber: ⴰⴾⵙⵉⵍ, Aksil or Aksel, Latin: Caecilius, Arabic: Kusailaarticle by Modéran cited below), his name means "leopard" in the Berber language, died in the year 690 AD fighting Muslim invaders, was a 7th-century Berber Christian king of the kingdom of Altava and leader of the Awraba tribe of the Imazighen and possibly Christian King of the Sanhadja confederation.
The Kutama (Berber: Iktamen) were a major Berber Tribe in northern Algeria classified among the Berber Confederation of the Bavares.
Lalla Fadhma n'Soumer (Berber: Lalla Faḍma en Sumer, ⵍⴰⵍⵍⴰ ⴼⴰⴹⵎⴰ ⴻⵏ ⵙⵓⵎⴻⵔ; c.1830 – c. 1863) was an important figure of the Algerian resistance movement during the first years of the French colonial invasion of Algeria.
The Lamtuna are a nomadic Berber tribe belonging to the Sanhaja (Zenaga) confederation, who traditionally inhabited areas from Sous to Adrar Plateau.
The official language of Libya is Modern Standard Arabic.
León is the capital of the province of León, located in the northwest of Spain.
Joannes Leo Africanus, (c. 1494 – c. 1554?) (born al-Hasan ibn Muhammad al-Wazzan al-Fasi, حسن ابن محمد الوزان الفاسي) was a Berber Andalusi diplomat and author who is best known for his book Descrittione dell’Africa (Description of Africa) centered on the geography of the Maghreb and Nile Valley.
Liamine Zéroual (اليمين زروال ALA-LC: al-Yamīn Zarwāl; Berber: Lyamin Ẓerwal; born 3 July 1941) is an Algerian politician who was the fourth President of Algeria from 31 January 1994 to 27 April 1999.
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
Libya (ليبيا), officially the State of Libya (دولة ليبيا), is a sovereign state in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.
The area of North Africa which has been known as Libya since 1911 was under Roman domination between 146 BC and 672 AD.
The first Libyan Civil War, also referred to as the Libyan Revolution or 17 February Revolution, was an armed conflict in 2011 in the North African country of Libya fought between forces loyal to Colonel Muammar Gaddafi and those seeking to oust his government.
This is a list of famous Berber people.
The following is a list of inventions made in the medieval Islamic world, especially during the "Islamic Golden Age" (8th to 13th centuries), as well as the late medieval period, especially in the Emirate of Granada and the Ottoman Empire.
Livestock are domesticated animals raised in an agricultural setting to produce labor and commodities such as meat, eggs, milk, fur, leather, and wool.
Llívia (Llivia) is a town in the comarca of Cerdanya, province of Girona, Catalonia, Spain.
Lounès Matoub (or ⵎⵄⵟⵓⴱ ⵍⵓⵏⵉⵙ; معطوب لونّاس (January 24, 1956 – June 25, 1998)) was a famous Algerian Berber singer, poet, thinker and mandole player who was a prominent advocate of the Berber cause, human rights and secularism in Algeria throughout his life.
Lusius Quietus was a Roman general and governor of Judaea in 117 AD.
A lute is any plucked string instrument with a neck (either fretted or unfretted) and a deep round back enclosing a hollow cavity, usually with a sound hole or opening in the body.
The M'zab or Mzab, (Mozabite Aghlan, مزاب), is a natural region of the northern Sahara Desert in Ghardaïa Province, Algeria.
A (مذهب,, "way to act"; pl. مذاهب) is a school of thought within fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence).
The Maghreb (al-Maɣréb lit.), also known as the Berber world, Barbary, Berbery, and Northwest Africa, is a major region of North Africa that consists primarily of the countries Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Libya and Mauritania.
Maghrebi Arabic (Western Arabic; as opposed to Eastern Arabic or Mashriqi Arabic) is an Arabic dialect continuum spoken in the Maghreb region, in Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Western Sahara, and Mauritania.
The Mahdi (مهدي, ISO 233:, literally "guided one") is an eschatological redeemer of Islam who will appear and rule for five, seven, nine or nineteen years (according to differing interpretations)Martin 2004: 421 before the Day of Judgment (literally "the Day of Resurrection") and will rid the world of evil.
Mahdia (المهدية) is a Tunisian coastal city with 62,189 inhabitants, south of Monastir and southeast of Sousse.
The Maldives (or; ދިވެހިރާއްޖެ Dhivehi Raa'jey), officially the Republic of Maldives, is a South Asian sovereign state, located in the Indian Ocean, situated in the Arabian Sea.
Mali, officially the Republic of Mali (République du Mali), is a landlocked country in West Africa, a region geologically identified with the West African Craton.
Malika Oufkir (مليكة أوفقير) (born April 2, 1953 in Marrakesh) is a Moroccan Berber writer and former "disappeared".
The (مالكي) school is one of the four major madhhab of Islamic jurisprudence within Sunni Islam.
Marco Polo (1254January 8–9, 1324) was an Italian merchant, explorer, and writer, born in the Republic of Venice.
The Marinid dynasty (Berber: Imrinen, المرينيون Marīniyūn) or Banu abd al-Haqq was a Sunni Muslim dynasty of Zenata Berber descent that ruled Morocco from the 13th to the 15th century.
Marrakesh (or; مراكش Murrākuš; ⴰⵎⵓⵔⴰⴽⵓⵛ Meṛṛakec), also known by the French spelling Marrakech, is a major city of the Kingdom of Morocco.
Marseille (Provençal: Marselha), is the second-largest city of France and the largest city of the Provence historical region.
The Masaesyli were a Berber tribe of western Numidia and the main antagonists of the Massylii in eastern Numidia.
Masinissa, or Masensen, (Berber: Masensen, ⵎⵙⵏⵙⵏ; c.238 BC – 148 BC)—also spelled Massinissa and Massena—was the first King of Numidia.
The Masmuda is a Berber tribal confederacy of Morocco and one of the largest in the Maghreb, along with the Zanata and the Sanhaja.
The Massylii or Maesulians were a Berber federation of tribes in eastern Numidia, which was formed by an amalgamation of smaller tribes during the 4th century BC.
Masuna or Massonas ruled the Mauro-Roman Kingdom during the early sixth century as King of the Moors and Romans.
Matmata Berber is a Zenati Berber dialect spoken around the town of Matmâta in southern Tunisia, and in the villages of Taoujjout, Tamezret and Zrawa.
Mauretania (also spelled Mauritania; both pronounced) is the Latin name for an area in the ancient Maghreb.
Mauri (from which derives the English term "Moors") was the Latin designation for the Berber population of Mauretania.
Mauritania (موريتانيا; Gànnaar; Soninke: Murutaane; Pulaar: Moritani; Mauritanie), officially the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, is a country in the Maghreb region of Northwestern Africa.
Maurontus, Maurente, or Maurontius was the Duke or Patrician of Provence in the early 8th century (720s and 730s).
Maysara al-Matghari (Berber: Maysara Amteghri or Maysara Amdeghri, sometimes rendered Maisara or Meicera; in older Arab sources, bitterly called: al-Ḥaqir ('the ignoble'); died in September/October 740) was a Berber rebel leader and original architect of the Great Berber Revolt that erupted in 739-743 against the Umayyad Muslim empire.
Málaga is a municipality, capital of the Province of Málaga, in the Autonomous Community of Andalusia, Spain.
Mérida (Extremaduran: Méria) is the capital of the autonomous community of Extremadura, western central Spain.
Mértola is a municipality in southeastern Portuguese Alentejo near the Spanish border.
Mechta-Afalou (Mechtoid) are a population that inhabited parts of North Africa during the late Paleolithic and Mesolithic.
Medellín is a village in the province of Badajoz, Extremadura, Spain, notable as both the birthplace of Hernán Cortés in 1485 and the site of the Battle of Medellín, during the Peninsular War.
Medina Azahara (مدينة الزهراء Madīnat az-Zahrā: literal meaning "the shining city") is the ruins of a vast, fortified Arab Muslim medieval palace-city built by Abd-ar-Rahman III (912–961), the first Umayyad Caliph of Córdoba, and located on the western outskirts of Córdoba, Spain.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
The Medjerda River (واد مجردا) is a river in North Africa flowing from northeast Algeria through Tunisia before emptying into the Gulf of Tunis and Lake of Tunis.
The Mercenary War (240 BC – 238 BC), also called the Libyan War and the Truceless War by Polybius, was an uprising of mercenary armies formerly employed by Carthage, backed by Libyan settlements revolting against Carthaginian control.
The Meshwesh (often abbreviated in ancient Egyptian as Ma) were an ancient Libyan tribe of Berber origin from beyond Cyrenaica.
Micipsa (pronounced: Mikipsa, Berber name: MKWSN; died: c. 118 BC) was the eldest legitimate son of Masinissa, the King of Numidia, a Berber kingdom in North Africa.
The Miknasa (Berber: Imeknasen) is a Zenata Berber tribe originated in western Algeria.
General Mohammad Oufkir (محمد أوفقير; 14 May 1920 − 16 August 1972) was a senior military Moroccan officer who held many important governmental posts.
Mohammed Awzal (Berber: Mḥemmed U-Ɛli U-Brahim Akʷbil Awzal / n Yinduzal; 1680–1749) is the most important author in the literary tradition of the Berber Shilha language.
The Montes de Toledo are one of the main systems of mountain ranges in the Iberian Peninsula.
The term "Moors" refers primarily to the Muslim inhabitants of the Maghreb, the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, and Malta during the Middle Ages.
The Moralia (Ἠθικά Ethika; loosely translated as "Morals" or "Matters relating to customs and mores") of the 1st-century Greek scholar Plutarch of Chaeronea is an eclectic collection of 78 essays and transcribed speeches.
Moroccans (Berber: ⵉⵎⵖⵕⴰⴱⵉⵢⵏ, Imɣṛabiyen) are people inhabiting or originating from Morocco that share a common Moroccan culture and Maghrebi ancestry.
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
The Moulouya River (Berber: iɣẓer en Melwect) is a 520 kilometers long river in Morocco.
Mozabite, or Tunżabt, is a Berber dialect spoken by the Mozabites, an Ibadi Berber group inhabiting the seven cities of the M'zab natural region in the northern Saharan Algeria.
The Mozabite people are a Berber ethnic group inhabiting the M'zab natural region in the northern Sahara in Algeria.
Muammar Mohammed Abu Minyar Gaddafi (20 October 2011), commonly known as Colonel Gaddafi, was a Libyan revolutionary, politician and political theorist.
Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Sulayman ibn Abu Bakr al-Jazuli al-Simlali (Arabic:ابو عبدالله محمد ابن سليمان ابن ابوبكر الجزولي السّملالي الحسني) (died 1465), often known as Imam al-Jazuli or Sheikh Jazuli, was a Moroccan Sufi leader of the Berber tribe of the Jazulah.
Muhammad al-Nasir (الناصر لدين الله محمد بن المنصور, an-Nāṣir li-dīn Allah Muḥammad ibn al-Manṣūr, died 1213) was the fourth Almohad caliph from 1199 until his death.
Muhammad II al-Mahdi (Muḥammad al-Mahdī bi-ʾllāh) was the fourth Caliph of Cordoba of the Umayyad dynasty in Al-Andalus (Moorish Iberia).
The Muladi (mulaˈði, pl. muladíes; mulɐˈði, pl. muladis; muɫəˈðitə or muladí, pl. muladites or muladís; مولد trans. muwallad, pl. مولدون muwalladūn or مولدين muwalladīn) were Muslims of local descent or of mixed Arab, Berber, and Iberian origin, who lived in Al-Andalus during the Middle Ages.
Uthman ibn Naissa, better known as Munuza, was a Berber governor depicted in different contradictory chronicles during the Umayyad conquest of Hispania.
Musa bin Nusayr (موسى بن نصير Mūsá bin Nuṣayr; 640–716) served as a governor and general under the Umayyad caliph Al-Walid I. He ruled over the Muslim provinces of North Africa (Ifriqiya), and directed the Islamic conquest of the Visigothic Kingdom in Hispania (Spain, Portugal, Andorra and part of France).
Andalusian classical music (Arabic: طرب أندَلُسي, موسيقى الآلة tranلابs. ṭarab andalusi or Musiqa al-Ala, Spanish: música andalusí) is a style of Arabic music found in different styles across the Maghreb (Morocco, and to a lesser degree in Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya in the form of the Ma'luf style).
A musical instrument is an instrument created or adapted to make musical sounds.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
The Muslim conquest of the Maghreb (الفَتْحُ الإسْلَامِيُّ لِلمَغْرِبِ) continued the century of rapid Arab Early Muslim conquests following the death of Muhammad in 632 AD and into the Byzantine-controlled territories of Northern Africa.
The Nafusa Mountains (Berber: Adrar n Infusen (Nafusa Mountain), (Western mountain)) are a mountain range in the western Tripolitania region of northwestern Libya.
Nafusi (also spelt Nefusi; Berber: Maziɣ or Tanfusit) is a Berber language spoken in the Nafusa Mountains (Drar n infusen), a large area in northwestern Libya.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
The Neolithic Revolution, Neolithic Demographic Transition, Agricultural Revolution, or First Agricultural Revolution, was the wide-scale transition of many human cultures during the Neolithic period from a lifestyle of hunting and gathering to one of agriculture and settlement, making an increasingly larger population possible.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
Niger, also called the Niger officially the Republic of the Niger, is a landlocked country in Western Africa named after the Niger River.
The Niger River is the principal river of West Africa, extending about.
A nomad (νομάς, nomas, plural tribe) is a member of a community of people who live in different locations, moving from one place to another in search of grasslands for their animals.
North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.
Numidia (202 BC – 40 BC, Berber: Inumiden) was an ancient Berber kingdom of the Numidians, located in what is now Algeria and a smaller part of Tunisia and Libya in the Berber world, in North Africa.
The Numidians were the Berber population of Numidia (present day Algeria) and in a smaller part of Tunisia.
Odo the Great (also called Eudes or Eudo) (died 735), was the Duke of Aquitaine by 700.
Offal, also called variety meats, pluck or organ meats, refers to the internal organs and entrails of a butchered animal.
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
Olive oil is a liquid fat obtained from olives (the fruit of Olea europaea; family Oleaceae), a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin.
Oran (وَهران, Wahrān; Berber language: ⵡⴻⵂⵔⴰⵏ, Wehran) is a major coastal city located in the north-west of Algeria.
Orihuela (Valencian: Oriola) is a city and municipality located at the feet of the Sierra de Orihuela mountains in the province of Alicante, Spain.
The Ottoman Turks (or Osmanlı Turks, Osmanlı Türkleri) were the Turkish-speaking population of the Ottoman Empire who formed the base of the state's military and ruling classes.
An oven is a thermally insulated chamber used for the heating, baking, or drying of a substance, and most commonly used for cooking.
Pamplona (Pampelune) or Iruña (alternative spelling: Iruñea) is the historical capital city of Navarre, in Spain, and of the former Kingdom of Navarre.
Pan-Arabism, or simply Arabism, is an ideology espousing the unification of the countries of North Africa and West Asia from the Atlantic Ocean to the Arabian Sea, referred to as the Arab world.
A pancake (or hotcake, griddlecake, or flapjack) is a flat cake, often thin and round, prepared from a starch-based batter that may contain eggs, milk and butter and cooked on a hot surface such as a griddle or frying pan, often frying with oil or butter.
Pastilla (bəsṭila) is a traditional Moroccan dish consumed in countries of the Maghreb.
A pastoral lifestyle (see pastoralism) is that of shepherds herding livestock around open areas of land according to seasons and the changing availability of water and pasture.
Pastoralism is the branch of agriculture concerned with the raising of livestock.
The Missionary Society of Saint Paul the Apostle, better known as the Paulist Fathers, is a Roman Catholic society of apostolic life for men founded in New York City in 1858 by Servant of God Isaac Thomas Hecker in collaboration with George Deshon, Augustine Hewit, and Francis A. Baker.
Pelagius (– 418) was a theologian of British origin who advocated free will and asceticism.
The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea or Periplus of the Red Sea (Περίπλους τῆς Ἐρυθράς Θαλάσσης, Periplus Maris Erythraei) is a Greco-Roman periplus, written in Greek, describing navigation and trading opportunities from Roman Egyptian ports like Berenice along the coast of the Red Sea, and others along Northeast Africa and the Sindh and South western India.
Peter Brian Gabriel (born 13 February 1950) is an English singer-songwriter, record producer and humanitarian who rose to fame as the original lead singer and flautist of the progressive rock band Genesis.
Phoenicia (or; from the Φοινίκη, meaning "purple country") was a thalassocratic ancient Semitic civilization that originated in the Eastern Mediterranean and in the west of the Fertile Crescent.
The natural sciences saw various advancements during the Golden Age of Islam (from roughly the mid 8th to the mid 13th centuries), adding a number of innovations to the Transmission of the Classics (such as Aristotle, Ptolemy, Euclid, Neoplatonism).
Plain weave (also called tabby weave, linen weave or taffeta weave) is the most basic of three fundamental types of textile weaves (along with satin weave and twill).
Plutarch (Πλούταρχος, Ploútarkhos,; c. CE 46 – CE 120), later named, upon becoming a Roman citizen, Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus, (Λούκιος Μέστριος Πλούταρχος) was a Greek biographer and essayist, known primarily for his Parallel Lives and Moralia.
A poet is a person who creates poetry.
Polybius (Πολύβιος, Polýbios; – BC) was a Greek historian of the Hellenistic period noted for his work which covered the period of 264–146 BC in detail.
Polytheism (from Greek πολυθεϊσμός, polytheismos) is the worship of or belief in multiple deities, which are usually assembled into a pantheon of gods and goddesses, along with their own religions and rituals.
Saint Dionysius of Alexandria, named "the Great," 14th Pope of Alexandria & Patriarch of the See of St. Mark from 28 December 248 until his death on 22 March 264, after seventeen years as a bishop.
Pope Victor I (died 199) was Bishop of Rome, and hence a pope, in the late second century.
Porto (also known as Oporto in English) is the second-largest city in Portugal after Lisbon and one of the major urban areas of the Iberian Peninsula.
Procopius of Caesarea (Προκόπιος ὁ Καισαρεύς Prokopios ho Kaisareus, Procopius Caesariensis; 500 – 554 AD) was a prominent late antique Greek scholar from Palaestina Prima.
The Ptolemaic dynasty (Πτολεμαῖοι, Ptolemaioi), sometimes also known as the Lagids or Lagidae (Λαγίδαι, Lagidai, after Lagus, Ptolemy I's father), was a Macedonian Greek royal family, which ruled the Ptolemaic Kingdom in Egypt during the Hellenistic period.
Ptolemy of Mauretania (Πτολεμαῖος, whence Ptolemaeus; 13 BC/9 BC-40) was the last Roman client king and ruler of Mauretania for Rome.
A qadi (قاضي; also cadi, kadi or kazi) is the magistrate or judge of the Shariʿa court, who also exercises extrajudicial functions, such as mediation, guardianship over orphans and minors, and supervision and auditing of public works.
The Quraysh (قريش) were a mercantile Arab tribe that historically inhabited and controlled Mecca and its Ka'aba.
Rabat (الرِّبَاط,; ⴰⵕⴱⴰⵟ) is the capital city of Morocco and its third largest city with an urban population of approximately 580,000 (2014) and a metropolitan population of over 1.2 million.
Radiocarbon dating (also referred to as carbon dating or carbon-14 dating) is a method for determining the age of an object containing organic material by using the properties of radiocarbon, a radioactive isotope of carbon.
Ralph Frederick Manheim (April 4, 1907 – September 26, 1992) was an American translator of German and French literature, as well as occasional works from Dutch, Polish and Hungarian.
Ramiro II (c. 900 – 1 January 951), son of Ordoño II, was a King of León from 931 until his death.
Real World Records is a British record label started in 1989 by Peter Gabriel to record and produce world music, as well as his own releases.
The rebab (ربابة, rabāb, variously spelled rebap, rabab, rebeb, rababa and rabeba, also known as جوزه jawza or joza in Iraq) is a type of a bowed string instrument so named no later than the 8th century and spread via Islamic trading routes over much of North Africa, the Middle East, parts of Europe, and the Far East.
The Reconquista (Spanish and Portuguese for the "reconquest") is a name used to describe the period in the history of the Iberian Peninsula of about 780 years between the Umayyad conquest of Hispania in 711 and the fall of the Nasrid kingdom of Granada to the expanding Christian kingdoms in 1492.
The religion of Carthage in North Africa was a direct continuation of the Phoenician variety of the polytheistic ancient Canaanite religion with significant local modifications.
Religion in pre-Islamic Arabia was a mix of polytheism, Christianity, Judaism, and Iranian religions.
The rhaita or ghaita (غيطة) is a double reed instrument from North Africa.
Rhythm (from Greek ῥυθμός, rhythmos, "any regular recurring motion, symmetry") generally means a "movement marked by the regulated succession of strong and weak elements, or of opposite or different conditions".
A ribat (رِبَـاط; ribāṭ, hospice, hostel, base or retreat) is an Arabic term for a small fortification as built along a frontier during the first years of the Muslim conquest of North Africa to house military volunteers, called the murabitun.
Riffian, Rif Berber or Riffian Berber (native local name: Tmaziɣt; external name: Tarifit) is a Zenati Northern Berber language.
The Riffian people, in Tarifit: Irifiyen, by others also known as Riff, Riyefa or Ruafa, are a Berber speaking people of Northwestern Africa, who derive their name from the Rif region in the northern edge of Morocco.
In archaeology, rock art is human-made markings placed on natural stone; it is largely synonymous with parietal art.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
In Ancient Rome, a province (Latin: provincia, pl. provinciae) was the basic and, until the Tetrarchy (from 293 AD), the largest territorial and administrative unit of the empire's territorial possessions outside Italy.
Ross E. Dunn is an American historian and writer, the author of several books including The Adventures of Ibn Battuta, and coauthor of the highly cited History on Trial: Culture Wars and the Teaching of the Past.
The Rustamid dynasty (or Rustumids, Rostemids) was a ruling house of Ibāḍī imāms of Persian descent centered in Algeria.
Sabellius (fl. ca. 215) was a third-century priest and theologian who most likely taught in Rome, but may have been a North African from Libya.
The city of Córdoba in al-Andalus, under the rule of Umayyad Caliph Hisham II al-Hakam, was besieged, pillaged, and attacked by Berbers twice: from 1009 to 1010 and from 1010 to 1013.
The Sahara (الصحراء الكبرى,, 'the Great Desert') is the largest hot desert and the third largest desert in the world after Antarctica and the Arctic.
The Sahel is the ecoclimatic and biogeographic zone of transition in Africa between the Sahara to the north and the Sudanian Savanna to the south.
A saint (also historically known as a hallow) is a person who is recognized as having an exceptional degree of holiness or likeness or closeness to God.
Ṣāliḥ ibn Tarīf (Arabic: صالح بن طريف) was the second king of the Berghouata Berber kingdom, and proclaimed himself a prophet of a new religion.
Gaius Sallustius Crispus, usually anglicised as Sallust (86 – c. 35 BC), was a Roman historian, politician, and novus homo from an Italian plebeian family.
Sancho García (died 5 February 1017), called of the Good Laws (in Spanish, el de los Buenos Fueros), was the count of Castile and Álava from 995 to his death.
The Sanhaja (Aẓnag, pl. Iẓnagen, and also Aẓnaj, pl. Iẓnajen; صنهاجة, Ṣanhaja) were once one of the largest Berber tribal confederations, along with the Iznaten and Imesmuden confederations.
Senhaja de Srair ("Senhaja of Srair") is a Northern Berber language.
Santiago de Compostela is the capital of the autonomous community of Galicia, in northwestern Spain.
Ṣaqāliba (Arabic: صقالبة, sg. ṣaqlabī) refers to Slavs, captured on the coasts of Europe in raids or wars, as well as mercenaries in the medieval Muslim world, in the Middle East, North Africa, Sicily and Al-Andalus.
The Scramble for Africa was the occupation, division, and colonization of African territory by European powers during the period of New Imperialism, between 1881 and 1914.
The Second Punic War (218 to 201 BC), also referred to as The Hannibalic War and by the Romans the War Against Hannibal, was the second major war between Carthage and the Roman Republic and its allied Italic socii, with the participation of Greek polities and Numidian and Iberian forces on both sides.
In cultural anthropology, sedentism (sometimes called sedentariness; compare sedentarism) is the practice of living in one place for a long time.
Semolina is the coarse, purified wheat middlings of durum wheat mainly used in making pasta and couscous.
Senegal (Sénégal), officially the Republic of Senegal, is a country in West Africa.
Septimius Severus (Lucius Septimius Severus Augustus; 11 April 145 – 4 February 211), also known as Severus, was Roman emperor from 193 to 211.
Seville (Sevilla) is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Andalusia and the province of Seville, Spain.
The Shadhili Tariqa (الطريقة الشاذلية) is a Sufi order of Sunni Islam founded by Abul Hasan Ali ash-Shadhili of Morocco.
Sharecropping is a form of agriculture in which a landowner allows a tenant to use the land in return for a share of the crops produced on their portion of land.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
Shilha is a Berber language native to Shilha people.
The Shilha people, also called Shluh or Chleuh, are a major Berber subgroup primarily inhabiting the southwestern mountains, Sous River, and southern coastal regions of Morocco.
The Sierra Morena is one of the main systems of mountain ranges in Spain.
Sijilmasa (سجلماسة; also transliterated Sijilmassa, Sidjilmasa, Sidjilmassa and Sigilmassa) was a medieval city and trade entrepôt at the northern edge of the Sahara Desert in Morocco.
Silves is a municipality in the Portuguese Algarve of southern Portugal.
The sintir (سنتير), also known as the Guembri (الكمبري), Gimbri or Hejhouj, is a three stringed skin-covered bass plucked lute used by the Gnawa people.
The Siwa Oasis (واحة سيوة, Wāḥat Sīwah) is an urban oasis in Egypt between the Qattara Depression and the Great Sand Sea in the Western Desert, nearly 50 km (30 mi) east of the Libyan border, and 560 km (348 mi) from Cairo.
Siwi (also known as Siwan or Siwa Berber, autonym: Jlan n Isiwan) is the easternmost Berber language, spoken in Egypt by an estimated 15,000Grammatical Contact in the Sahara: Arabic, Berber, and Songhay in Tabelbala and Siwa, Lameen Souag, PhD thesis, SOAS, 2010 to 20,000 people in the oases of Siwa and Gara, near the Libyan border.
The Siwi people, also known as the Oasis Berbers, are a Berber ethnic group based in Egypts' Siwa and Qara oases.
The Soninke, also called Sarakole, Seraculeh, or Serahuli, are a West African ethnic group found in eastern Senegal and its capital Dakar, northwestern Mali and Foute Djalon in Guinea, and southern Mauritania.
A souq or souk (سوق, שוק shuq, Spanish: zoco, also spelled shuk, shooq, soq, esouk, succ, suk, sooq, suq, soek) is a marketplace or commercial quarter in Western Asian, North African and some Horn African cities (ሱቅ sooq).
The Sous region (also spelt Sus, Suss, Souss or Sousse) (Berber: ⵙⵓⵙ, Sus) is a region in mid-southern Morocco.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
Spanish mythology refers to the sacred myths of the cultures of Spain.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
Stolen Lives: Twenty Years In A Desert Jail (1999) (original title in French: La Prisonnière or The Prisoner) is an autobiographical book by Malika Oufkir, about a woman who was essentially a prisoner until she was 38.
Subsistence agriculture is a self-sufficiency farming system in which the farmers focus on growing enough food to feed themselves and their entire families.
Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.
Sulayman ibn al-Hakam or Sulayman al-Musta'in bi-llah (سليمان المستعين بالله; died 1016) was the fifth Umayyad Caliph of Córdoba, ruling from 1009 to 1010, and from 1013 to 1016 in Al-Andalus.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
Suzerainty (and) is a back-formation from the late 18th-century word suzerain, meaning upper-sovereign, derived from the French sus (meaning above) + -erain (from souverain, meaning sovereign).
Syphax was a king of the ancient Numidian tribe Masaesyli of western Numidia during the last quarter of the 3rd century BC.
The tabla is a membranophone percussion instrument originating from the Indian subcontinent, consisting of a pair of drums, used in traditional, classical, popular and folk music.
Taforalt or Grotte des Pigeons is a cave in northern Oujda, Morocco, and possibly the oldest cemetery in North Africa (Humphrey 2012).
In the history of the Iberian Peninsula, a taifa (from طائفة ṭā'ifa, plural طوائف ṭawā'if) was an independent Muslim-ruled principality, of which a number were formed in Al-Andalus (Moorish Iberia) after the final collapse of the Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba in 1031.
The Taifa of Badajoz (from طائفة بطليوس) was a medieval Islamic Moorish kingdom located in what is now parts of Portugal and Spain.
The Taifa of Granada (rtl, Ta'ifa Garnata) was a Berber taifa in Al-Andalus, within the present day Granada Province in southern Spain.
The Taifa of Seville (Arabic: طائفة إشبيليّة, Ta'ifat-u Ishbiliyyah) was an Arab kingdom which belonged to the Abbadid family.
The taifa of Toledo was a Berber Muslim taifa located in what is now central Spain.
A tajine or tagine (Arabic: الطاجين) is a Maghrebi dish which is named after the earthenware pot in which it is cooked.
Takfarinas (born Ḥsen Zermani in Algiers, Algeria) is the stage name of an Algerian Kabyle Yal musician who was born in 1958.
Talavera de la Reina is a city and municipality in the western part of the province of Toledo, which in turn is part of the autonomous community of Castile–La Mancha, Spain.
Tamasheq is a variety of the Tuareg languages.
Tamazgha (Tamazɣa, Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵗⴰ or ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵖⴰ) is a Berber language toponym denoting the Greater Maghreb, the lands traditionally inhabited by Berbers (Mazice/Amazigh).
The tambourine is a musical instrument in the percussion family consisting of a frame, often of wood or plastic, with pairs of small metal jingles, called "zils".
Tapestry is a form of textile art, traditionally woven on a vertical loom.
The targumim (singular: "targum", תרגום) were spoken paraphrases, explanations and expansions of the Jewish scriptures (also called the Tanakh) that a rabbi would give in the common language of the listeners, which was then often Aramaic.
āriq ibn Ziyād (طارق بن زياد) was a Muslim commander who led the Islamic Umayyad conquest of Visigothic Hispania in 711–718 A.D. Under the orders of the Umayyad Caliph Al-Walid I he led a large army and crossed the Strait of Gibraltar from the North African coast, consolidating his troops at what is today known as the Rock of Gibraltar.
Tarragona (Phoenician: Tarqon; Tarraco) is a port city located in northeast Spain on the Costa Daurada by the Mediterranean Sea.
Tassili n'Ajjer (Tasili n Ajjer, طاسيلي ناجر; "Plateau of the Rivers") is a national park in the Sahara desert, located on a vast plateau in south-east Algeria.
Tertullian, full name Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, c. 155 – c. 240 AD, was a prolific early Christian author from Carthage in the Roman province of Africa.
A textile is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres (yarn or thread).
Polybius’ Histories (Ἱστορίαι Historíai) were originally written in 40 volumes, only the first five of which are extant in their entirety.
William Z. Ripley published in 1899 The Races of Europe: A Sociological Study, which grew out of a series of lectures he gave at the Lowell Institute at Columbia in 1896.
The World Factbook, also known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.
Tiaret (Berber: Tahert or Tihert, ⵜⴰⵀⴻⵔⵜ, i.e. "Lioness"; تاهرت / تيارت) is a major city in central Algeria that gives its name to the wider farming region of Tiaret Province.
Tifinagh (also written Tifinaɣ in the Berber Latin alphabet; Neo-Tifinagh:; Tuareg Tifinagh: or) is an abjad script used to write the Berber languages.
Timbuktu, also spelt Tinbuktu, Timbuctoo and Timbuktoo (Tombouctou; Koyra Chiini: Tumbutu), is an ancient city in Mali, situated north of the Niger River.
Tin Hinan was a 4th-century Tuareg queen and matriarch.
Tlemcen (تلمسان Tlemsan; ⵜⵍⴻⵎⵙⴰⵏ) is a city in north-western Algeria, and the capital of the province of the same name.
Toledo is a city and municipality located in central Spain; it is the capital of the province of Toledo and the autonomous community of Castile–La Mancha.
The traditional African religions (or traditional beliefs and practices of African people) are a set of highly diverse beliefs that include various ethnic religions.
The traditional Berber religion is the ancient and native set of beliefs and deities adhered to by the Berber autochthones of North Africa.
Transhumance is a type of nomadism or pastoralism, a seasonal movement of people with their livestock between fixed summer and winter pastures.
Tripolitania or Tripolitana (طرابلس, Berber: Ṭrables, from Vulgar Latin *Trapoletanius, from Latin Regio Tripolitana, from Greek Τριπολιτάνια) is a historic region and former province of Libya.
The Tuareg people (also spelt Twareg or Touareg; endonym: Kel Tamasheq, Kel Tagelmust) are a large Berber ethnic confederation.
Tunis (تونس) is the capital and the largest city of Tunisia.
Tunisia (تونس; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Tunisie), officially the Republic of Tunisia, (الجمهورية التونسية) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe in particular with France and with Italy have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.
Tyre (صور, Ṣūr; Phoenician:, Ṣūr; צוֹר, Ṣōr; Tiberian Hebrew, Ṣōr; Akkadian:, Ṣurru; Greek: Τύρος, Týros; Sur; Tyrus, Տիր, Tir), sometimes romanized as Sour, is a district capital in the South Governorate of Lebanon.
Tyrian purple (Greek, πορφύρα, porphyra, purpura), also known as Tyrian red, Phoenician purple, royal purple, imperial purple or imperial dye, is a reddish-purple natural dye.
`Umar ibn Hafsun ibn Ja'far ibn Salim (Arabic: عمر بن حَفْصُون بن جعفر بن سالم) (c. 850 – 917), known in Spanish history as Omar ben Hafsun, was a 9th-century rebel against Ummayad power in southern Iberia.
The Umayyad Caliphate (ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.
The Umayyad conquest of Hispania was the initial expansion of the Umayyad Caliphate over Hispania, largely extending from 711 to 788.
Uqba ibn al-Hajjaj (Arabic: عُقْبَة بن الْحَجَّاج السَّلُولِيِّ الهَوازِنِيِّ) was an Umayyad governor of Al-Andalus from 734 to 740 (or 737 to 742 according to other sources), appointed by Ubayd Allah ibn al-Habhab.
ʿUqbah ibn Nāfiʿ (عقبة بن نافع, also referred to as Oqba ibn Nafi, Uqba bin Nafe, Uqba ibn al Nafia, or Akbah; 622–683) was an Arab general serving the Rashidun Caliphate since the Reign of Umar and later on the Umayyad Caliphate during the reigns of Muawiyah I and Yazid I, leading the Muslim conquest of the Maghreb, including present-day Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Morocco.
The veneration of the dead, including one's ancestors, is based on love and respect for the deceased.
Virginity is the state of a person who has never engaged in sexual intercourse.
The Visigoths (Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, Wisi; Visigoti) were the western branches of the nomadic tribes of Germanic peoples referred to collectively as the Goths.
Volubilis (Walili, وليلي) is a partly excavated Berber and Roman city in Morocco situated near the city of Meknes, and commonly considered as the ancient capital of the kingdom of Mauretania.
In gastronomy, a wafer is a crisp, often sweet, very thin, flat, and dry biscuit, often used to decorate ice cream, and also used as a garnish on some sweet dishes.
The Wattasid dynasty (ⵉⵡⴻⵟⵟⴰⵙⴻⵏ, Iweṭṭasen; الوطاسيون, al-waṭṭāsīyūn) was a ruling dynasty of Morocco.
West Africa, also called Western Africa and the West of Africa, is the westernmost region of Africa.
WikiLeaks is an international non-profit organisation that publishes secret information, news leaks, and classified media provided by anonymous sources.
Wittiza (Witiza, Witica, Witicha, Vitiza, or Witiges; 687 – probably 710) was the Visigothic King of Hispania from 694 until his death, co-ruling with his father, Egica, until 702 or 703.
Yahya Ibn Ibrahim (c. 440/1048)Levtzion and Hopkins, Corpus of Early Arabic Sources for West African History (Cambridge, 1981) was a leader of the Godala tribe.
Abu Zakariyya Yahya ibn Umar ibn Talagagin ibn Turgut ibn Wartasin, commonly suffixed al-Lamtuni al-Sanhaji, (d. near Azuggi, 1056) was a chieftain of the Lamtuna, a tribe in the Sanhaja confederation.
Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom.
Yusuf ibn 'Abd al-Rahman al-Fihri (يوسف بن عبد الرحمن الفهري) was an Umayyad governor of Narbonne in Septimania and governor of al-Andalus from 747 to 756, ruling independently following the collapse of the Umayyad Caliphate in 750.
Yusuf ibn Tashfin also, Tashafin, Teshufin; or Yusuf (full name: Yûsuf bnu Tâšfîn Nâçereddîn bnu Tâlâkâkîn aç-Çanhâjî, يوسف بن تاشفين ناصر الدين بن تالاكاكين الصنهاجي; reigned c. 1061 – 1106) was leader of the Berber Moroccan Almoravid empire.
Abū Yaʿqūb Yūsuf al-Mustanṣir (also known as Yusuf II, c.1203–1224) (يوسف بن الناصر Yūsuf bin an-Nāṣir) was Caliph of Morocco from 1213 until his death.
Zaragoza, also called Saragossa in English, is the capital city of the Zaragoza province and of the autonomous community of Aragon, Spain.
Zayanes (Azayi (singular), Izayen (plural)) are a Berber population inhabiting the Khenifra region, located in the central Middle Atlas mountains of Morocco.
The Zayyanid dynasty (زيانيون, Ziyānyūn) or Abd al-Wadids (بنو عبد الواد, Bānu ʿabd āl-Wād) was a Berber Zenata dynasty that ruled the Kingdom of Tlemcen, an area of northwestern Algeria, centered on Tlemcen.
Zenaga (autonym) is a moribund Berber language spoken from the town of Mederdra in southwestern Mauritania to the Atlantic coast and in Senegal.
The Zenata (Berber: Iznaten, ⵉⵣⵏⴰⵜⴻⵏ or Iznasen, ⵉⵣⵏⴰⵙⴻⵏ; زناتة Zanātah) were a Berber tribe, who inhabited an area stretching from western Egypt to Morocco in antiquity along with the Sanhaja and Masmuda.
Ziri ibn Manad or Ziri son of Mennad (died in 971) was the founder of the Zirid dynasty in the Berber world.
The Zirid dynasty (ⵜⴰⴳⵍⴷⴰ ⵏ ⴰⵢⵜ ⵣⵉⵔⵉ Tagelda n Ayt Ziri, زيريون /ALA-LC: Zīryūn; Banu Ziri) was a Sanhaja Berber dynasty from modern-day Algeria which ruled the central Maghreb from 972 to 1014 and Ifriqiya (eastern Maghreb) from 972 to 1148.
Zuwarah, or Zuwara or Zwara, is a port city in northwestern Libya, with a population of around 350,000 (2013), famous for its beaches and seafood.
The 2011 Nafusa Mountain Campaign was a series of battles in the Libyan Civil War, fought between loyalist pro-Gaddafi forces and rebel anti-Gaddafi forces in the Nafusa Mountains and, at a later period, in the surrounding plains of western Libya.
Amazigh, Amazigh people, Amazigh peoples, Amazighs, Ancient Libyans, Berber People, Berber World, Berber culture, Berber diaspora, Berber history, Berber nations, Berber people, Berber peoples, Berber state, Berber/Archive1, Berbers in Algeria, Berbers in Chad, Berbers in Egypt, Berbers in Libya, Berbers in Morocco, Berbers in Senegal, Berbers in Sudan, Berbers in Tunisia, History of the Berber people, Imazighen, Imaziɣen, Libyan Berbers, Northwest Africans, Origin of the Berber people.